Do whatever you want to if you only do it with sincerity.
Inspection may also be made a feature every once in a while at Patrol meetings. Look your boys over care fully, have them look each other over carefully and he sure that all incorrect positions of badges on uniform, any parts of it that need repairing are brought to the attention of the wearer. Even a Patrol competition On "Who has the smartest appearance?" may be started.
PREPARING THE MEETINGS
The meeting itself isn't always the most difficult part for the Patrol Leader. Very often the preparations for it will need more work, and work that has to be done to make the meeting run right.
Every minute of the meeting must be occupied, there must be no unnecessary pauses, and that call only be effected by having everything ready in advance.
We have mentioned before, that you ought to make an outline in writing of what you are going to do so that you won't forget anything of what you had in mind. But before you can put it down on a piece of paper, you have to work it out carefully in your mind. and these are what you must think of:
(a) What do I want the meeting to contain? (b) How will I arrange it so that every minute of the meeting is occupied and so that I know what to do in every minute?
(c) What materials do I need to put the meeting across?
In order to give you the right understanding of the preparing, let us take a definite example:
A Meeting for Beginners
Let us suppose that your Patrol consists of you and seven boys who have just been enrolled in the Troop pending their passing of the Tenderfoot requirements.
You have to plan your first meeting and will probably think the thing through something like this. "First (a) What will the meeting contain?
"Well, we ought to be able to master all those requirements in good shape in three meetings. That means dividing the whole business up into three comparatively equal parts. Suppose at this first meeting, then, we work up the Scout Salute, study the Scout Law, trying to see what is behind it all, find out all we can about the composition of The Flag and practice on three of the nine knots the boys will have to know before they can be Tenderfoot Scouts. "Here is our list then:
"It's up to me as leader," you decide, "to know exactly what I am doing. The fellows have really to be taught these Tenderfoot requirements, not just listen to a lot of hot air about them. Better mix up teaching with actually doing something. They'll get the idea better that way and it will stick in their heads longer, too."
You stop here and think a moment, perhaps scratch your head trying to remember things your Scoutmaster told you about "getting across" that first meeting with the boys. Recreation. for instance--something to work off steam ! Dues ! Got to have a little money to go on with. Be business like. Start off right.
You add to your list then:
"Now then," you think with some satisfaction,
"Here's the makings of our WHAT. What about the time part' There is (b) to consider. How will I arrange it so that every minute of the meeting is occupied? How will I know what to do every minute? Mighty important too. Never get through with all there is to get through with if you don't plan sharp for every minute and what's to go into it. There's got to be some way to begin and end, too. And some time for talking over plans."
You think again, make notes. Perhaps scratch some of them out, begin all over again. In the end the program looks something like this:
1. Opening ceremony 2 minutes
2. Business 3
3. Scout Salute 10
4. Scout Law 15
5. Stars and Stripes 20
6. Yells 10
7. Tenderfoot knots 15
8. Discussion-Planning 12
9. Closing Ceremony 2
90 minutes--1 1/2 hours
All very nice on paper but how does it actually get across. You have to think and think hard, remember what boys like and what they don't like, suggestions your Scoutmaster made. Decide on what seems the best way of getting in all the necessary details. Perhaps it will go something like this in your mind.
"(1) Tell the boys that we might try starting our meetings always with a short silence, to give them an opportunity in their own thoughts to give thanks for what the day has given to them.
"(2) Ask one of the boys to act as temporary Treasurer and collect dues. Ask another to act as Scribe to make a record in our Patrol Record Book as to the boys present and the dues received by the Treasurer. Tell boys regular officers will be appointed shortly when we get under way.
"(3) Show boys Scout: Salute. Be sure I can do it myself first, just right. Tell them what it stands fur. Ask boys to stand in row. Appoint somebody to see that line is straight, everybody at "attention." Do Salute again. Have them make it after me, till they know how to do it--four or five times, perhaps. Then give the order to stand at salute. II anybody still doesn't get it, help him later, alone. Have them make it after me , till they know how others. Explain that it is important to give the salute correctly, if we're going to be real Scouts.
"(4) Tell the boys a little about the Scout Law and what it means to a Boy Scout. Show them where they call find it in the Handbook. Have a few copies of the Law on hand to give to the boys who haven't got the Handbook. Get Joe to help me type or write them out longhand before meeting if I can't get hold of printed copies. Co through the first four parts of Law. Have a newspaper with me. Ask boys to look at the news from a Boy Scout point of view. Find examples in it illustrating trustworthiness, loyalty, helpfulness, friendliness. I must have read newspaper carefully before meeting- in order to help point out examples without too much delay. Ask them to see if they can't find more to bring in next meeting. Let them ask questions about the Law. talk over what It means. Awfully important and only fifteen minutes to give to it. Have to make it all count, keep their interest lively.
"(5) Have everybody make a drawing of our Flag from memory. Afterward produce a real Flag. Compare the drawings with the Flag to see if they are correct. Notice who has best one. Tell him so. Teach them how to draw a five pointed star with one line. Show them the Betsy Ross trick of making a star of a piece of paper with one cut of the scissors.
(6) Now for the fun. Use Scout Yell: A-M-E-R-I-C-A, Boy Scouts. Boy Scouts, U.S.A..
Tell the boys to try to make up a yell we can use for our own Patrol, suggest one, practice it.
"(7) Have rope ready and show the boys how to tie the Square Knot, the Sheet Bend and the Fisherman's Knot. Have them tie them until they can do it correctly, if possible. Tell them to practice a lot during the week, promise to help anybody who needs help. Talk over the uses of the knots. Tell them how some Patrols make knot boards, with fifty or seventy-five different kinds of knots. Get'em interested, This leads up to discussion period.
"(8) Let them ask me all the questions they want to and try to answer them. Remind them again to practice the knots, ask them to learn the whole Scout Law' before next meeting ii possible. Learn first four parts anyway. Tell them it's expected of them. Fix the place for the next meeting.
"(9) Close meeting by reciting the Scout Law. Give it slowly, part by part, have the boys repeat every section after me. Dismissal."
Not so bad for a beginning, if it goes anything like the way it is planned.
In regard to (c),
Necessary Equipment, your notes will show the following:
Patrol Record Book and pencil (2) Handbook, extra copies of the Law, newspaper (4) Paper, pencils, The Flag, scissors (5) Ropes for knots (7)
So much for preparations, At the meeting you will bring your list of activities, your program, and the material listed above. You will need also plenty of common sense; patience and enthusiasm, as well as a certain degree of assurance that you yourself "know your stuff."
The meeting above was prepared for the beginners period. Some other suggestions follow, allowing for the planning of Patrol meetings inside other periods, as the Tenderfoot stage (Tenderfoot Scouts working on Second Class Requirements), the Second Class stage (Second Class Scouts passing First Class tests) and the First Class stage (First Class Scouts working for further advancements). An example is also given of meeting of mixed stages.
Such programs might go somewhat like this:
Tenderfoot Stage Meeting
(1) Opening Ceremony 2 minutes
(2) Business 3
(3) First Aid 20
(4) Good Turns 10
(5) Kim's Game 15
(7) Song 10
(8) Discussion, Planning 12
(9) Closing Ceremony 3
90 minutes--11/2 hours
Suggestions for Details
(1) Silence as opening ceremony.
2) Receiving of dues by Treasurer, checking up oil Scouts present and absent by Scribe.
(3) First Aid:
Divide the boys into groups of two. Send the number twos outside the room. Tell the number ones: 'Some boys outside this room have cut the arteries on their right feet just above the ankle. What will you do?' The number ones rush out, each of them brings in a patient and starts the treatment. When it is ended the number twos are asked: 'What do you suppose your case was? And do you consider the treatment you received correct' The next time the number ones are sent outside and the number twos are ordered to render First Aid.
(4) Good Turns. How can we train ourselves in the habit of rendering service to others? What do we consider Good Turns! Discussion. Find in the newspapers Good Turns performed by others. Analyze them.
(5) Kim's Game: using articles from boys' pockets, Scout Badges, etc. Or have a visitor come to the meeting, have him leave just before this period and ask the boys to put down from memory a description of him.
(6) Signaling by sound. Use a nail to give the sound of a dot, a penholder to give the sound of a dash. While one boy is sending, the rest are receiving. Give every boy a chance to send a message.
(7) Song period. Interest the boys in getting a special Patrol song. Get someone from the outside to help you make a song, ii necessary.
(8) Planning the future, discussing Troop work, etc.
(9) Scout Law as closing ceremony.
The Necessary Material:
Newspaper (4) Articles from boys' pockets, Scout Badges; or arrange with an acquaintance to interrupt at an exact minute (5)
Nail and penholder (6).
Second Class Stage Meeting
(1) Opening Ceremony 2
(2) meetings Business 3
(3) Signaling 10
(4) Good Turns 10
(5) Map Making15
(6) Play 20
(7) First aid 15
(8) Discussion Planning 12
(9) Closing ceremony 3
90 minutes--11/2 hours.
(1) and (2) as described under Tenderfoot stage meeting.
(3) Signaling: Using an electric buzzer or a flashlight. Sound and light signaling.
(4) Discussion of Patrol Good Turns and planning of one to take place in the near future.
(5)Map Making: From field notes the most important outlines of a map are dictated by the Patrol Leader while the boys put them down on paper in the conventional signs. Example: 'Start at the lower corner of the paper on the right hand side. Use I inch as a 100 foot measure. A road runs 200 feet in West North West direction, turns, 350 feet direct North, 100 feet North North West, etc. When you start on that road from the point where we began and walk up 100 feet you will find a church exactly 350 feet to the north, 400 feet further up on the same road you will find a school house on the West side of the road, etc.' The boys follow the dictation on the paper and afterwards the maps are compared.
(6) The Patrol is to perform a small play or special stunt at the next Troop meeting and therefore uses the Patrol meeting for the instruction.
(7) First Aid for the First Class tests may be taught as in the Second Class tests. (See Tenderfoot Meeting. )
(8) Planning hikes, competitions. Discussion of how to get recruits and how they call be trained for the Patrol.
(9) Closing with the Scout Law or Great Scoutmaster's Benediction.
Buzzer, electric bell or a couple of flashlights (3) Paper and pencils. Make a list of field notes (5) If necessary have just as many copies of play as there are players to take part in it (6). Bandages for First Aid (7)
First Class Stage Meeting
(1) Opening Ceremony 2 minutes
(2) Business 3
(3) First Aid,
(4) Signaling 15
(5) Our Constitution 10
(6) Merit Badge work 25
(7) Game 10
(8) Songs and yells 10
(9) Discussion 12
(10) Closing ceremony 3
90 minutes--11/2 hours.
Suggestions for Details:
(1) and (2) as described under Tenderfoot stage (1) and (2) as described under Tenderfoot stage meetings
(3) Review of the Patrol' specialty--first aid, signaling, etc. Training to keep the boys in practice.
(4) A short review of the Constitution, the duties of government officials, legislative bodies, etc.
(5) The Patrol as a whole wants to pass certain Merit Badge tests. It has an instructor and now uses a part of the Patrol meeting for training.
(6) Example: Intelligence tests. The Patrol Leader has chosen 30 questions from Quiz Books, or has made them himself. The questions are numbered and given to the boys. They write the answers and results are checked with the correct answers.
(7) New songs are learned, new yells invented to he used at coming Troop events.
(8) Planning advance work, hikes, discussing Troop work, how to help the Scoutmaster in his work, etc.
(9) Close with Scout Laws.
First Aid bandages, buzzer or light for signaling (3). A copy of the Constitution of the United States (4). Arrange for having an instructor present (5). Copy of Quizzes for each boy. Paper, pencils (6).
Meeting for Mixed Stages
(1) Opening Ceremony 2 minutes
(2) Business 3
(3) Signaling 15
(4) Use of knife and axe 15
(5) Game 15
(6) First Aid 20
(7) yells, Songs 9
(9) Closing ceremony 3
90 minutes--11/2 hours.
Suggestions for Details:
(1) and (2). See Tenderfoot stage meetings.
Start messages slowly, increase speed. Find out at which speed boys go out.
(4) Scout Question Ball, or "Spell Down" (H. B. for Boys, 560 and 563) on Use of Axe and Knife.
(5) Buzz-Buzz, Rooster Fight, Tractor (H. B. for Boys, 557-and 558).
Second Classers treating Tenderfoot Scouts and vice verse.
(7) and (8) Around artificial camp fire.
(9) Close with Scout Law.
Buzzer or flashlight (3). First Aid bandages (6).
Artificial camp fire (7-8).
It's An Art
The preparing and running of Patrol meetings is an art all by itself, but fortunately it is an art which can be acquired by any Patrol Leader if he will take the trouble to train himself for it.
ONE of the most important functions of a Patrol Leader is to help his boys ahead in the passing of their tests, in advancing in Scoutcraft.
It isn't Scoutlike to stand still. Scouting is "Forward." If a goal has been reached, immediately another is beckoning in the distance.
The real Patrol Leader will have his boys go through the Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class stages as fast as is consistent with thoroughness. He will have them move along all the time. That naturally means that he himself must be advancing too.
You can't teach your boys the requirements if they are entirely new to you. You can't expect them to be interested in the Scout tests if you show them your own ignorance in regard to them.
As in all other cases inside the Patrol, it is your example, the Patrol Leader's example, that helps the boys to work. If you are in front of them in advancement, it gives you authority to lead them ahead. If you aren't, not a soul can blame them if they stagger behind.
If you want to teach your boys the Scout requirements, you must know them thoroughly in advance.
You must have studied them yourself, have gotten all the help possible from your Scoutmaster and other Troop leaders, from experts outside the Troop, and you must have passed your requirements with distinction yourself.
But a real Patrol Leader will seek help wherever it is found. He will also try to get as much information as possible from books on the different subjects.
In the "Boy Scout Service Library" several valuable pamphlets are found. But naturally one of your best helps is the Handbook for Boys. Your instruction must, as a matter of course, follow the Procedure as laid down in the Handbook.
Boys Want to Do Things The minute the boy enters the Patrol and wants to plan the different tests he finds things to do. There are knots to tie, salutes to learn to make just right, first aid to demonstrate, signaling to perform, cooking to practice, and a host of other things.
And still there are people who act as if ail these things could be taught a boy by words, words, words.
Words ought never to be used, if a picture can illustrate the point; a picture never, if the point call be demonstrated to the boy, and a demonstration never, if the boy himself can be put into action doing the thing.
This naturally does not imply that words should never be used. There are many cases where you will find the use of oral explanation all important. But it means that words alone won't drive the works. Action is the main feature of Scouting.
Action on your part as a demonstration, action on the boys' part as training. And when new points have to be taught, your demonstration and your boys' following it with their own actions is the right way of putting the thing- across.
You will have to use your imagination to turn all the Scout requirements into action, but it can be done.
You might do it directly, by simply asking the Scouts to go ahead and do a thing. Let them use their own brains. You will help them best by letting them help themselves. Take for example fire-building at an out door meeting. Suppose you have told them just how it is done, even demonstrated it for them. Still they haven't really learned anything about the thing, first hand. It is only by making- a fire that a boy learns to build one. Let them start making the fire themselves, after telling them a little about how to do it. Let them blow their faces red, get their eyes filled with smoke. When they have tried and maybe invented their own way of doing it, you can help them further along by giving them advice, show the why of their failure, if they don't succeed.
If a direct method can't be applied, try the combination of demonstration and action. Knot-tying, signaling and many other Scout activities are learned most easily that way. You simply lead the boys along in doing a thing. In knot-tying, for example, let them have the ropes in their hands, and let them follow your actions while you are tying the knot on your own rope.
By doing the things the boys learn them, but if you want them to be really well trained, you must let them make use of their newly acquired knowledge time and again.
Competitions inside the patrol interest them in improving their abilities. Let them test each other's skill to try to find out who is best.
Also games will help to improve the boys' technique and skill. Plenty of interesting dramatic games can be invented covering the different Scout subjects.
The above only gives you general suggestions as Co methods of Patrol Instruction. More detailed help will be found in the following pages.
THE TENDERFOOT REQUIREMENTS
At the very first Patrol meeting you may gather your fellows around you and say something like this to them.
"You have asked to become Scouts in the Patrol and Troop to which I belong, and the Troop has decided to try you out and to give you your first training. As you know, you cannot become a Scout without having shown that you are willing to work and work hard to get the privilege, and the first work which is in front of you is the passing of the Tenderfoot tests."
Then ask the boys to open their Handbooks at page 28 where they will find the Tenderfoot Requirements. Ask one of the boys to start reading aloud what the Handbook says about the tests.
When the requirements have been read, ask questions to see if the boys actually understand them, and explain that the passing of these tests is the first thing that is expected of them if they want to join the Boy
Scouts of America also, thereby, the World Brotherhood of Scouts
Then take up the different points separately.
Tenderfoot Requirement No. 1 Know the Scout Oath. and Law, Motto, Sign, Salute and Significance of the Badge Make your boys realize from the very beginning that of all the requirements necessary to pass from ordinary boy to First Class Scout this is the most important, for the simple reason that if the boy doesn't know his Oath and Law and doesn't try to live up to them,
he isn't a Scout, even if he has his shirt sleeve covered with all the Merit Badges obtainable.
You must do your best to impress upon the minds of your boys the significance of this requirement, and even after they have successfully passed the test it must perpetually be held up to them.
Projects in Oath, Law and Motto
(1) Have a discussion on the meaning of the different points of Oath and Law.
(2) Have the boys write down the Oath and Law on first page of their notebook, to be carried with them always.
(3) Make sure that the boys know the Oath and Later in full by heart, and try to live up to them.
(4) Plan Patrol Good Turns and bring them to execution.
(5) Use Law occasionally for opening or closing ceremony of Patrol meetings.
(6) Use Oath for recital at specially solemn occasions, as for example when initiating new members into Patrol, at first and last camp fire in camp, at Patrol birthday party, and particularly the evening of February 8th, at 8:15 P.M., on the Birthday Anniversary of the Boy Scouts Of America, when all American Scouts recommit themselves to the Scout Oath.
(7) Have a discussion of the Scout Law in people's daily life based on clippings from current newspapers. Discuss especially striking Good Turns.
(8) Read or tell stories of real things Scouts have done, illustrating Oath and Law. Every Patrol library ought to contain for this purpose 'The Boy Scout and His Law,' by Barry Chalmers.
(9) Dramatize the different points of the Law and put them on as Patrol stunt at a Troop meeting.
(10) Conduct a contest every once in a while to see how many of the boys can write down the Oath and the Law correctly.
(11) Have a Patrol 'Oath and Law Hike.' See Hiking chapter.
(12) Earn money and purchase from National Supply Department the big Oath and Law poster for Patrol Den or Troop meeting room, or make one yourselves.
(13) Show the boys the Motto "Be Prepared" on tile Scout Badge. Discuss with them the meaning of the Motto.
Projects in Sign, Salute and Significance of Badge
(14) Demonstrate to the boys the difference between the rendition of Sign and Salute.
(15) Have a Sign and Salute drill with whole Patrol
(16) Make the boys understand that you expect them to use Sign and Salute at all proper occasions.
(17) Have a discussion to make sure that the boys know on which Occasions the Sign and on which the Salute is used.
(18) Have the boys always make use of the left handshake whenever they are among Scouts.
(19) Show the Patrol a First Class Badge and explain its different parts and their meaning (Handbook for Boys, p. 45).
(20) Be sure that your boys always wear their badges and insignia correctly.
(21) Show and explain to your boys at Troop meeting the insignia of your Scoutmaster, Assistant Scoutmaster, Junior Assistant Scoutmaster, Senior Patrol Leader, Committeemen. and other officers of the Troop.
Tenderfoot Requirement No. 2 Know, the composition and History of The Flag of the United States of America and the customary forms of respect due to it The Flag of the United States of America!
Flag! ! Naturally every boy in our country ought to know all about it, its dimensions, its history, how to respect it. It is the symbol of our land, of its past and its future, and it would be a queer American boy who wasn't interested in everything that had to do with The Flag.
The history of The Flag is full of romance, but also the building up of The Flag from red, white and blue pieces of cloth into our National Emblem can be filled with interest. Looking at the figures and decimals of the proportions of the stripes, the stars, the blue field and the seemingly endless rules of respect may scare many boys away. And yet these details may be simplified and made vivid to them if they are only treated the right way.
(1) Have the boys draw rough sketches of The Flag from memory. Produce The Flag or a correct drawing of it and have the boys compare.
(2) Discuss the correct proportions of The Flag with the Patrol and try to find a way of simplifying them, using the width of one stripe as unit. (You may find these figures: width of Flag, 13 stripes, length of Flag twice thirteen minus 1-1/3 stripes, width of blue field, 7 stripes, length of field almost correctly 10 stripes, diameter of stars almost exactly 4/5 stripe).
(3) Show and teach your Patrol the Betsy Ross trick of making a 5-pointed star from a piece of paper with just one cut of the scissors (see illustration).
(4) Have the boys find out for themselves which star represents their own State.
(5) Have the boys make colored sketches of flags of different periods of American History.
(6) Have a quiz competition based on the history of The Flag (Handbook for Boys).
(7) Teach the correct way of folding The Flag.
(8) Get permission from your minister or school principal for your Patrol to hoist and lower The Flag of the church or school every day, for a period of say one or two months, or on special days when The Flag is to be displayed.
(9) Have Flag ceremony every day in Patrol Camp.
(10) Have a patriotic Patrol pilgrimage to an historical spot in your neighborhood.
(11) Use an actual Flag in going through the different forms of respect until you are sure your boys get them. Let them learn this simplified rule: '(a) Consider yourself the Flag. (b) Consider your right hand the blue field (the Union). (c) Always face people.' (12) Teach your Patrol the words of 'The StarSpangled Banner,' its history and how to sing it;
Tenderfoot Requirement No. 3
Tie the Square Knot and any eight of the following knots: Sheet Bend, Bowline, Fishersman's Knot, Sheepshank, Slip Knot, Clove Hitch, Timber Hitch, Two Half Hitches, Carrick Bend, Miller's Knot, Rope Halters, Pipe Hitch, Stevedore Knot, Barrel Hitch, Girth Hitch, Binder Twine Bend, Lariat Loop, Hitching Tie.
It may be difficult for your boys to understand why knots have been considered so important that they have been placed alongside knowledge of the Scout Oath and Law and of The Flag of our country.
Make it clear to them that knot-tying is just one of the things that helps a Scout to live up to his motto, "Be Prepared." Bring to their attention the many cases where human lives depend upon whether a knot holds or not. Have them think of the painters suspended
in mid-air on a thin hoard while they are painting a house; of engineers building temporary bridges over rivers; of mountain climbers on their dangerous trail.
And then have them think of all the daily uses of knots. You tie your shoe laces with a kind of a square knot; you fasten your mother's clothesline to its posts with a clove hitch; make up your big packages with a slip knot and a couple of half hitches. Your mother repairs your buttonholes with clove hitches. The fisher-man repairs his nets with sheet bends. The doctor fastens his bandages with square knots. The archer uses the timber hitch to put the string on the bow, and the angler a fisherman's knot to connect his catgut with his line. The sailor uses a number of knots in his everyday life, so do the farmer, the engineer, the carpenter and a lot of others. You may be able to increase this list considerably, but the main point is to give the boys a vivid and real picture of the uses of knots.
(1) Have the Patrol decide upon which nine knots out of the nineteen it wants for the Patrol knot requirement. Provided; of course, that this has not been decided by the Troop or Council, in which case you will naturally follow the local requirements. If you choose your own be sure to have knots for following uses included (a) end knots; (b) for tying two ropes together, (c) for tying rope to something else, (d) for making permanent loops, (e) for shortening rope.
(2) Develop a knot-tying equipment: 8 rope pieces 4-5 feet long (old clothesline, or 2/5 inch diameter rope), a few sticks for hitches.
(3) Discuss practical uses of knots.
(4) Teach parts of rope. (H. R. for Boys, page 69. )
(5) Teach requirements of a good knot. (H. B. for Boys, page 69.) (6) Demonstrate knots and teach boys to tie them.
(7) Have quiz competition on uses of different knots.
(8) Have Patrol knot tying competition for speed (based on the 'champ-nit' principle, Handbook for Boys, page 564) to see who is the fastest in the following: (a) Tie single knot, (b) tie all nine knots, tie single knot with eyes shut, (d) tie knots behind (e) biggest number in one minute.
(9) Have Patrol knot-tying Competitions for Carefulness, as for example : (a) by the help of a string carry a glass filled with water without spilling; (b) find out who is the Patrol package wrapper champion.
(10) Co on a Knot Hike : Mend that broken gate, fasten that boat more securely to dock, etc.
(11) Teach the boys lashings and build bridges. signal towers, camp implements, also miniature models.
(12) Introduce rope-spinning and lasso-throwing to Patrol.
(13) Make Patrol fillet board.
(14) Dramatize knot-tying for a stunt at Troop
The Tenderfoot Investiture Ceremony Your Patrol has been through all of the Tenderfoot
Requirements. You have examined your boys in all the details. You have been a strict examiner, and you know that your boys know their stuff. The moment has come when they may become members of the Boy Scouts of America,-when they are ready to join the World Brotherhood of Scouts.
According to the national regulations it is the Scoutmaster who actually examines candidates for Tenderfoot tests; but it is your job to see that they are really "prepared," thoroughly, through and through. When you are sure your boys are ready, tell your Scoutmaster and ask him to arrange the time for the examination. If he is satisfied that the boys are really Prepared in their Tenderfoot Requirements he will arrange for them to go through the Troop Investiture Ceremony.
Maybe this will take place in the Troop meeting room at the end of a meeting, or maybe the scene for it will be laid around a camp fire in the middle of the woods. In any case all the Patrols from your Troop will be present to welcome your boys into Scouting.
Every Troop has its own ceremonies, but common to them all are their seriousness and dignity. There is no place in any of them for horseplay and nonsense.
The Scoutmaster will ask you the names of your boys. He will have you lead them up in front of the Troop. Maybe he, or possibly one of the Troop Committee will ask them a few questions. And then the great moment has arrived when your boys will pledge their allegiance to the ideals of Scouting. Slowly they will repeat the Scout Oath. You will perhaps feel their voices tremble as they give their solemn promise as Scouts. Then your Scoutmaster will welcome them into the Troop and while the Troop yell thunders around you, you will lead the boys back to their Patrol. They are members now. They belong. They are permitted to wear the Scout Uniform.
They have made the first step into the wonderland of Scouting. It is for you to lead them further along tile trail.
SECOND CLASS REQUIREMENTS
As soon as the Tenderfoot Requirements have been passed and the boys have been admitted to the Troop get them started at once on the Second Class tests.
If you have been in Scouting for some time yourself and have kept your eyes open, you will have found that some Patrol Leaders let their boys go month after month, sometimes even a year, without getting them any further than through the Tenderfoot Requirements. They are nor very much interested in testpassing themselves, and the result is that their boy very often "get tired of Scouting" and drop out.
"Get tired of Scouting" they say. But how could they "get tired of Scouting" when they never had seen any Scouting? Scouting isn't a thing you get tired of, but if you stay for months in a Patrol where nothing happens, and where the Patrol Leader doesn't care, you get tired of that, tired because you don't see any of that real Scout life you expected when you joined.
Don't disappoint your boys. They joined your Patrol with great expectations and it is for you to, see that all their expectations are fulfilled. There is. plenty of adventure and romance in Scouting. It is for the Patrol Leader to see that his boys find all they dream about--and more.
At the first Patrol meeting after the 'Tenderfoot Investiture Ceremony, have the boys go through the Second Class Requirements. Then ask questions to find out if they understand the requirements.
As soon as the reading and discussion part is over, start immediately on the different requirements. Divide
them up in such a way that you get variation into your Patrol meetings and hikes.
Second Class Requirement No. 1 At least one month's service as a Tenderfoot
Naturally this does not mean that the boys have to wait for one month before they can start to pass any of the Second Class Requirements. The only reason it has been put in is that the authorities want a Scout to know
what Scouting really is before he advances to any ranks above that of Tenderfoot. Some boys may join and pass straight through all of the tests and yet they may not know what it is all about. And it is to prevent this that we have this first requirement.
That word "service'' is important. It means that the Scout has actually taken part in the Patrol and Troop activities since he joined; that he has been present at meetings and hikes, faithfully performed the duties which were placed on him and in all ways tried to live up to what was expected of him, and to the satisfaction of his Scoutmaster and Patrol Leader. In this way the boy simply cannot help beginning to realize what Scouting really means. He will have made friends inside the Movement and he will have had a chance to take part in the life they live. And that kind of "service" is supposed to have continued for at least one month from the date when he was registered by his Scoutmaster with the Boy Scouts; of America, and after he has passed his Tenderfoot Requirements and affirmed his Scout Oath.
Second Class Requirement No. 2 Know the general directions for First Aid; demonstrate treatment including dressing, where necessary, for hemorrhage, fainting shock, bruises, injuries in which the skin is broken, burns, sprains, and demonstrate with the triangle the following bandages: head, arm (sling), hand, foot and ankle bandages, eye and jaw bandages (roller bandages may be substituted on arm and ankle); artificial respiration. The Scout may elect to demonstrate any Five requirements on animals.
You will easily understand that the knowledge of First Aid is one of the most--if not the most-important things which is required of a Second Class Scout. By knowing how to treat a wound a Scout may be able at some time to save the life of another; by knowing artificial respiration he may be able to bring an apparently drowned person back to life again. You will therefore understand that the First Aid instruction must he given very carefully if you expect your boys' First Aid to be a real aid. You can't go through this requirement with them too often. It should be repeated again and again until you are sure that the knowledge sticks.
(1) Bring in newspaper clippings describing accidents.
Have a boy as the victim. Ask the others, 'What would you have done in this case?' Have boys demonstrate.
(2) Try to get a Doctor or .Red Cross expert to teach your Patrol the fundamentals of First Aid.
(3) Use the 'buddy system' in your training. One
boy as the victim, another the bandager change about.
(4) Dramatize First Aid. On hikes or at meetings
have a boy play wounded, have the rest treat him
(5) Divide Patrol up in two teams. Try 'Patrol First Aid Race' (Handbook for Boys, page 553.)
(6) Earn money and purchase official First Aid kit. To be taken along whenever Patrol undertakes a hike or camp.
(7) Get together a training kit, containing a few bandages, some compresses and a couple of bottles with colored water to represent mercurochrome and iodine. Also include a few safety pins and a pair of scissors. To be used for practice purposes only.
(8) Have a First Aid contest with the other Patrols of your Troop to find out which is best.
(9) Have a First Aid quiz or Spell-down inside your own Patrol.
(10) Have competition among the boys to find out who can treat himself most correctly in case of accident.
(11) Find out as many uses as possible for the Scout Neckerchief in First Aid.
(12) Train your boys in telephoning a short and clear message to doctor regarding an accident.
(13) Make up a First Aid demonstration to put on at Troop meeting night.
Second Class Requirement No. 3 Elementary Signaling: Know, the alphabet of the Semaphore Code, or the General Service (International Morsel Code; or the elementary signs of the Indian Sign Language Code.
As you will see, for this requirement there are three alternatives from which Scouts may choose the one in which they are most interested. Take it up with your boys. Tell them the advantages of the different systems-discuss them. Then go ahead and decide upon the system the Patrol thinks will be of most value to it. On the other hand, there is nothing to prevent your Patrol from taking up two of these alternatives. In fact, it is recommended that you take up either the Semaphore or the Morse Code, so that you may be able to send your messages for miles, should it be necessary, and also the Indian Sign Language Code for use at Patrol meetings or as a secret Patrol language. The extra work will be more than repaid by the great fun you will get from it.
(1) Use the buddy system in your training, the boys being divided up into pairs of which one sends while the other receives and vice versa.
(2) Make up big chart for Patrol Den with the two codes.
(3) Use all-alphabet sentences in your training.
As for instance--"Quite a few brave kids enjoy camping in exhilarating zero weather." (55 letters.) "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.". (35 letters.) "Whenever the black fox jumped the squirrel gazed very suspiciously." (57 letters.) Not to mention poetry:
"Under the spreading chestnut tree The village blacksmith stood. But he went crazy and quit his job When a zinc box hit his foot." (103 letters.) Make up other all-alphabet messages for use in your Patrol.
(4) Make up a secret code for your Patrol. Either by inventing a special way of writing the letters, or by
letting one letter sent represent another letter, as for example a-b, b-c, c-d, y-z, z-a.
(5) Have a spell down inside the Patrol. Each boy in turn asking the others questions related to signaling.
(6) Try relay signaling, i.e., a message sent through several stations distributed over a considerable distance.
(7) Have a Treasure Hunt in which all messages are written down in code.
(8) Take your patrol on a Signaling Hike where all orders are executed by Morse or Semaphore.
(9) Divide Patrol into two groups competition against each other. Also challenge other Patrols of Troop to signaling competitions.
(10) Official Morse (or Semaphore) Signaling Competition: Four men. Reader, sender, receiver and writer. Stations fifty yards apart. No signs or communications other than flag signals permitted. Flags to be army standard size. A thirty word message totaling at least letters will be given to reader. As soon as writer has taken down message he runs back to start with it. No abbreviations allowed. No insertions or corrections on message as received. Each letter wrong to be penalized one second. Speed event.
(11) Official Signaling Competition (alternative): Two stations, each four men, 200 yards apart. Each station must send and receive three ten-word messages. Speed event.
(12) Official Signal Tower Race: Three Scouts hold three others on their shoulders. They come
together and lock arms. No. 7 then takes No. 8 on his shoulders from where he climbs to the top of the tower. No. 7 then passes up two Semaphore flags to No. 8, who sends the Semaphore alphabet. Speed event.
(b) Projects in Semaphore
(13) Make up a set of flags for Semaphore.
(14! Teach the boys correct way of holding Semaphore flags.
(15) Divide letters up in natural groups as indicated in Handbook for Boys, page 142, and teach them to your boys.
(16) Remember that Semaphore signaling is an outdoor form of signaling only. Have the boys send messages over even considerable distances, if possible with the use of field glasses.
(c) Projects ill Morse
(17) Make up two flags for Morse, one light, the other dark.
(18) Demonstrate choice of flag in relation to background, i.e., the use of dark flag against light background, light against dark.
(19) Teach boys correct way of holding and moving Bag.
(20) Teach your boys the letters divided up into groups, either in alphabetical order or as indicated in Handbook for Boys, page 140.
(21) Use different methods of sending and receiving. At day: by sight--flags, heliograph, smoke. At night: by sight--flashlight, lantern, fire. At day or night: by sound-whistle, bugle, buzzer, tapping (Set Merit Badge Pamphlet on Signaling.)
(22) Make up and use special trick system between Patrol members: As for example, winking eyes, moving certain fingers, chewing movement of jaw.
(d) Projects in Indian Sign Language
(23) Divide the 42 words and numerals into four groups containing ten letters each, and one group containing the remaining two letters plus numerals. Teach one group at a time to your boys.
(24) When the boys master the words, get hold of William Tomkins' book on "Universal Indian Sign Language" and teach them the necessary grammatical rules for building up sentences.
(25) Make up English sentences, translate them into Sign Language words and execute them. As for example : English-"The Patrol went camping. We went by boat up the river with two tents. Night came, we were hungry, ate and drank and went to sleep. Slept well." Indian Sign Language--"Eight Scouts go camp. We all go boat river with two tents. Night come, we all hungry, drink, go sleep. Sleep good."
(26) On a Patrol hike use Sign Language for ail communications.
(27) Get together with other Patrol about Sign Language. This helps keep up interest.
Second Class Requirement No. 4 Track half a mile in twenty-five minutes; or if in town, describe satisfactorily the contents of one store window, out of four observed for one minute each.
The big idea of this requirement is Observation with
capital "O." The Boy Scout is supposed to go through life with his eyes open, always observing and storing in his memory things which may prove to be useful to him later on.
"Track half a mile in twenty-five minutes." What does that mean? Track? Yes, but what is a track? Let us define it as "any kind of a sign left by a living creature." The track of a man is not only his footprint, but also the matches he struck and threw away; the ashes he knocked out of his pipe, the button he lost, etc.
Tracking isn't a thing you can learn in an hour. It is an art that needs great study. Of all the Second Class Requirements this one is more than any other "outdoor stuff."
Start the training for this requirement on the very first Patrol hike. As you walk along the road you may find the imprint of a man's foot or a horse's hoof.
Show it to your boys. Make them interested in finding the-next imprint, then the next and still the next.
There is an alternative for the tracking test which is very seldom used. That is, the ability to describe satisfactorily the Contents of one store window out of four observed for one minute each. It is all right that it is seldom used in passing this fourth requirement, because a Scout's life is lived in the open, not in the street, but it ought to be used much more frequently than it is as training in observation.
(1) Use the 'Hare and Hounds' game for your training. One person (or two) represents the hare. He is given material for laying a track and sent out several minutes before the hounds, runs a certain length of time, then returns by another route to starting point, all the time laying the track. After the lapse of the number of minutes' handicap given the hare, those representing the hounds start in pursuit, following the track and trying to catch the hare before he reaches the starting point in returning. The first few times the tracks must be made clearly visible. Have for example the hare throw small handfuls of corn or chicken feed every 25 to 30 feet. Then use powdered dry paint, first bright ochre, later green or brown colors. Then small pieces of different colored woolen yam, whifflepoof, tracking irons, trail signs. (Handbook for Boys, page 156.) Then the actual footprints of the hare.
(2) Make a wifflepoof out of a round piece of wood in which is hammered a number of nails.
(3) On hikes, study tracks of animals and birds.
(4) Make sketches with correct measurements of tracks found on the hike.
(5) Teach your boys to make plaster casts of tracks. (See chapter on Patrol Handicraft.)
(6) Make a tracking training ground. Rake up a piece of ground. Have the boys walk, run, walk backward, walk with heavy burden lover it. Compare tracks. Make notes.
(7) Study tracks of carts, bicycles, automobiles. Learn to recognize in which direction the vehicle has moved.
(8) For training in observation play ' Kim's Game. ' Place on a tray, or on the table or floor, about twenty or thirty small articles such as two or three different kinds of buttons, pencils, coins, clips, Scout badges, nuts, stones, knives, string, photos--anything found in boy pockets, or elsewhere--and cover them over with a cloth or coat. List these and make a column opposite the list for each boy's replies. Then uncover the articles for one minute by your watch, or while you count sixty. Then cover again. Have boys write down the names of articles which they remember. Check up on the list. Give one point for each article remembered. Subtract two points each for articles mentioned which were not on the table.
(9) 'Shop Window.' Take a Patrol down street past four shops with one minute's stop at each window. Then after moving them off to some distance have each boy write down from memory what he noticed in, say, shop No. 3. The one who sets down most articles correctly wins.
(10) Have a stranger enter Patrol Den during meeting, have a few remarks with you, then disappear. Have boys write down from memory description of person, his height, his most important features.
(11) On hike start suddenly and ask where the last road passed led to, how many persons were in automobile which just rolled by; how many stories the house last seen had.
Second Class Requirement No. 5 Go a mire in twelve minutes at Scout's Pace-about fifty steps running and fifty walking, alternately; or lay out, measure by the stride method and stake a four acre tract of land.
Be sure that you do not misunderstand Scout's Pace, as so many other Patrol Leaders have done when they have wanted to know what the record for that mile was. One could tell that his Patrol had done it in 91/2rninutes. Another Patrol had used 93/4, while
still another had only used 9 and was certain that they had broken all records. They certainly had, but in quite another way than they thought. The fact is that the world record for one mile at Scout's I-'ace is exactly twelve minutes, not more and not less.
The Scout's Pace requirement is not a speed test. The value of Scout's Pace is that it brings you forward fast without tiring you and besides it acts as a measure of time and of distance. Ii the milestones tell you that you have run one mile in Scout's Pace, you will know that twelve minutes have elapsed. On the other hand if your watch tells you that twelve minutes have gone you will know that you have covered one mile. This may help your Patrol and your boys in a lot of ways. If you have an appointment at a place two and a half miles away at 8:30 you will know that if you leave in Scout's Pace at 8:00 precisely you will get there just in time. In map making you will need to know distances and you will easily see that it is faster to run for six minutes to measure half a mile than it is to walk slowly and count your strides.
(1) Have the boys realize that the secret in Scout Pace is to keep an 'even rhythm. Change from walking to running--rather, trotting--but do not change the rhythm of your steps.
(2) Have your boys walk 50 steps and run 50 steps, altogether 100 steps. Measure out carefully a with string, say, 20 feet long. By dividing the number of feet found into 5,280 feet (one mile) you find out how many times this distance
must be covered in twelve minutes. Then figure out how long a time you are permitted to use for your 100 step course. You may find it to be, say, 30 seconds. Then train your boys until they are able time and again to run the course in 30 seconds. At next meeting double the distance, and have the boys run it in exactly 60 seconds. Then increase to 1/4 mile in three minutes, 1/2 mile in 6 minutes, 1 mile in 12 minutes.
(3) Lay out a couple of 1/2 mile courses around your favorite camp site. Keep your boys in training.
(4) Use Scouts Pace on hikes occasionally.
(5) Have Patrol do Scout-'s Pace for 12 minutes, stopping at a signal. The one nearest the mile mark wins.
(6) Have an automobilist measure out a five miles course. See which of the boys can come nearest the goal in one hour.
(7) Official Scout's Pace Race. One man. Scouts do Scout's Pace on a measured mile. The one who finishes nearest to the exact twelve minutes wins.
(8) Have surveyor help in training the boys to lay out one acre and four acre tracts of land.
(9) Have competition among boys laying out four acre tract. Have surveyor present as judge.
Second Class Requirement No. 6
Use properly knife and hatchet A Scout could make himself comfortable and at home on a desert island, if he only had his knife or his hatchet along with him. They work for him as the man Friday worked for Robinson Crusoe. They constitute the most important part of his equipment. They are his most useful friends and therefore they ought to be treated kindly, always protected against bad usage, always kept sharp, dry and clean.
(1) Have a carpenter teach the Patrol the correct way of Sharpening knife and axe.
(2) Secure Scout use and sharpening stone for Patrol equipment.
(3) Discuss rules for correct uses of knife and axe.
(4) Have quiz on rules.
(5) Teach the boys correct way of whittling.
(6) Have competition in whittling fuzz-sticks, paper knife, fork or spoon; later, more advanced whittling, as neckerchief slides, individual totem poles, chains, ball in cage, fans, bas-reliefs. (See Chapter on Patrol Handicraft).
(7) Manufacture articles for sale for the Patrol funds (See Handicraft chapter).
(8) Make models of fires, trail signs, camp furniture, complete camp, log cabins, etc. (See Handicraft chapter).
(9) Start training in use of axe by having boys cut tent pegs. Then demonstrate chopping on dead timber. Never touch a living tree with an axe.
(10) Have a wood-chopping contest inside the Patrol.
(11) In camp, make rustic furniture and other camp implements by the help of the axe.
Second Class Requirement No. 7
Prove ability to build a fire in the open, using not more than two matches; care for and put it out.
When you go through the woods or over the fields you may find some small round spots where no vegetation grows. Even if the grass or the moss grows in abundance everywhere around it, it is as if a curse
has been put on these spots-"Thou shallot produce no life."
The solution may be that a careless camper has put the curse on it by having had a fire there. Rain has washed the ashes down in the ground, wind has spread the coals, and only the dead spot is left, and it certainly doesn't beautify the landscape. The reason that no vegetation is able to grow there is that the heat from the fire charred and destroyed the organic plant nutrition which is found in the soil and the ashes made it too alkaline, thereby adding to the impossibility of plants growing there.
A Scout Will always want to leave a spot in the same condition in which he found it. He doesn't want to put ugly stains on a beautiful spot. And, therefore, before taking up fire-building he will take up the use of the hand spade.
If a square piece of sod is removed from the ground before you build the fire, and after the fire is out, the ashes are dug under and the sod replaced, you will leave the place With the satisfaction of knowing that nobody will ever be disturbed by the fact that a Scout has camped on this particular place. At the same time you would be dead sure that the last embers of the fire were out.
Therefore, every time the Patrol goes out to train for fire-making or cooking, take a small spade along with you. It isn't much of a bother, and you will find many uses for it in making fireplaces, digging icebox, refuse pit, latrine, and so forth.
Before building any fires be absolutely positive that you are permitted to make fire on that particular spot. If it is private property you must get perms-
sin from the owner, if it is public property you must be absolutely certain that fire-making is allowed by asking the local authorities (fire wardens or guards).
(1) Make sure that your boys are familiar with the safety rules regarding fire-building.
(2) Demonstrate the laying of the simplest form of a fire: the pyramid fire. Point out most important features of fire-building: relation to wind, tinder, necessity of reserve wood, how to shelter match from wind, the use of a fuzz stick, how to; feed flame, etc.
(3) Teach boys where to find suitable wood for fires. Hardwood for coals, soft wood for flames. Also where to find dry tinder on rainy day.
(4) Have boys build different kinds of fires and fire places: Pyramid, crisscross, hunter's or trapper's, reflector, star, council fire.
(5) Have a string-burning contest. Stretch a string tightly between two poles 18 inches above the ground. Have the boys lay their fires under it. All fires are started at the same time. After lighting, fires must not be touched nor extra wood added to them. The boy who has made the fire which first burns through the string is declared the winner.
(6) Official Water Boiling Contest. One man. Officials to furnish a one-quart water bucket with wire handle, single-ply tin, filled with water to within 1/2 inch of top, shaving of soap added; one stick of wellseasoned wood 3"x3"x36"; two matches. Contestants to furnish knife or axe. No preliminary preparation of fireplace or of wood permitted. Only two matches
allowed and spilling of water disqualifies. Water must boilover. Speed Event.
(7) Have each boy in Patrol make his own fire-by friction set or gather material for flint-and-steel set.
(8) Official Fire by Friction Contest. One man. Apparatus must be made by Scout from natural material found in United States. Tinder to be natural material, the following materials to be barred: powder from previous attempts, chemicals, shavings, pencil sharpenings, paper cloth, cotton, string or rope. 'Warming up' is not allowed, but using notch that has been used before is permissible. Speed Event.
(9) Have competition to see who can clean up best after fire.
(10) Make fire-making an all-weather proposition. Have contests on rainy days or on days following periods of drenching rain.
Second Class Requirement No. 8
Cook a quarter of a pound of meat and two potatoes in the open without any cooking utensils.
After having trained in fire-making on one of your Patrol hikes, you may take up cooking without utensils on the next.
In all matters of cooking or handling food, insist that your boys keep their hands clean. No touching of food with dirty hands should ever be permitted.
(1) Teach the Patrol the making of a hole under the fire for roasting potatoes.
(2) Teach your Patrol the "count-to-eight" rule: Put your hand close to the fire, so near that you are just able to keep it there while you slowly count to eight and will want to snatch your hand away in order not to burn it when you arrive at count eight. If you are able to count to ten before feeling that you must
take your hand away, it has been held too far from the fire, if you are able to count to six only, you are too close. When the boys have found the right distance have them put their meat there on a spit supported by a couple of forked sticks. Have them check up every once in a while to see if the heat is just right. Move the steak according to the heat. By following the "count-to-eight" rule it is not necessary to use coals only. Flames will do for the roasting. Just be sure that the meat is arranged on that side of the fire front which the wind comes.
(3) Have a Patrol roast (beef, chicken, etc.) following the 'count-to-eight' rule closely.
(4) Try other methods of preparing meals without utensils: Frying bacon on hot rocks, planking of fish, clay baking of fowl, clam bakes, kabobs.
(5) Teach your Patrol bread-baking without utensils, as twist; in the ashes; in dug--in-a-bank oven.
Second Class Requirement No. 9 Earn and deposit at least one dollar in a public bank (premiums paid on life insurance, are accepted, if earned); or Earn, own, and raise some farm animal
This part of the Second Class Requirements isn't a thing in which you ought to train your boys. It is purely a personal matter, each boy going out on his own and pursuing his own business.
The only thing you ought to do is to inspire your Scouts to get the work done, and the money earned, by bringing to their attention the Ninth Scout Law. You may give them suggestions as to work they might take up, but let the boys themselves hunt for the jobs. If they really want to, it won't be difficult for them to get an opportunity to earn some money by undertaking simple jobs, or by making handicraft articles.
Somebody said "Jobs do not turn up in this world unless somebody turns them up." Have your boys re member that and have them go out hunting.
As soon as the first dollar is earned and put in the bank, encourage them to go ahead and earn another. If you can get them into the habit of looking around for work and doing- odd jobs, thereby earning a little money, you will have accomplished something to be proud of. Remember to keep clearly before them all the time that this earning money on jobs is a totally different thing from their Good Turns for which, of course, no pay is expected or taken.
(1) Suggest to your boys that they earn their money by taking over such jobs as delivering goods, caddying for golfers, soliciting for magazines, carrying newspapers around, chopping wood, mowing lawns, or anything else you may think of. In this connection have it clearly in mind that the boy does this work as a boy, not as a Scout, for which reason the Scout Uniform should not be worn.
(2) If any of your boys live on a farm they may take up raising rabbits, squabs, chickens, growing vegetables or doing regular farm work.
(3) Make it a Patrol project to make handicraft articles by which the boys may earn the money for this requirement. (See chapter on Patrol Handicraft.) (4) Have a Patrol entertainment (in camp, or in Troop meeting room) to which parents and people interested are invited. Charge a nominal entry fee. Put
on a real Scoutcraft demonstration together with a few amusing stunts and Patrol singing.
(5) Get permission to collect junk from junk rooms of friends of the Patrol. Repair articles and put them in shape for sale.
Second Class Requirement No. 10
Know, the sixteen principal points of the compass Don't start teaching your boys the compass points at a Patrol meeting. The compass has nothing to do with a meeting room. You are able to find the door without knowing in which corner of the globe it is.
Start teaching the compass on a hike. It is there in the open that you will find the greatest advantage in knowing the use of the compass. Take up compass study time and again. Make perfectly sure that your boys are always able to orient themselves.
(1) Have the boy on the hike face the sun at twelve noon sharp
,(beware of Daylight Saving Time; in that case it must be one o'clock sharp). Ask them, 'Where is South?' Be sure that they realize that the sun is straight South at twelve noon, and demonstrate the other compass directions to them.
(2) Wave the Scouts gather a number of sticks and place them on the ground forming a compass. Teach them the different points.
(3) Have each Scout make a drawing of the compass with the sixteen points indicated.
(4) Make a compass chart for the Patrol den.
(5) Have a compass facing game" arranged as a "champ-nit" contest. Tell the boys to face Northeast, West, Northwest, and so forth. The one first to get into right position goes out and the game is continued until only one boy is left.
(6) Have a 'Treasure Hunt,' all the messages giving distance and a compass direction to follow to arrive at the treasure.
(7) Undertake a 'Bee-line hike.' Follow a compass direction cross-country, through, over or under all obstacles.
(8) Have a compass spell-down at a Patrol meeting or on a hike.
(9) Teach the boys the actual use of a compass. Make them understand the difference between "true" and "magnetic" North.
(10) On a hike, show the boys how to use a compass to orient a map.
(11) Teach the boys to find the compass direction in the open by the help of the sun (and a watch), stars at night, moss on trees, prevailing winds, etc.
Second Class Requirement No. 11
Demonstrate his practice of at least Five rules of safety at home, or work, or school, or on tile street, or road, or farm
A Scout is supposed to "Be Prepared" to meet any emergency. But it is of equal importance for him to help in seeing that nothing is done or left undone which might endanger the safety of others. He knows that "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."
(1) Before a Patrol meeting, arrange in den different violations of safety, as for example, thumb tacks on the floor, an opened knife on the table, a gasoline bottle (with water for gasoline) without cork, and other offenses against safety. When the boys arrive, have
them look around, see what is wrong and write it down on a piece of paper stating why they think it is wrong. Then have them correct all points, remove thumb tacks, close knife, find a cork for the bottle, etc.
(2) Have a discussion on Safety based on reports of actual accidents which might have been prevented by carefulness.
(3) Have the boys study section on Safety in Handbook for Boys, page 173. Discuss the different points.
(4) When Patrol is out hiking, or in camp, practice! rules of safety. Don't do any jay-walking. Walk on correct side of country road (facing oncoming traffic). Be very careful in bathing. Use knives and axes
(5) Have the Scouts co-operate with their school in regard to safety devices.
(6) Try to have a policeman demonstrate to the Patrol important points of traffic safety.
(7) Make sure that the boys practice safety rules in their homes.
Second Class Requirement No. 12
Furnish satisfactory evidence that he has put into practice ill his daily life the principles of tile Scout Oath and Law
Living the Scout Oath and Law ! The last and most important of the Second Class Requirements.
A boy may know how to build fire with one match, or even without a match at all, know how to treat the most complicated injuries and signal the most difficult messages without being a Scout. It is the living up to the ideals of the Movement which makes a boy into a Scout.
Take the Oath and the Law up with your boys again. By this time they ought to have a deeper understanding of them than they had when they first joined. Talk them over seriously if possible some night on a hike around a camp fire. Ask your fellows to measure
themselves in order to find out for themselves if they have really "done their best."
Your example during these last months has meant everything in the world to the behavior of your boys. If they have found in you the leader they wanted to follow they will have been trying to do things in such a way that you might be satisfied with them. If you have succeeded in putting an ideal in front of them, they will have been doing all they could to follow it.
But the "satisfactory evidence'' they have to furnish isn't only in regard to their behavior in the Patrol. The parents, the teachers, the Scoutmaster must be satisfied too. The boy must show to all that he has really tried to live the life of a Scout.
You can give your boys no instruction in this important part of the requirements. It is not a knowledge which they can acquire. It is a state of mind, and that can only be developed from the inside, from the boys' own hearts. But your spirit, and the spirit of the Patrol will have helped immensely in building it.
The Second Class Examinations
After having gone through all the Second Class Requirements with them, your boys are now ready to appear before the Court of Honor or the specially authorized examiners of your Council or city.
But before they do, you will go on a hike with them and have them review their knowledge. You wouldn't think of sending them to the examiners before you had examined them yourself.
Go through every one of the requirements very care
fully on that hike, and have the boys understand that the day they appear before the Court of Honor they are to show the right Scouting spirit, prove that they really are prepared.
But not only that. Have them understand that the honor and reputation of the Patrol is at stake. The
way they pass the examinations will prove what kind of a Patrol they belong to.
Let them realize that at the Court of Honor they are not only trying to pass some tests. They are representing their Patrol, too, and the other boys of their Patrol expect them to make a fine showing. The Patrol's good wishes and anticipation go with them. It is up to them to prove that the faith which is put in them is deserved.
And the day they pass, Oh, boy! what a great feeling in the Patrol! Maybe the Scoutmaster will present the badges to the boys in front of the Troop during a meeting. Maybe he will come to one of your Patrol meetings and perform the ceremony there. But what ever the procedure is, the Patrol ought to be proud of its members and have them really feel it. Something special must be dune to celebrate. Use your imagination. You are the PatrolLeader. You know your boys. You know what they like and are able to make them feel happy. But do something. Make the occasion a red-letter one.
THE FIRST CLASS REQUIREMENTS
The first really important step in the advancement of your Scouts has been reached the day they pass the Second Class Requirements.
But you won't want the words Second Class to stick to your Patrol for very long. You don't want your
Patrol to be considered Second Class, and First Class it will never be until quite a big percentage of your Scouts have advanced into First Class, Star, Life or Eagle rank. Don't be satisfied with the next best when you know that by steady work the best may be reached.
Your boys have learned to work during your bringing them through their Second Class tests. Don't let them stop now. Start in immediately on the First Class instruction. A delay may prove dangerous.
As you go along you may find that instructing your boys has become easier; that giving First Class and Second Class instruction differs quite a bit. The reason is obvious. As Tenderfoot Scouts your boys didn't know much about Scouting. They had to be led along very carefully. Now, however, they have got a real insight into it, they have grasped the meaning of Scouting, and instead of actually leading them forward you will realize that in many cases all that is necessary for you to do is simply to show them the road to follow, and they will be able to go ahead without your having to point out every step.
Starting the Training
Quite a few of the First Class Requirements have their root in what the boys already have learned as Second Class Scouts. By actually using their Second Class Signaling, for example, they are training themselves for the advanced test. By going on hikes they will not only prepare themselves for the 14-mile hike, but they will also improve their cooking and their ability to use an axe. In fact, the only First Class Requirements which are entirely new to them are Swimming, Map Reading and Making, Judging and Nature Study. Just four out of the twelve. The others only consist of improving what they have already !earned.
If you bring this to their attention, the First Class Requirements won't seem so terribly difficult to them as they may have done at the beginning.
The requirements may be passed as soon as the boys have had two months' service as Second Class Scouts, though you will very probably find that they will need far more time. You may find too that the Swimming test may upset your plans of having the boys pass quickly. Swimming is usually a summer activity, not all Scouts have access to a swimming pool. That means that the Patrol sometimes will have to wait about a year to pass all First Class Requirements if it hasn't been fortunate enough to start its training in the spring months. If the Patrol has to wait, the best thing to do will be to have it pass all requirements except Swimming and then interest the boys in the Merit Badges which are open to Second Class Scouts. This way there won't be any halt in their work. They will be advancing steadily, a thing which will prove a success to the Patrol.
But whatever way you 'have to follow, be sure to get your Second Class Scouts started right away on their advancement.
At the meeting following the Court of Honor session go through the First Class Requirements with your boys in the same way in which you went through the Tenderfoot and Second Class Requirements (Hand book for Boys, page 194) until you have been through them all. Then ask them questions to find out if they understand the requirements.
As soon as the reading and discussion is over with, start immediately on the different requirements. Divide them up in such a way that you get variety into your Patrol meetings and hikes
First Class Requirement No. 1
At least two months service as a Second Class Scout What was said in regard to one month's service as
part of the Second Class Requirements naturally refers to these two months' service also.
But as First Class Scouts you will expect your boys to be familiar with all phases of Scouting, not only the things which go into the requirements but the background for them as well, and to have taken their full share of Troop life and community service.
By now your boys will know about all functions of the Patrol and Troop to which they belong. They will have taken part in several meetings, hikes, camps and community Good Turns and by so doing they will have gotten a wider outlook of Scouting. They will have found out what is expected of them as Scouts.
At the same time they ought to have learned to know all the officers of the Troops, its Scoutmaster and his helpers. They ought to have become acquainted with the other Patrols and their leaders. And they ought to have learned the history of the Troop so that they will know when it was started, who have been its leaders, what honors have been bestowed upon it, what important things it has undertaken and brought to a finish. By teaching your boys the story of your Troop you will make them feel proud of belonging to it and you will be doing your part to develop Troop spirit in them.
But the knowledge of the organization ought to be brought even further. Naturally you will want your boys to know which institution stands behind the Troop and sponsors it, and you will give them an opportunity to meet the members of the Troop Committee and explain their work. And you will also want them to know about their Council and the National Organization to which they belong.
In order that your Scouts may get the fullest insight
into the organization you will encourage them to study the chapter in the Handbook for Boys (pages 582-596) which deals with the Scout Movement in America.
There will be no examination in the above mentioned things when your boys appear before the Court of Honor to pass their tests, but you will easily see that without knowing about the organization to which they belong and its functions they can't really be considered First Class Scouts.
First Class Requirement No. 2
Swim Fifty yards--The Scout must jump overboard, feet first, in water slightly over his head, swim 25 yards, make a sharp turn about and return to the starting point.
The swimming test is by many considered the most difficult of the First Class Requirements, but in reality it is far easier to learn to swim than it is to learn to signal correctly or to get the knowledge of first aid into your head--provided you have the right kind of teacher.
Even if you are the most perfect swimmer possible and a wonderful life-saver, you mustn't think of teaching your Patrol to swim all by yourself. The risk and your responsibility is too tremendous. But if you are
a life-saver you are certain to know other swimmers who would be willing to help your boys and you would know where to find safe swimming facilities. If you can't swim well yourself you will have to try to find somebody who can give the Patrol the opportunity to learn swimming. In the bigger cities you may find that the American Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., the Y. M. H. A., the Knights of Columbus, and a number of clubs have swimming pools and regular teachers and would be happy to help you give the Patrol the desired training. Naturally you will have your Scoutmaster's approval before you go to these places. If no pool is available, swimming must be taught your boys during the summer months and the place for them to learn it would be at the Council camp or at the Troop camp if these have the necessary instructors.
As mentioned above: Don't ever undertake alone to teach your boys to swim, and don't ever forget that under no circumstances should swimming be undertaken on Patrol hike or in Patrol camp except under leadership of Senior Life Saver approved by your Local Council.
(1) Secure teacher and swimming facilities for Patrol in cooperation with your Scoutmaster.
(2) When the boys have passed their swimming test, make sure that they follow up on their swimming by improving their stroke. Also by learning new strokes and training in life saving.
(3) Have the boys realize that correct breathing is a prominent part of swimming, and train them in this.
(4) Make your Patrol a group of divers. Not only for style, but also for accuracy (diving through inflated inner tube, etc.).
(5) Try to have Patrol represented in life saving guard at Troop or Council Camp.
First Class Requirement No. 3
Earn and deposit at least two dollars in a public bank (premiums oil life insurance are accepted, if earned); or plant, raise and market a farm crop
This requirement is in fact simply an expansion of the ninth requirement for Second Class Scouts and therefore what is said about that on page 152 in this book applies to the First Class Requirement as well. Projects See Second Class Requirements No. 9.
First Class Requirement No. 4
Send and receive a message by Semaphore Code, including conventional signs, thirty letters per minute pr by the General Service Code (International Morse), sixteen letters per minute, including conventional signs; or by the Indian Sign Language Code, thirty signs per minute
The way to teach your boys First Class Signaling is simply by having them continue the Second Class Training, adding to their "vocabulary" by including the conventional signs (and in Indian Sign Language new words) in the messages and forcing them to send and thereby also receive faster.
Note the wording carefully:
It says "thirty letters per minute", "sixteen letters pet- minute", "thirty signs per minute" and not "thirty letters in a minute", "sixteen letters in a minute" "thirty signs in a minute." That means that it's not how many letters or signs a boy is able to send and receive in one minute that counts, what is called for is his average speed in a minute. Your boys are not supposed to be able to send say thirty Semaphore letters in one minute. No, they are asked to send ninety letters in three minutes, hundred and fifty in five, two hundred and forty in eight, and so forth. Thirty letters in one minute isn't much, but to continue with that average in several minutes is a real test and that is what all the First Class Requirements ought to be.
But it is not enough that your boys are able to send the letters with a certain speed, they must also know how to get their messages through. They must know how to call another station, how to send the message in such a way that the receiver can really receive it, how to execute requests which may be made by the receiver in regard to speed and to background, how to erase and correct misspelled words and so forth. They are not only supposed to know the conventional signs but also how to make use of them. If a First Class Scout can't do this his signaling test means nothing.
Projects See Second Class Requirement No. 3.
First Class Requirement No. 5
Make a round trip alone (or with another Scout) to a point at least seven miles away (fourteen miles in all) , going on foot, or rowing boat, and write a satisfactory account of the trip and things observed
The Fourteen Mile Hike is the fifth of the First Class Requirements, but if you try to analyze it to see
how many things are involved in it, you will find that you certainly don't want your boys to pass it as Test No. 5. In fact, you may come to the point that you want them to take it up as one 'of the very last of the First Class Requirements.
They may be able to pass it as soon as they have become Second Class Scouts if you don't put too much into the wording of the requirement, but if you want the try-outs to prove that your boys are actually goings to be First Class, you will find that the Fourteen Mile Hike becomes one of the most difficult tests.
The fourteen miles itself isn't the hardest part of the test, though even that is rather hard, especially for an untrained boy. It is the observation and report parts of the requirement which really count most.
The best way of training your boys for this requirement would be to have them realize that every Patrol hike or Troop hike they undertake is a part of their training. By taking them out in the country, by following all the bypaths that lead away from the main road, by telling them about good camp sites, about places of historical or other interest in the neighborhood of their town, you will be able to make these hikes mean something real to them, and the day they appear for the examiner to pass the hiking requirements, they will know exactly what they ought to look out for, where they ought to go, and what they ought: to see.
(1) Start the training by having the Patrol undertake short Saturday hikes.
(2) Later go in for over-night camping, in connection with hiking.
(3) Try several of the hikes mentioned in chapter on Patrol hikes.
(4) Teach your boys hiking technique, i.e., know ledge of necessary equipment, right clothing, the correct way of walking, how to rest, care of feet, safety on the
road, right way of eating and drinking on the hike, hiking courtesies, observation.
(5) After a Patrol hike have a discussion with the boys to find out what they have seen and learned.
(6) Have all members of the Patrol make short reports of every Patrol hike, the reports to contain these four features: (a) description of hike, things observed, incidents which occurred, (b) hour of start, return, important happenings, when certain land marks were passed, (c) mileage covered, (d)· rough sketch (or sketches) of country covered.
(7) Have competition in report making, the best report to be included in the Patrol log.
(8) Before the boys go up for the Court of Honor, have a "dress rehearsal" hike, as far as possible under the same conditions under which the real hike will take place.
First Class Requirement No. 6
(I) Review, Second Class First Aid Requirements;
(II) Describe methods of panic prevention, what to do in case of
(V) electric and
(VI) gas accidents;
(VII) what to do in case of a mad dog bite, or snake bite. Demonstrate the treatment, including dressing where necessary
(VIII) for a fracture,
(XI) heat exhaustion,
(XIII) frost bite and freezing; also demonstrate treatment ;for
(XV) ivy poisoning,
(XVI) bee stings,
(XIX) grit or cinder in the eye,
(XX) stomach ache;
(XXI) demonstrate transportation of the injured;
(XXII) demonstrate the triangular bandage on the head, eye, jaw, arm (sling), chest, fractured rib, hand, hip, knee, ankle and foot. (Roller bandages may be substituted on arm and ankle).
(XXIII) Demonstrate how to make and apply a tourniquet
While simple First Aid was a very important part of the Second Class Requirements, advanced First Aid forms an even more significant part of the First Class Requirements. A thorough knowledge of First Aid will--probably more than any of the other requirements-help you to live up to the Scout Motto "Be Prepared." In order to teach your boys, naturally you must have the necessary correct knowledge yourself. If you haven't, you should not attempt to teach it by the help of textbooks. You should try to get hold of somebody who actually knows the stuff by training and experience and have him take your Patrol through this important requirement.
If your boys get the wrong slant on cooking, signaling, judging, etc., it is bad enough, but it is not likely to hurt anybody else. But if they get a wrong slant on First Aid, it may mean serious damage to somebody else, maybe even imperil life. Therefore be perfectly, absolutely, positively dead sure that they learn to do things right.
Don't let your boys think that they can learn their First Aid by the help of the Handbook alone. The Handbook tells the treatment, but it is practice, PRACTISE, PRACTISE, and common sense--just as frequently-that teaches First Aid.
See Second Class Requirement No. 2.
First Class Requirement No 7
Prepare and cook satisfactorily, ill the open, using camp cooking utensils, two of the following articles as may be directed: Eggs and bacon, hunter's stew, fish fowl, game, pancakes, hoecake biscuit, hardtack, or a "twist", baked oil a stick, and give an exact statement of the cost of materials used; explain to another boy the method followed The training for this requirement was started the day your boys built their first Second Class fire. If you have been taking them on Patrol hikes, or Troop hikes, where individual cooking was done, or if they have been in camp, they will have had the opportunity to increase their knowledge in regard to outdoor cooking and they will have had plenty of time to make the different dishes mentioned in the First Class Requirement. The greatest secret of success in cooking consists in regulating the fire correctly so that it burns evenly the whole time while the meal is being prepared. A good fire is all important, but it takes time and patience to learn to build the right kind of a fire and to keep it going.
Therefore during the first part of the training for this First Class Requirement put more emphasis on the fire than on the actual cooking. See to it that the boys learn the trick of keeping the fire burning steadily, very hot when speed is called for, subdued when slow cooking is desired. Also insist that they have plenty of fire-wood collected before they start cooking so that they won't have to go out looking for more when the boiling or frying is at its height. So much about the fire. The different recipes are explained thoroughly in the Handbook for Boys, pages 251-259.
(1) Have the mother of one of your Scouts help the Patrol in its training for this requirement.
(2) Save money for and get together a complete Patrol cooking outfit (see chapter on Patrol Camping).
(3) Have a competition running over several Patrol hikes to find out which boy can best prepare all recipes mentioned in requirement.
(4) Official Flapjack Contest: Competitors must furnish their own material and utensils. Each Scout may use such ingredients as he wishes. Quality of flapjacks rather than speed to be considered first.
(5) Divide Patrol up in pairs. Have pairs take turn preparing meal on hikes for complete Patrol. Start competition on this basis.
(6) When Patrol has developed expert cooks invite parents to visit Patrol camp for an outdoor feast.
(7) Develop a special Petrol cook book. Let boys contribute their favorite recipes. Provide them with fancy names. specially for your Patrol.
(8) Have the boys do their own shopping and keep exact account of amount involved.
(9) Have each Scout put down in writing methods followed in preparing meals.
(10) Other projects under Second Class Req. 8.
First Class Requirement No. 8
Read a map correctly, and draw? from field notes made on the spot, an intelligible rough sketch map, indicating by their proper marks important buildings, roads, trolley lines, main landmarks, principal elevations, etc. Point out a compass direction without the help of the compass
When hiking through unknown territory without a guide, it is necessary to be able to read a map and thereby follow the route you want to take. This is the most important function of a map and the prime reason why Scouts should learn map reading and making. But your map can tell you many other things besides. It helps you in judging distances. If you, for example,
want to know the distance from the crossroad where you are standing to the church you see in front of you, the map gives you the correct distance by a simple measurement. Your map may even function as a timepiece. If you are standing on a road, for example, which is indicated on the map, you may turn the map, so that you get it oriented correctly. The map will then give you the northerly direction. And from the north direction, plus the sun, you are able to figure out the time.
(1) Earn money and secure Topographical Maps made by the United States Geological Survey over your particular section of the country. Maybe you are able to get them through a local book store. If not, write to the Director, United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.
(2) Teach boys on blackboard or paper the most important conventional signs. Have them draw them in their notebooks. Find the signs on the map.
(3)Make up a chart of conventional signs for Patrol Den.
(4) Have contest to find` out who can remember and draw largest number of conventional signs.
(5) Have a map reading hike. Take Patrol to high place with view of surrounding landscape. Spread out map. Show 'magnetic north' line and 'true north' line and explain difference. Orient map with the help Of (a) compass, (b watch and sun, (c) surrounding landscape. Find points found on map in terrain and vice versa. Estimate distances and check up on map.
(6) At Patrol meeting take Patrol along on imaginary hike on map
Asking questions as 'What kind of road is it?' 'What is that over there?,' 'Where is that crossroad leading?' Have the boys take turns answering.
(7) On a hike let boys successively take over leadership of Patrol and follow route laid out on map. Change leader after every one mile or 15-20 minutes hiked.
(8) At a Patrol meeting have boys make imaginary maps containing all the conventional signs which they remember.
(9) Lay out landscape on floor or an table covered with paper, using ribbons for roads and rivers, blue paper for lakes, sand for hills, small green sponges on stands for trees, woolen blocks for houses. Have boys make map sketches true to Scale.
(10) Make sure that your boys remember the four important features of every map made (a) line indicating magnetic north, also true north, (b) scale, (c) name of locality, (d) name of boy who made it.
(11) Have boys find out length of their pace for help in map making.
(12) In map-making training follow closely instruction given in Handbook for Boys, pages 266-274.
(13) Make mountain of clay. Slice horizontally to demonstrate principle of contour lines.
(14) Have Scouts make maps of increasing difficulty House and lot, city block showing all houses. section of park, camp site, 1/4 mile of road and 100 feet to each side, map showing hill (contour lines), stream or lake, and woods.
(15) Have competitions in making sketch maps of country covered On Patrol hike.
(16) Make large map of Patrol's favorite camp site and its surroundings for Patrol den.
(17) Make a relief map of country surrounding camp site.
(18)_ Have mounted topographical map in den on which all Patrol and Troop hikes are indicated with colored lines or thread fastened on with glue or small pins.
(19) Enlarge topographical map and find out which changes have taken place since map was made.
First Class Requirement No. 9 Use properly an axe for felling or trimming light timber; or produce an article of carpentry, cabinet-making, or metal work made by himself; or demonstrate repair of a decaying or damage tree. Explain the method followed
The elementary use of an axe (or hatchet)was learned by your boys when they passed their Second Class tests, and before you start training them for the First Class Requirement you ought to review what they have already been taught.
In very many cases it proves necessary to substitute the axe test with the manufacture of a handicraft object. But the use of an axe in the woods is far more fascinating to boys than the mere handling of tools in making a household article. The spirit of the pioneers
and the backwoodsmen is in their blood, and the chopping down of a couple of trees gives them a satisfaction which they can't derive from anything else.
If you can, therefore, find an opportunity for your boys to do the real thing. But remember, never think of cutting down live trees. Dead trees and the permission to touch them are what you should go hunting for. In every forest you will find dead trees, from thin saplings to giant trees. They are useless as they stand, but still more so when felled because rain and the wet ground soon will decay and destroy them. But don't touch them without permission. Maybe you can find a tract of land where the chestnut blight has left the chestnut trees with a dried-out trunk and dead branches stretching toward the sky. The cutting down of such trees may be considered a Good Turn to the owner of the land. The clearing of trees after a forest fire is another project and then again your Patrol might get a chance to practice on stumps which have been cut too high above the ground.
If you succeed in getting permission to chop down trees, don't forget that the whole procedure is not entirely without danger. There are rules which you must have your boys understand before you start out and they must be followed carefully.
The most important rule is always to clear away underbrush and vines within the reach of the extended axe, overhead as well as around you. If the axe should be caught by a vine, it might easily be torn out of your hand or be given a wrong direction, and a bad injury to yourself or somebody else might result.
By watching a good chopper your boys may learn
something about axemanship, but naturally it is only by practicing themselves that they become experts.
In regard to the alternative for using an ace--the production of an article of carpentry, cabinet-making, or metal work, this ought to be taken up by your boys themselves in their own homes or maybe in the school workshop. It can hardly be considered right to make Patrol instruction out of this, because ideas, necessary material, tools and space, will vary so much that no general instruction can take place. Encourage your boys to go ahead and get their work over with, but insist that the final product be a thing worthy of the Patrol, completed in a real workmanlike manner. No half-done work to be accepted.
Another alternative for the axe test is the repairing of a decaying or damaged tree. This part is of particular interest to rural Scouts, but even so the chance of learning and training for this requirement is very small. If some of your boys are interested in this, it is certain that they will try to get an opportunity to demonstrate their skill. The treating of tree wounds isn't difficult and may easily be learned from the Handbook for Boys. Fillings and bracings are, on the contrary, very hard to handle. They can only be learned from actual practice.
If your town has a regular tree surgeon, it would be a fine thing if you could persuade him to give your boys a few lessons. If it hasn't write to U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for bulletins on the subject, or to The Davey Tree Surgeons, Kent, Ohio.
The Merit Badge pamphlets in Carpentry, Wood Work and Metal Work may give your boys suggestions; also in the public libraries they will find a great number of books from which to get ideas and instruction. See also chapter on Patrol Handicraft and Second Class Requirement No. 6
First Class Requirement No. 10
Judge distance. size, number, height and weight within 25 per cent The judging part of the First Class Requirements is by many considered one of the most difficult tests and your boys will need considerable training before they are able to judge things within the allowed limit of 25 per cent on either side.
For training purposes the sequence mentioned above isn't the best. It will be better to group the different items in another order and, starting with distance judging, continue with height, size, number and weight.
The judging test is a judging test. It may sound unnecessary and absurd to mention this. Nevertheless the requirement is often misunderstood and Scouts are permitted to use simple methods of measurements.
This is naturally wrong. Distances, sizes, numbers, heights must be judged by the eyes alone, weights by the eyes or by the feel. No extra help may be used.
Another thing: measuring is absolutely necessary during the training in judging. It is by checking up to see if your estimates are correct, by comparing your figures with the correct ones, that you learn to judge. Therefore, never let your boys just judge distances, numbers, and so forth. Have them measure out and count immediately afterward, in order to see how nearly right they were.
The requirement doesn't specify how great distances, heights, sizes, weights, are to he judged. It is up to you to make your own standards, and you will naturally
want them to include all the items that might occur in the daily life of your boys.
(1) Measure out on the ground 100 feet. Drive stakes down. Have boys pace distance. Have them try to get the distance fixed in their mind's eye. Arrange different objects between boys and end stake. Have them estimate the distances; Next try 200 feet, 300 feet (100 yards), 200 yards, etc.
(2) Have competitions in estimating distances over flat country, broken ground, over rivers, ravines, etc. Check up by pacing or, where this is impossible, by a map or by method mentioned in Handbook for Boys.
(3) Have boys estimate 12 distances, 3 between 0-100 feet, 3 from 100-300 feet, 3 from 100 yards to 300 yards, 3 from 300-500 yards. Have them write down answers and measure the distances to find out if they are within the 25 per cent limit.
(4) Let familiar distances help your boys in their training, as for instance: Baseball field--home plate to first base, 90 feet; basketball-foul line to below basket, 15 feet; tennis court--36 feet by 78 feel; football field--160 feet by 300 feet; normal desk--30 inches high; normal chair-18 inches high; auto tracks --about 4 feet 4 inches apart, etc.
(5) Start judging of height with simple objects which may be easily measured, as for example, heights in the Patrol den of chairs, table, windows, walls.
(6) Have boys judge heights of hushes, trees, flag poles, buildings, church towers, until they get an allround
idea of height. Check up by measuring with one of methods described in Handbook for Boys (page 280).
(7) For estimating numbers, play 'Kim's game (see Second Class Requirement No. 4) using numbers of different articles, also different numbers of marbles, clips, nails, etc.
(8) On hike have competitions in estimating number of things in shop windows, number of cars parked, number of windows on the front of a building, number of cattle in field, trees along a certain part of the road.
(9) For training in judging weights, make up articles of different weight, as for example, bags with sand and sawdust, packages of books, of bricks, bot ties with water. Weigh them carefully, have boys estimate weight and check up with actual amount.
First Class Requirement No. 11
Describe fully from observation (1a) ten species of trees or plants, including poison ivy, by their bark, leaves, flowers, fruit and scent; or (1b) six species of wild birds, by their plumage, notes, tracks and habits or (1c) six species of native wild animals, by their form, color, call, track and habits; (23 find the North Star, and name and describe at least three constellations of stars
This nature part of the First Class Requirements ought to be far more than a test to your boys. It ought to mean a definite habit of observation.
By now your Patrol must have been on a number of hikes, maybe also in several camps, and if that hasn't made the boys interested in Nature's wonders around them they must either be very unobserving---or, something is the matter with your leadership.
Their interest in nature study may have started as mere curiosity. If you have been able to answer their questions, a great deal has been accomplished. If you haven't, it may have meant the weakening or the suppression of a budding interest.
Boys' interest in nature is very often a thing that must be developed. Some have a love for all living things from the start, while many seem to be entirely indifferent. And it is up to the Patrol Leader to a very great extent to open the eyes of his boys to the glory of nature surrounding them.
Trees and plants
(1) Undertake special Patrol nature hike with study of trees and plants.
(2) Have boys make tree notes, describing bark, leaves, flowers, fruit, general shape of tree.
(3) Start a Patrol collection of pressed flowers , neatly mounted on cardboard.
(4) Make a collection of leaves.
(5) Make leaf prints--blue prints, spatter prints, photographic, smoke, ink pad, and other kinds of prints (see chapter on Patrol Handicraft).
(6) Make a collection of wood specimens (see Handicraft).
(7) Make census of trees in your locality.
(8) Every Scout in the Patrol to plant at least one tree yearly.
(9) Learn about edible wild plants and make use of them on Patrol hikes in the cooking.
(10) On hikes have competitions in finding certain leaves or plants, biggest number of different leaves. biggest number of plants identified and named.
Birds and Animals
(11) Visit local natural History museum and study birds and animals for help in identifying them in the open.
(12) Have early morning Patrol bird hike, starting from camp just before sunrise. Make list of birds identified.
(13) Make collection of different bird feathers mounted on sheets of paper.
(14) Build bird houses and hang them up in suitable places.
(15) Build bird bath and feeding stations and keep them provided with water and food the year round.
(16) Visit local Zoo and study the appearance and habits of its animals.
(17) Make photographs of animals encountered on hikes.
(18) Teach your boys to make plaster casts of animal tracks (see Handicraft chapter).
(19) Make up charts of most important constellations for Patrol den.
(20) Go on a star study hike. Point out constellations
by the help of a flashlight. Have boys show you that they have actually identified the star groups.
(21) At Patrol meeting have boys arrange checkers or small pieces of white paper in the shape of the various constellations shown them on hike.
(22) Have a night map hike, using stars only for orientation.
(23) Tell the boys the ancient legends of the most important constellations.
First Class Requirement No 12
Furnish satisfactory evidence that he has put into practice in his daily life, the principles of the Scout Oath and Law,
When we treated the Twelfth Requirement of a Second Class Scout we spoke about what was expected of him in regard to this "satisfactory evidence." Every word we spoke there holds good in regard to this First Class Requirement, but in increased degree. After all, the Second Class Scout has only been in our Movement for a short while. Even if he has used his eyes and mind well, he can hardly have appreciated in full what the Movement stands for. But a First Class Scout can and must!
He has been a part of a Patrol and a Troop for months. He has lived the life of his Brother Scouts. He has caught their spirit, the spirit of the Scout Law. He is a Scout.
His "satisfactory evidence" must mean "really satisfactory." He must have shown that he wants to be a real member of the great brotherhood.
Again, as we have said already you can not teach him this. It must develop from his own heart. But your example has a tremendous effect on each of your boys. Not directly but indirectly you teach them tolive up to the Scout Law.
And the day a boy is able to furnish the evidence
from his Scoutmaster, his parents, his teachers, that he has put into practice in his daily life, the principles of the Oath and Law, you may feel yourself just a wee bit proud that he is one of your boys, that you may have been One of the tools to help this boy live the life of a real Scout.
The First Class Examination
Here again every word said about Second Class Examinations holds good.
It is the honor of the Patrol which is at stake when your boys appear before the Court of Honor or the specially authorized examiners.
You want your boys to pass and with as many points as possible. Therefore you try them out in a strict examination before you consider them ready or let them consider themselves so.
If you can inspire your boys to live up to a high standard in regard to test passing, their First Class pin will mean far more to them, not only at the moment they get it, but in all the future.
AT one of the very first Patrol meetings you have with your Scouts, one of them will ask: "'When do we go on a hike?" and in a moment the rest will join him in a multi-voiced chorus.
Boys, and especially Scouts, want to go hiking. The out-of-doors fascinates them. The woods, the rivers, the "wide open spaces" call them. And they obey.
As soon as you are able you will want to take your boys on Patrol Hikes. You want your Patrol to be a real one, and only a hiking Patrol is a real Patrol.
Before you start taking your boys along on a hike, you must realize that there is a difference--and a big one--between a Patrol meeting and a Patrol hike. You may be in possession of all the leadership and knowledge to run successful Patrol meetings and yet be without any ability to get something real out of a Patrol hike.
Degree of Responsibility
The most conspicuous difference between the two is the different degree of responsibility that goes with each.
There are usually not very many dangers in running
an indoor meeting. It is when you start to take the group out in the open that the danger moment may creep in. There is traffic to be encountered, cliffs and rivers and swamps to be avoided; there is the danger that an innocent camp fire will blow up into a forest fire if care is not taken. And a lot of other unforeseen things might happen which would put you to a severe test.
And, let it be said immediately, you will certainly not think of taking your Patrol on a hike if you aren't honestly, absolutely sure that you will be able to pass that test with flying colors.
It is too dangerous to make experiments with a first Patrol hike. Everything- must be planned and supervised so that nothing can possibly go wrong and you can only be sure of that if your preliminary training in the Troop under the Scoutmaster has taken in all details of hiking.
On Troop hikes you will naturally have used your eyes to see how everything is made to run smoothly. But even more helpful has been the Patrol Leader's Hikes in which you have taken part and which have been an important part of your training as a leader.
These Patrol Leader's Hikes have become a fixed procedure in almost all Troops throughout the country. Just as the Scoutmaster. his Assistants. his Patrol Leaders will come together for leaders' Councils ("Cornertooth" meetings) to discuss the work in the Troop and to train the Leaders in Scout requirements. in the same way the Leaders will go on hikes together to get this intensive training in hiking technique.
The Word "Hike"
Before we go any further we will have to get to an understanding of what is really meant by the word "hike."
Originally a hike was just a long trip undertaken on foot. But nowadays any trip that brings you out in the open is considered a hike, even if hardly any walking is done. People go even as far as to speak of trips to a museum or zoo as educational hikes, of visits to factories as industrial hikes, etc. We aren't going into that kind of hike here. When in the following pages we speak of hikes we are thinking of trips, short ones or long ones, which bring the Patrol from the monotonous life in the streets out into nature, the kind that call give to the boys that feeling of liberty and of room for expanding the lungs and using the limbs, which they hunger for in the city.
We shall not here treat the so-called overnight hike which is really a matter of camping rather than hiking, though it may include hiking-. You will find that in the "Patrol Camping" chapter. Here we shall speak only of the one day hike, that is a hike which brings your boys back home before dark.
For convenience' sake we will divide one day hikes into two separate groups like this: (a) The Sandwich Hike (b) The Chop Hike
These titles speak fairly clearly for themselves, still a brief explanation may be useful.
A Sandwich Hike is a hike on which the Patrol doesn't want to be tied up by firemaking and cooking. This may be because it has other special training on hand such as: signaling, judging, nature study, etc., and it wants to use every minute of its time for that purpose. Maybe again the Patrol knows that the hike will bring it through territory where fire-building isn't permitted or there May be other really good era-
sons for making short work of the eating business. Anyway, on a "Sandwich Hike" it will be necessary to bring along ready prepared food or food which call be quickly gotten ready and eaten and requiring little clean-up afterward. This needn't, of course, be sandwiches. An inventive Patrol, particularly a Patrol with a clever "Grubmaster, will think of other, more interesting substitutes and variations. But the point is, plan for and be satisfied with a simple, quick meal.
A Chop Hike is a hike where fire building and cooking is to take a prominent place in the program. Firemaking immediately increases the Patrol Leader's responsibilities and the cooking means more preparations before the Patrol is ready to start. On the first Chop Hikes, the boys will prepare their own individual meals. This will serve as training for the Second and First Class Requirements. Later the Patrol wants to go in for real Patrol cookery, i.e., a few of the boys alternately making the meals for the whole Patrol.
The first thing you will do when hiking is mentioned in your Patrol is to check up on your own leadership ability. In fact you may have done so even before you became a Patrol Leader in order to "Be Prepared." Ask yourself this important question: "If I take these boys along on a hike can I be sure that I can meet any obstacles and difficulties which may arise with a cool head and enough knowledge and presence of mind to overcome them?"
It is about the same question that your Scoutmaster will ask himself when you ask him for permission to take your boys along on your first hike: "Am I sure that this Patrol Leader of mine is able to undertake this job and bring it to a successful finish?" After all, it is your Scoutmaster that has the greatest responsibility for everything that happens in the Troop. And if he isn't perfectly sure that you can tackle the job yet, he won't give his permission--for- your sake. If he doesn't
it is up to you to work all the harder to be ready next
time, beyond the shadow of doubt.
Your Scoutmaster will not make an unreasonable decision in this matter.. There are tests he will apply to make sure of your fitness. He will doubtless consider the following points and insist that you measure up to them as a minimum of Scouting knowledge before giving his consent to your taking out your Patrol alone.
(1) You must have earned your First Class Badge.
(2) You must have had hiking experience on at least 3 Troop hikes and 2 Patrol Leaders' hikes ("Cornertooth"-hikes. )
(3) You must have had at least one month's experience as a successful Patrol Leader.
And furthermore before you start on any hike the Scoutmaster will insist that:
(4) You must have the written consent of the parents of each boy.
(5) You must have a reasonable familiarity with the country to be covered.
(6) You must have the permission of the property owner to build fires and cook (if going on a Chop Hike).
By looking through this list yourself, you will understand why every single one of the requirements is
necessary. Ii anything should happen, you and the Scoutmaster and everybody else concerned will be able to say that all precautions were taken beforehand. But a word to the wise is sufficient. If you have the right feeling as to your responsibility and make the boys live up to your expectations, it is 999 to 1000 that nothing will happen.
It would be well (in fact it is the custom in most Troops) for the Scoutmaster or an Assistant to go along with you and your Patrol on the first Patrol Hike. It will be understood that he won't do anything, will not interfere in your leadership in any way, not even give any suggestions. He will just be there. This will prove to be a great help to you. Maybe you will feel a little awkward about it. Maybe his presence will Snake you a little nervous. Never mind. It will make you see where you ate acting right and where wrong without being told. The presence of the Scoutmaster or other adult leader will be as a second conscience to you. You will feel intuitively ii all details are as well worked out as they ought to be, if you are giving adequate leadership.
So much in regard to what is expected of you. Now we will go through the planning and the hike itself systematically,
In planning for Patrol meetings we put together a sort of a formula:
This applies to hikes as well, though perhaps in a somewhat changed order:
PLANNING THE HIKE
You will first take up the question of a Patrol hike with your Scouts at a regular meeting.
The instruction part of the meeting is over with, you have had your fun, now the future has to be planned.
Somebody urges a hike, and immediately questions fly through the room. "When do we go?". "Where do we go" But the question which must be answered first is "What kind of hike is it to be"
For every hike you must have an objective clearly in mind. Is the hike supposed to advance the group in Scoutcraft? In signaling, tracking, Scout's pace, compass work, cooking, map making, for example? Or is it going to be a nature hike, an exploration, a pilgrimage to a historical spot? Or what?
If some of your boys are still Tenderfoot Scouts, you will very likely want the hike to be a Scoutcraft hike. The rest may always follow when your boys are more advanced in Scouting.
Very well then. What does the Patrol need most by way of Scoutcraft training?
Signaling? In that case you will want to take them to rather open places where signaling over distance may be effectively carried on.
Tracking Then wooded country is best.
Cooking' Permission, firewood, water, all these have to be considered.
Different tests require different country. So we get to the Where?
If your Patrol organization is working already (see Chapter 4), you will turn to the Hikemaster for suggestions. What he has to propose will form the basis for further discussion. If you haven't any Hikemaster as yet, you will put the same question anyway, ask all the boys in the Patrol for suggestions.
If there are several plans proposed, make sure to weigh each of them carefully before deciding upon a route and a place which fits the particular object of the Patrol.
A few general hints may be helpful here:
To start with, the hikes ought to be short. Boys without walking training soon get tired. And tired boys don't see the funny side of things. If there is trolley-car or bus service available make use of them, ride to a stop from which point a mile or two of hiking may bring you to a place suited to your purposes. Later on you may increase the amount of walking. The whole thing is a matter of training. If you can get your boys enthusiastic about walking--which, by the way, is one of the finest of exercises--you will soon find them themselves suggesting far-away places to which to hike.
Another good rule to follow is: Keep as far as possible away from the main road. On the main road you
have to look out for the, traffic the whole time. Usually there aren't many beauty spots to be found and the hiking itself is far more tiring than if you choose the by-paths.
In a short time you ought to have found some suitable favorite hiking places. Stick to them for a time but don't forget to find others before the fellows start to tire of the first ones. Here is where your Hikemaster will come in strong, when you've got him on the job. Let everybody keep their eyes open, too, for good hiking objectives and places.
If your boys are school boys, there can be no doubt about the When? Saturday or some holiday will be the answer. Then you are able to start out early in the morning and need not return before night. No lessons are waiting for you. Everybody's mind is quite free; ready for a good time and an adventure.
Even if your boys have jobs they may still get their week-ends off--Saturday afternoons and evenings are excellent for hikes even if you naturally do not get as far on them as the full days. And working boys get an extra lot of fun out of hikes.
The question of a Sunday hike may come up here, in cases where your boys cannot get them in on other days.
In this matter every Patrol Leader ought to know about and faithfully conform to the resolution adopted by the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America (March, 1922).
"WHEREAS, the Boy Scouts of America is specifically pledged to encourage reverence and faithfulness to religious obligations;
"AND WHEREAS, the attention of the National Council has been called to the fact that in some cases, S6OUtS have been permitted to neglect church attendance while at week-end camp or on week-end hikes,
"BE IT RESOLVED, that the National Council records its disapproval of programs for the weekend hikes or camps which preclude the attendance of Scouts from religious services, or which cause loss of credits for the individual or Patrol, or Troop if the Scout elects to remain at home to attend church."
But if you are certain that your boys have fulfilled their obligations in this direction and if your Scoutmaster and your boys' parents fully approve you may undertake a Sunday afternoon hike. Such a hike may even prove of more value than a hike undertaken at any other time. At church you and your boys have heard of God's mighty handiwork and going out into nature afterward where every leaf, every insect, every bird tells of that work is almost certain to be a thing of real inspiration to you and your boys.
The day being decided upon, the hour has to be fired.
If a trolley car or bus ride precedes the actual hiking, be sure to figure on enough time for it so that all boys can reach the destination in time. Eight o'clock in the morning would be about the best time for the boys to leave their homes for an all day hike. Certainly don't start later than nine. No lime for sleepy heads when a hike is on. For an afternoon hike an hour must be fixed which is satisfactory to all.
Just as important as the starting hour is a definite hour for the return. The boys must be able to tell the parents precisely when they may be expected home and that hour must be strictly adhered to. We spoke about this in regard to Patrol meetings and we repeat it here: One of the most important of a Scout's virtues is that
he is punctual and trustworthy In everything he does. If the parents of your boys find out that their boys actually return at the hour tired, they will learn to rely upon you and respect the work that is being done in the Patrol, and they will have no objections to letting you take their boys along on other hikes.
The How side of the question is the one which has to be worked out in more detail than any of the others. While the others were all a matter of planning, this can more appropriately be considered a matter of actual preparation.
Permissions from parents must be acquired, transportation arranged for, eats gotten together, equipment considered, expenditures decided on and provided for.
Permissions are a necessity, especially for the first Patrol hikes you undertake. This provision isn't put up in order to try to shift a part of the responsibilities Dyer on the homes. It is to make perfectly sure that the parents really and fully agree. to have their boys go on the hike, a sort of a proof that they are willing to support the Patrol in its endeavor to put the "out" into "Scouting."
If you have been accustomed to have Patrol meetings in the different homes and thereby have made the parents acquainted with you (also with your leadership abilities) and the rest of the members of the gang, you will find no difficulty in getting the permissions. The difficulty comes when the homes aren't familiar with you or with any other members of
the Patrol. In this case the best thing for you to do would be to visit the homes, have a talk with the parents of your boys and explain to them what it is all about.
The permission ought to be as short as possible, just a "I give my son (name) permission to go on the hike of the Wolf Patrol, Saturday, May 5, 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. (signed)"
The permissions may be collected by the Patrol Scribe just before the Patrol starts on the hike. But it would be far better if the whole thing were planned far enough in advance so that the permissions can be brought by the boys to the Patrol meeting preceding the hike and delivered there.
Naturally the Scoutmaster must also know of and approve of the hike, as said on page 187.
Transportation is the next thing to be considered. As mentioned above, trolley cars or bus lines may be
of use. Or you may take a short railway journey to bring you and your Patrol to the starting point of the actual hiking. In many places a simple walk over a few miles will bring you out of town and you will arrive at a point fit for your purposes.
If the Patrol headquarters is situated at a convenient place, you may want to use that as your starting place. From there the group will use any method of transportation it has decided upon. Or maybe the home of
one of the Scouts will prove to be the best place for assembling. Naturally the Patrol will only meet this way if the boys live fairly close together. If the members live far apart and have to use trolley or bus to get to such a place, the most reasonable procedure to follow would be to make the trolley or bus terminal the meeting place. On the other hand, if the Patrol is going by train, it will meet at the railroad station, the Patrol treasurer having previously bought tickets for the whole Patrol with money paid him by the boys at the preceding meeting.
Transportation costs money. Therefore before any extensive hikes are decided upon, the Patrol Leader must be perfectly sure that all the boys can afford the trip. Naturally this is not done by asking them tactless, embarrassing questions, but by visiting their homes and using eyes and ears. If you have the least bit of a feeling that some trip may be too expensive for some of the Scouts, don't undertake it. Parents are willing to sacrifice much for their boys, but if they once get to feeling that Scouting is a thing that is always requiring money, even small sums, it may scare them.
If you and your Patrol want to go on elaborate hikes, which take a considerable sum of money, the way out will be to have the Patrol earn its own money (see Chapter on Handicraft), which is, after all, decidedly the best way.
On Sandwich Hikes and also on the first Chop Hike, the question of eats will be decided by the boys themselves. From home they will bring material enough out of which to prepare an easy lunch.
For the so-called Sandwich Hikes ready made sandwiches may be taken, but it is far better to have the boys bring the different ingredients and prepare them in the open. At the same time, as has been said, there
are many other ways of preparing a meal, and from the following you' may get suggestions to pass on to your boys.
We have divided the different materials in groups. The point is that if one thing is chosen from each group and put together a fine combination will result.
White Bread Whole Wheat Rye Bread Raisin Bread Rolls Bran Rolls Corn Muffins Oatmeal Cookies
Butter Margarine Peanut Butter Cream Cheese Orange Marmalade Strawberry Jam Raspberry Jam Grape Jelly
Sardines (canned) Salmon (canned) Tuna Fish (canned) Hard Boiled Eggs Cheese (Am., Swiss) Cold Cuts--Meats Bologna Tomatoes Apples Pears Oranges Peaches
Fruit in Seasons
Bananas Dates Figs Raisins
For the Chop Hikes any of the following things may be considered. The material is brought from home in its raw form (except possibly bread) and prepared without utensils.
Breadstuffs (or substitutes)
Any of the breads mentioned on page 196 Twist
Bread baked in ashes
Potatoes baked in ashes
Roast Sweet Corn
Kabob Broiled Pork Chop Broiled Veal Cutlet Bacon or Ham Eggs, fried on stone Planked Fish Fowl. clay baked
Baked Apple. Baked Banana
Any of the fruits mentioned on page 196 The boys will collect their material individually at home and wrap it into strong brown paper. Show them how to fix the string around it in such a way that the finished package may be suspended from the belt when on the hike. A still better method consists of taking two haversacks along. Put all the foodstuff in these and have the boys take turns carrying them.
Clothing and Equipment
For hiking in the summer time the very best clothing you can get is the Boy Scout Service Uniform, i.e., the shorts and sleeveless shirt. This particular uniform is created for comfort.
When on a hike it is of importance that the blood circulation be free and unhampered. Ally tight clothing spells discomfort. But not only in this direction are shorts and sleeveless shirts of value. They also permit the air to flow freely around the limbs, hardening the skin and stimulating the pores.
It is sometimes objected that underbrush treats the bare knees roughly. The facts prove that this seldom causes any serious difficult). Thousands of Scouts
spend their summer vacation in camp in shorts and very few inconveniences are reported. In fact, their advantages seem to far outweigh any possible disadvantages in their use. Our climate (at least not in the Northern States) isn't always fit for an all-year use of shorts. The result is that boys who have to choose between breeches and shorts generally prefer breeches. But shorts are less expensive and their use should certainly be encouraged wherever possible.
For short hikes the costume isn't so important, but care should always be taken to see that the boys are wearing the right kind of shoes and stockings.
The stockings must fit the feet exactly. If too long they may wrinkle and cause irritation. If too short they will prevent the toes from moving freely. Either cotton or wool may be used. Wool, of course, is better in cold weather.
There is a saying that "on a hike your shoes as well as your companions ought to be good old friends." It is a great mistake to go on a hike in new shoes. They ought to he '"broken in" at home. If this has to be done in a hurry, the Scout may stand in about three inches of water with the shoes on for five minutes and then go for a brisk walk until they have dried on his feet. But let him ask permission before he goes in for a stunt of this kind. His parents might possibly object to such a procedure. Before the shoes are quite dry it is a good plan to rub a little Oil (neatsfoot oil is recommended) into them. That keeps the leather smooth.
The best kind of shoes to wear is thus described in the Hiking Merit Badge Pamphlet: "...straight on
the inside, so that the big toe call point straight ahead, as nature intended. The front is broad enough to give all the toes free play. It has a single sole, and it is flexible--a prime desideratum for good walking. The heel is low and broad ..."
It is worth considering that all these features are found in the Official Boy Scout Shoe.
If the shoes get wet, they may he dried by filling them with scraps of newspapers and put aside. Also a frying pan may be filled with clean pebbles, heated a little over the fire (not too hot), the pebbles then put in the shoes and shaken around for a while.
If it looks like rain, a raincoat or a poncho must be added to the outfit. If it is very cold, naturally the Scouts must clothe themselves more warmly than above indicated. The correct way of wearing a sweater or a pull-over, is to put it on under the uniform. You want to show the world that you are Scouts--not look like a miscellaneous assortment of camouflaged tramps.
So much about clothing. Other equipment may be wanted. The most expedient way to decide upon that is to get together with your boys, make a complete list of items, then choose those which seem really necessary.
Raincoat or Poncho (if it is raining or threatens rain)
Haversack Notebook and Pencil Matches Compass Camera Canteen (if you aren't sure of drinking water) Cooking Utensils--Individual Outfit--Plate, Fork, Knife, Spoon.
The uniform is mentioned above as necessary equipment. Poncho is given as a possible substitute for raincoat. Now wearing a poncho certainly has its advantages in a lot of cases. Nothing is more inconvenient, however, than to stoop down to build a fire or to turn the pork chops in the pan ii you have a poncho draped about you. The flap in front of you will be in the way the whole time and you won't have your arms free. This difficulty may be remedied a hit by taking along an extra belt, to wear outside the poncho when special work has to be done. For the actual hiking you will often find a poncho more convenient than a raincoat. It makes your movements freer, and when the weather clears a poncho can be rolled up to fill far less space than a raincoat. It is also handier to sit on, if eating lunch. after a shower.
Your lunch and cup you may want to put in one of the haversacks which the Patrol brings along on the trip, and which are carried in turn by the different boys. If no haversacks are taken it is advisable to make up the lunch in a small individual packet. tie a string around it and fix it to the belt. The cup may also be hung in the belt. When buying the cup be sure to get a durable one, preferably of enamel ware and one of sufficient size. Beware of aluminum. Hot tea in an aluminum cup requires lips of leather and fingers like pliers.
A good, sharp knife will always come in handy. And be sure always to keep its edge keen and clean
A piece of string belongs in every boy's pocket 'Therefore its merits and possibilities need not listed here. They are numerous and varied as every boy knows.
In regard to the haversack you are almost sure to find that several of the boys have them already. Maybe not models suited for real camping trips but good enough to carry a little duffel and equipment on a one-day- hike. At this stage of the game it isn't wise to go in for buying of new stuff. With more hiking experience you will learn what you actually need and when you buy your seal Patrol equipment you will get things that afterwards you will not regret having bought. Notice what other Patrol Leaders use. Get tried and proved good suggestions from campers generally before you procure your permanent outfit
Notebook and pencil should be carried in the shirt pocket. Have the boys make notes on every hike you undertake as training for the fourteen-mile hike for passing the First Class requirements. The habit also serves to sharpen their powers of observation and deduction.
Matches are necessary, if possible in waterproof container. A small medicine bottle is often recommended for the purpose. But if you adopt the idea don't carry the bottle in the pocket. It may be smashed with serious results. Keep it in the haversack. A shaving soap screw-top tin is excellent. Another tip is to melt some solid paraffin, remove from fire, cool a little, then immerse the matches in the paraffin for a moment, take them out and let them cool. The paraffin layer around the match will keep it perfectly dry and doesn't affect the ease with which it may be lighted.
A compass in the pocket is important, especially if you are going on discovery hikes through country unknown to you. Usually a compass is unnecessary if you know your First Class requirements, yet it sometimes happens that one may lose his head at the same time as he loses his way. So take a compass, and recommend to each boy that he has one along. Recommend also that somewhere on the back of it be scratched "N--B," meaning "north part of the needle is the black part of it" (if that is the way north is indicated on your compass). In their bewilderment people often forget this point and walk south when they think they are walking north.
The camera should be packed in top of haversack where it can easily be found. Though if it is a small one, it may be hung- in the belt for quick use, you will soon find out that the haversack is the best place for it. Whoever is responsible for picture taking should he sure to bring along enough films, also an extra empty roll. There isn't any fun in having to sacrifice a perfectly good film if in changing you happen to lose the empty roll in the ravine or the river.
As for the canteen recommend to your boys a feltcovered aluminum, one carried in a strap over one shoulder. But don't let the canteen tempt anyone to drink the whole time on a hike (See discussion of the whole subject of drinking water on the hike on Page 214).
And so we get to the individual cooking utensils. The National Supply Department puts out an excellent individual cooking kit which is recommended. Yet you may find that on this point in the game a less expensive kit ought to be considered. All any boy needs just now is a pan, a pot, a plate, fork, knife and spoon. In a number of cases mothers will let their boys borrow the equipment from the kitchen. If it has to be bought, the nearest five and ten cent store is the place to seek. Here you can buy a small pot and a pan that will answer the purpose as well as any expensive kit. A
cheap enamel, tin or aluminum plate will be all right, also a set consisting of an ordinary strong fork, spoon and knife need not cost more than thirty or even twenty cents. At all events keep as far as possible away from "collapsible" eating sets. They will get your goat sooner or later.
Patrol Equipment for One-Day Hike
First Aid Kit
If wanted: Maps Axes, Spades (for fire building) Cooking Utensils Dish Towels Signaling Flags, Tracking Irons, etc.
A first aid kit ought to go with your Patrol always wherever it goes, not any elaborate kit necessarily, but one which will assure your being prepared for possible accidents. A few sterilized bandages, a few mercurochrome swabs, some adhesive tape, an ointment for burns will answer most purposes. An excellent and Official Boy Scout first Aid. Belt Kit that contains what, you need is for sale at the National Supply Department (75c).
Maps are put into the "If wanted" list. Even so a map of the country which you are traversing ought always to go along with you on your trips. It is by using a map that pour boys will learn map reading and you ought to give them this chance on all trips. The best maps to get are the Topographical Maps of the United States Geological Survey (see Page 171). Keep the map where you can easily get at it, in a breast pocket or in an outside pocket of a haversack.
Axes and spades you may want if the Patrol goes in for fire making on the hike. And in that case the spades are really more necessary than the axes (see
Page 149). Many Scours have the curious belief that it is impossible to build a fire without the use of an axe. 'This is a dangerous mistake. In nine cases out of ten tile axe is entirely uncalled for. Enough branches are generally found on the ground to keep a Patrol fire going. And if any of them are so tough that they can't be broken by the help of a knee or a foot and a strong arm they won't serve the purpose of fire making anyway, so it isn't necessary to have an axe to chop them up with. Try to persuade your boys to use the axe as seldom as possible. If they absolutely have to use it be sure that all safety measures be taken.
Cooking utensils necessary for Patrol cooing are described in full on Page 250.
Dish towels must not be forgotten. Use the least expensive ones you can get hold of. Two will suffice. Be sure to dry them thoroughly if possible before packing than. If that can't be done have them taken out immediately after the return from the trip and washed and dried, ready for the next trip.
For special activities, special equipment is required. For example, signaling flags if you want to go in for signaling, tracking irons or whifflepoof or corn or chicken feed if you want your boys to train in tracking. In other words bring along with you whatever equipment is necessary for the training in Scout requirements you are working on.
Rope map often come in handy. A couple of Boy Scout Guard Ropes or a couple of 10-15-foot clothes lines will supply your need.
GETTING BEADY FOR THE HIKE
Taking it for granted that the details described above have been discussed at a Patrol meeting, or maybe at two meetings and you have come to your decisions as to plans and equipment. The time has now come for YOU; as a Patrol Leader, to sum up what has been decided upon and make out the final orders.
Be sure that all the boys get everything straight--
when to meet, where to meet, what to bring. It doesn't help the success of an undertaking if you start out with misunderstandings. Don't depend on the boys remembering everything. Have them write down in advance on a piece of paper or in a notebook the different facts.
Then everything is all set. There, is just one little detail more for you to attend to. Before starting on the hike make up a short outline of the program for the day. This will help you in getting the most possible results out of the hike.
Put down the time of starting and returning. Decide upon the meal hour and fill the time before and after this with the approximate number of minutes used for trolley car or bus rides, actual hiking and such Scoutcraft activities as are going to form a part of the hike.
Such an outline program may look somewhat like this:
PATROL HIKE TO MORTON HOLLOW SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 28th.
8:20--Meet at Den. Check up on equipment.
8:40--Start for trolley car ride.
9:30--Arrive at Atwater Ave Terminal. Start hike. Follow west shore of river up to Green Lake, Nature study. Trees, plants, birds, animal tracks.
10:00-Arrive at camp site at Morton Hollow. Training in signaling over distance, then fire building and preparing of meal.
12:20-Lunch. Cleaning up after meal. Packing. Rest.
l:20--Games for fun from Handbook for Boys.
2:00--Making camp site trackless. Ready to leave.
2:20--Hike to the new bridge at Hartford, then proceed to trolley car.
4:40- Leave Atwater Ave. on trolley.
5:20--Arrival at Patrol Den. Dismissal.
6:00--Boys home at hour promised.
Starting the Hike
Every preparation is made, all plans worked out. At last the day for the hike is here. Whether it rains or shines you proceed to your meeting place. Any weather is Scouting weather,
You, as leader, arrive at the Patrol Den a little before the time set. Already some of the boys are probably there discussing the prospects of the hike. You are greeted by a loud "Hello" and get into the conversation immediately. "Harry hasn't showed up." "There is still time!" "Do you think Joe's coming?" "Certainly. He promised to!" And slowly the time creeps by until the watches say 8:20. All the boys are there now, properly dressed. Equipment packed. A short check-up is made to be sure that no matter of importance has been neglected. Then the Patrol is ready to start for the day's adventure.
The trolley car or bus or railroad which is to bring the Patrol outside of town is reached and the boys are soon "all aboard."
"A Scout Is Courteous"
Too often criticisms are heard of Scouts not behaving properly while traveling in public vehicles. The excitement of the minute makes them talk loud, run up and down in the cars, behave as if they were wild animals lust Broken loose from the Zoo. Sometimes this behavior is due to nervous excitement. Very often, however, it is the boys' instinct to show off that makes them behave this way. Sometimes it is because they think people like to see a group of real live boys As a matter of fact, people generally do. But the "real liveliness" may sometimes become
nothing but impertinent nuisance and nobody ever admires that.
You can't keep a Patrol of boys quiet on a long trolley ride. But there isn't any reason why you shouldn't expect them to behave like gentlemen. ii Scout is courteous. And one way of making people realize this is by showing the right conduct when the Patrol travels as a group.
Naturally it goes without saying that no member of the Patrol will remain in his seat ii a lady or an elderly man is standing. But there are many other ways of showing courtesies. Refrain from too audible talking, singing, and other noises. Keep in your seats and don't run all over the place. When getting on and off don't crowd; do everything as quietly as possible.
It is not only on the trolley ride that courtesy is expected of a Patrol. Wherever it goes courtesy must go with it. And neither must any of the other Scout Laws be forgotten.
If a sign on the route says "Keep off" or "Private" or "No Trespassing," it means "Keep off," "Private" and "No Trespassing." Likewise you will remember that a gate is of no value if it isn't closed, that the owner of a piece of property has a reason for putting a fence or barbed wire around it, that cultivated fields aren't public highways and private fruit trees not for everybody's rifling.
By using common sense you can keep away from doing things which the general public may consider a breach of good behavior.
Getting on the Road
At last the ride is ended and the boys swarm out of the trolley. The actual hiking begins.
Right here is a point to be definitely noted. Whatever kind of hike you are on, be sure it isn't a hitch hike. You and your Patrol aren't traveling country roads just for the sake of being picked up and carried "long by some friendly motorist. You are hiking, to
hike--not to see how fast you can get there. You are hiking to enjoy the trail and the exercise and fresh air, the things of interest and beauty around you. Discourage hitch hiking. It isn't hiking at all.
And let it also be said right here: A hike is not a race. You are not out to break any world records. You are out to have a joyous walk through beautiful country, to observe nature around you, to feel the freedom that only a group of live boys can feel. You are out to seek adventures and not to rush through a part of the country at top speed.
But even so, set your pace at the beginning. A steady pace that can be kept up throughout, only interrupted by interesting pauses. It is a mistake to stroll along in too leisurely fashion. Sauntering is the most tiring form of walking. A free, easy; stride that will bring you forward about three miles an hour is what you ought to adopt. This is a good average speed. It won't tire you out and you feel that you actually are progressing all, the time.
The art of walking is getting to he one of the lost arts. It would be well if the Boy Scouts succeeded in keeping it alive, · It is one of the best exercises known. It affects the whole body, trains the lungs and strengthens the heart and is, in fact, the foundation of all athletic feats. But as in everything else you won't derive the biggest benefits out of it if you don't walk right. Correct posture and gait are necessary.
In "The Boy Scout's Hike Book," Edward Cave says in regard to walking: "There is a technique in walking which distinguishes the pedestrian from the mere stroller. And every Scout should aspire to master it.... It is very simple. No study or hard practice is
required. You do nothing more than eliminate a few faults and pay attention to a couple of details--and commence to walk with your head as well as with your feet. ... The thing to do is seriously to take up pedestrianism, say once a week at the outside, and at that time give almost your whole attention to it. Simply start the practice of taking a walk, regularly, and invariably make this walk like a pedestrian.... Get into a habit of 'hitting it up.'... You will find that ii you walk fast you naturally keep your shoulders down and chest up, and look straight ahead of you, instead of at the ground. You put your feet down almost flat, heel first, toes pointed straight ahead, and you keep your hands out of your pockets, because you have to swing your arms to make speed.... By walking 'against the watch' you are compelled to walk properly. And--the first thing you know you have formed a regular habit of walking correctly."
Take this point up with your boys. Have them train themselves at home in learning the right way of walking and everything will be easier for them when they get on the road.
Don't Follow the Main Road
And by saying road, we do not mean the concrete main road that leads from town to town. It may be necessary for you to follow it for a short while until you get to a place where a by-path leads off to adventures, but get away from it as soon as possible.
There isn't much to see or learn on the main road. The automobiles are the same as you see in the city; the billboards advertise the same products as do the shop windows. And besides there is a danger point in following the main road which must be considered. The traffic is usually heavy and you must be on the lookout all the time.
If you must, for a time, follow the main road, keep always to the left. In several states there are laws which compel a pedestrian on all highways to walk
facing the oncoming traffic. It ought to be considered the rule always. It is only by doing so that you are able to see and avoid possible dangers.
Beware of side roads where trucks constantly swing into or off the side road without signaling. Look out, also, at cross-roads. In approaching a cross-road always look to the left first, then to the right in crossing it.
Starting the Adventure
The actual hike does not start before you have left the main road, before you get into the by-paths which, by the way, do not necessarily have to be paths. The bank of a river, the shore of a lake, the ocean beach, the ridge of a hill, the old overgrown trail through the underbrush, eve ii just a compass direction that will lead you cross country and through trying obstacles all are inviting trails from which to choose.
And if you are the right kind of a Patrol Leader your program of activities will start right there. Up to this point, the mere tramping part was the chief object but now you will put the emphasis on something else.
Nature study will come first to your mind. Some Patrols go through forests with eves that do not see. Your Patrol, will be a seeing Patrol. The boys will discover trees they haven't identified before and renew their knowledge of old friends. They will notice the plants as they walk along, find animal tracks to follow, and maybe even see the birds and the animals themselves.
It is for you to start them along these stimulating lines of discovery. Once started they will continue to make discoveries for themselves, unprompted.
Also training for the Scout requirements has its place on the hike.
A lot of fun can be had out of signaling if the Patrol is divided in two groups that proceed at some distance from each other. Messages from one group to another will describe what is being discovered.
The compass directions can be explained and learned by the boys as they go along. Rap-reading and mapmaking can he taught and judging may he taken up. And this is not all. By looking through the chapter on teaching the requirements (Chapter VI) you will find plenty of ideas to work in on the hike that will help your boys to advance in Scoutcraft.
If some of your boys are preparing for Merit Badges the Patrol hikes will bring them many opportunities far training and boys with special hobbies may satisfy them at will. Such hobbies may include sketching and photography, collecting of plants or making of leaf prints, plaster casting of tracks and gathering of minerals, to mention a few only of these possibilities. Be sure that all of the boys are actively occupied and interested on the hike.
Beauty Along the Way
There are people who believe that boys do not have any appreciation of beauty. Quite the contrary, They have a keen appreciation of it but being boys, they just do not speak about it very often. A quiet spot near a babbling brook, a group of wind-lashed trees, a glorious sunset, fantastic cloud formations, a starlit sky may influence their moods deeply, even bring them to silent awe. Don't he afraid of bringing these things to their attention on the hike. But do not defeat your aims by declaiming: "Isn't that beautiful!" It must be done
Alter having hiked for some time you will find that your boys get tired. Some of them may start lagging behind, a little out of breath, yet dragging on as best they can. They do not want to ask for a rest for fear of being considered weaklings. As soon as you see signs of weariness, call a halt. Even better it will be if you call for the rest before the definite signs show.
For untrained hikers it may be necessary to stop after about every half hour of hiking, to have them get back their breath and relax, Trained hikers can walk longer distances without feeling tired.
A good rule to follow is to let a short rest period follow each hour of steady hiking. And let them be really short-three to five minutes, seldom more. Too long rests stiffen the leg muscles which have been limbered up during the walking and make it difficult to get started again. Also if the boys are hot and perspiring a long rest period will cool them too much and may result in somebody's getting a chill. Get going again before anybody Is cold. As a general rule it may be said that you get farther and with less effort if you walk steadily and with short rests than if you travel by quick spurts and long rests.
During the rests have the boys lie down. The best position for them to take is with the hack on the ground and the legs vertically against a tree, a stump, a fence or other object. Then try to have them move the legs slowly for a few minutes as though pedaling an imaginary bicycle. On getting up again they will be surprised to find how easy it is now to go on.
"The theory is that the blood gets down into the legs and the heart is taxed to the limit to keep up a
good flow while walking. Lying on the back and moving the legs causes the blood to flow back easily, be re-vitalized in the lungs and thus refresh the fatigued muscles." (J. W. Benson in The "How" Book of Scouting. )
If water is near at hand during the rest periods you will see the boys swarm toward it to get their thirst quenched. Stop them, for several reasons.
One reason is that if they start drinking they will get thirsty very soon again and continue to be in a state of thirstiness throughout the hike. Instead of drinking, it is far better to suck a small pebble. This stimulates the salivary glands and keeps the mouth moist all the time.
Another reason, and a more important one, is that the water may be contaminated by decayed organic matter or by germs related to different diseases such as typhoid fever, diarrhea and dysentery. The looks of the water doesn't prove anything as to its purity. It may look like the purest crystal clear spring water and yet contain poisonous matter. Don't ever touch water when you aren't perfectly sure that it is fit for drinking.
If the water from a certain well is used by the people living in the vicinity you may feel assured that it is all right, also if you can secure information about its purity from the local health authorities. If you can't, be on your guard. Don't take any chances.
If you absolutely need water and aren't sure as to its purity you will have to sterilize it.
One way of doing this is by boiling it hard for twenty minutes to kill the germs. After cooling it, it is fit for drinking even ii the boiling of it has also taken away the biggest part of its refreshing quality.
Another way and an easier way is by treating the water with certain chemicals that destroy the impurities. A few of these treatments are described as follows:
1-Calcium Hypochlorite (Chloride of Lime). a. Powdered Calcium hypochlorite may be had at any drugstore in small cans. Mix one level teaspoonful of the powder with a little water into a paste and dissolve this in one quart of water. Stir every once in a while for an hour. Let the undissolved part settle and pour the clear liquid off into bottles. Bring a small bottle of this along and put one teaspoonful of the solution into two gallons of water for disinfection. Let it stand at least 30 minutes before using.
b. Powdered Calcium hypochlorite in small glass ampules containing one gram (15 grains) may be had from camping outfit stores or chemical supply firms. Break one ampule and dissolve its contents in one quart of water. Use two teaspoonfuls of this strong solution for disinfecting quart of drinking water. Allow it to stand at least 30 minutes before using. 2--"Zonite," a liquid manufactured by "Zonite" Co., New York City. May he had at any drug store. Mix one teaspoonful of "Zonite" with nine teaspoonfuls of water and use one teaspoonful of this solution to disinfect one gallon of drinking water. Let it stand at least 30 minutes before using.
3--"Halazone" tablets manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. Chicago, Ill. May be had at any drug store. Dissolve one tablet in one quart of drinking water to he disinfected. Allow it to stand at least 30 minutes before using.
A11 of these processes require at least half an hour's halt.
If you aren't sure of the water in the part of the country through which the hike will bring you and if you don't want to use your time waiting for water to he disinfected, it would he a good idea to bring along
from the city a couple of canteens with drinking water to be used on the road. As soon as you get to your camp site you will find time to prepare bigger quantities of drinking water if necessary.
Whichever way you obtain your drinking water explain to your boys that the way to drink on a hike is by drinking just a little at a time and as slowly as possible. This gives the maximum of refreshment. Many hikers recommend the using of the first mouthful for filling the mouth only and by shaking the head getting the water into all corners of the mouth. Later they drink two or three mouthfuls and are ready to continue.
If refreshment is necessary, stick to water. Do not allow any stopping to buy soda water or to bombard every roadside shop for ice cream. These things have no place on a Scout hike. They only serve to make the boys so much more thirsty afterwards.
Arriving at the Lunch Spot
The road having been properly covered, the Patrol arrives at the spot decided upon for lunch.
As soon as they get there, have the boys take off their haversacks and arrange them in a line on the ground close together, the so-called "duffel-line." Keep
the haversacks there as long as the Patrol stays on the spot. This is the first point of orderliness and orderliness must be insisted upon in everything the Patrol does. Don't let anything be spread around on the ground. No paper, no axes, no eating utensils. Everything must be kept together. Make somebody responsible for seeing that this is strictly followed.
If this is a Sandwich Hike the boys will now unpack their foodstuff and start eating. If it is a Chop Hike, the first thing to do is to get fires going before the preparing of the meal takes place.
The first few Chap Hikes will provide training in the Second Class requirements for fire making and cooking without utensils. Suggestions as to how this training may take place are discussed in the chapter on "Patrol Instruction", while menu ideas are provided on page 197. Therefore here we shall only touch 3 few of the high spots.
Preparing the Meal
Before the boys start firemaking, have them decide upon a spot. (Don't permit them to spread themselves over a too big area). Have them clear the ground and use the spade to dig up the sods in order not to kill the vegetation (see Page 149) and he perfectly sure that all fire hazards are eliminated. You can't risk the starting of a forest fire that may destroy valuable timber. Look around carefully. Have water within easy reach and have also present a few leafy branches with which to beat down any fire which might begin to spread in the grass. Let the boys be sure that they have collected enough wood before they start the fire.
Insist that they clean their hands before touching any foodstuff.
Then just let them go ahead having their fun in preparing their primitive meal.
After having passed the Second Class Requirement in cooking the boys will start on their First Class test. They will bring along in their equipment the necessary utensils (Page 203) and will start preparing regular meals. This is the most favored way of making a lunch on a one-day hike and by sticking to this kind of cooking for a few months you may expect your Scouts to develop themselves into real cooks. Be sure, though, that they don't stick to the same recipes the whole time. Have them try as many different things as possible because only in this way will they develop a general cooking ability.
The next step will be to go in far regular Patrol cooking on the one-day hikes. This constitutes actual training for the Patrol camping and until it is mastered, Patrol camps will not be the successes which they ought to be.
By Patrol cooking is meant the preparing of a complete meal for the complete Patrol by means of the Patrol cooking utensils.
This naturally necessitates the getting hold of the necessary equipment but it also necessitates the development of a special Patrol organization in order to de it in the most efficient way. The organization will consist in dividing the Patrol up into groups of which one will do the actual cooking while others will take care of getting the water and firewood, keeping the fire going and looking cut for other details.
This organization is created on one-day hikes where training for camp takes place. Since this is a matter of special value for the camp it will be discussed fully in the Patrol Camping Chapter.
In Patrol cooking the whole Patrol will naturally he Served at one time. In individual cooking the boys will eat their meal as they get it ready. Yet the boys ought
to follow the same scheme in order to try to have the different meals ready at the same time. It will increase the fun of the hike if the Scouts can have their meal together instead of eating separately. The latter rather too much suggests a dog gnawing his solitary bone. Scouting is social and companionable.
As soon as the eating is over the boys will clear up their fire sites, put out the fires and replace the sods so that no trace is left.
The washing of the dishes may take place with cold water, the bottom side of a sod being used for scouring. On the other hand the boys may be told to heat a little water in their pots before putting out the fire and clean their dishes and the pot itself with the hot water.
Rest After the Meal.
When everything has been cleared up a rest period will follow. A rest after each meal before starting to exercise again is a great help for the digestion and ought to be lived up to in the Patrol.
Get the crowd started as they rest on a discussion of the hike, of the afternoon's program or plans for the future, just a sort of a friendly chattering.
You will tell by the boys themselves when this rest period has lasted long enough. One gets up, another follows. A general signal for starting something.
Try a couple of lively games. Any kind of a tag will do, especially if the camp site presents a number of natural obstacles. Any game in which the Patrol is
divided up into two groups each of which tries to become the winner is good. You will probably remember some from school, besides those which you will fund in your Handbook for Boys.
An hour wilt easily run by in fun and laughter and before you know it, it will be time to start the return trip.
Check up on Camp Site
Before starting for home there is one very important thing which must be done. You must make sure that the camp site has been cleaned perfectly.
Have the boys form a line spread out across the site. They must just be close enough together to be able to observe every square inch of the ground. Give a signal and have them move slowly forward picking up anything no matter how small it may be, that could tell that human beings had been on the spot. After having gone over the camp site in this thorough manner you and the Patrol may rest assured that all is shipshape. When you are ready for the home trip.
Do not use for your return trip the same route which you covered on the way out. Try to leave a way open for fresh discoveries and adventure.
In returning much depends upon the surroundings. You will usually find that it is difficult to get the boys going again on nature study or training for requirements, unless something special turns up. The climax Of the day has been reached in the preparing and eating of the meal. From the dish washing to the minute you 'each home enthusiasm is likely to slacken. There fore, it is necessary to stimulate it by trying to put Some extra interesting features into the return trip.
This may be done by laying the route through interesting places It may be done by getting the boys started telling of their school experiences, or of their favorite Sports, their baseball team, anything they like
to talk about. But it may also be done by trying to get -a song under way. Maybe the good old ones like "Clementine,' "Old McDonald," "Three Good Turns"; maybe some of the latest song hits. Here's where your "Cheermaster," if you have one, will he useful. Get the crowd started on something and the road will be shortened, everything will proceed smoothly and tire boys will be getting home in high spirits.
Maybe you will want them to come to the Patrol men for the dismissal. Maybe you will just say "good-bye" and leave them at the trolley. It doesn't make any difference what plan you follow as long as they get home in the time that was set for their return.
And if they get home happy and tired, but not exhausted you may' count the day as a success.
OTHER KINDS OF HIKES
The hike described above is a typical one-day Patrol hike. It includes a number of activities and will prove of general interest to the boys.
But naturally the same program for a hike can't be used indefinitely. Variety is needed to keep up interest and very much depends upon the ingenuity of the Patrol Leader in inventing new kinds of hikes and putting new ideas into every one of them.
In the Handbook for Scoutmasters. Scout Executive, F. F. Gray, of Montclair, N. J., has given a number of hike ideas. Some of them are best fitted for Troop purposes. Others can be used equally well by a Patrol as by a larger group. Here are some of the most suitable.
Nature Study Hikes. Careful preparation is necessary. Try, if possible, to have an expert accompany the
Patrol on the hike. Note-taking, observation and comparison, specimen collecting, sketching, and the camera are the usual methods of study.
Compass Hikes. Conducted entirely by compass. It can be combined with the map, night, storm, adventure, exploration and other hikes. In a strictly compass hike, the course should be carefully laid out in advance an paper.
Tracking and Trailing Hikes. Requires one or two Scouts to lay the trail or make the tracks, the rest of the Patrol to follow. The exercise of much ingenuity is possible on this hike in developing surprises, novelties and interesting problems.
Map Hikes. Map reading should precede map making. The hike is made entirely by map, and preferably cross country. Map reading along a straight road requires little skill. Map making hikes should be short, and careful notes should be taken. Later on, this hike can be supplemented by the camera.
Signal Hikes. Are conducted entirely by signals, This hike can be combined, later on, with a night hike or a compass hike. Of course, signaling can be made useful on almost any kind of hike, but this particular kind of hike is one of specialization.
Night Hikes are novel. The night world is so different from that of the day that the strangeness lends interest and romance to the hike.
Storm Hikes, of course, require special opportunity and necessitate careful preparation. Learning to travel under adverse conditions happily and safely is the important feature.
Adventure Hikes afford abundant opportunity to cultivate common sense and good judgment. The hikers
may separate into groups of two, and come together at some prearranged place and time, to exchange stories around the camp fire. This style of hike is especially useful in driving home the fact that life is full of interesting situations if we but look for them.
The Good Turn Hikes take the boys out singly, or in pairs, for a definite time, looking specifically for opportunities to do Good Turns. They should return and report at a given time. A variety of experience will be encountered. Interesting and novel matters on the subject of the Good Turn is sure to come up. The boys' reports should be written, not oral.
The Exploration Hike is taken over country new to the Scouts. A cave, a mountain, or a lake furnishes interesting objectives. It should be as full of surprises as possible and may be either cross-country or along back roads, trails, water courses, paths, a canal or other unusual routes. This type of hike often develops many unsuspected points of beauty or interest in near-by places. It can also be combined with the travel or the compass hike.
The Game Hike is made with the intention of spending the greater part of the day in playing Flag Raiding or similar games. The games should be arranged in advance, although the hikers need not be acquainted with the details until the play begins.
The Treasure Hunt is similar in many ways to the tracking and trailing hike, with an objective--the treasure-added. At the end may be not only the "Treasure" but a lunch or some other pleasant surprise. To be classed as a hike the Treasure Hunt must be at least a mile in length and should cover as great a variety of territory as possible.
The Fourteen Mike Hike comes under the First Class requirements. The ideal hike of this kind is, in as large a measure as possible, a review of the chief features of Scouting practice. Few can take this hike properly without considerable experience in hiking.
A Starvation Hike requires previous experience and
practical knowledge concerning edible plants, roots, berries, nuts, fruits, etc., to be found growing wild along the probable course of the hike. Mushrooms should be entirely avoided, in fact they have but little food value. The annual death toll of mushrooms mounts beyond that of hunting.
History Hikes are taken to points of particular historical interest. Where practical, the hikers often enjoy attempting to re-enact some feature.
Camera Hikes teach choice of subjects, methods and general practice. The conservation of films also demands thought. There should be a good reason behind the taking of any picture. Of course, the Scouts should learn to develop their own pictures when possible.
Fathers' and Sons' Hikes deserve particular mention. When the Patrol has had some hiking experience invite the fathers to go along with their boys on a real Scouting Hike. Go exploring, show the fathers some of your Scout dexterities, make them a real outdoor dinner. You will find that the fathers as well as the boys will enjoy such a hike immensely,
THE outdoor part of Scouting fascinates the boys. The hikes that bring them out into nature have their absolute approval, but after all the experience which they are most looking forward to from the day you start the Patrol is--Camp.
Camp is a world that is filled with adventure to every real boy. It stands for freedom, fun and adventure. unlucky is the Scout who hasn't had his taste of camp life.
One of your greatest services as a Patrol Leader is to try to make your Patrol into a Camping Patrol, trained in the ways of the experienced campers. This takes time. It takes also patience and perseverance. But it can be done, and you are well under way toward doing it, the day you have made your boys into real hikers as described in the previous chapter.
Camping is really just an advanced form of hiking. The planning has to be more elaborate. The amount of equipment necessary is increased. Sleeping out under primitive conditions enters into it, making things more complicated. Yet the general plan and purpose are the same. In camping as well as in hiking you must follow the same safety precautions, you must decide upon
your time and your place, means of getting there, ways of filling the day with a varied program and the like.
The Patrol hikes are all training for the greater adventure--the Patrol Camp. When to Start Patrol Camping
Two things are required before the Patrol starts its camping.
1. The Patrol must be in possession of the equipment necessary.
2. You, as the Patrol Leader, must be in possession of the experience necessary.
Equipment is specially necessary for the inexperienced camper. An old camper may go out in the wilderness, build his own shelters of material found on the spot and spend the night in comfort. But it wouldn't be wise to take out beginners on an adventure of this kind. It might forever set them against camp life.
However, it isn't necessary that much new equipment be purchased for the first few camping trips. Cooking utensils may be taken from the homes. Most families have extra blankets that the boys may bring along. Just one thing must be gotten: the tent. But how? That is the problem which must be solved.
A certain Patrol Leader was asked by his boys: "When do we go camping" His answer came back with a snap: "The day we have earned the money to get our own tent !"
And this is precisely the right attitude.
You may be able to borrow a tent from another
Patrol or from the Troop. Maybe some well-meaning philanthropist might even think of presenting your Patrol with one. Resist the Temptation. Such a tent would never be more than just a tent, while a tent
earned by the Patrol itself will be a treasure in which every boy will be proud to share ownership.
In this case as in many other cases it is not the path of least resistance that takes you the farthest If you encourage your Patrol to earn and save its pennies and make its own equipment you will be building Patrol Spirit and traditions at the same time, which as we have said elsewhere is vitally important Just imagine what an incentive it is for your Scouts to know that "we go camping the day we have earned our own tent." It will make them work to achieve the adventures. If you are the right kind of a Patrol Leader you will start the work early. If you begin your preparations for camping soon after the start be the Patrol the equipment will be there the day the Patrol is ready to go camping. Start a special equipment fund. inspire your boys to bring pennies they earn by their own small jobs, take up Patrol Handicraft (see Chapter IX), and find other ways of earning Patrol money.
The day the tent is acquired you may go camping Later on the Patrol will earn and get together its own cooking utensils and other things that will make the equipment complete.
Different Types of Camping
The equipment necessary and the experience required of you as the leader depend entirely upon the type of camping which the Patrol is undertaking. So let us, before starting the more detailed description, look at the different types which we will have to consider A Short-Term Camp is a combination camping, the camp extending one or two nights. The Patrol will hike to a suitable camping site, pitch the camp, make its meals, have its camp fire, sleep in tents or under shelters through the night, and hike back to the town in the afternoon.
A Standing Camp is a Camp extending over more than three days and two nights, a complete camp being put up with all possible camp improvements and with a definite daily schedule, including all phases of camp life.
A Travelling Champ is a moving camp. Every morning or every other morning camp is broken and moved to some other place. Here the camp is again put up, one or more days are spent in exploring and real camp life, then again the whole ramp moves on. This is the most difficult kind of camping. It needs well trained boys and exceedingly good leaders. While in the Standing Camp the daily varied routine constitutes the life of the campers, in the Travelling Camp the big thing is the hike, the seeing of other places, the exploring of unknown territory. Travelling Camps may be on foot, on bicycles, horseback, by automobile or in boat or canoes.
And now for tile planning and the carrying out of the three types.
THE SHORT-TERM CAMP
As the Patrol works on getting its outfit together you must do all you can to increase your experience. There is a certain standard you must live up to, a certain minimum of Scouting experience which you must have before your Scoutmaster permits you to take out the Patrol on a camping hike.
1. You must have earned your First Class Badge.
2. (a) You must have taken part in at least two Troop Camping hikes and one Patrol Leaders' camping hike (conducted by the Scoutmaster) or have had the experience of at least one week in a Standard Boy Scout Camp.
(b) You must have undertaken at least five one day hikes with your Patrol to the satisfaction of your Scoutmaster.
3. You must have had at least three months' experience as a successful Patrol Leader.
And furthermore before starting' on any Camping Hike
4. You must have the written consent of the parents of each boy.
5. You must have a reasonable Familiarity with the country to be covered and the camp site to be used.
6. You must have the permission of the property owner to make camp, to build fires and cook.
By looking back on the experience necessary for you as a hike leader (page 187) and comparing with the above you will see that several points are the same while others make greater demands. The added requirements necessary for the camp leader are printed above in upright type.
As in the case of the first hikes a Patrol undertakes, the Scoutmaster or an Assistant will go along with the Patrol and help it through its first camping adventures. You will find it a tremendous help in the beginning to have an adult present to help you meet the small difficulties that will arise because of your boys' lacking experience. A good Patrol Leader is never unwilling to take the advice of others.
Planning the Short-Term Camp
If planning was necessary in order to turn a hike into a success, planning is ten-fold more necessary to get the best out of camping. In fact the planning and preparing may be said to be two-thirds of successful camping.
The planning takes place at the Patrol meetings.
Every detail must be considered. And again we will apply our old formula:
The what part is easily determined upon. "Camping" is the answer to that. Or in more detail: a hike to a suitable camping site, setting up the camp, sleeping on the spot, making the meals, and hiking back to town.
Signaling, tracking and other Scout activities may be put into the hike and be used for training in the camp. But those are all of less importance.
Camping is, first of all, training in camping.
Where ? On the ideal camp site naturally.
You may have heard the formula. Still you may not remember it, so here goes: In its simplest form it is: Shelter, wafer, wood
In fact those are the things of prime importance, things first to consider. Those three sum up the necessary requisites of a camp site, though naturally other factors enter into the choice of an ideal site. To elaborate the formula, the following considerations may be urged.
The Ideal Site
The ideal site is a fairly open spot, elevated enough to avoid possible fog which may rise from waters in its neighborhood, level, or even better, a little slanting, to afford natural drainage. Grass-covered, sandy, or gravelly soils is what you will look for. Three things you will avoid-Clay: because the grass which covers it will soon wear off and rain will make it muddy and filled with small puddles--loose Sand, because it gets
in everywhere spoiling your food and filling your clothes--Rich Vegetation of Grass, because it indicates waterfilled, damp ground, mosquitoes a-plenty and a dew-fall that will not evaporate during the day.
Your ideal spot will have shelter against the prevailing winds. Trees will furnish this. They will cover the western and northern side of the site exposing the camp to the sun during the early hours of the day. You will want trees around your camp hut you won't want to camp immediately under them, especially not in rain. They may seem to shelter you from the rain but the trouble is that dripping from the trees will continue several hours after the rain has passed and it will take hours for the tents to dry. Another disadvantage about camping under trees is that some trees have the inconvenient habit of dropping their dead branches
--a trick that may prove a misfortune to a camper.
Water you will want within a reasonable distance. Not only far drinking purposes but also for bathing. But play safe in regard to water. Read again what is said in regard to drinking water in the chapter on Patrol Mikes (page 214) and insist on using the safety devices and precautions. For bathing you must test the spot to find out if any traps are lurking. Always remember: Safety First.
Wood for fuel and for camp implements must be present in sufficient quantity. A camp site can't be called ideal if wood has to be carried to it from afar.
So much about the camp site itself. Another thing that plays its part is the surrounding country.
The place should be in the midst of beauty and picturesqueness and far enough away from human beings to secure privacy. If visitors swarm over the camp grounds there, will be little real camping going on, and if the site is too close to main-roads with their hot dog stands and billboards you may be sure that visitors will arrive. Also in order to be considered ideal the camp site mustn't be so far away from your home town that it is not easily accessible without too much time and too much money spent on the traveling.
How to Find the Place
The ideal camp site is hard to find. Some people insist that it only exists in the imagination. Still you may be able to find it and get permission to use it. This last point is a thing, which may keep even the best camping site out of your reach. If the owner puts down Special restrictions for the use of his property be sure to adhere to them strictly.
By the time that the Patrol is ready to start its camping it ought to know where the best camp sites in the surrounding country are to be found. Your Hikemaster, if you have one, will help there. During the one-day hikes you are certain to have found several suitable places, and the Hikemaster will have kept notes of them to make sure that they won't be forgotten.
Again as was the case when discussing one-day outdoorings we must take into consideration whether your group consists of schoolboys or boys who work.
School boys are generally free from Friday after-noon until Monday morning, while working boys have sometimes only the Saturday evening and Sunday at their disposal, though in some cases they may have the Saturday afternoon off.
For school boys only it will therefore be seen that the answer to the When' is: From Friday afternoon to Saturday evening with one night's camping. Or in case church attendance can be arranged for (see page 191): From Friday afternoon to Sunday evening making it a two-nights' camping trip.
If the Patrol consists entirely of working boys the answer must be: From Saturday night to Sunday evening, the boys getting together and leaving for camp as early Saturday night as possible. This will usually mean that they can't arrive at the camp site before it Is getting dark which is a great disadvantage especially if the Patrol consists of untrained campers. If there should happen to be boys in the Patrol who get off early in the day it ought to be arranged that they go out to the site in the afternoon; put up the tents, build the
fireplace and have everything ready when the rest of the Patrol arrives in the evening.
The same will be the case ii the Patrol is a mixture of school boys and boys at work. In this case the school boys may even go out Friday, spend one night in camp, make everything ready to receive the city group Saturday evening and spend the second night with their Larder working comrades.
In any event a time must be fixed for the start and for the return of the boys on the camping trip, and this must be strictly, followed. Sticking precisely to program is one of the things that make parents believe in Scouting.
In the preparing for camp your Patrol organization will be put to its severest test and you will have a chance to find out if the organization actually works.
As was the case with the one-day outdoorings the planning of camp is done at the Patrol meetings. Here the most important things are decided upon, but not all the details are worked out here. These are considered by the boys whose job it is to take care of special Patrol routine matters.
At the Patrol meeting you all decide upon time and place (this, after conference with Hikemaster) and personal equipment necessary. Everything else is assigned to small committees consisting of one or two boys. It cannot be too often repeated, also, that naturally the Scoutmaster must approve your plans.
What has to be done before the Patrol can start on a camping hike amounts to the following:
(a) Consent must be procured from the parents.
(b) Money for transportation and eats must be collected at meeting preceding the camping hike.
(c) Foodstuff must be bought and distributed among the boys.
(d) Patrol equipment must be gotten together and distributed among the boys.
Organizing the Patrol for Camp
Each of these duties will be assigned to the boys that are best able to do the particular jobs. If the Patrol organization (see Chapter IV) is in action the jobs are easily distributed. If not, a special camping organization must be developed. But certainly, by the time that the Patrol is ready to go camping, the real organization ought to be fairly well worked out. Therefore in the following pages we shall develop the camping organization on the basis of the one already in action inside the Patrol.
Let us start by making up a list of the boys in your organization. This is what you have:
Assistant Patrol Leader
The object now is to distribute two of these boys to every one of the four points mentioned above in such a way that their natural abilities and the work they have been doing in the Patrol will insure the greatest efficiency.
By taking the four points consecutively you will arrive at the following results:
(a) Parents' Consent. You, as Patrol Leader, are the one who has had most to do with the parents of all of your boys. Therefore the most natural thing for you to do is to personally supervise the collecting of the written forms of consent, from the boys' parents. Ii any difficulties arise you will be the one to straighten them out. You may also have to help the boys getting their personal equipment together from their home. The other boy to put on the job is the Scribe.
He is the one to whom all written matter generally goes. So let him get the consents together in co-operation with you.
(b) Money. The Treasurer will take care of this. But before starting to collect he must naturally know how big the expenses are going to be. Therefore he must consult with the Hikemaster who knows about the transportation costs and the Grubmaster who plans the menu. He needs a helper. Let him work together with the Hikemaster with whom he already has made his connection.
(c) Foodstuff. This is the job of the Grubmaster. But it being a thing of prime importance for the success of the trip he will need the very best help and advice. Have the Assistant Patrol Leader go to his rescue. The two of them wilt be able to handle the job satisfactorily. They must work in close connection with the Treasurer who provides them with the money for the necessary purchases.
(d) Patrol Equipment. This matter is managed by the Quartermaster in co-operation with the last boy in the Patrol, the Cheermaster.
In looking over the above it will be found that group (b) and (c) are very much inter-linked. The money part enters into both of them and consequently it will be necessary for the two groups to work together. Also it will be found that the job of getting the equipment together may be a rather big one. The two boys handling it may need the help of others. Therefore in our final make-up of the organization we will take all of this in consideration and show the groups as they will probably work together.
GROUP A Consents and Equipment
Consents -- Patrol Leader, Scribe
Equipment -- Quartermaster, Cheermaster
GROUP B Expenditures
Collecting and Travel--Treasurer, Hikemaster
Food--Grubmaster, Assistant Patrol Leader
This is the organization for the preparing of the camping hike. But before we go into the necessary details of equipment, food and the rest, we must look ahead.
Preparing the camp is one thing. Establishing the camp is something entirely different, but it also necessitates an organization of the Patrol in order to be accomplished with the greatest possible efficiency. Naturally we do not want to make a number of organizations. The one we make must be able to cover the preparing for camp as well as the camp itself. If it doesn't, it is no good. This point can be easily tested.
Let us just look at the duties which have to he attended to at the arrival at the camp site. They fall into two divisions.
For convenience and brevity we win list these two groups of activities as "Tenting" and "Cooking" though there is more to Group One than merely setting up tents and more to Group Two than merely preparing "grub." Roughly, the two divisions cover the following:
(1) Tenting, pitching tents, preparing beds, making latrine and other sanitary measures. In other words, making the camp site habitable.
(2) Cooking. Building fireplace. collecting wood, getting water, making fire and the actual cooking.
These two divisions are covered perfectly by the organizations as worked out above.
The "Tenting" part will be undertaken by Group A which is already taking care of the equipment with the
Patrol Leader in charge, while the "Cooking" part is given over to GR'OUP B under the leadership of the Assistant Patrol Leader.
As soon as the different jobs are assigned to the Scouts they go ahead performing their duties.
Some of these duties, like securing the consent of the parents, collecting the money necessary and getting the equipment together can be done some time in advance, while buying the foodstuff and purchasing transportation tickets will be done shortly before the camping hike is started.
At one of the Patrol meetings preceding the trip you will ask the boys to be sure to bring a written permission to 50 camping signed by their parents along with them at the next meeting. This permission will be similar to the one required for one-day hikes (see page 193) only including sleeping out as well.
You will have your Scribe collect and file these permissions as soon as they come in. Some boys may not bring them before the day the hike is started. It doesn't make any difference when they come in. Just be sure that they are all there by the time that the Patrol starts its adventure.
The amount of money necessary is settled by a get together of the Treasurer, the Hikemaster, the Grubmaster and the Assistant Patrol Leader. They decide upon purchases which have to be made, get the price of transportation, add all expenses together and divide it by the number of boys in the Patrol.
Is it necessary to mention that they will make it as economical as possible.
The price of the trip is announced to the boys and the · Treasurer collects the money at the meeting prehike in order to be able to buy the necessary
As soon as a menu has been decided upon the Grubmaster will work out a list of ingredients and start his purchasing.
Meat, bread, butter, eggs, and fresh vegetables will be left to he bought at the last minute, while things that keep well, such as sugar, flour, salt, beans, etc., will be bought at the earliest convenience.
The Assistant Patrol Leader will help to purchase the foodstuff, putting it into the Patrol provision bags and distribute these to the Scouts of the Patrol.
The equipment for a camping trip must be given some real thought especially if the trip includes any amount of hiking. Tents, cooking utensils, foodstuffs together with the personal equipment for a comfortable night in the open weigh, and often weigh heavily. The art of equipping the Patrol consists in taking just enough along with you and not one piece of unnecessary equipment.
In the following are described both a personal and a Patrol equipment which have stood their tests. By experimenting you may find out that you do not use certain of the things on the hikes which you undertake. Then leave them at home. On the other hand, you may find that weather conditions at the place where the camp site is situated necessitate things being added to the list. Go ahead and do so. But do not forget that every ounce feels like a pound if you have to carry it for hours.
Neither the personal nor the Patrol equipment mentioned below are gotten together in one day. They are
the result of working and saving on the part of every member of the Patrol. They constitute the goal toward which every Patrol will work thereby developing the spirit and the stick-togetherness of the Patrol as a unit. Not only will the Patrol try to earn its own money to be able to buy its own equipment, but it will also try its hand at the actual making of equipment. Help in this direction is given in the chapter on Patrol Handicraft. There you will find the making of many of the things mentioned in the following, described.
When making or purchasing be sure that the boys get the same kind of equipment. Uniformity is very much to he desired, not only for the looks of it but also for its value to the Patrol Spirit. A haversack packed in correct manner ought to advertise loudly enough: "I belong to the Leaping Wolf Patrol" (or whatever the name may be.
On page 241 is given the complete list of the articles necessary on a short term camping trip. Several of the things were discussed while speaking of Patrol Hikes Chapter VII). The reason for others listed will be found obvious. Left for consideration then is the haversack and the packing of it, as rather special problems.
The Haversack Not every haversack will do for camping purposes. There are some definite requirements which it must pass in order to fit the needs of the case.
First of all, it must naturally be big enough to contain the necessary amount of equipment. A small haversack will never do for camping purposes. The best way td find the size of haversack which you will require is by getting all of your camping material together and arranging it in the way you would if you
Complete Scout Uniform
2 Blankets or Sleeping Bag
1 Poncho Raincoat
1 Clothes bag containing:
1 change of Underwear
1-Sweater or Pull-Over
1 pair of Stockings
1 pair of Pajamas
1 Bathing Suit
1 Mess Bag containing:
1 Flat Plate
1 Deep Plate
1 Toilet Bag containing :
1 Piece of Soap in Container
1 Toothbrush in Celluloid Container
1 Tube of Tooth Paste
1 Metal Mirror
1 Shoe Bag containing :
1 pair of extra Shoes or Sneakers
1 Repair Bag containing:
Thread and Darning Cotton
In outside pocket of haversack or uniform:
1 Sterilized Bandage
Notebook and Pencil
Matches in Water---proof Container
Handbook for Boys
had the haversack there. Tie a few pieces of string around it and measure its dimensions. If other members in your Patrol are going to purchase haversacks you will help them in the same way.
But the size isn't all. There are other tests of the good haversack.
It must be light. The rest of the equipment being heavy enough, naturally you want the haversack light. But the lightness must never be sacrificed for strength and waterproof quality. The material must be heavy enough and closely woven enough to keep out even the heaviest rainstorm.
One more thing indicates the good haversack. It rides well. A pack that rolls from one side to another as you walk along is absolutely no good for your purpose. Neither is one that hangs on the upper part of your back. It makes you round shouldered and tires you out very soon. Part of the weight of the pack falls naturally on the shoulders because of the shoulder straps but the pack ought to come low enough so as to place the biggest part of the weight on the back of the hips. The hips and shoulders constitute the support (no other part of the back). Also be sure that the two shoulder straps are broad enough (so that they will not cut into the shoulders) and that they join each other at the centre of the top of the pack.
In brief these are the requirements: The haversack must be:
(1) of sufficient size, (2) light, (3) strong, (4) waterproof and (5) well balanced and supported by shoulders and hips.
The Official Camp-O-Sack, which was especially designed for Patrol Camping, lives up to these specifications. Other models are available as for example, the "Comfort" pack: the "Rover" pack, the "Duluth" pack, the "Adirondack Pack Basket" and "Pack Boards." The choosing of a haversack isn't an easy matter. Individual taste enters into it and you may have to experiment
a bit before you get your taste satisfied. If you want to make your own haversack you will find directions in Chapter IX for making the Official Camp-O-Sack before mentioned. It is almost sure to meet with your approval.
Packing the Pack
The art of filling a haversack in such a way that all its advantages are made use of is called packing. This seems to be a rather difficult art to acquire if you look at the many ways in which it may be done. Yet as is the case with all other arts, it becomes easy the minute you discover the secret.
Certain rules govern right packing. We may express them thus:
(1) Soft padding should be placed at the part of the pack which rests against the wearer's back. (2) There must be a definite position for every piece of equipment.
(3) Things that belong to the same class (as, for example, fork, knife, spoon, plate, or soap, nailbrush, towel), should be grouped together. (4) No small articles should lie loose in the pack. (5) You must be able to get at the rain clothing without exposing the rest of the equipment. (6) Pack must not rattle when moved.
All of these problems are solved by using the "Bags within Bag" system. This means that the pack is to be considered one big bag into which smaller bags containing the different pieces of equipment, as shown in the equipment list on page 241 are fitted.
These smaller bags take up very little space as they are made out of thin linen or canvas. They are easily manufactured by the boys themselves (see Handicraft Chapter) and they are inexpensive--pieces from a discarded sheet or cheap 5 and 10 cent store material can be used.
They are easy to get hold of and they have many advantages.
First of all, it is far easier to pack the smaller bags than to fit everything into one big empty space. Secondly, in order to get at, for example, your toilet articles, it isn't necessary to dive in one direction for the soap, in another for the towel, in still another for the tooth brush and so on. The only thing necessary is to get hold of the toilet bag which contains all the articles. Thirdly, the pack will always be in the most satisfactory and blessed order.
The Procedure of Packing
In packing your pack you will first put the different articles into the bags in which they belong. Then place the pack with the back down on the floor or on a table. Fold up blankets properly and place them as flat as possible against the back. Put the clothes bag into the pack on top of blankets. Next place the mess bag on top of the clothes bag. Then the shoe bag along one side of the pack and the repair bag and the toilet bag on the other, the repair bag at the bottom. Put the cup on top in the pack. Roll up the poncho or raincoat into a flat roll and place this directly under the top flap. Close, and the pack is ready so far as the personal equipment is concerned.
If parts of the Patrol Equipment must go into the pack the packing must naturally be varied somewhat to fill the additional needs. In this case it may be necessary to carry the blankets in horse-shoe shape outside
the haversack. Roll the two blankets up into a roll and place this inside its waterproof covering. This roll must be of such a length that when fastened to the pack it starts from the bottom edge at one side, goes over the top and reaches to the bottom edge at the other side. Fasten it here with the straps.
Then a tent or a part of tent takes the place of the blankets inside the haversack folded up in the shape of the back of the pack and placed before the clothes bag is put in. If a cooking pot is in your care you will put that in after the clothes bag has been laid against the back and then proceed by putting in the mess bag (either outside it or on top of it) and filling in the rest of the space with the other bags. Provision bags can be placed in any empty corner of the pack.
In the same way in which we divided the Patrol organization for camp into two groups one being the "Tenting" group, the other the "Cooking" group, we will divide the equipment necessary for camping into two corresponding groups and use the same terms
as before. In the "Tenting" group besides the tents we include material necessary in erecting them and preparing the camp site; also articles that have to do with the general life in camp. In the "Cooking" group you will find everything that has reference to cooking.
Of this equipment the tents will prove the greatest problem. .4 great number of different types are on the market, some for two boys, some for four, some for full Patrols. The tents for two persons, such as "Camp Tents," "Forester's Tents," "Shelter Tents," "Tramper's Tents," are favored by hikers, but they don't seem to agree very well with the Patrol System, not to mention long term camps in rain and wind. These tents have their justification when a few fellows go Out on an overnight hike but they have a queer cooling effect on group spirit, and group spirit or Patrol Spirit is what you are trying to build, not to destroy. Two boys may have their fun in a pup tent but just imagine how the fun is multiplied when four--or even just three get together.
The most suitable tents for a Patrol are those that will give room for half of its members. That makes two tents necessary, one for a group in charge of the Patrol Leader himself, the other for a group with his Assistant in charge, thus giving to the Assistant an opportunity for making use of his leadership abilities.
The tent must furnish ample space not only for the boys and their packs but also for their moving around in it. It must naturally be water-proof and provided with a sod-cloth along the bottom.
A good tent is an "A" (or wedge) tent 7 ft. by 7 ft. and 5 ft. high with "side haulers" (see ill. p. 249). A
A. '"Tenting" Group
2 "P. L. H." Tents (each with room for 4 boys, divided into halves) or 4 tents, each with room for 2 boys.
4 Peg Bags in which the necessary pegs are distributed.
4 Collapsible Tent Poles
2 Lanterns with Candles
2 Ground Sheets
2 Guard Ropes
1 Boot Cleaning Bag containing: Polish, Brush, Rag, Whiskbroom
1 First Aid Kit (Official belt kit)
1 Repair Bag containing: Canvas Pieces. Carborundum Sharpening Stone. Safety Pins. Yarn and Needles. Thin Wire. String.
B. "Cooking" Group
2 Cooking Sets (two 6-quart pots, two 4-quart pots, two frying pans. Nesting, in two bags).
2 Canvas Water Basins
1 Canvas Water Pail
1 Piece of Oil-Cloth
1 First Aid Kit---
1 Kitchen Bag containing: 1 Bread Knife. 2 Dish Towels. 1 Ladle or Big Spoon. 1 Can Opener. 1 Dish Mop. 1 Salt Shaker. 1 Pepper Shaker.
2 Bread Bags
6-8 Dustproof Provision Bags for flour, sugar, salt, oatmeal, cereal, dried fruits, beans, rice.
3 Waterproof and Fat-Proof Provision Bags for fresh meat, smoked meat, fish.
2 Aluminum Containers for butter, marmalade, or jam.
still better tent is a 7 ft. by 7 ft. and 51/2 ft. high "Wall" tent. And why not aim at the best?
These tents may be made to order. But, instead, why not turn the making of them into a Patrol project which will give many hours of busy work and satisfaction
In order to help the real active Patrol make its own tents we are giving in Chapter IX a complete description of the manufacture of a practical tent. This may help you considerably in determining the type of tent your Patrol wants.
Other "Tenting" Equipment
The ground-sheet must be waterproof. It may be made out of a closely woven canvas or of rubberized cloth. It must exactly fit the floor of the tent and should be made to fasten to the sod-cloth.
Illustration above shows: Lightweight Shelter Tent--"Pup" Tent --Foresters Tent
Pegs and poles. In many localities these aren't necessary but may be cut as needed. Yet better be prepared and bring them along when you aren't sure of obtaining them at the site. The pegs may consist of 6-inch spikes. Aluminum pegs are for sale at the camping goods stores but are naturally more expensive. Poles may be taken full-length and carried to camp as Scout staves. Yet one of the rules of the real camper is that he carries nothing in his hands. Better stick to this rule and try to have made jointed poles (preferably with brass-ferules like fish poles. Failing this, a piece of pipe may be used for the jointing) which can be tucked away in a pack or fastened outside.
Spades and Axes. In the complete outfit are included two spades (:or trenching shovels) and two axes divided by the two groups with one spade and one axe to each. You will find that they will come in handy setting up a good Patrol camp.
Illustration above shews: Wedge (A) Tent with Side-Haulers--Wall Tent
The "Tenting" team will need its spade for digging hip-ditches, latrine, garbage pit, and possibly ditching the tents, while the axe may be used for cutting tent poles and pegs, for pegging the tent down and for the making of special camp constructions.
The "Cooking" team will need a spade for building the fireplace and an axe for constructing the cranes and making the pot-hangers and for cutting wood.
Any of the Official Scout axes are good. The National Supply Department also carries a trenching shovel which fits your purpose.
Lanterns. Collapsible camp lanterns are very good. They are worth getting hold of. If you haven't got any of those an empty honey jar hung in a wire and equipped with an illuminating candle is excellent. Just pack it in such a way that you won't break it. Several types of lanterns may be made out of tin cans.
The Boot-cleaning Bag, and the Repair Bag need no explanation.
Two First Aid Kits are distributed with one to each group. These should he adequate. The official kits are specially recommended.
"Cooking" Group Equipment
For Cooking Pots you may choose retinned iron or aluminum. The first is less expensive but aluminum may prove to be the best bargain in the long run. It is clean and it doesn't rust. Be sure that the handle is strong and the lid' well fitting. The two pots will rest inside each other and with the pan (with removable handle) fit into a canvas bag. Another plan is to have one s-quart pot, one 6-quart pot, one 4-quart pot, two pans, and fit these into one bag to be carried by one boy. This makes it more difficult to distribute the equipment.
The Frying Pans preferably should be iron ones, though aluminum ones may be used. The trouble with aluminum pans is that if they aren't kept heated and greased correctly, eats like eggs, fish and flapjacks are
apt to stick. If the handle of pan can be removed or folded back so much the better. Then it will easily pack with the pots. If it can't you will have to fit the pan into a special bag or you may succeed in having a smith cut off a part of the handle leaving 2 or 3 inches which may be bent around and riveted to a small piece of pipe into which any branch may be cut to fit and form the handle.
The Canvas Water Pail is the thing for getting the water. If constructed the right way (see Chapter IX) it can be placed on the ground near the fire, and water will always be within reach of the cook for cooking purposes. Water for washing purposes ought to be within his reach in the two Canvas Water Basins, (see Chapter IX), one in which soap is used, the other filled with rinsing water.
The Kitchen Bag with its different implements needs little explanation.
The uses for the Dust-Proof Provision Bags and the Water and Fat-Proof Provision Bags are obvious. (For the making of them we refer again to Chapter IX).
The A1uminum Containers for butter and marmalade or jam have a glass jar inside in which the stuff is put and covered by the screw top.
Getting Ready for the Camp
At last everything is ready. The different small committees have done their jobs irreproachably. The Patrol organization has proved a-success. The parents' permissions are there; money has been collected; food bought; equipment gathered together. You are sure · that the boys know all the necessary details. Just one thing left for you to do. Make up your program.
Here is a suggestion worked out for a camping hike which takes in one night only. If it is a two-night camping hike you are seeking for, the full day in the middle will be occupied by a program similar to the one used in a Patrol Standing Camp (See page 288).
PATROL CAMPING HIKE TO MORRIS HILLS May 24th-~ay 25th
3:00-Meet at Patrol Den. Distributing of Patrol Equipment and food stuffs among the boys. Checking up on personal equipment.
3:45--Starting trip to camp site via trolley, bus, railway or afoot.
5:00--Arrival at camp site. Choosing of position for tents, fire, etc.
5:15--Making the camp and starting cooking.
7:30--Resting time or games (tag, etc.)
8:0O-Camp fire. A small one with a happy group around, chatting, singing, story-telling.
9:30--Taps around fire. Putting out fire. Making ready for the night.
l0:00--lights out. Silence.
7:OO--Getting out of the blankets. Washing. Starting breakfast. Airing blankets, cleaning tents.
8:OO--Breakfast. Clean up.
8:45--Putting the tents in order. Camp improvements.
9:30--Exploration hike from Camp. Nature study and Scoutcraft.
1l:30--Return to camp. Preparing dinner.
12:30--Dinner. Clean up.
2:00--Start striking the camp. Starting with the kitchen, then getting together personal equipment, the tents being the last thing.
3:00--check up to see if site is actually clean.
3:15-Start home trip.
4:30--Arrival at Patrol Den. Collecting of Patrol Equipment and storing it away. 5 :00--Dismissal.
6:00-The boys will be home in plenty of time.
Starting the Short-Term Camp
Three o'clock is approaching. The boys are beginning to arrive. The Quartermaster already has been at the Den for some time. He is spreading out the Patrol equipment In small heaps-on the floor and table. The Grubmaster has been there with a number of groceries. He has disappeared again with the Assistant Patrol Leader to get the rest of the stuff. He will soon be back. In fact he is just coming in through the door and starts dividing his material up into piles. Shortly all the boys are there.
The Patrol Leader takes command, looks at the packs, has a few of them corrected, asks if the boys are sure that they have all the necessary personal equipment. They have, O. K.!
Distributing the Patrol Equipment
The boys put the packs on the floor, open them, receive their share of the Patrol equipment and succeed in arranging it properly and in such a way as to be able to close the packs again easily. The Quartermaster and the Grubmaster have been working closely together distributing the different articles evenly among all-the members of the Patrol taking in consideration, too, how the boys fit into the Patrol camping organization. And when the picks are ready you will find them containing what is indicated on page 255.
In this list we have tried to distribute the different articles in such a way that each boy is carrying about the same weight of material. You may have to adjust this to fit your case. The weight of your tents, your cooking utensils, your rations, may vary from the plan described. Don't do anything half way. Don't stop until you have found the right way of distributing
A1. Patrol Leader Personal Equipment
1 Tent Half
1 Peg Bag
1 Pole (jointed)
1 First Aid Kit
A2. Scribe Personal Equipment
1 Tent half
1 Peg Bag
1 Pole (jointed)
1 Guard Rope
1 Boot-cleaning Bag
A3 Quartermaster Personal Equipment
1 Peg Bag
1 Pole (jointed)
2 Lanterns with Candles
A4. Cheermaster Personal Equipment
1 Tent Half
1 Peg Bag
1 Pole (jointed)
1 Guard Rope
1 Repair Bag
B. "COOKING" GROUP
B1. Assistant Patrol Leader Personal Equipment
1 4-quart Pot
1 6-quart Pot
1 Pan 1-2 Meat Bags
4 Provision Bags
1 First Aid Kit
1 Piece of Oil-Cloth
B2. Grubmaster Personal Equipment
1 4-quart Pot)
1 6-quart Pot
1 Kitchen Bag
1 Meat Bag
3 Provision Bags
B3. Treasurer Personal Equipment
1 Ground Sheet
1 Butter Container
1 Marmalade Container
1 Bread Bag
B4. HikeMaster Personal Equipment
1 Ground Sheet
1 Canvas Water Pail
2 Canvas Water Basins
1 Bread Bag
1 Provision Bags
your Patrol's equipment even if you have to use eight pennies to put into a slot-weighing machine. Maybe your local grocer will give you permission to use his scales. So much the better. But, find out about the distribution by actual weighing. At a Patrol Camping Contest that took place recently, the heaviest and lightest packs of one single Patrol weighed 35 pounds and 15 pounds respectively. Naturally that Patrol Leader could not have given much thought to the packing of the Patrol equipment. On the other hand if you have some real huskies and some weak boys in your Patrol you will not think of letting them carry the same amount of pounds. There ought to be a relation between the weight of the boys and of the weight they carry. You will use your judgment and load the packs accordingly. In any case if you find by weighing that the average weight of the packs exceeds 25 pounds you may be sure that there is something wrong about your equipment. Investigate, get rid of unnecessary material and cut down the weight.
At last the Packs are ready. The boys sling them on their shoulders and leave the Patrol Den. As you close the door you look around with a last glance. No, nothing has been left. The short-term camp may start.
Getting to the Camp Site
The camping hike starts like any other hike. You have to get out of the city by using the means of transportation which are at your disposal. You follow the main road for a while, to turn off and start the real hiking through the by-path.
By now the Patrol consists of real hikers who know
how to behave on the way. They get fun out of the hiking but their thoughts reach out toward the camp site. "It can't be far now," "If we were only there already," "What fun we are going to have!" From the boys' remarks you will know that their thoughts roam only in one direction.
Then suddenly a turn in the road or a sudden elevation reveals the camp site. The speed is increased a little. You are there at last.
Arriving at Camp
Maybe the hike has been strenuous. Maybe the boys feel like throwing themselves in the grass for a real rest. This isn't the time for rest however. There is a lot of work to be done first.
Immediately upon arrival at the camp site the boys put the haversacks down in a neat row, all turned the same way, close together. The "duffel-line" is formed.
This is the token that possession of the camp has been taken.
Then get your boys together and look over the camp site. Stroll up and down with them and discuss how the different parts of the camp may be placed to greatest advantage--so that there will be lee for the wind, so that the smoke from the kitchen fire won't hang around the tents, so that the ground is smooth for
bedding, and a lot of other details. This won't take long, but even if it should it is worth it. Never start pitching the camp before you have decided upon the set-up. If you do you may get a lot of extra work to do later and you will regret your heedlessness deeply. You decide with your own "Tenting" group where and how the tents are to be placed and talk over with the "Cooking" group where is the best spot for the kitchen.
As soon as these points are decided the work is started and your camp pitching organization is put to a trial. This organization is made up on the following lines :
Camp Making Organization
On your signal the work is started.
The "Tenting" group carries its haversacks to the place where the tents are to be pitched and places them in a row, while the "Cooking" group carries its pack to the site of the kitchen and arranges them in a row there.
The boys open up their haversacks, take out the Patrol equipment (leaving the personal equipment).
Work of "Tenting" Group
The boys of the "Tenting" group each pick up their tent halves, also the tent poles and the pegs and proceed to site where tents are to be pitched. The tent halves are fastened together, back door and front door closed at the bottom. The poles are joined and placed in position and the pegs taken out of their covers.
The tents are spread out and the pitching takes place, two boys working on each tent.
The boys place a peg each in the two back corners of tent, stretching the base line of back at the same time. Then they place two pegs at the front corners, stretching the front base line and side lines simultaneously. One boy raises the front pole to vertical position while the other pegs down front guy- rope. Then the poleraiser raises back pole, and his buddy pegs down back guy repel. The first boy next goes inside tent and straightens up the sod-cloth, while the other pegs down the sides of tent and gets it into correct position.
The other two boys of the "Tenting group" have meanwhile followed the same procedure with their tent as is mentioned above.
As soon as the tents are up, the boys start preparing the bedding.
They clear the ground inside the two tents of stones, humps and branches. If desired they also make a hip ditch in both of them. They lie down all over the
floor to be sure that this job is done correctly. A bump sticking into his side may spoil a complete night's rest for one of the fellows. Next they get the ground sheets from the haversacks of the boys who carried them and proceed placing them in the tents. The blankets are gathered together, refolded (if necessary) and placed in the tents on the spot where the owners of them are to sleep.
Then two of the boys bring into the tent which they raised the four haversacks of the "Tenting" group and put them in position at the head of the corresponding blankets, while the other two do the same to the four haversacks of the "Cooking" group, and the tents are ready for the night.
One of the boys picks up the spade from his equipment and with the help of his buddy clears a place for and digs the latrine. No elaborate latrine needs to be built in a Patrol camp. A simple straddle latrine is the best and easiest thing to construct. It should be built away from camp in the direction in which the wind blows, far enough, yet not too far, and it should certainly be kept about two hundred feet away from the water supply and at a lower level. If it isn't naturally protected by a thicket some sort of a screen should be built around it. The dug-out itself ought to be about two feet long, one foot wide, and one to two feet deep. Pile up the earth at one side and provide a whittled shovel or scoop with which to throw down some earth whenever the latrine is used. Toilet paper may be hung nearby protected against rain, for example by a cut up 'tin can. Be sure to announce to all campers the position of the latrine.
Meanwhile the two other boys prepare with the "Cooking" group spade a garbage Pit in convenient proximity to the kitchen to be of real value to the cooks. Make it one foot by one foot and two or three feet deep. Pile up the earth at one side so that it can easily be shoveled down on top of refuse placed in the pit.
The latrine and garbage pit ready, the whole "A" group gets together, decides upon-a place for the evening's camp fire, clears the ground, collects a sufficient measure of wood and builds part of it up in such a way that one match will start the fire going while the rest of it is stacked neatly at the side for extra fuel.
Work of the "Cooking" Group
The four boys of the "Cooking" group get to work at the same time on four different jobs.
Number one goes to his haversack, and brings down to the place where number two is starting to build the fireplace the piece of oil cloth, the utensils and provision bags which he carried in his own pack. He also fetches the pot and pans, the kitchen bag and provision bags, the butter and marmalade containers and the bread bag and provision bags from the respective "Cooking" group haversacks. He unfolds the oil cloth on the
ground and places on it the provision bags in neat rows. He opens up the two packs of pots and pans, takes these out and places them at one side of the oil cloth together with the kitchen bag. This being done, he starts to get the ingredients together for the evening's meal.
In the meantime number two has taken the spade from the equipment with which it was carried and has been clearing the ground preparing the fireplace according to the style he thinks most suitable. He may have built a stone or sod fireplace, an open trench fire, or made a fireplace of logs with a crane of forked sticks, cross-piece and pot-hangers big enough to take care of the necessary number of pots and pans for the meal, and, in such a position in regard to the tents that no smoke and no sparks will drift in their direction. As soon as the fireplace is ready, number three will have brought in enough wood to start the fire. Number two proceeds to build the fire and as soon as that is done turns to number one to help in the preparation of the meal.
The third boy of the "Cooking" group has meanwhile collected wood for the cooking fire, first getting tinder together, then larger branches.
The fourth Scout picks up the canvas water pail from his own equipment and goes put to get water for the cooking. He brings it to the fireplace and puts the pail within easy reach of the cooks. Next he takes the two canvas water basins from his pack, opens them up, fills them with water and places them with a piece of soap and a towel where the cooks may easily get at them.
When these four jobs have been accomplished the boys get together in pairs.
The first two boys wash hands and proceed to make the foodstuff ready on the oil cloth for cooking- the minute the flames start to leap. Some foresight is necessary. The cooks have to know about how long it
takes to prepare the different dishes of the meal so that they can figure out in which order the various things must be started to be ready in time.
The all-important thing is that they must be served as a meal, not as any casual mix-up of food stuff. The roast is not to be ready half an hour before the vegetables, nor is the coup to be delayed until after the dessert. This is one of the most important points of Patrol cooking, also one of the points which very few Patrols are able to attain. Another point at least as difficult is to have the meal ready at the exact hour for which it is scheduled. All this can only be learned by training, training, TRAINING )
The other two take charge of the cooking fire, or fires. They collect wood, cut or break it into proper lengths and pile it up between three stakes hammered into the ground about 1-2 feet apart, one intermediate space being filled with thin branches, the other with thicker pieces of wood. From these piles they feed the fires and keep them going while the cooking takes place.
All Hands at Work
The work is getting on splendidly At last the tents are up, the camp looks like a camp and from the pots ascends a delicious aroma that is a promise of an appetizing approaching meal.
In the above working plan we have figured on the Patrol having eight members. If the Patrol is smaller, some of the jobs will naturally have to be combined. If it is larger, some of the jobs may be divided up for two boys. The whole point is to be sure that every boy has his piece of work to do, that all are occupied.
Isn't It Wonderful to Be in Camp?
Presently some of the boys of the "Tenting" group finish their work. They remember a rule you have given them: "After having finished your special assignment everything that needs doing is everybody's duty." "Let's set the table" suggests one. They go to the tents, dig down into the haversack and produce the individual eating bags. They place them on the ground in a small circle, open them, take out the plates, put fork and knife and spoon on top of the plates and the plates on top of the corresponding bags. The table is ready--and fortunately so is the meal, as the boys gather around the table.
The two cooks bring the pots and pans with the food and place them in the middle of the circle of plates, and the boys pass them along and around until everybody has filled his plate.
A wonderful meal, well cooked--it is to be hoped. And nothing tastes so good as a meal in the open air.
While eating, a pot with water has been hanging- over the fire, placed there by the fire keeper. When the meal is over the dishes are washed. First everybody goes to the fire or garbage pit and scrapes into it any left-overs from his plates. Next he proceeds to the hot water pot where a boy of the "Cooking" group takes the plates,
cleans them with water and the dish mop and gives them back to the boy who himself dries them with the dish towel included in his own mess bag. If hot water is not available the boys will go down to the water (a place sufficiently distant from the spot from which water is fetched for drinking or where bathing takes place), tear up a small piece of sod and scrub the plates first with the bottom side then with the top side of the sod and cold water until they are clean. Rinse in the water, dry and put them into your bag ready for next meal. Forks and spoons are treated in the same way. A table knife may be cleaned by being simply stuck into the ground and wiped.
Also the cooking utensils are to be cleaned. This is done by the two cooks while tire Other two of their group put out the cooking fire and give the kitchen a general clean-up.
The time is now ripe for the evening's program.
The Evening's Program
After supper there may still be a few moments of light before darkness sets in. Use them for a not too vigorous game or for a quiet stroll around the camp site. Also make a final check up to see that the beds are actually ready for the night and make sure that some kindling wood from the woodpile is brought into the tent. Maybe rain will come during the night. better be prepared and have dry wood for making the, morning's breakfast fire.
It is getting darker now. The stars are peeping forth. The trees are closing in oil you in dark silhouettes. The hour of the council fire has come. The boys get blankets from the tents to wrap around themselves or they put on their sweaters.
The night is getting cool. Then they gather around the council fire circle. You assign one of them to light the fire and to take care of it for the evening. He strikes his match and small flames come leaping out of the wood putting a glow of warmth on the faces of the boys.
Council fires ! There is magic in these words ! Later on when the memory of the camps has faded the boys may still remember the hours when they were sitting around a glowing fire in a close circle, gazing into the rosy embers in silence or chatting in gay spirits.
Here again everything depends upon the Patrol Leader. The council fires will be just as good as you yourself are. If there is spirit in you, there will be spirit to every council fire you conduct.
At big council fires where many people are present and where the flames leap up from a real bonfire a program of stunts, dramatics, duel contests and big ceremonies are in place. Not at the Patrol Council Fire. Here the program must be born of the moment. be spontaneous and free. Yet you may have something in mind that will form a kind of a program. Certain songs to be sung, a story to-be told, a discussion to be started. But don't make this a hard and fast program which must be followed. Rather drift along with the moods of your boys, and as you sit around the fire you may realize that songs which you thought appropriate before starting are entirely out of place at the fire.
Don't be afraid that too little will happen at the Patrol Council Fire. The fire itself will fill all lapses in a possible "program."
Around the Fire
Start by talking about the day and about what the tomorrow will bring--actually planning the next day's program. This may get the boys started on general Scouting, or maybe to talking about their life in school, or sports, football, baseball, or maybe talk may start about a movie one of them had seen the other night.
And then some one will say "By the way, that reminds me of ..." and so forth. If nobody else says it, you will. And you have your story-telling starting and some of the others will have things to relate. "Let us have a song" you will suggest after one of these typical small camp fire pauses during which the boys just sit there, gazing into the red coals, dreaming. Let them dream a few moments, then bring them back to earth and have them sing one of the songs they like best, an old time one or the latest hit, it doesn't matter what, so long as it is good and they like it. And after having hiked with them for several months you ought to know which songs they do enjoy. You will then suddenly remember that Bobby has a song he would like to sing ii you press him. Give him a chance to show off. Also Bill who sits rather quiet in the other corner. Everyone ought to contribute to the general fun. If one of the boys should produce a "uke" or a banjo, so much the better for the singing. If not, the Patrol's champion harmonica player will no doubt fill the bill. Different games may be introduced, a round robin story to which every one of the boys must submit a chapter. Other popular stunts are words mentioned which must be put into a sentence, a line to which a rhyme must be found, a memory test about "Mr. Brown" who met "Mr. Smith. who bowed to
him, Mr. Jones, who kicked him, Mr. Sims, who embraced him," and so forth, every boy repeating what has gone before and adding one more thing until the fun has reached its climax.
Another song, an old-fashioned round, another story and the evening has passed,--alas all too quickly and it is already half past nine.
At your signal everybody arises and stands facing the fire. Arms are lifted to horizontal position over the flames and then slowly lowered to the side while you all sing Taps softly, softly:
"Day is done, Gone the sun, From the lake, From the hills, From the sky. All is well, Safely rest, God is nigh." "And so to bed."
Boys of the "Tenting" group start putting out the fire while the rest of the boys go to the tents. The fire men spread out the burning sticks, pour water on them and make sure that every ember is extinguished before they go to their tent. As they turn from what was a few minutes before a blazing fire but is now just a heap of dead black coals, they see the white tents looming through the dark. The lanterns are burning inside and the tents look like the dwellings of mysterious beings.
Getting to Bed
In the tents everybody is busy getting out of his clothes and into pajamas. All of them know that only foolish tenderfoot campers sleep in the garments they wear during the day and all of them have brought along suitable night clothing. Their uniforms they fold up neatly and put into the space in the clothes bags made vacant by the removing of the pajamas,
whereupon the bags go under the heads of the boys as comfortable pillows. Shoes are placed in a neat row at the entrance of the tent. By and by the boys get into their blankets. Some of them have the blankets sewed at one end and along the two sides into veritable sleeping bags, others use big blanket pins for the same purpose.
Meanwhile the chatter is at its height.
At last everybody is in his blankets and has wiggled himself into a comparatively comfortable position. All except the Patrol Leader. You are ready to turn in. Yet you have still a few responsibilities to attend to. You put on your shoes again and walk out and toward the other tent where the "Cooking" group is to sleep. You look inside. You see if everybody is comfortable and happy. You warn them again not to close the tent flaps, telling them these are only to be closed in ease of cloud-bursts or hurricanes. If a tent isn't well ventilated, it is more healthful to sleep in a stuffy room at home than in the midst of the out-of-doors. Everything seems to be all right. You blow out the candle and get back to your own tent. Before entering you glance at the sky. No, there is no sign of approaching rain. Not necessary to slacken the guy ropes. Maybe they might be slackened just a little though to be safe. And you lift up the front pole and place it in a slightly slanting position, or push it down into a small two inch deep hole which has been made beforehand at the very side of the pole. This does the trick. Then you
get into the tent, blow out the candle and creep into your blankets by the light of your flashlight.
The boys are still chatting. You let them continue until your watch shows 10 o'clock sharp. Then you say loudly enough to be heard in the other tent also "Ten o'clock! Silence! Good Night! Sleep Well!" A faint "Good Night" comes back to you. Then silence. And a few minutes later just the deep breathing of eight healthy boys in a sound slumber.
That is the way it is, if you have trained the Patrol that way! !
Sleeping in Camp
If this is the first night you are sleeping out with your boys you must guard them and yourselves against insomnia. The strange surroundings, the sounds of the night, the hard bed, the excitement of the day, all tend to keep them awake. And if they are permitted to talk they will continue far into the night until exhaustion brings them a few moments of restless sleep. Speak to them about it at the council fire. Tell them that only Tenderfoot Scouts waste the night talking, that real campers go to bed to sleep. Tell them that you must insist that all talking cease at ten sharp when you say "Good Night," not to be resumed before 7 o'clock next morning, when you say "Good Morning." Appeal to the boys' loyalty. Make them understand that even if they can't sleep themselves they must take into consideration the ones that can sleep and instruct your Assistant to carry out your orders in this respect in his tent.
It may be a little difficult at
first. The boys will turn around in their blankets, will want to say something, maybe just whisper. Stop every beginning with a "Sh-h-h." The boys will move around again. Then if he feels that he has to keep quiet he will do so and--suddenly pop off to sleep.
The boys may start waking up early. Insist that they stay in bed until seven o'clock even if they do not sleep. If they get up they certainly won't get any more sleep. If they stay in the blankets there is still hope. If anybody has to get up and go outside during the night have him understand that he must move as quietly as possible and return to bed immediately again.
You are the guardian of the health of your boys. And enough sleep is the foundation not only of health but also of the fun of the following camping day. If the boys do not get enough sleep they are likely to become cross and quarrelsome later in the day. Therefore insist that they do not rob themselves of their sleep by making them stay put from 10 P. M· to 7 A. M.
At seven you will yell your "Good Morning" so that it may be heard for miles, and immediately the camp will become one big noise.
Get the boys out of their blankets and out of the tents immediately even if you have to have some of them pulled out by force. You may make a run around the camp site in order to get the blood to circulating, then strip to waist, wash, brush teeth, and into the clothes. The day has begun and work is started.
The "Cooking" group builds fire in the kitchen and begins preparing the breakfast while the "Tenting" group pulls out all blankets from the tents for airing. The blankets must be unfolded and the sleeping bags turned inside out in order to get the most benefit out of sun and air. Also pajamas and haversacks are thrown outside, the tents being cleared completely. The tent too is aired. That may be done by opening up the back thereby creating a draft. If it is a wall tent you will roll up the sides also for a while.
Breakfast is served and eaten. Plates and pots are cleaned, kitchen cleared, fire extinguished.
Then after an hour or more of airing, the blankets are rolled according to one plan and put inside the tents again and neatly placed. The pajamas are folded and the haversacks are put at the head of the blankets. The tent is straightened up and the camp looks neat and clean.
The Forenoon's Program
As soon as everything is cleared up you will start a forenoon program of real Scouting.
Don't stay in the camp during these hours. Get out on a hike in the neighborhood. Go out exploring and use the opportunity for training in the Scout requirements. The activities are very much the same as the ones which were set forth in discussing activities on the one day hikes (page 211). Nature-study, tracking and trailing, signaling, map making, judging and other activities vary as you go along.
If swimming facilities offer themselves you will undoubtedly find that your boys will want to go in swimming. This brings up a serious issue.
You have the responsibility for these boys of yours. Even if they are all supposedly good swimmers, even if their health condition seems to be the best possible, there may be a slip somewhere! And that slip may spell disaster to a boy and be the sinister shadow which will follow you through life because you, who
had the responsibility, slipped up. We can't paint this too dark. You must not permit any swimming what ever without being sure that the necessary safety precautions have been taken. Swimming should never he undertaken on a Patrol leader or- in Patrol camp except under leadership of a Senior Life Saver, approved by your Local Council.. He will know about the minimum safety requirements and will make sure that they are lived up to.
After the bathing, run around awhile until you are dry. A sun-bath may be had. But make it short. Half an hour is plenty ii the boys aren't already developing a tan. You don't want to have them go home with bad sunburns. Keep everybody moving while sunbathing. Don't permit any boy to lie down and bake. This isn't healthy and besides, by moving, you get far more benefit out of the sunning process.
Dress quickly and proceed on the hike. Or maybe it is time by now to think of returning to the camp to get a bit to eat. Funny how hungry the fresh air makes you!
The Noon Meal
There can be no doubt about it that the lunch the last day in any camp ought to consist of a meal that is very easily prepared. At this stage of the game there
is no reason for going in for elaborate menus. The boys will be getting their dinner at home in the evening, the camp meal is only designed to help them keep up until the return home. Maybe the meal the day before was designed in such a way as to leave something which might be served cold or heated for the last luncheon. If not, provision has been made for something else to be fried or boiled to satisfy the appetite of the boys.
As soon as the meal is over the "Cooking" group will clean up all cooking utensils in order to be pre pared for the packing. The pots and pans must be scoured carefully inside and dried thoroughly. If water can be heated you will naturally prefer that; if not, cold water and a few sods will do the trick. Don't make the mistake of scouring the aluminum pots on the outside. Some people do not think that Pots are cleaned properly if they do not shine brilliantly. This is a great mistake. First of all it takes a disproportionately long time to do the job. Secondly it serves no purposes whatever (maybe with the exception that it looks nicer seen with not understanding eyes). On the contrary, it delays the cooking on the next trip.: Bright metal reflects heat, while blackened metal absorbs it. Therefore it is only after the metal has been blackened that you get the most complete effect out of your fuel. Besides the soot will harm nobody inasmuch as the pots are kept in special bags which do not permit the blackened surface to touch other parts of equipment.: On the other hand you should not let the soot layer become too thick. If this happens it must be scoured off with the bottom side of a sod. Vet do not overdo this. This same scouring must be done if the pots happen to become greasy outside.
After this work is done there should be a short rest for all. But the minutes fly quickly by and soon the time comes for breaking the camp.
The first step in breaking the Patrol camp is to provide for all the personal equipment.
When you announce "Let's go" all of the boys will start to get their possessions together. They will put the different pieces into the bags where they belong, and make the haversack ready to be packed.
As soon as the personal equipment is out of the way the four boys of the "Tenting" group will place their haversacks in a row close to the tents and the boys of the "Cooking" group in the neighborhood of the kitchen and start taking care of the Patrol equipment.
The "Tenting" boys will remove the ground-sheets from the tent, fold them up and place them on the haversacks into which they are to go Then they will, in pairs, return to the tents and start taking them down.
One boy will go to one side of a tent, his buddy to the other. They will take up all tent pegs along the sides of the tent except the corner pegs. Then the first boy will go to the front of the tent, the other to the back. Simultaneously they will take up the front and the back guy rope pegs and let the tent come down flat toward the side' from which the wind blows. The next step is to remove the tent poles and take up the front and back corner pegs. The pegs are immediately put into the peg bags and the poles taken apart (if they are jointed). Next one will grasp the front top of the tent, the other the back top, lift it high, and while stretching the back of the tent, move forward fast, in
the direction from which the wind comes, whereupon the tent is quickly placed on the ground, By performing this maneuver the tent is smoothed out and ready to be folded.
It depends upon the size of the tent how many folds have to be made, Usually it is folded in I/3 of the width from the bottom first, then 1/3 from the top and then rolled from one end.
If the tent is made to be divided into two "halves" the procedure is a little different, After having taker it down you will divide it into the two pieces and then smooth out each piece separately by carrying it against the wind and placing it on the ground, where it is folded up into a shape that will fit the haversacks, The other two boys of the "Tenting" group win treat the second tent similarly.
As soon as the tents are taken down and packed, the latrine and the garbage pit are filled up and covered with the sod. This done the boys will finish by packing and closing the haversack.
In the-meanwhile the "Cooking" group has been busy cleaning up the kitchen. The two cooks have packed the different cooking utensils and have distributed them together with the provision bags between the haversacks where they belong. At the same time the two other Scouts have been picking up wood from the kitchen place.
Shavings and chops and twigs and sticks have been burned on the fire which is kept going until the last Minute. Surplus wood they have hidden in a place where it may be found the next time they visit the place, or if they do not expect to return they have scattered it among the trees in a way natural for dropped branches.
As soon as these Patrol affairs are attended to the boys Will go to their haversacks, finish the packing and make the haversacks ready to be slung on the shoulders,
On a signal from the Patrol Leader the boys will form a line spread over the camp site and while moving slowly forward pick up any trace they find as described on page 220. Not the last scrap of paper or the smallest piece -,f chip must be left.
Everything picked up is carried to the fire and burned,
Then as the last step the fire is extinguished, Water is poured over it until every spark of life is extinguished. Next earth is put on it. It is stamped down and the sods are replaced on top of what was formerly a fireplace hut which is now just a little bit of rising ground which it is hard to distinguish from the surrounding grass field,
If the day is rainy the different things are done in a somewhat different order. Then the tents are left until the very last, all haversacks and equipment being placed and packed inside the tent. When everything else is packed, latrine and garbage pit filled and fire extinguished the tents are taken down, packed, and everything is ready,
The Patrol Leader takes in with a last glance every detail of the camp site. Everything O. K. "Ready to start? Let's go!" And the Patrol is on its way home.
Storing Away the Equipment
As soon as the Patrol arrives in town it will proceed to its Den. Here the boys will open up their haversacks and take out the pieces of Patrol equipment which they have had in charge.
The Quartermaster will take it over and immediately check up on it to see ii anything has been lost. He will then store everything in its proper place.
If the tents are wet from rain he must provide for their being dried before storing them. If not, the re suit will be that the canvas will be spoiled by mildew, which will shorten the life of the tent. Together with a couple of other boys he will hang up the tents in an airy place and not pack them up before they are thoroughly dry. The same applies to towels, canvas water bag and water basins.
The Grubmaster will look after all of the Provision Bags. If any perishables are left over they must be disposed of--if their quantity is very small by throwing them away. if bigger by having some of the boys take them home and use them there. Meat bags and the like must be carefully washed and dried before they are put away.
What Did You Learn?
The trip is over but not its effects. Undoubtedly the boys have had experiences and made observations on this camping trip of theirs.
At the next Patrol meeting you will take it up with them before it is dismissed for other experiences. Three questions you will ask them:
(1) What did we learn'
(2) What was good?
(3) What wasn't so good?
By discussing these three points frankly you may be able to make Improvements ill planning the coming camps and make them into even bigger successes than the first one.
You may find that the organization ought to be changed somewhat, that the equipment wasn't adequate or maybe was too extensive, that some parts of the menu suited the boys While others did not. And it is only by speaking about these things and by getting the opinion of the boys that you are able to improve the details next time.
Naturally you wouldn't expect everything to turn out just right on the first camping hike you undertake. That would be expecting too much.
But what you will expect is on the first camping trip to create a desire in your boys to become real campers, a desire that will take them into the woods, week-end after week-end, a desire in them to lead the outdoor- life which is one of the cornerstones of real Scouting. And by creating this desire you have not only started your Patrol toward becoming a real Patrol but you are also helping your Scouts become stronger and healthier and happier boys.
The step from one-day hiking to short-term camps isn't so big. The step from short-term camps to standing camps is. In fact it is so big that few Patrols are ever able to undertake it, and certainly no inexperienced Patrol. It can consequently only be recommended for an old Patrol with an older Patrol Leader.
This is not because the equipment is any more expensive or the daily work more difficult to accomplish. The sole difficulty is the building of a program that will keep such a small group as the Patrol is, occupied and interested and happy over a longer period of living together.
Boys want variety, and excitement. And only if they
are used to working together exceedingly well and have something going on the whole time will they be able to enjoy the limitations of the activities of a small isolated gang.
And in this respect the personality of the Patrol Leader counts 100%. Everything depends upon his and his spirit. If he can keep things going, the experiment will be a success; if his grip slips it will become a failure. And the failure of a Patrol standing camp may mean the destruction of the Patrol.
Therefore--if you are not perfectly sure that you can undertake the job and that the boys will get real enjoyment out of it, do not undertake a Patrol standing camp, but go instead with the complete Patrol to the Council camp where it may live as a unit its own life and yet have the excitement of getting together with others.
If the Troop to which it belongs is having its own camp, the Patrol wouldn't think at all about going Patrol camping.
It will stick to the Troop and in the Troop camp do its bit to build Troop spirit together with Patrol unity.
But in case that the Patrol is absolutely to have its own standing camp, go right at it. The obstacles aren't so big that they may not be overcome through grit and perseverance.
Take the matter up with your Scoutmaster. Discuss with him the whole matter, have him help you with the planning. If it is possible for him or for one of the other Troop leaders to go along with the Patrol, so much the better. If not, be perfectly sure that you hare the grit yourselves to make the camp a success when alone with your boys.
Before starting an undertaking of this sort, you must, yourself, as well as the boys, have the necessary experience.
naturally you must, first of all, qualify? as a leader of short-term camps for which the requirements are given on page 228. But besides the six requirements there mentioned the following must be added:
For you to pass:
(7) You must have undertaken at least ten short term camps with your Patrol: extending over one or two nights to the satisfaction of your Scoutmaster. For your boys to pass:
(8) At least 5070 of the boys going (yourself excluded), must have taken part in at least ten Patrol short term camps with you as their Patrol Leader.
You may think that these are rather severe demands to comply with. Yet you are sure to find out by actual experience that they are not too strict. Without the above mentioned experience a Patrol will only in cases of rare exception turn a Patrol Standing Camp into a success.
The Standing Camp being a matter of one to several weeks it goes without saying that it can only take place during one of the longer school vacations or during the time of the year when the working boys get their days off, in other words possibly at no other time than mid summertime, July- August.
The actual time can naturally not be decided upon without conferences among all of the boys and between the boys and the authorities who have to do with the assigning the vacation periods
Plenty of time must be given for this, and it would not be too early to start thinking of it in the beginning
of May if the camp is to take place in July or August. The sooner the actual date is decided upon the sooner other details can he planned and executed.
The Site of the Camp
The ideal site for a Patrol Camp was discussed in the preceding pages, yet a few additional remarks may be in Place here.
What was said in regard to soil, shelter, water and wood naturally holds good in any case. Only the actual position of the site may be somewhat different. For a camping hike you do not want to get too far away from your home town. 'Too much money and time is spent this way. But in regard to standing camps one of the most attractive features may just be that it is far away, that it is a spot where none of the boys have ever been but which they have longed to see and now get their first chance to visit.
It may be somewhere in a mountainous region, or somewhere at a seashore, at an especially interesting inland lake or some other place famous for its beauty.
In case such a place is decided upon the Patrol must get permission for using it before it starts out on its trip. A certain amount of correspondence is necessary. And in that correspondence it will wish to have the answers clearly settled to several questions besides the ones on shelter, water, wood, etc.
(1) Is the place exposed to too mush publicity? (This especially ii you have the feeling that it might be close to a summer resort of some kind or other.) (2) Is there a place within three to four miles where groceries may be bought?
(3) Is there a farmhouse within two to three miles from which eggs, milk, potatoes, vegetables, straw, may be purchased?
(4) Is there a doctor within easy reach (5) Is the place infested by mosquitoes or other pests?
The best thing to do would be to have one of your Scouts (if you can't go yourself), go to the camp site, look it over and see if it is fit for use. The next best thing is to get in touch with the local Scout authorities and ask them to help you out.
Without detailed information about the camp site, you may later be sorry because you went there. Therefore, better be too particular than too easy-going.
As you get your information you will put down your notes about the camp site. You will also purchase a topographical map of that section of the country and try to fit the different details into this.
The equipment for a standing camp is mostly the same as the one necessary for camping hikes. Yet some diversities may be considered.
On a camping hike you want to take along as little as necessary yet enough to make you comfortable for a few days. In the standing camp, you may want to arrange everything a little more comfortably. Camp is not, as some people think, a place where you go to rough it. On the contrary, it is a place where you try to make yourself as comfortable as possible with as simple means as possible. Therefore, in order to accomplish this, you may want to take things along which you wouldn't think of bringing on a camping hike. Also a few things may prove to be absolute necessities.
Divided into personal and Patrol equipment you may want to take the following in consideration.
(In addition to equipment mentioned on page 211)
Change of uniform-Shirt, Shorts, Neckerchief, Stockings, Extra Underwear, (1-2 sets).
Straw Tick (2' x 6').
Paper, Envelopes and Stamps.
Mosquito Netting (possibly also citronella oil and ointment).
Sport Articles--Football, Baseball, Boxing Gloves, Archery Tackle, Fishing Tackle, etc.
Books-One or two favorites, if possible, suited for reading at camp fire.
(In addition to equipment mentioned on page 247)
Store Tent (for food and equipment).
Kitchen Shelter or Tarp.
"Dining Room" Tarp.
First Aid Patrol Pouch.
Equipment for Scout Training.
Signal Flag Kit,
Tracking Irons, etc.
A few words may be necessary in regard to some articles mentioned.
For the personal equipment in a standing camp, a straw tick (browse bag) is very much recommended. It does not take up much space, is inexpensive (made of cheap linen canvas) yet gives a lot of comfort. For a few nights, it is all right to sleep on the ground. But it is-tiresome in the long run. A straw tick may be filled with straw rented or bought from the nearest farmer or with dry leaves from the forest and will make up a comfortable bed.
Mosquito netting and mosquito remedies are only taken along if you think mosquitoes dominate the nights around your camp site. Again--better "Be Prepared" for the worst !
The Sport articles mentioned or others you may have may fill some space. But do not let that prevent you from taking them along. They will prove wonderful assets to the program of the camp.
Books, if you feel like it, yes. One or two good one. Cheap books somehow don't harmonize with the spirit of camp.
In looking at the Patrol equipment, The Flag of our Country certainly ought to follow the Patrol to camp and wave over it during the long happy days. Impressive hoisting and lowering ceremonies will be a: part of the daily program.
A Store Tent is a necessity in a standing camp. A pup tent is fine for the purpose. Better still, a small tent of white Canvas, pup tents usually being brown, therefore, heat absorbing and rather hot storerooms for perishables.
In case of rain, a Kitchen Tarp to place over the fire place, and a "Dinning Room" Tarp to place over the improvised table and chairs will be a blessing.
The First Aid Patrol Pouch ought to contain besides the material mentioned on page 204 one small bottle of Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia, one bottle of castor oil, tablets of Permanganate of Potassium, tablets of Boric Acid, one tube of Ungentine or cold cream, preferably the first.
Felling Axe may come in handy (i.e., if you are permitted to use it), for pioneer work.
And most certainly Soap for laundry purposes is necessary in a camp extending over a week or more.
The menus must be very carefully prepared beforehand, every detail taken into consideration. It would be a good idea to get in connection before the camp with the grocer and the farmer who are going to provide you with the necessary provisions to send them a copy of your provision list and get their ideas on it. There isn't any fun in making up a list with strawberries and watermelon and fish when none of these things are to be had.
Don't make the menus too complicated. Wholesome food well prepared is better than any fancy dishes.
It is very much to be recommended that you bring along food-stuff for the first day in camp and only start to depend upon the local supplies when the camp is well established.
Your Part of the Planning
The equipment and eats being taken care of by the proper experts of the Patrol, again we come to your planning of the program for the adventure.
The reveille, preparing of breakfast, dinner and supper, cleaning of tents, and making of the beds, camp-fire and retreat are parts of all daily camping programs whether they are short-term camps or standing camps or traveling camps.
It is what goes in between breakfast and dinner and supper, the activities of the forenoon and the afternoon periods that make all the difference in the world.
And that is exactly the point that must be planned extremely carefully before you go to camp with your boys. All hours of the day must be filled to overflowing.
The first day and the last day give no trouble. You will probably not arrive so early that you get more accomplished than just establishing a camp in its simplest form and the last day is filled with the excitement of packing.
The second day in camp is usually occupied by making all of those camp improvements which add to your comfort, while the remaining days must be filled with
a variety of activities depending upon the ingenuity of the Patrol Leader.
As a general rule it may be said that the forenoon period is best spent away from camp on some sort of a hike while the afternoon periods are spent in came in sports, games and special training.
In regard to the first part you will find a number of suggestions on page 221. In regard to the latter the activities will depend to some degree upon the equipment which you have brought along-, even ii it is possible to plan quite a few things right in camp.
No definite suggestions can be made in regard to the afternoon activities. They depend upon the taste of the Patrol and its members. And you are the only one that will know about that, having had a chance to study them for months. Therefore, talk it over with your boys or find ideas yourself.
Whatever you do, be sure to have a program for every hour of every day, if you want the camp to become a success. The following outline for a general daily program may help you in your planning.
PROGRAM FOR DAY IN STANDING CAMP
7:00--Reveille. Get up, wash, start breakfast, etc., air blankets, clean tents and camp site.
8:45-Putting tents in order, camp improvements,
9:30--Hike from camp. Scoutcraft.
11:30--Return to camp. Starting dinner.
l:30--Compulsory rest. Writing of letters and diary, reading.
2:00--Different sports and games, archery, axe throwing, rope spinning, lariat throwing, ball games, etc.
3:30--Scoutcraft training or short hike in neighborhood of camp. Possibly bathing.
4:45--Return to camp. Rest. 5:00-Preparing Supper.
9:30--Taps, extinguishing of fire.
10:00--lights out. Silence. To bed.
Starting the Camp
So you are off at last. Every bit of equipment is there. Nothing has been forgotten. And it is with high spirits that the Patrol gets into the train, with high spirits it rolls toward the adventure of the summer, and with high spirits it arrives at its camp site after a hike that possibly tested the perseverance of every one of its members.
Following the same system which they have been following on all their camping hikes the boys put up the camp in a few minutes, and the cooks start preparing the first meal while all the boys who have nothing to do have left for the farm with their ticks, returning
a short while later with a comfortable straw mattress for every one of the members of the gang.
The supper is eaten, the utensils cleaned. A bit of rest and then the first council in the camp.
So far away from everyday life surrounded by a group of good friends! And just think of the days ahead!
The camp fire is short. The boys are sleepy from the excitement and the travel. "Day is done" is sung softly. To bed. "Good night! Pleasant dreams!" Maybe you don't go to sleep immediately. Maybe you suddenly get a feeling of your great responsibility, the responsibility, the happiness of these sleeping boys around you for days to come. Maybe a silent prayer moves your lips while you bend your head. "Give me power and give me ability to justify all of their expectations!" Then you too are carried off to slumber.
The first day was used for setting up camp, the second day is used for improving it and to introduce all of those things which may add to the comfort or glory of the days to come.
As soon as breakfast is over with and the tents are straightened up you will, everyone, get to work. The first thing you will think of is to do what the discoverers used to do in the days of old when they found their way into an unknown land, to hoist the symbol of their own country. You have taken the camp site in possession as real American boys and you show it by
hoisting the symbol of the United States over the grounds--Old Glory. Get a flag-pole, and get it quick. It ought to be found without difficulty. Fasten an eye to its top, bring the halyard through it, dig a hole in the ground, raise the pole in it, fill up and stamp the earth hard around it, finishing up with a small mound of rocks. Have your boys come to attention and sing one verse of "The Star Spangled Banner" while one of their number hoists the Flag to the top of the pole and fastens it there. This ceremony is used every day as long as the Patrol occupies the camp. In the morning The Flag is hoisted. It is lowered again at night and every time the boys pay it their tribute.
The raising of the flag pole is the start of making camp improvements. Many others may he suggested. ~e shall describe some in a few words and hope that the accompanying illustrations will make the details clear.
First let us consider the kitchen.
A permanent fireplace may be built with side logs and crane. It may be constructed of rocks, dug into the ground, or raised over it on some kind of an altar. A bottomless water pail provided with holes for draught makes a wonderful Patrol stove.
Camp ovens of different designs may be constructed from an old biscuit tin. Don't forget that top heat is just as important as the bottom fire.
Fire thongs and a fire broom will be a real help in handling the fire and keeping the fireplace clean.
A wood pile is made to contain the ready-cut wood for the fire assorted in different thickness. A shelter
may be built over it to keep it from becoming wet on a rainy day.
A chopping block on which to cut the wood and into which the axe is sunk when not in use is a necessary part of every fireplace.
A rack may be built for the cooking pots as shown in the drawing. Another will come in very handy for the plates, while a "cup-tree" consisting of a much branching bough may he set up and a bark container made for fork, knives and Spoons.
A cooling cellar is an excellent thing to have in the kitchen. It may be a 2 x 2 x 2 foot hole dug in the ground lined with stones and covered by a wooden cover. In this the butter may be kept hard, and the milk and the meat fresh even on a hot day.
If a river is flowing by the camp it is even better to dig the cellar in the river bank and line it with stones. The water will fill the cellar and surround the butter, the milk and the waterproof meat container and keep them cool.
Another way of keeping the meat is by putting it on a plate, cover the whole with cheese cloth and suspend it from the branch of a tree in shade of the sun as a fly cabinet.
So much for the kitchen. But the other rooms of the apartment must also be considered. Just outside the tent you may want to place a shoe scraper for the use of the boys before they enter the tent. Another good arrangement for shoes is a shoe rack just inside the tent door. On this all shoes which are not in use are kept neat and out of the way.
A towel rack for drying towels and bathing suits may be set up behind the tents. A few poles and a piece of rope are all that is necessary.
A dining table with benches may be constructed in a number of different ways. One way is to dig it in the ground, another to construct it of thin straight branches
which are woven together on a camp loom and raised on a skeleton of poles.
As the last thing we may mention a sun dial which is a favorite in a number of camps. The important thing is to have the pointer point directly toward the North Star.
From the list above you may make your own choices. Use a few or all of them as suits you. Some of the equipment cannot be considered in any way essential to the comfort of the camp yet they bring in just enough civilization to make it a camp.
The constructing of these implements will take part of the day. Some of the day ought to be spent also on a discovery hike in the surrounding country in order to get yourself thoroughly acquainted with the neighborhood.
Then supper, rest, camp fire! And the second day has gone.
The Life in Camp
After the first two days are over with, you settle down to the general routine following the plan for the days as laid by you in advance.
Everything will be going like clockwork. The meals will be ready at the appointed hour, the different activities will have the full interest of the boys and from morning to evening fun and happiness will prevail.
While discussing short term camps we went into the details of a number of daily activities. By referring to those (page 265) you will find a lot of helpful suggestions. Still in order to cover a camping day in chronological order it may be considered wise to sum up the suggestions and add other worth while hints
The camping day starts at seven sharp. Either with your "Good Morning" or with reveille sounded on the bugle by the Cheermaster. While bugle signals aren't exactly necessary in the Patrol camp yet they help to put special emphasis on certain occurrences, and it is well to start the day in a festive way. So let him go ahead exercising his lungs even ii some of the tones seem to stick inside the bugle.
Get the boys out of the tents immediately and into the mooting wash. Be sure that they actually wash, that they even go "as far" as cleaning necks and ears. Also tooth brushing must be attended to, no one being permitted to sheer away from this.
After the wash the day's work is started. The "Cooking" group lights the fire and gets the breakfast on the way, while the
renting" group gets out the blankets for airing and starts cleaning the tents.
In the meantime the two boys who have been given that special assignment are on their way to the farms to fetch the milk and other things which have already been ordered here. They will return to camp in time for breakfast and take part in this meal with the rest. If the grocer is on the way they will see him too, get hold of the foodstuff for the day and leave the order for next day's meals. If the grocery is so far away as to prevent the boys from getting back for breakfast if they market at this time-the collecting must be attended to at some other time of the day, preferably the early morning hours before the special activities are started.
Breakfast is eaten, pots and plates have been cleaned, the tents are fixed. The Patrol gathers at the flag pole for the Flag Raising ceremony. They salute The Flag as it slowly ascends.
The program of the forenoon is laid away from camp, on a hike-in the surrounding country, with nature study or training in the Scout requirements. (See page 221). If some of the boys have special hobbies as for example photography, collecting of minerals, butterflies and other nature articles. this is the place for satisfying them. If a bathing place can be reached during this period, so much the better. A plunge into the coolness of the water will be welcomed by all of the boys. Be sure to live up to the rules as given on page 272.
Naturally all of the boys ought to take part in these activities. Yet sometimes it may be necessary, if the camp is close to any roads and exposed to publicity, to leave one or two of the boys in camp as guards. We should not like to have happen to your Patrol what happened to another Patrol which we have read about. On returning from a hike they found that their kitchen tent had been razed, and all their foodstuff had disappeared. To the tent flap was fastened-a piece of paper with the following words: "Wy dontcha keep sum beer?" That is one of the reasons why we insist upon the fact that the ideal camp site must be withdrawn from public view. Noon
As soon as the Patrol returns from the forenoon's hike the noon meal is started. There has always been some difference of opinion as to what kind of a meal this ought to be. Many insist upon making it the most important meal of the day and reducing-the evening meal to a light supper while others want the noontime meal light and the evening meal more elaborate.
This is mostly a matter of taste, with both pros and cons. The meal should be such as can be made to-apply with the program of the day. In many cases when the Patrol has special training to do it will prefer to keep the day as free as possible and therefore will decide upon an easily-prepared luncheon and save the bigger meal for the evening. At other times the Patrol may think that the preparing of a big meal in the evening after a strenuous day is too much and will decide upon making the noon meal the chief feast of the day. It is up to you and to your Patrol to decide upon which procedure to follow.
It is very much recommended that you do not stick to the procedure of having one group of boys prepare all the meals in camp. The "Cooking" group will do its share, but the "Tenting" group must also be given an opportunity to try its culinary skill. If this is not done, too much specialization will be going on and half of the Patrol will be deprived of the possibility of training in Patrol cooking. By rotating the responsibilities all the boys will get an insight into all of the things which make a camp run smoothly. If the "Tenting" group isn't sufficiently versed in the art of cooking to prepare the meal it will call in a little help from the other group until it has acquired the necessary skill.
The: noon meal and cleaning up after it ought to be followed by a compulsory rest period. The boys will need it.
Have them lie down in the shade of some tree (the tent is not to be used during the day), preferably on a blanket taken from the tent. Even ii the ground doesn't feel damp it may still be able to give the boys a chill.
A quiet talk may fill the rest hour. Maybe even the reading of a chapter from a good book or a story from the current issue of "BOYS' LIFE". Some of the boys may have special activities to attend to. Writing up their diaries for example, or getting that letter finished for father and mother. Also repair work may be going on, as patching a hole in the shorts, getting that button fastened, that stocking hole darned and shoes cleaned. Still others may take a nap. Don't disturb them. They will be so much better off later in the day.
An hour ought to be sufficient for rest. Extended too long, the rest period may result in a tendency to leafing that will continue the rest of the day.
After the rest hour get some real activity started. An active game from the Handbook for Boys or a sport of some kind. You may rig up an athletic field with broad jump, high jump, race track and try out the boys. If they are interested in archery and have brought their tackle along, bow and arrow work may fill the afternoon. Ropes will suggest lariat throwing and rope spinning (why not make this a Patrol specialty?), also a baseball or a football will create a lot of fun.
Later in the afternoon a short walk may be undertaken. And then the time has come for another meal.
After the evening meal is over with, have a short rest followed by a couple of comparatively quiet games as the dusk comes creeping on, until the hour arrives for the council fire.
Be sure that the boys are warmly clothed as they come to the fire, either by a sweater or by a blanket wrapped around them. If the dew fall is heavy go easy with the blankets. You do not want the boys to creep into cold or damp blankets for the night. This may be remedied by holding the blankets close to the fire for warming just before the boys turn in.
Before starting the more entertaining part of the council fire it is necessary to have a short business meeting during which the program for the coming day is discussed and the different duties distributed. Here you decide who will be getting tomorrow's milk and food stuff, who will cook, who will take care of the camp site, and so on. When this is over with the fun begins
and the council fire continues on the lines described on page 266.
Half past nine already ! Taps sung around the fire, taps sounded on the muted bugle. Fire extinguished. To the tents !
Then 10 o'clock. The day is over. "Good-night. Sleep well!"
If it Rains?
The activities as described above are for the good weather day in camp. But you are right ! It might rain.
We all know that rain muffles even the highest spirits and may even go as far as putting disconsolateness into camp. There is only one thing to do: Get as much out of it as possible. If you are prepared to receive rain when it comes you will be able to offset some of its disadvantages.
But before, thinking of the activities the camp itself must be prepared for the rain.
First of all get all equipment which can't stand rain into the tents. Pots and pans may be left outside, but clothing, spades and axes must be brought inside. And teach the boys that it is not enough for them just to take care of their own equipment. If rain starts it is their simple duty to help bring in the other fellow's possessions too.
Next think of the tents. You certainly do not want the inside of them transformed into bathtubs. And they
will be if some provisions not made to lead off not only the water which streams down the tent sides but also the water which runs toward the tent in brooklets. All spades must be put into activity digging a trench, (Or as it is sometimes called because of its form, a "diamond ditch"), around the tent.
This is done by first cutting down into the ground close to the tent with the spade about 3 inches deep, the whole way around. next by cutting around the tent about 4-6 inches further out and then by turning over and away from the tent the long sods loosened in this manner. Don't ever permit your boys to merely cut up a spadeful at a: time and turn it against the tent side. The sods thus placed will absorb the water as a sponge and tend to ruin the tent. If trenching has to be done, it must be done correctly, also ;n such a way that the sod can be easily replaced when the camp site is abandoned, thus leaving no trace of the camp.
Also do not forget to slacken the guy ropes, or the tent pegs may pop out of the ground. If your tent isn't perfectly waterproof, if it is rather old or of comparatively loose woven material you may find that the rain breaks through and falls inside as a fine spray. Don't be alarmed. If the tent isn't all to the bad this will stop, as soon as the canvas becomes thoroughly wet. Worse it is if drops start to drip from the tent side. This may usually be remedied by putting a finger on the spot and running it along the canvas to the ground. Instead of coming through, the drops will then follow this course. Warn your boys against ever touching the inside of the canvas when it is raining. Unpleasant consequences may follow. Also move every piece of equipment which touches the canvas.
When the necessary work is over with, then is the time to think of the rainy day activities.
Always have a number of stunts or competitions ready which might be pulled inside the tent. Also different instruction may be in order. Try some advanced knotting or splicing, some simple first aid, some signaling by sound or by flashlight, whittling or different projects. Competitions may include spell downs in any of
the Scout requirements or it may be remembering of messages for a certain number of minutes while a general conversation is going on, a Kim's game or one of the games mentioned under camp fire (page 266). You will also find that a musical instrument (a banjo, a "uke" or a harmonica) is worth its weight in gold on a
rainy day. If you can get your boys started singing you are not so badly off.
Or why not try a vigorous tag in the midst of the rain? Take off shoes and stockings. Keep on as little clothing as possible. If bathing suits have been brought along get into them and get out in the downpour. As long as the boys keep moving they won't feel cold. When the game has lasted long enough, if the players strip, creep inside the tent door, take a real rub down until they glow, then get into their clothes again, they will all feel so much better after the fun.
Also a hike through the rain has its attractive aspects, provided you have suitable rain clothing. You can smell. the fragrance of the earth streaming toward you. The trees look different. The plants seem to be more alive.
If the rain is a warm summer one, the cooks may prepare the meals in their bathing suits. If it is rather cool, they will put on their rain clothing As long as they keep their feet warm they will feel no discomfort.
The meals are served in the tents, the boys sitting as close to the door as possible and looking out not to spill any foodstuff on ground-cloth or on blankets, or under the "dining room" tarp, if you brought one along. After the meal the plates are put into the pots and set aside to be cleaned almost automatically by the drizzling rain outside.
An indoor camp fire program with singing, story telling (what about ghost stories!) may follow. Or discussions may be improvised in the evening around one of the lanterns. This doesn't need to be of long duration. Rain makes one sleepy and the boys will
BREAKING THE CAMP
want to turn in rather early. Let them. The monotony of the falling rain-drops on the canvas will soon lull them to sleep.
But do not have the tent closed hermetically even if it is pouring outside. Ventilation is necessary. If the wind comes from the back of the tent it may be possible to keep the front entirely open. If not, you may close it at the bottom, leave the top open and put in a square peg to form a kind of window.
Whether it is a short-term camp or a standing camp, the procedure of breaking camp is the same with the exception that the clearing of the standing camp may have to be started earlier.
Start by pulling down all of these things with the sole exception of the flag pole from which The Flag has been waving since the morning's ceremony. Next proceed in packing the personal equipment, cooking gear and tents.
When the camp site has been cleared of all traces and the packs are ready to be slung on the boys' backs, gather around the flag pole and take down The Flag with appropriate ceremony. Then remove the flag pole and clear the place where it stood.
If the camp site is private property the Patrol will now proceed to the house of the owner who has been kind enough to put it at their disposal. The Patrol Leader will express to him the thanks of the Patrol and the boys will show him their approval by a heartily rendered Patrol cheer.
The camp is over. The Patrol returns home knowing that it has lived up to the counsel of Baden-Powell when he says there are two things which a Scout camper leaves behind him, namely-1. Nothing. 2. His Thanks.
"Nothing" on the camp site to show his having been there. "Thanks" to the people who have helped him by their kindness to enjoy his camping experience.
Without a doubt the most complicated form of camping and the one that requires the biggest amount of capability of its leader is the hiking camp.
The standing camp is difficult enough for a Patrol to manage, but the traveling camp with its questions of leadership responsibilities, knowledge of the country to be traversed, choice of equipment, provision for suitable meals, its heavy expenses is very much harder.
Also the travelling camp is a decidedly older boy proposition for which reason it can never be advised that any but old and well cemented together Patrols should so much as think of such a camp.
If the Patrol has been existing for at least three years, if it has had all the training a Council camp, a Troop camp, and an individual Patrol camp can render, it may be considered capable of undertaking a hiking camp, hut not before. And even so it must be insisted upon that adult leadership is Present and has the actual responsibility of the hike.
If your Patrol has the above qualifications, go ahead and try to arrange such a hike. If it hasn't, keep away from the attempt.
Should a travelling camp be undertaken, it will he necessary to start planning early, decide upon where to go, what to see, means of transportation and expenses involved
Maybe a certain part of the State in which the Patrol lives attracts the boys because of its natural beauty or because of its historic interest or the Patrol may want to go even farther away, exploring other states or visiting
cities at considerable distance. Much of this planning for such a journey depends upon the way in which the Patrol expects to travel. If it wants to go afoot, the territory to be covered must necessarily be a small one. If it can get a car at its disposal the "sky may be the limit," provided there are enough days in which to get there. Other means of transportation may be used.
If walking, don't expect to cover much more than 1012 miles a day at an average. More will prove a great discomfort. For canoe or boat trips 15 miles may be considered the maximum, while bicyclists may cover 30-35 miles without getting exhausted. For automobile hiking, journeys of not more than 150 miles a day are to be recommended if you want the hike to be a pleasure trip.
These distances may seem rather small to you but you will find when you get on the road that a shorter daily journey brings more satisfaction. After all it isn't the distance covered but the experiences encountered that are the main issue.
As soon as your dreams of place and conveyance have taken shape you will confer with your Scoutmaster, who in turn will confer with the Local Council. They together
will decide if the travelling camp should be permitted to take place. If it is agreed that the plan is
practicable, these leaders will help you to secure the necessary adult leadership and to work out the definite plans for the trip.
As it will be easily seen from the above only in cases of rare exception will a Patrol have an opportunity to undertake a travelling camp It will also be seen that as the planning of the travelling camp depends upon the local conditions and upon the means of transportation no hard and fast rules can be laid down and no advice given which will suitably cover all possible combinations. Therefore we shall not in this book further elaborate on the subject beyond advising Patrols which
have enough ambition to think of undertaking such a trip to seek the co-operation and consent of the local authorities and help in regard to the planning and the
actually carrying out of the project.
A well-planned, worth-while journey of this sort makes an unforgettable and valuable experience for a Patrol that is ready for it, but no Patrol should rush into this sort of thing inadvisedly.
A BUSY Patrol is a good Patrol. And a good Patrol Leader keeps his eyes open all the, time for worth-while, interesting Handicraft Projects to offer to his boys. He and his Patrol should find in this chapter enough ideas and suggestions from which to start making- a selection for Patrol activities, which can be turned to good account for the Patrol's own use and satisfaction, for money earning possibilities and for gifts. Many other projects not here given will undoubtedly occur to you and your boys. A wide awake Patrol is a Patrol with ideas of its own, and enough persistence and imagination and Patrol Spirit to put them through. Insist always that whatever is attempted should be done well and finished. Don't let the boys skip from project to project, but also be always ready with a new idea as soon as the old one has become fact.
Probably its own needs will make your Patrol decide first to work on its camp equipment or the outfitting of its Den. And such a. shared dream and effort is the best possible foundation for real Patrol Spirit and co-operation, for getting to be real friends with each other.
As has been said elsewhere, the Patrol Leader will try to utilize and develop the individual gifts and special abilities of his boys. Let the boy who is handy with tools make the Den bookcase, the boy who is artistically inclined design the Patrol emblems or totem pole, the boy who is interested in special craftwork like woodcarving or metal work or photography make his particular gift to the Patrol Den furnishings. Let the knot-tying enthusiast supply the knot board, the nature study lover provide the leaf or track casts. Let each boy offer some definite contribution to the Patrol life accessories. And this, in addition, of course, to the group projects such as making camping equipment, tents, and so forth, in which all work together on a common task, for a common end. Thus everybody has a share in everything.
In selecting Patrol projects for money earning remember that specialties pay best and are most satisfactory to develop. The Patrol which is known to :e expert makers of neckerchief slides, or celluloid ornaments and utilities, or pine needle trays will have a better opportunity to market its wares profitably than one which tries to do a little of everything and doesn't bother to do any of it with the highest degree of excellency and beauty.
In this connection, too, it should be noted that "mass production" is best conducted on a specialist-within your-group plan. For instance, if your Patrol is producing and selling linoleum prints for Christmas greeting purposes, let one boy-your best artist--make the designs, another transfer the designs to the linoleum, while two others cut the blocks, still another inks them, and two others work together in making the actual prints. In this way the work is done more rapidly and more satisfactorily and with a generally higher standard of results than can be otherwise achieved.
Though naturally, in so brief a space, it has not been possible to treat these subjects in great detail, we have endeavored, nevertheless, to make the descriptions of procedure involved in the Handicraft activities so complete that by the aid of the illustrations it can be easily followed by you and your boys. For your convenience also, in case you wish to dig deeper into any of these specialties, we have listed with each subject discussed a few good practical books, which will be of interest and help. Most of these books and probably others on the same lines you may be able to secure from your local libraries.
And so to work!
Be a busy leader of a busy Patrol. Make Expert Handicraft a tradition in your Patrol. Use it for fun, for training, for self expression, for thrift, and above all--for Service.
The value of a Patrol having its own room, which it can furnish and decorate as it sees fit, can not be over - estimated.
The possession of a Patrol Den is a tremendous help in developing Patrol Spirit, and at an early stage of its life the Patrol should certainly try to get one.
To start with, however, the Patrol may have its meetings at the Troop meeting room. Consequently it wants this, its own corner, to represent the
personality of the Patrol. This may be done by building up a Patrol screen, as shown on page 309, decorated with Scoutcraft articles, record charts, photographs, shields, etc.
When you are lucky enough to procure a room for the Patrol, get together with your boys and decide upon how it is to be decorated. You may want to make the room into a Scouting den, a woodcraft den, a pioneer log cabin, an Indian tipi, or into something else specific for your Patrol. The pictures on these pages will suggest different possible lay-outs.
For a pioneer den you will naturally stick to the pioneer style of using unfinished wood for your furniture, snowshoes, skins, powder horns, old firearms and
the like for wall decorations. An appropriate chandelier may be made out of an old wagon wheel.
For an Indian room you may build a tipi within your den, furnished with stump seats and fireplace on which incense may be burned. Or you may decorate the room with Indian blankets, bead work, head dresses, skins, totem poles, and build an artificial camp fire for the center.
There are many other ways of furnishing and decorating a Patrol Den.
You may build rustic furniture consisting of chairs or benches, tables, desks, library shelves. Or you may use old wooden boxes for the making of your furniture.
On the walls may be hung The Flag of our country, flags of other Scouting countries, signal flags, streamers or bunting. Also a poster with the Scout Oath and Law, pictures of James E. West, Dan Beard and other we11 known men inside or outside the Scout world.
On one wall you may want to arrange a Patrol Hall of Fame with a shield for each boy with his photograph, his Merit Badges, his record in the Patrol. Or what about a Patrol historical exhibition of photographs and souvenirs brought home from the Patrol's
THE P. L. H. TENT
many trips Another good idea is to have a big topographical map of the country around pour town on which may be painted the routes of tries undertaken by the Patrol.
On another wall you may have knot boards, instruction charts, or a blackboard which may help you in the training of your boys. Also shelves for your Patrol library and chests for your Patrol equipment.
In the corners of the room may be arranged different nature exhibits, models of camp fires and tents and bridges or the Patrol flag or totem in majestic solitude in a stand made especially for it.
There is no limit to the number of ways in which a Patrol Den may be decorated. Use your imagination, but be sure that the Den expresses the personality and spirit of the Patrol.
Making the "P. L. H. Tent" As mentioned in Chapter VIII, tents which can accommodate half of the members of the Patrol are by many considered the best for Patrol camping. But at the same time transportation must be considered. Naturally a tent for four weighs more than a tent for two and is consequently more difficult to handle. On page 315 are given the patterns and working drawings for a tent which has the advantages but not the drawbacks of a 4-person tent. It consists of two halves. If only two boys want to use it, they put up one- half as a complete baker tent. If four boys want it for shelter they will make two halves into one wall tent.
For your tents it is up to you to choose your own material, You may want to use 7 or 8 ounce duck, white, khaki or green, or a lighter, tightly woven material.
Before cutting it make up a miniature model of tent in paper, two inches representing one foot. Figure
out how material may most economically be used, how many widths go into making the roof and side, how many the flaps.
Remember that on the pattern, page 315, no extra measure is allowed for seams. Leave enough for a strong seams wizen cutting material.
The procedure of assembling the tent is evident from the drawing. Detail drawings explain a few points. One sketch shows the sewing of the eave, one, the fastening of ribbons to flaps for closing, one, the loops through which side pegs go, one, the correct way of putting together and attaching guide ropes.
Ordinary clothes line may be used for guy ropes.
Two poles, 61/2 feet long, are necessary for wall tent. For baker tent, poles are halved, two 31/4 feet poles being used.
The dimensions of wall tent are 61/2' x 7', 61/2' high with 21/2' Side walls. Dimensions of baker tent are 4' x 7', 31/2) high, with 31/2' x 7' veranda.
For necessary tent accessories, see chapter on Patrol Camping.
Patrol Equipment Bags
On plate, page 317 appear the patterns with dimensions and drawings of a few pieces of the Patrol camping equipment which a Patrol can make for itself, namely, canvas water pail, canvas water basin and provision bags for dry rations and meat.
The canvas water bag is made of heavy waterproof material. The largest piece is turned over with a wide hem at top and bottom Next the sides are sewn on, the pail turned inside out and sown again along the seam. Two grommets are fastened at front and hack of top and a couple of rape ends inserted for a handle. Ii bag leaks at seam rub with a piece of beeswax.
The sides of the canvas water basin are sewed to the bottom separately, starting at center and working to either side. Next, the sides are sewed together.
Turn inside out and sew again along seam. Hem along top.
The dust-proof, dry ration provision bag is made of aeroplane cloth, "balloon silk" or any other dust-proof material. The water-proof meat provision bag is made of canvas which is afterwards- paraffined. The procedure for making is the same for both bags. Sew ends of large piece together, sew onto bottom, turn inside out, hem along top. Sew on side ribbon for tying up bag.
The bread bags are made in the same way as the above provision bags in sufficient size to accommodate your favorite brand of bread.
Making the Camp-O-Sack
A real camping Patrol will want the right kind of a camping haversack. Such a haversack has been designed especially for Patrol use and is for sale under the name Official "Camp-O-Sack" at the National Supply Department.
Instead of buying the haversacks, your Patrol may want to make its own as a real project. The patterns and working drawings for the sack are shown on page 319. It will facilitate the making of your own haversacks, however, ii you purchase one sack from the Supply Department to serve as a model.
Supply yourself with two large sheets of stiff paper. Transfer in duplicate on these sheets the design of haversack as shown on page 319, enlarged in correct proportions. Cut out the two sets of pieces, using one set for a pattern, the other to make up into a complete model haversack in paper, the parts being pasted together firmly with rubber cement ("Devoe"). This process will get you acquainted with every step in the procedure before you get to the actual haversack, thus avoiding any chance of a mistake when you come to the real thing.
Decide upon the material which you want to use for the actual sack. A heavy waterproof khaki canvas
is probably best for this purpose, but you may have your own pet ideas in regard to colors and weave. After all, this is your haversack.
After having bought the material lay out the patterns on it, fitting them on to the canvas in the most economical way. Gut out. The measurements as given provide for an ample seam.
Get a sewing machine ready, threaded with heavy thread, and start the sewing.
First hem the two long pockets that go on either side of the back, then sew them on to the back. Also sew straps on to bottom in correct position. Sew front part to bottom, starting from center front and working to either side. (Remember at the same time to insert, in center, strap for tying the flap). Next sew back to bottom in same fashion. Turn inside out. Sew front and back together. Turn right side out. Sew again along seam whole way around. Next hem sack at top. Sew two pieces of big front flap together, turn inside out and sew along seam. Hem small flap. Sew big flap and small flap on to haversack in such a way that a small pocket is formed for a cross stick. (Remember at same time to insert, in center, strap for closing the bag.) Take bag to a sailmaker or saddler. Have straps riveted on, six grommets put in top (two in back strap, two in front, one in each side center) and one in flap. Also have leather straps for closing flap pocket riveted on. Two ash boards, 13" x 11/2" X 1/4", are fitted into the side pockets, another hoard, 9" x 3/4" x 1/4", into the cross pockets at top of pack, and the haversack is ready. See page 245 for photographs of finished sack.
Personal Equipment Bags
In speaking of the packing of the haversack (page 243) we mentioned the "bags within bag" system. We also listed on page 241 the necessary bags, namely, (a) clothes bag, (b) mess bag, (c) toilet bag, (d:) shoe bag, (e) repair bag.
The patterns and dimensions for these bags, with pictures of finished bags, are given on page 320.
Inexpensive 5 and 10 cent store material may be used for these bags. The cutting and sewing is very simple.
For the clothes bag the cloth is hemmed the whole way around. Next a piece is folded up at both ends and seamed along the side. Bag is turned inside out and is ready for use. One compartment is for night clothes, the other for extra day clothing.
For the mess bag, also, the cloth is hemmed the whole way around. Next a smaller piece is sewed on front piece of bag as indicated on illustration, making three small compartments for knife, fork and spoon. Seam along sides. Make button holes and sew on buttons in front, or use snap fasteners.
The toilet bag is made in the same way as clothes bag. Larger space is left for towel, smaller spaces for soap, tooth brush, paste, comb. One or two tapes may he sewed on outside for tying around bag.
Shoe bag and repair bag are made as square bags with a wide hem at top through which draw strings are passed.
Leaf Printing (Plate Page 322) Projects: Leaf collections
Material and Tools: Dependent upon procedure to be followed.
Procedure: Smoke print. Rub a little Vaseline evenly on a piece of paper. Soot over candle flame. Place leaf under side down on sooted surface. Place paper on top and rub with finger ends. Move leaf to clean paper, place paper on top of it and rub again from center of leaf outwards. Remove paper and leaf. Spatter print. Fasten leaf on paper with pins. Dip tooth brush in ink, pull bristles toward you with finger or nail, and let them snap hack. This throws a fine spatter of ink on to the paper around
the leaf. Continue until even spatter is made. Dry. Printers Ink print. Spread out printer's ink on glass plate with rubber roller. Continue as under Smoke Print. Blue print. Place leaf on sensitive blue print paper, cover with glass. Expose to bright sunlight till blue around the edges. Wash in running water 2 to 3 minutes. Dry between dry paper under pressure. Special background effect with wire netting, cheese cloth, etc. Photographic print. Same process as making blue prints. Expose to light for twenty minutes.
Bibliography: Nature Collections, by Cornelius Denslow, Boy Scouts Service Library, SCOUTING, March, 1929, page 114.
Nature Casts (Plate Page 325)
Projects: Leaf casts, twig casts, casts of tracks; Material: Plaster of paris, "Plasteline" or "Plasticum."
Procedure: For Leaf or twig casts, take some "Plasteline" and flatten it out on a board. Then carefully lay leaf underside down in the position desired, lay sheet of paper over and rub thoroughly with tips of fingers to make deep impression. Remove paper and leaf. Print name of leaf or any other information in the clay backwards as though you were seeing it in a mirror.
Next build a wall of "Plasteline" around the negative (see plate) to form the mold. Mix plaster, slowly sifting the plaster into water. It will sink to the bottom of the dish. When it rises above the water level just slightly you have sufficient plaster. Mow stir thoroughly. It should be about the consistency of thick cream. If too much plaster has been put in, it can he thinned with water.
Pour plaster into the leaf impression. In about twenty minutes the cast will be hard enough to remove. When you can tap it fairly hard with your finger nail
without making a dent in it, it is ready. Remove "Plasteline" walls and lift off the cast. If it sticks carefully insert a blade under the edge. After trimming it neatly with a knife leave it until dry, then paint with water colors, or show card colors (opaque water colors).
Track casts are made from animal or bird tracks found in the ground. Choose the best track you can find. Place a ring made of a strip of cardboard and a clip around it. Pour plaster of paris into the ring to sufficient thickness of cast. Leave for twenty minutes. Wash in running water. By making an impression with cast in plasteline a mold may be made that can be used for producing other casts in the form of letter weights, book ends, etc.
Bibliography: Tracks and Trails ($1.25) by Leonard Rossell Boy Scouts of America. Nature Collections by Cornelius Denslow, Boy Scouts of America.
Nature Collections (Plate Page 326)
Projects: Collections, of wood specimens, rock samples, butterflies, pressed flowers, bird feathers. Material: Dependent on subject chosen.
Procedure: On plate are given several suggestions. The wood specimens are cut with grain, cross grain, slantwise of grain in order to show clearly how grains run. Half of each cut may be polished. Specimens are mounted on board. For the rock samples two boards are used. In one, circular holes are cut, and then the boards are nailed together. Plaster of paris is poured into the holes, the specimens placed in correct position and the whole thing put aside to harden. The other pictures on the plate are self explanatory.
Bibliography: Nature Collections by Cornelius Denslow, Boy Scouts of America; Insect Life Merit Badge Pamphlet ($1.50) Boy Scouts of America. SCOUTING (Collecting and Preserving Plants),May 1928
Material and Tools: Dependent upon subject.
Procedure: Dependent upon subject.
Biography: Woodcarving and Wood Work Merit Badge Pamphlets ($.20 each) Boy Scouts of America.
Current issues of BOYS LIFE ($.20) Boy Scouts of America.
Also Popular Mechanics, Science and Invention.
Boy Mechanics, Vol. 1-III ($2.00 each) Popular Mechanics Press, Chicago, Ill.
American Boy's Handbook ($3.00) by Dan Bear?, Chas. Scriber's Son, New York, N. Y.
A. B. C. of Woodcarving ($2.00), by Wheeler, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, N. Y.
How to Build Bird Houses ($.20):Boy Scouts of America.
Home Handicraft for Boys ($2.00) by A. Nelly Hall, George Hi Doran Co., 244 Madison Avenue, N. Y. Books by Manual Arts Press, Peoria, Ill. (Write for catalog).
Visit your local library for great selection of books on wood work.
As said before: A busy Patrol is a good Patrol. So go ahead and use this chapter freely. Or better still: Develop ideas of your own.
The Troop camp fire is well under way. it has been a glorious day. The hike was a success, and so far the camp fire which closes the day's program has done credit to everything else that has happened. Then suddenly somehow or other it starts to slacken. There isn't the same attention, not the same spirit. Then perhaps from a corner comes a voice "Wet Moccasins, pull us one of your stunts!" And in a moment all the others join in: "Moccasins! Moccasins! Up! Up! Up!" And you simply have to get your Patrol up, because yours is it, even if the name we have hit on doesn't happen to be the one that is on your Patrol flag. And the reason why all the others depend upon your Patrol for entertainment is that you have proved before at Troop meetings and hikes that you and your boys were always ready to do their bit to amuse the rest.
"Be Prepared" for Fun
This is a thing that must not be overlooked when we speak about being "Prepared." Our motto applies not only to serious business but also to fun. So "Be Prepared" to pull a stunt whenever it may be asked for or
needed. This will not only help entertain others, but: it will also be a good thing for your own group. There will be many a time when a stunt will help your boys along and pep up their spirits. Whether these stunts consist of a song on the twenty mile hike, a yell before entering a competition, an inspirational story around a camp fire or a more elaborate piece of dramatics that needs plenty of training which will add to the fun of the Patrol meeting, or something else, it will be well worth this effort if it livens things up for yourselves and others.
Let us start with Patrol yells, maybe the simplest form of a stunt, yet, maybe, also the one for which you will find use most often.
Yells are great fun. You can't get away from that. Yet there is far more to them than just their entertaining qualities.
They may be considered a safety valve for over-abundance of enthusiasm and suppressed energy, or just a means of giving the boys an opportunity to indulge in their favorite sport of making a noise. But also--and this is equally important-at the same time that they are offering the boys a chance to express their bubbling spirits, they are also helping to build up unity in the group and helping to make the boys feel more closely knit to each other. In short, Patrol yells make for Patrol Spirit and close comradeship.
So by all means encourage the yelling. Naturally not at any time, whether suitable or not, but every time there is something to yell for or a reason for yelling. But before starting to yell you must necessarily know what you are going to yell. Also you ought to have somebody lead the yell in order to get it loud enough and keep it in rhythm.
Develop Your Cheer-Leader
Generally in every Patrol there is a boy who knows something about how a yell is rendered. Let him step in front of the boys and try out his abilities along that line. ~f you haven't a natural cheer-leader you must try to develop one. Our Patrol organization calls for a "Cheermaster," and having one, is well worth while. Try to make a few of the boys interested in leading, have them try to learn the trick by watching real cheerleaders in action, or by simply going to one of them and asking him for a few pointers. In most cases the high school cheer-leaders won't mind teaching their secrets to a boy whom they find actually interested in the subject.
To start with you may find your boys rather shy when they are to lead, but if the Patrol responds to their efforts they will speedily warm up to their job and sooner or later develop into the real stuff.
Making up a Yell
In regard to the yells themselves, the best thing would naturally be if the Patrol tried to make up its own and put its personality into them. A simple two-, line rhyme with a few "Rah's" in front and a few "Rahs'; behind can easily be made up, as for example: "Rah, Rah, Rah Rah, Rah, Rah, Rah! Yellow Foxes are in line, Whether it be rain or shine !
Rah, Rah. Rah, Rah, Rah, Rah, Rah!" In the above, the first line of Rahs may even be omitted. The last line, too, for that matter, maybe leaving one Rah only for a closing effect. It is as simple as that to make up a veil for any special occasion !
To help you in making up a veil for your Patrol we are offering a number from which you map choose
In most cases the
Yells From Many Countries
AMERICAN SCOUT YELL
A-M-E-R-I-C-A Boy Scouts! Boy Scouts! U-S-A!
AMERICAN SKY ROCKET Sssss-s-ssss! (long sizzing sound)
BOOM! Ah! (very loud) Boy Scouts! (followed by clapping of hands)
BRITISH RANK YELL
Be Prepared! Be Prepared! Shout it! Shout it! Shout! Tenderfoot! Second Class! First Class Scout!
Leader: Who are we?
We are the boys who make no noise!
Hoo-ha! Hoo-ha! Hoo-haha!
Rambling Buf-fal-oes!(or other Patrol name)
Rah! Rah! Rah! Rah! Boy Scouts! Boy Scouts! (Repeat three times, imitating a locomotive with increasing speed. Arm movements like the piston)
Ray! Ray! Ray! Ray! Ray! Ray!
(Rays without arm movements and gradually diminishing to finish)
CANADIAN (In Norwegian Disguise)
I, gee, itta, keeh!
I, ee, jip!
Speidere, Speidere! Rip, Rip, Rip!
Kanta Teta Vah Vah!
Kanta Teta Tar!
Fremad Speiderel Fremad Speidere!
Rah! Rah! Rah!
("Fremad" means Forward, "Speidere," Boy Scouts, pronounced "Spider")
Teh Rikkeh, Teh Gikkeh, Teh Geffen!
Viola, Vo-ola, Effen! Leve Spejderchefen!
(Last line pronounced "Leh-vay Spider--che~ain" meaning "Long live the Chief Scout")
Brave! Brave! Brave!
(Pronounced short and sharp, like: Browl Brow! Brow!
Adidgi, Adidgi Ah, ou, ah!
Adidgi, Adidgi, Zim, born, bah!
Ah, on Ah, Zim hem bah! Ah! Ah!! A-a-ah! !!
(The last Ah representing the air escaping from a balloon, the force of it decreasing)
Ric! Tic! Ric-a-tic-a-tic!
Hopsa! Hopsa! Hie!
(Repeated three times)
MISCELLANEOUS AMERICAN YELLS
Buffaloes! Bis! Boom! Bah!
Buffaloes! Rah! Rah! Rah!
Rocky-eye! Rocky-eye! Zip, zum, zie!
Shingeratal Shinge~ata! Bim, bum, bie!
Zipzum! Zipzum! Bah, Rah, Rah!
Karabora! Karabora! Ah, ah, a-a-ah!
Urah, rah! Urah, rah! Urah, rah!
H-O ! R-S-E! Rah, rah, rah!
Boom! Horse! Boom!
B-B! B-O-Y! S-S! S-C-O! U-U! U-T-S! Of America! !!
Who are we! Who can guess!
Boy Scouts! Boy Scouts!
Yes! Yes! Yes!
Boom-a-racket ! Cheese-a-racket !
Sis, boom, bah!
Rah, rah, rah!
Chee-hee! Chee-hie! Chee-ha-ha-ha!
Rah, rah, rah!
Rah, Ry, Ree!
Scouts are we!
Razzle, dazzle! Razzle, dazzle!
We're the "Flying Eagles"!
Rah! Rah! Rah!
Wang, bang! Sis-Boom-Bah!
Rah! Rah! Rah!
Hallo, hool Hallo, hive!
Sis, boom, bah!
Rah! Rah! Rah!
Breketex! Koax! Koax!
Rah, rah, reel Rah, rah, ree!
Scouts of Red Patrol are we!
Hobble-gobble ! Razzle-dazzle !
Sis, boom, bah!
Rah, rah, rah!
Wah, who, wah!
Wah, who, wah!
Zip, boom, bah!
Zip, boom, bah!
Rah, rah, rah!
Razzle, Dazzle, Never Frazzle,
Not a Thread But Wool,
All Together, All Together,
That's the Way We Pull-Beavers!
Boom-a-lacka, Boom-a-lacka, bow, bow, wow!
Ching-a-lacka, Ching-a-lacka,chow, chow, chow!
Boom-a-lacka! Ching-a-lacka, Who are we?
We're the Otters!
Can't you see? !!
One, Two, Three, Four, Who Are We For?
Three, Two, One, Four, Who Do We Yell For! Foxes!
Nails and Tacks, Rails and Cracks,
Beaver Patrol Are Crackerjacks Yeh, Beavers!
Razzle, dazzle, sis, boom, boo!
Wallica, sooka, sooka, soo!
We are Boy Scouts, who are you?
Razzle, dazzle, sis, boom, boo!
We are the clever guys!
Take it from us!
Karo, Keero, Kiro, Fee! (Kore, Kive, Kate, etc.)
Roh, rah, rah for Fortythree! (four, five, eight, etc.)
Tutti-Ftutti, Punch and Judy,
Beaver Patrol Will Do Their Duty.
Don't You Worry, Don't You Fret!
Beaver Patrol Will Get There Yet!
The above ought to give you ideas a-plenty. And when you have chosen the yell (or the yells) you like the best, go ahead practicing it till you can deliver it with the best possible effect.
If you want to honor any special person or places with a yell you call usually make your favorite yell more effective, or anyway more up to the minute, by adding the name of person or place three times to the veil.
But remember that a yell that is only a Yell is not a yell at all. It isn't the noise that counts. It is the spirit and the meaning that is behind it that make it of value in a Patrol's life.
A singing Patrol is a live Patrol. No Patrol can count itself perfect if it does not feel joy in singing. The habit of singing may help it through many discouraging experiences. It lightens the spirits and shortens the road. It fits into the Patrol meetings as well as on the tramp or around the camp fire.
You certainly are fortunate if you yourself as Patrol Leader are able to lead in the singing, if you have even a just middling-to-good singing voice. But even if you haven't, the-,-e is almost sure to be some one in the Patrol who can and will start the singing going when the right moment arrives.
When and What
Ii the Patrol has a hard job of some kind or other to do it will find that a song helps it along. It puts up the speed and makes the boys forget it's hard. It works the same way on a hike. In the beginning of the trip a real marching tune helps to set the pace, and when the boys tired out, are swallowing the last few miles a crazy song with a crazy refrain helps to keep the feet a-moving.
But after all, it is around the camp fire that the most important part of the singing in a Patrol is done. And the biggest point for the Patrol Leader is to he able to choose the right songs to fit into the spirit of the thing.
Many second-rate songs are published every year, featured and distorted on the vaudeville stage. Let us show that Scouts have a better taste. Let us choose songs that are worthy of our brotherhood. This does not mean that all the songs must be serious or high flown. "A Scout is cheerful." He wants his funny
songs and "crazy" songs, too, but he knows how to choose them with a little tact and appropriate to the occasion.
Everybody in It
One thing is necessary if the Patrol wants to enjoy its singing, and that is that everybody should be in it. The boys may none of them be Carusos. This isn't necessary if they only do their best when joining in the choruses. And then try to make your boys sing All too often boys intone with a yelp and make singing into yelling. It isn't necessary to make the singing loud.
In fact boys' voices usually need to be toned down. So help them to use the "soft pedal."
Be sure before you start a song that everybody knows the words. Alas, generally we don't seem to care much for learning the texts even of our national songs, and the result is that before we Set through the first verse, half of the people are just humming, not to mention what happen.; when the second verse is started. Have your boys learn the words to the songs which the Patrol like to sing. First of all learn the old familiar ones. then later go to new ones which you or your song leader may teach your boys around the camp fire.
Choosing Your Songs
When choosing your songs, take into consideration the mood of the moment. Only when their own mood and the sentiment of the songs are related do the boys get the full benefit out of singing. On the other hand
you may sometimes want to change their mood. If you know how to choose the right song you will have no difficulty in making your boys follow you from gay to serious, if you so desire.
Fortunately we have a wonderful treasury of American songs, and fortunately boys still like to sing good songs. The songs of Stephen Foster, "Swanee River," "Old Black Joe," "Old Kentucky Home," are great favorites with them. So are others like "Love's Old Sweet Song," "Till We Meet Again," "The End of a Perfect Day," "Long, Long Trail," "Far Northland." Many of these songs the boys will even enjoy harmonizing. The same applies to several Negro spirituals and a few sea chanteys.
Rounds are also generally well liked. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat," "Sweetly Sings the Donkey," "Scotland's Burning," "Three Blind mice" are just a few of the many that might be mentioned.
Of semi-sentimental character we have songs like our good old "Clementine" and our "Bonnie Who Lies Over the Ocean." They are sung time and again and the boys seem never to grow tired of them.
Then again we have the more or less funny songs, the songs with the many verses or with the queer refrains, like "Old McDonald Had a Farm," "Alouette," "There Was a Bee-i-ee-i-ee!" "John Brown's Baby." "Johnny Was a Parlor Scout," "Three Good Turns." This list also can be continued indefinitely.
Make up a list or even a scrap-hook of the songs which your Patrol sings and occasionally add to this new ones for your boys to learn. Also, of course, have them know all the songs their Troop knows and likes. Many Councils get out excellent song sheets. There is also, of course, the Boy Scout Song Book, ready for use.
Maybe you will some day find a tune which you would like to make the special song of the Patrol, with
words that fit it and which is appropriate to your Scouts. In many Patrols a boy may be found who has a bit of a poetical vein and who can put together words and rhymes to make a suitable Patrol song. If your Patrol isn't as fortunate as that, maybe a versifier may be found in another Patrol or in the family of one of the boys. One of your teachers,--a newspaperman, an author who lives in the town may also be willing to help you. Don't be afraid of asking this favor of them. They won't bite off your head. And it is very likely that they will agree to help you if you put it up to them in the right way. And if you succeed in getting a Patrol song, train your boys to sing it well and render it whenever the occasion offers itself. It will be an effective contribution to your Patrol tradition treasure.
If any of your boys has a musical instrument, whether it be a "uke," a banjo, a clarinet, or a saxophone, encourage him to take it along every once in a while. It will help you immensely in your efforts of making a singing Patrol out of your group.
You will often find that it is a tremendous help to you in your task as a Patrol Leader to be able to tell a story which will hold the interest of your boys. This is especially valuable in camp, around the council fire or in the rest hour, hut also it fits in well at Patrol meetings in order to put variety into the program.
Boys enjoy hearing a story, provided it is a good one well told. And also it is a satisfaction for the teller of the story to feel the breathless attention with which the boys follow his tale.
You may think you have not the ability to be a good
story-teller. You may feel that you lack the imagination necessary or the power of adding words to words, to build up a picture. Don't let these things discourage you. Few people have a natural gift of story-telling, but almost any one is able to develop it if he goes at it the right way.
How to Get at It
Some day you may discover a book or a short story which attracts your interest and you start thinking: "This would be the very one to tell the Patrol at our next meeting !" Don't lay down the book and say, "But I can't." Go at it and you will see how easy it actually is.
There are people who can hold their audience by simply reading the story. Generally, however, it may be said that it is better among boys to retell it in your own words in order to put it across. If you want to do this you must first of all try to memorize the story. Read it once more, Then read it again for the third time. By this time the plot sticks in your brain, and !you have learned to know the different characters by heart.
Then sit down for a minute and think over the relation between the characters and their relation to the plot. so that you are sure you have it right. If there are points that do not seem clear to you, go back to the story and straighten things out.
When the story is fixed in your mind go ahead telling it, for example, to the alarm clock or the table lamp in
your room. You may find that your first telling of it will be rather dry, a sort of a synopsis without the picture-power of the words which the author had at his disposal. Don't let this worry you. Go ahead and tell it a second time and a third time, every time adding to it a little more life, making the telling more descriptive and at the same time more vivid. Try to have your characters speak with different voices, find ways of making the tone of your voice indicate the various moods which run through the story.
And at the next meeting or camp fire go ahead and tell it when the right time comes. Don't be afraid of not being able to do it well enough. If the story is interesting the boys will forgive any crudeness in its telling, And as you go along with the tale you will gain confidence in yourself, or rather forget yourself entirely and get into the sweep of the thing, and when it is over the applause around you will tell you that you have succeeded.
The Right Kind of Story
But as said above, so much depends upon the story that you ought to be very discriminating in your choice. Do not select anything but a first-class story. You may find it in a library book, or in one of the leading magazines, or maybe a news item in a paper will be your basis for building up a story to tell. Just be sure that your boys do not know the story already. There isn't any fun in hearing a boy whisper to his neighbor, "Aw, I fell out of my cradle laughing at that one!"
Whatever story you chose, be sure that there is action in it and a meaning to it. Things must be moving, there must be a climax and a good finish. Without those essentials the telling may fail. And then when the story is over, stop. Do not go back again and try to drag out a moral from it to put up to your boys. They will find that for themselves, if it's there.
Story-telling is largely a matter of courage., If you have been brave enough to plunge into it once you will find it easier afterwards. Indeed each story you tell will come easier.
All the Boys Story-Tellers
Also try to make your boys into real story-tellers. If you show them the example and encourage them you may start an interest going that will not only benefit the Patrol but every one of the boys. Have a definite story-telling period at every Patrol meeting and every camp fire, expect your Scouts to do their hit and you will he surprised to find how much enjoyment they get out of it when they once are started.
And so by and by we get to what we might term Patrol dramatics, in which the use of words combined with the actions which the words indicate, make up an entertainment which can be used to amuse the rest of the Troop whenever amusement is called for Patrol dramatics is a field inside Scouting into which few so far have penetrated. This is too bad because it
has the power to develop some points of boy nature which other things may leave undeveloped. It helps to cure boys who are naturally shy, and it gives others a means of expression, and in still other cases it helps boys with the too bubbling spirits to control themselves. And besides this, the rehearsals for the dramatics and the actual performances create a lot of fun which cannot be overestimated.
What to Choose
As a general rule it may be said: Don't go in for anything serious. A funny skit even if it doesn't contain much that will live in the memories of the boys is ten times easier to put over than one that tries to put across some great truth. A slip in the latter, and it may become unintentionally funny, which might kill it entirely. A slip in the first mentioned, and the fun is increased. Only in cases of rare exception is a Patrol able to put across Patrol dramatics with serious trend. Better stick to the more or less funny bagatelles and keep seriousness inside the stories told around the camp fire.
Also it is recommended that the skit be as simple as possible. Any complicated dramatics that need a lot of training in order to be performed in the right way should be avoided. Choose instead plays with a plot easy to grasp, with as little talk and as much action as possible.
Very often a story you read may suggest a dramatic action to you. Even a joke may be transformed into a playlet, and the same is the case with several old and new songs. Only a little imagination on your part as necessary to do the trick.
In the public library in your town you may find books that will contain stunts suitable for a Patrol.
And several of the Boy Scout Service Library Pamphlets will help you. For example, "Camp Fire Helps" contains a number of ideas, so also does "The Father and Son Idea." Below you will find a number of Patrol dramatics, chosen from many different sources, which will illustrate the points and which may be easily performed by one to eight boys.
STUNTS FOR ONE BOY
Boy enters (ii possible made up like a magician such as you see on the stage, in old dinner jacket borrowed from home, and with the indispensable magic wand in his hand. He speaks incessantly, elaborating on the following):
"Ladies and Gentlemen: I am going to perform for your approval the marvelous trick called "the flying coin." I should be very happy if some of the audience would trust me with two hats ! Thank you! Also I shall need a half dollar. A quarter will do. Thank you' As you see this hat is empty (turns it around) and so is this (turns the other around). Now I place this hat here. And the other over here. They are still empty (lifts hats and shows them). Now I take this coin which is, as you will see, an ordinary United States Treasury Quarter, and place it under this hat over here. Just to assure you I will let you see again that the other hat is empty (lifts hat).
Now I take my magic wand and make the coin fly from this hat over under the other. (Makes mysterious gestures as if bringing up the coin from under hat and throwing it in direction of the other at the same time making queer noises. Then he moves toward the empty
hat.) The magic has been performed. The coin has flown through the air from the hat under which I placed it and is now by magic transferred to this. (Magician doesn't lift the hat, just continues his stream of words.) But that isn't much of a trick. Thousands of other magicians have performed it successfully. My art goes farther. I am actually going to make it fly back again. That is my great feat. (Makes mysterious gestures again as if making coin fly from hat under which it supposedly is back to the hat under which it has been the whole time.) And as you will see, Ladies and Gentlemen, the trick is performed to perfection. (Lifts hat, picks up coin and shows it around, bows and disappears.)
The Cough Drops
Boy enters (made up as street vender with tray in front of him supposed to contain boxes of cough drops and speaks in a voice made as hoarse as possible, elaborating 04 the following):
"Ladies and Gentlemen, please come nearer. I have something to tell you that may benefit you. I have in this box the most wonderful cough drops ever manufactured in all the world. Simply marvelous, I tell you! If you take just one of them your cough will disappear almost immediately and you will feel 100 per cent better. And not only coughs are cured with this marvelous medicine. Every other ailment too. Headaches, stomachache, earache, toothache, and hoarseness. It is simply wonderful for hoarseness. Why do I not take it myself and get rid of my own? Why I never thought about that. Thanks for the suggestion. I will do it immediately. Just follow me. I open the box, take out one of the cough drops, open my mouth, place it on the tongue (falls back
into normal voice) and the results show immediately.'' (Everything in this little stunt depends upon the boy's ability to render an imitation of genuine hoarseness and to throw himself instantly back into his normal voice when getting to the last sentence.)
In the Jeweler's Shop
Boy enters (ordinary boy's clothes. It is necessary to announce beforehand that the action takes place in a jewelry shop. He starts immediately to put his hand quietly into one pocket after another as if he were seeking something).
"My father told me to ask you if you would be kind enough... (searches other pockets; starts again). My father told me to ask you if you would be ... (More search. He gets more and more alarmed as he does not find what he is searching for.) My father told me to ask ... (he is weeping now searching frantically in one pocket after another). My father told me...Boo-huh! My father... Boo-huh... (Suddenly he stops wailing. A smile comes over his face. He drags forth a coin) ... wants to know if you would be kind enough to change this quarter!"
STUNTS FOR TWO BOYS
1st boy: First boy on stage, second boy enters with sign on which is written "Fresh fish for sale here."
2nd boy: "Are you the proprietor of this fish shop'"
1st boy: "Sure, that's me!"
2nd boy: "I am an artist. Maybe I could interest you in buying this nice sign for your shop "
1s boy: "Maybe. Let us see it! (reads) 'Fresh fish
for sale here.' Not So bad. But why the dickens do you have that word 'fresh' there. Did you believe we could ever think of selling rotten fish, huh Cross that out." (Second boy does so). "And what about that 'here,' Naturally it is here. Did you think it was on the other side of the street Out!" (Crosses out). "And 'for sale. Are you crazy" (Works up a rage). "Did you imagine that we gave them away?" (Second boy crosses words out). "And 'fish'! You dumb-bell! Absolutely out of place. Anybody can smell that Get out of here, fool, and quick." (Kicks boy off stage).
In the Insane Asylum
It is announced that the action takes place in an insane asylum.
1st boy, enters, starts walking up and down.
2nd boy comes in, looks at him for a while in silence, then starts questioning.
2nd boy: "Don't they treat you well?"
1st boy (continues walking up and down): "Yes."
2nd boy: "Don't you get enough to Pat""
1st boy: "Yes."
2nd boy: "Don't? you ever get any liberty.""
1st boy: "Yes."
2nd boy: "Have you been here for a long time?"
1st boy: "Yes."
2nd boy: "Haven't you ally father or Mother?"
1st boy: "Yes."
2nd boy: "Have you a brother'"
1st boy: "Yes."
2nd boy: "Did he send you up here"
1st boy: "No."
2nd boy: "Have you a sister"
1st boy: ."Yes."
2nd boy: "Did size send you up here"
1st boy: "No."
2nd boy: "Did you commit murder?"
1st boy: No."
2nd boy: "Did the police send you up here"
1st boy: "No"
2nd boy: "Then how the dickens did you get up here "
1st boy: "By train. I am the director of this asylum!"
Two Black Crows
Two boys may be able to make up a dialogue in the style of the two popular entertainers Mack and Moran. The original dialogue of the two may give some ideas, but it is best to build up others and especially to put into the dialogue references to the people present. Needless to say that the faces of the boys must be blackened and the drawl of the negroes imitated as carefully as possible.
STUNTS FOR THREE BOYS
It is announced that the action takes place in an eating place in the Far West.
Waiter comes in, dusts off imaginary table with napkin. Two cowboys come in, place themselves at imaginary table.
1st Cowboy: "Waiter!"
Waiter: "Yes, sir!"
1st Cowboy: "Something to cat! What have You?"
Waiter: "I am awfully sorry sir, but all we have left is one beefsteak, sir!" 1st Cowboy: "All right! Bring me the beefsteak"
2nd Cowboy: "No, bring me the beefsteak!"
Waiter: "Awfully sorry, sir, but only one left, sir."
1st Cowboy: "Bring me the beefsteak!"
2nd Cowboy: "Bring me the beefsteak!"
1st Cowboy: "We can't both get it. We must settle who is going to have it."
2nd Cowboy: "Easily settled." (Pulls toy gun. Shoots.
1st cowboy falls.
2nd cowboy calmly to waiter : "Bring me the beefsteak!"
At the Railroad Crossing
Sarah, her husband, and the guard. The husband may be represented to be deaf and a stutterer. Railroad tracks may be indicated by a short ladder or two sticks.
Sarah and her husband walk up to the tracks but do not cross.
Sarah: "Go up and ask him wizen the train comes through from the North." Husband: "Huh.s"
Sarah: "Ask him when the train comes through front the North."
Husband: "Oh" (Walks up to guard). "Please tell me when the train from the North comes through'"
Guard: "At two o'clock this afternoon!"
Husband : "Huh?" Guard: "At two o'clock this afternoon!"
Husband : "Oh."(Walks back to Sarah). "At two o'clock this afternoon."
Sarah: "Ask him when the train comes through front the South"
Husband: "Huh"" Continuing in the same manner as above,
Sarah gets the answers to when the trains come through from the South, the East and the West, namely, six o'clock this evening, two o'clock at night and six o'clock tomorrow morning, respectively.
Sarah (after some reflection looks at watch): "Then I believe that we may cross the tracks in Perfect safety." (Proceeds to do so carefully, followed by husband.)
1st boy (made up as woman calls) : "Dave."
Dave (enters) : "Yes, ma!"
1st boy: "Here is a quarter. Go and fetch me a quart of milk." Dave: "Yes, ma!" (Both out).
2nd boys enters (with white apron, as grocer).
Dave: "May I have a quart of milk?"
2nd boy. "Do you have a pitcher to carry it in"
2nd boy: "How do you expect to carry it then,'
Dave: "Oh, I can use my hat!" (Takes hat off. Water is poured into it from pitcher).
2nd boy: "But there isn't room for it all"
Dave: "Here is room for the rest." (Turns hat upside down. Water streams out. Makes room for rest by pressing down the crown.
2nd boy pours it in. Both out).
1st boy and Dave (in).
1st boy: "Did you get the milk?"
Dave: "Certainly Here it is."
1st boy: "Is that all?"
Dave (turns hat, water flows out; shows inside): "No. Here is the rest."
STUNTS FOR FIVE BOYS
The Jubilee Quartet
Conductor: "Ladies and Gentlemen, it gives me great Pleasure to introduce to you the famous Jubilee quartet, who will render for your approval the well-known song, "Old Black Joe."
Quartet enters, bows to the audience, starts singing led by the conductor. When the singers have sung a few lines a false note is heard. Conductor stops song immediately and has the last line sung over. False note again. Turns to the audience saying: "Excuse me a minute. I shall be right back." Goes to the side, waves at the Quartet to follow. All out. A shot is heard outside. Presently the conductor appears again and begins all over:
"Ladies and Gentlemen, it gives me pleasure to introduce to you the famous Jubilee Trio, who will render for your approval the well known song, "Old Black Joe."
Trio enters. Starts singing. False note. The same procedure is followed as above. Shot. And the conductor enters announcing "The Famous Jubilee Due."
Same thing as before. False note. Shot. Conductor announces "The Famous Jubilee Soloist."
Again a false note. Repeating of last line. False note. But before conductor can wave soloist off stage the latter brings from his back a rubber club and chases out the much confused conductor.
As one of the very best stunts of this sort we may recommend to you "The Dagger" which is contained in the Service Library Pamphlet "Camp Fire Helps." It has become a Boy Scout classic because of its simplicity and its very amusing qualities.
STUNTS FOR THE FULL PATROL
If the Patrol is interested in Indian lore, it may take up Indian dancing and the Indian handicraft which goes into the making up of the necessary equipment as war bonnets, shirts, loin cloths, leggins, moccasins, rattles, tom-toms, etc.
Indian dancing isn't a stunt that can be performed after just a few hours of instruction. It requires a thorough study, and ii the Patrol isn't prepared to take it up with perseverance and seriousness it might better
not attempt to imitate the dances of the American aborigines.
On the other hand if the Patrol is actually interested in Indian lore it can do nothing better than to take it up as a special Patrol proposition, always providing everybody wants to join in it. If only a few have the necessary interest, the introduction of Indian lore may mean the break up of the Patrol.
If the inclination is there, by all means get started. And the Patrol will have a real project and ;I mutual interest which will help link the members together.
The subject of Indian lore is so big that naturally it can not be treated in this volume. For Patrols interested we refer to Scout Executive Julian Harris Salomon's "The Book of Indian Crafts and Indian Lore" which was written especially from the viewpoint of adapting the theme to Scouting.
Pyramus and Thisby
An excellent Patrol stunt is the little playlet on "Pyramus and Thisby," contained in Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" which you can get in an inexpensive edition at any book store. The number of actors necessary is six, filling the parts of Prologue, Pyramus, Thisby, Wall, Moonshine and Lion. A seventh actor tnav be used to represent Moonshine's dog.
The skit must be played as a farce, as exaggerated as possible, Pyramus trying to use a man's deep voice, Thisby a falsetto, Moonshine popping off to sleep in the middle of the acting and Wall forgetting what he has to say.
The costumes ought to represent Creek dresses. They may be made in the following way: Wear bathing suit. Put a towel in front of you and one in back and fasten them together with a safety pin on either shoulder. Tie a string around the waist and drape the dress neatly. On the feet: moccasins or gym shoes. Put a wreath of green leaves around the brow of Pyramus. Use for Thisby's dress a sheet instead of the two towels.
If played in the right spirit this will always be found amusing.
Casey at the Bat
This old favorite (found in a number of books; ask your librarian to help you get hold of it) may be played as a pantomime, one boy reading, or better reciting the poem while the rest of the Patrol play the baseball game as the persons mentioned with an imaginary ball and imaginary bats.
The Parade of the Wooden Soldiers
This tune performcd as a stunt was introduced by Russian actors in "Chauve Souris" and may easily be performed by a group of Scouts. The music may be purchased from any music store and is easily learned by the boys.
The equipment necessary consists of a paper soldier's cap and a wooden sword for each of the performers. Rouge applied on the cheeks in a round hectic spot adds to the effect of the makeup.
The boys start humming the tune outside the stage. Then they enter with small stiff tripping movements of the legs, the arms being kept perfectly quiet, and go through a drill consisting of turning one way, then another, moving forward, backward, and so forth, the whole time humming the tune. Toward the end of the tune they get into one line, and as they arrive at the last note the right file leader falls toward the left, causing the whole row to fall like a row of real wooden soldiers being overturned.
As a last stunt for a Patrol we shall mention Circus which is really a combination of several stunts, namely, Sharp Shooter, Wrestling Match, Strong Men, Tight rope Dancer, and Performing Horses. And besides these actors required naturally we must have the Director of the show who introduces the different acts.
The parts must be divided between the boys in such a way that no boy takes part in two or more stunts successively.
Equipment: Toy gun, an enamel plate, a spoon. One boy holds the target, i.e., the plate between his hands overhead with the spoon in such a position behind it that a slight movement of the fleshy root of the thumb causes it to strike the plate making a noise as if real bullets were hitting the target. Naturally he must stand facing the audience. The shooter starts shooting in different positions, with front, side, back toward target, bending down, standing on head, etc. Every time he shoots the gun the sound of hitting is heard from the plate. The fun comes in the end when suddenly no longer the taps on the plate correspond with the shots and therefore the fake is exposed.
Director announces a match between Mr. Slaposnutski (the boy introduced bows) and the famous Mr. Nobody (who isn't there at all). The match starts, the boy fighting the imaginary person. He seems to be flung up into the air, falls down; makes bridges, succeeds in getting up, is caught in a half Nelson, down again in bridge, etc. In the end his shoulders touch the ground and the imaginary Mr. Nobody is declared the winner.
Two boys enter in gym shirts and pants. A third acts as helper. He carries a handkerchief in his hand. The two strong men get into position. They lift arms to horizontal position, then bend right arm at elbow, hand held up. They look at the hand and start moving it at the wrist. Suddenly they yell "Hep" and turn their attention toward the left wrist which is moved likewise. A "Hep" again, a bow to the audience, the first stunt is performed, The helper throws handkerchief to first performer, who rubs hands and forehead also the armpit
and throws it to second strong man who does the same and throws it to the helper who repeats action. Next stunt consists of the strong men each standing on one leg with the other leg lifted and moving the ankle in small circles. A "hep" and they do the same with the other leg-. "Hep" again, a bow to the audience, and the handkerchief goes around as before. Other similarly crazy stunts are performed. Then the act is ended by the "Death Spring". One of the boys takes position with hands interlocked as if going to help the other perform a double somersault. 'The other boy walks back some steps. He starts running toward the first one. He stops in front of him and corrects the position--not of the hands hut, of the head. Walks back again, makes a start, stops up again, corrects head position and walks back. The third time he runs forward he is caught in the arms of his friend and carried off the stage. The "Death Spring" has been performed.
Tight Rope Walker
Two boys bring in a rope. Stretch it out in front of them in height with their shoulders. The rope walker enters. Bows to the audience. Walks toward rope. Says"Far too high". The boys put rope down a few inches. The rope walker tests it with his hands. 'Still too high". This procedure is continued until the lope lies on the ground. The two strong men carry in the balancing pole. They seem hardly able to carry it, because of its weight. The rope walker snaps it up in one hand, throws it into the air and catches it again. Starts walking the rope and performing the stunts of a rope walker. Walking forward, backward, running, standing on one foot, bending down, turning around, etc. As a last stunt he walks the rope blindfolded, takes "B the bandage, discovers that he is off the rope and tlis appears apparently much embarrassed.
Ringmaster enters with long whip. He snaps it, and three helpers lead in three hobby horses made out of
sticks with heads of cardboard in the form of horses' heads. They walk around the ring once. Another snap, and in come three jockeys. They follow the ringmaster around the ring once, then run up to the horses and mount them while the helpers disappear. The three horses now perform the stunts of trained horses, they gallop, waltz, turn in one direction and another, etc. As last stunt they are gathered in front of the director and made to stand on the hind legs, i.e., the jockeys lift up the hobby horses in front of them while imitating the tripping of horses in such a position. When the horses get into ordinary position again, the director takes from his pocket three lumps of sugar and gives them--not to the horses--instead he puts one piece into the mouth of each of the jockeys. One more round in the ring, then out, and the whole circus performance is over.
The above mentioned stunts are merely suggestions. Some of them are old favorites, others are new, all of them have in common that they, performed in the right spirit, are sure to entertain, and amuse the audience.
Which is, after all, all that Patrol stunts are for.
HOWEVER strong a Patrol may get to feeling itself as a unit, a group existing "all for one, one for all," it must never lose sight of the fact that it doesn't and cannot stand by and for itself alone. It has definite obligations and loyalties to other people and to other groups. If Patrol Spirit developed into a selfish self-absorbed attitude of conduct and way of thinking it would be very far from an ideal thing. But then it couldn't so develop. If it did it wouldn't be the real thing. True Patrol Spirit is the true Scouting spirit, doing one's best to be helpful and friendly and loyal, all along the line, in all one's contacts with other people.
We have already spoken in an earlier chapter of the Patrol's relationship to the Troop and discussed the particular importance of the contacts of the Patrol Leader with the Scoutmaster and other members of the Troop Officers' Council. In this chapter we shall speak briefly of other important relationships and contacts.
If the Patrol Leader has followed the suggestions already given as to starting his Patrol meetings in the various different homes of his boys, he has laid the