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Associate Professor of Education Teachers College, Columbia University.

WHEREVER there is play there is leadership. Observe any game in the street or open field! Someone abler in leading, possibly an older boy or girl or an adult, is directing the game. Leadership may pass from one member of a group to another according to what is to be done, but always there is leadership or the group breaks up, possibly in disgust, and quits
Leadership Ability of Young People. Some adult leaders--even some adult leaders of games, more is the pity!--do not recognize this wide spread of leadership ability among young people, or if they do recognize it, they do not ]mow how to guide and develop it. Every recreation leader as well as every schoolmaster ought to read Kipling's Brushwood Boy at least once a year to see how the master, by arranging the situation, by half-hints and suggestions, taught Georgie Cotter how to be a leader of boys and, later, a leader of men.
Utilizing Ability within the Group.
One of the first and most important opportunities of a recreation

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leader, as well as of every other leader, is to learn how to set the pattern. For immediate purposes the leader may have to say, "Watch me, and do it the way I do it." Hoc-ever, over any real period of training, outside of mechanical performances, such a parrot-method fails to achieve the real ends of leadership. Those who have observed a famous football coach in a mid-western university as he rides up and down the field in an electrically-propelled car, following his team at practice, must have been struck by the way he guides, directs, and develops plays and players. Yet he does not seem to find any necessity of saying, "Do this the way I do it." Many have heard the story of the leader of boys, who, although confined for years to his room, yet through his leadership guided boys in an extensive outdoor program. Together the boy-leaders and their adult leader planned a program, piece by piece, and then the boy-leaders carried it out. Another instance is that of a woman school-teacher, who could not play baseball, but who furnished the leadership that involved all the boys of her seventh grade and developed an excellent baseball team. She could not pitch, catch, bat, field, or run bases, yet she somehow led her boys in baseball.
It is recognized that there is "form" in carrying on most activities, that there are certain best walls of doing things, but it seems necessary to emphasize for play-leaders that success usually lies in utilizing the leadership that exists in the members of any group.
Making the Plans. The boy or girl leaders of a. group can, not only carry out what has been planned, but, where the adult leader is wise enough, they can have a large part in planning their program. Perhaps

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two illustrations, one drawn from a group of eight or nine year old boys and another from twelve and thirteen .year old boys, may emphasize this point. This group of smaller boys had an afternoon play club Naturally they wanted a club name; so after much discussion they decided to call themselves "American Eaglets." With the help of their adult leader, who helped just enough but not too much, they worked out a program that consisted of four main divisions; namely, "Egg," "Fledgeling," "Flier," "Hunter'." If a member by fulfilling certain requirements proved himself a good "Egg," he could hatch into a "Fledgeling." By being able to tie certain knots, render certain first aid, do certain things in nature study, make a definite number of suggestions for the good of his club that the club would accept, and demonstrate certain qualities of good citizenship, this "Fledgeling" could become a "Flier"; and by doing some twenty more things that his group considered worth-while, he could finally become a " Hunter.'''
These boys were not only having a real play-work program and having a club of which they were proud, but, by giving the best they had to the making and carrying out of a club program, they were livings the life of good boy-citizens. It is this living the thing that counts. Did these boys have a good leader? If so, how did he show he was a good leader?
For the second illustration, take a group of twelve and thirteen year old bogs at the Speyer School in New York City. The leader of this group, Mr. Abraham Rosenthall said: "From my own experience of

'Smith. Charles F. and Fretwell, Elbert K., Horace Maun Studies ill Elementary Education. Teachers College Record, XXII, pp 12-30, January, 1921.

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having lived and played in the city all my boy-life, I knew and the boys knew that most of the fun of having real good, hard games comes after school with the gang in the block. One or two of the fellows, usually the ' choosers, 'acted as leaders; and, as long as nobody interfered and the ball lasted and the policeman kept away, we had a wonderful time."
Working on this theory, he soon developed in the eight groups of boys with which he was working, several leaders chosen by their fellows in each group. "Setting the pattern" troubled these boys greatly. As a result of the vagueness of their own thinking, there were almost endless discussions. Finally, in one mighty cooperative burst. these serious but troubled leaders evolved a questionnaire which is presented here just as it was set down by the boys:

1. Do I know exactly what I want my class to do at each moment when I an in charge?
2. Is my class organized so that each boy is responsible for some particular thing in each activity?
3. In what ways is Speyer better because I am here? Because my class is here?
4. Do I set the pattern for my class?
a. Am I obedient
b. Do I do my work a little better than I am required to do it?
c. Do I always play fair?
d. Do I ever nurse a grudge?
e. Do I threaten the fellows?
f. Do I help the one who tries and fails?
g. Do I try to help all the others, even tile most successful ones, to improve on their own records?
h. Do I keep my mouth shut when some one else is speaking?

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5. Can my class manage its own affairs in an orderly manner without help of some older person?
6. In exactly what ways is my class cooperating with other : classes to maintain and improve school spirit?
7. Am I a Leader?

Group Management and Participation. With these Speyer School boys it was taken for granted that under a wise leader a group had the ability to manage its own affairs in an orderly manner and that it was the business of the leader to see that this was done. The spirit of the group, probably caught from Mr. Rosenthal and developed by him, led these boys to be proud of the fact that, in spite of many failures, they, with their adult leader's guidance, could carry on an interesting, satisfying play program and that they mere becoming increasingly able to direct their own activities, and live wholesomely with their fellows. They were interested in fun and more fun but with very little talk about it. Their leader saw to it that they were practicing many of the qualities of the good citizen with satisfaction to themselves.
The two illustrations used may make evident the fact that these adult leaders were enabling their boys to do better those desirable activities that they would do anyway, but, the theory and the story do not end here. These leaders were revealing higher types of activity and, as Professor Thomas H. Briggs phrases it, "making these higher types desired and to an extent possible" The bogs were finding out how much more they could accomplish by working together, how as a group they got, licked if they did not choose their

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boy-leader wisely, how they could not play ball if everyone wanted to pitch, catch, or bat. Since they competed with each other as groups, it was evident that everyone, the best as well as the poorest, in order to advance his group, had to improve on his own previous record. The games in themselves are worth while, but it is not games alone that concern the leader. A player may have great skill and be a "mucker." It is through these games that the leader has a great opportunity to develop the qualities of good citizenship in boys and girls.
Difference in Point of View. The point of view of the adult leader and of boys and girls usually differs widely. The boys and girls want to play, to have fun and still more fun. If they do not enjoy the play, they will not remain long in the group. They play the games, choose their leaders, help work oat the programs, because it is fun. If they are wisely guided, a very real sportsmanship, possibly without their being conscious of it, comes to guide their actions. The leader is not teaching just games; he does not preach about it, but it is through games that he is teaching boys and girls. Leadership does not exist in a vacuum. It is not the motions that a leader goes through that determines his worth, nor is it how well he presents some theories or how eloquently he talks about what should be done. What do his boys and girls do, both when they are with him and when they are away? That is the test. "If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do.'' as the wise young Portia said, there would be many more real gameleaders.
Some Desirable Qualities of a Leader. It is easy to set down some of the desirable qualities of a leader

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as they express themselves in what he does. This leader of boys or girls is:

1. Sincere , and believes in the worth of what he is doing.
2. Enthusiastic , contagiously enthusiastic, about what he is doing.
3. Clear as to the ends to be attained and master of the material and methods to attain these ends.
4. Firm without being fierce.

A Genuine Leader:

1. Secures the cooperative effort of his group to determine what they can do and how they can do it.
2. Selects and develops leaders, and develops the ability on the part of all to choose a leader wisely.
3. Stimulates creative ability of individuals together with the desire to work for the good of the group.
4. Plans clearly, foresees what will happen, utilizes leadership of others, is loyal to his group.
5. Knows that what he does has its chief importance in what it causes others to do.
6. Respects himself.
7. Looks for, expects, demands that the fine qualities of his group show themselves, and at times he is even seemingly blind to some faults.
8. Modifies games quickly to meet existing conditions.

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9. Stirs the imagination of his group, and appeals to their dramatic sense.
10. Says and acts "Do" instead of "Don't."
11. Recognizes that "Do good'' is a greater stimulus to boys and girls than "Be good."
12. Builds morale through activity. 13. Has a sense of humor.

Executive Leadership. This partial analysis of a leader may emphasize the fact that a leader is of value for what he gets others to do rather than for what he does himself. Some leaders as well as some parents, tried beyond their patience, have been heard to say: "Oh. go on ! It's easier to do it myself than have you do it !" If getting a particular piece of work done is the sole object, this impatient leader, or parent, is often quite correct. However, if it is true that boys and girls art: educated by what they do, then there is need for a leader who has both the skill and the patience to teach these boys and girls to do things they can do anti ought to do.
A leader who must do everything himself is destined, so someone has said, "to spend his days singing psalms in a narrow valley." In sizing up a leader some of the first questions always are: Can he organize ?'' "Can he attract and direct other leaders 1'' "Can he develop leaders?"
Prepared for Emergency. During the war when a young woman recreation-leader in Washington was directing the play activities of a thousand young men and women at one time, an enthusiastic observer, after watching this recreation-leader for an hour, ex claimed, "Recreation-leaders are born, not made!" Every activity in a varied and progressive program seemed so free, so spontaneous! When a spring

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shower of rain drove the playing groups suddenly from the field, they did not break up; as soon as the shower was over the players returned. The leader was there and in five minutes on a drenched field-had an entirely different program in full swing. So wonder the admiring observer exclaimed, "Recreation leaders are horn, not made !" However, the observer did not know that in every one of the thirty groups that made up the thousand players, there was an assistant, volunteer leader Nor did this observer know that these thirty assistant leaders had been enlisted by the recreation-leader and that this leader had played every game that was to be used with these assistants and with them had gone over a carefully detailed program of just how everything was to he worked out. The observer, also, did not know that the leader had planned with her enlisted volunteer-assistants that, in case of a sudden shower, they were to hold their groups together in places of shelter already picked out and, in the event of beings able to come back to the field, they were to watch the recreation-leader's signal for beginning a new type of game that had been worked out for just such an emergency. Could the observer have known all this preparatory work that had been done, lie probably would have exclaimed, "A: recreation-leader is born and made."
Training for Citizenship by Play. The playing -of games of skill may be considered as one of the ways of making an intelligent use of leisure time. There is abundant justification for the playing of such games by boys and girls On this basis alone. However, if games are to make their contribution to the kind of education that fits boys and girls for citizenship in a democracy, these games must aid somehow in developing the dualities of a good citizen

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The leader in a democracy must develop such qualities as initiative, leadership, cooperation and intelligent obedience to authority. Through the formation of habits, mental and emotional attitudes, and knowledge, the leader must arrange the whole play-situation so that such dualities as initiative, leadership, and cooperation are exercised for the good of the group and toward ends that are immediately and more remotely worth while. There may be initiative in a bad cause as well as in a good one. It is the business of the leader not only to base the playprogram on the instinctive equipment of boys and
girls but to see to it that these players get satisfaction in practicing the qualities of good citizens. Because of the inherent interest of girls and boys in play, the play-leader has one of the greatest opportunities for citizenship training in the whole educational field. Where there is such opportunity, there is serious responsibility.

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Two distinct types of play and games are used in organizations that have regular programs, such as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, Girl Reserves, Woodcraft League, Pioneers, Agricultural Clubs, and Organized Camps. The first type of play consists of games the principal object of which is to furnish social and physical recreation. The second type is of more recent development, and includes modifications of the games in the first type, with this important distinction: the object of-the games, at least from the adult leaders' point of view, is the teaching or the practicing of subject matter included in the club or camp program. These correlated games have come into prominence during the last decade largely through the efforts of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, the genius who founded Scouting. The principles of this system of training in citizenship through games have been accepted throughout the world and are now used in practically all boy and girl organizations.
Games as a Method of Teaching. Many people have not had an opportunity to try out completely the play way of teaching because of the scarcity of such games in printed form. The principal contribution of this book to the abundant play and game literature already available will be found in the material on teaching games. However, in an effort to produce a recreational handbook for club, camp, and

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scout leaders, many forms of recreation, all of which have been successfully tried out, have been included.
Teaching Subject Matter by Games. Anyone using games as a method of teaching must, in order to succeed, apply the soundest principles of instruction, including: the arousing and maintaining of interest and attention; the consideration of the natural physical and mental tendencies, capacities, and desires of the players; and--most important-abundant opportunity for self-activity of the members. When directing club work, I find it necessary constantly to remind leaders that as: soon as an instructional game has fulfilled its function,--that is, has taught the particular thing for which it was designed,--it should be either discarded or replaced by another. Personally, I repeat teaching games only for the purpose of review.
It must not be assumed that the recreational method of teaching subject matter is all-sufficient. To master any subject the learner is expected to do considerable work outside of the regular meetings. Games, in addition to furnishing recreation, stimulate interest and attention in subjects during meetings, so that the members will do considerable intensive work by themselves.
Confusion of Types of Games. The club and camp leader is reminded that in order to keep up his attendance he must give boys and girls the thing for which they join such institutions; that is, fun and more fun. To satisfy this great desire every leader should have a place in his program for physically active play of the truly recreational type, During this period teaching games should not be used; they should be confined to the instructional

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period. Boys and girls do not confuse these two types of play, but unfortunately adults do.
Physical and Social Recreation. Physical games of the gymnasium and playground type and, to a lesser degree, social games should be included in every program for boys and girls. Adults often become so engrossed in subject matter in which they are particularly interested or in business, tests, etc., that they forget that the people for whom they have volunteered their services are more interested in play than in any other thing. No leader must excuse himself on the ground that he does not have in his club-room sufficient space for games. When space does not permit the playing of regular gymnasium games, the physically active social games in Chapter Five should he used.
The Teaching of Games. When a new game is introduced it should be explained as far as possible by action instead of by words. The common tendency is to use too many words. Simple games can be taught by calling a limited number to the front and performing with them what might be called "a moving picture" while the action and rules are beings explained.. Explanations are always better understood by players who are lined up in the particular formation in which they will be while playing the game.
Leaders should cultivate in players the habit of waiting until an explanation is complete before asking questions. Unfortunately, some leaders encourage players to ask questions after a game has been explained, thus wasting the time of the large majority while a few ask more or less foolish questions. If a game is complicated and cannot be understood by the majority, it should be explained with as few

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details as possible as the game progresses. If the rules are complicated, the players should be given a few moments to discuss them.
The leader who has difficulty getting attention when teaching games usually has himself to blame. Often inexperienced leaders give out equipment too soon, or they try to explain while others are talking. The experienced leader knows that he will get attention if he absolutely refuses to talk while others are talking. If this method is used, the members of the group will discipline delinquents for robbing them of valuable play time.

Game Leadership Suggestions

1. Enthusiasm is catching, but it cannot be caught unless it is present.
2. When players are allowed to participate in the planning and leading of games, they enjoy them better.
3. Discipline should be neither too formal nor too lax. It must be positive but still very informal. Who wants to play games "by the numbers"?
4. Never take the mistakes of players seriously; they feel worse than anyone else for having erred. Often mistakes map be made the occasion for good fun at the expense of no one.
5. Never blame the players when a game fails. Blame either the leader or the author.
6. There are hundreds of good games; have variety. Carefully select or invent games to fit the occasion and the conditions.
7. Have as few rules as possible, but enforce every one of them.
8. Don't expect to succeed in teaching a new game unless you visualized it and understood it perfectly

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when you read it. Use notes when necessary.
Game Formations. The organization that plays games regularly--what a pity all boys' and girls' clubs do not!--will eventually save time by drilling in game formations. For example, when the command "Circle Formation--Go!" is given, every player should run to his designated position on a circle. Similarly, purposeful drill may be conducted in formations for relays, file games, athletic games, or even for special favorite games that are played regularly. (For a detailed description of this type of drill see Scout Drill, Chapter Fourteen.)
Place of the Adult Leader. The adult who has playing ability should by all means occasionally get into the games for all he is worth. He can thus retain his own spirit of youth and demonstrate what he considered good sportsmanship. The tendency of inexperienced leaders is to overdo this greatly, forgetting that boys and girls depend almost entirely upon his leadership when he is actually participating in the game and forgetting also that boys and girls who have leadership ability love to lead games. However, the leader who is not skillful in play need not be discouraged, for many successful play-leaders direct entirely from the side lines.
Selecting Games. In making a game program it is of primary importance to give due consideration to the mar in which the players are dressed, to their skill and strength, and above all to their natural desires. We all enjoy games that we know thoroughly, and me mill play them repeatedly. Never the less, new games should be added constantly, for it is important that boys and girls should acquire a worth-while game repertoire. Instances may be found in which games that have very little playing

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value have become club favorites, simply because the players have been taught nothing better.
Individual Games. Games calling forth only individual skill and action instead of the combined efforts of a group have a limited place in the play program of older boys and girls. A simple individual Frame such as: Spud or Tag: in which players may enter at any time, is of chief value at the beginning of a meeting. In fact, many clubs use such games to advantage as a means of getting members to meetings on time.
Duel Contests. Games and contests in which a few participate while others watch, such as Cock Fighting or Horse and Rider. are of value principally in organizations that have permanent groups, such as bands or patrols. Duel contests can be highly recommended when each group conducts its own contest to determine its champion, and then the group champions compete against each other to determine the club champion. Duel contests conducted in this manner, in addition to furnishing keen group rivalry and amusement for the spectators, develop both group and club morale.
Team Games . Team games, together with relay races, are the most popular and valuable form of club play. Every organization should have permanent play groups even though it does not have official permanent groups similar to Scout Patrols or Woodcraft Bands. Permanent groups and team games give outlet to the "belonging instinct," Without which there would be no such things as clubs. This gang instinct is so strong in boys that, if it does not find sufficient outlet in the club, the boys will go outside to join all kinds of teams or gangs.
Athletic Teams. Organizations that have purposeful

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programs of their own must exercise great care in the introduction and administration of athletic teams. Many well-meaning leaders have ruined their clubs or troops by organizing athletic teams, such as basket ball, which permitted only a limited number of bona-fide members to participate. If considerable time is spent in basket ball during regular meetings, a strong natural desire will be created to form representative teams. Certainly there is no objection to the leader giving time outside of regular meetings to such Work. The danger lies in the fact that the volunteer leader soon finds that club work is taking too much of his time and consequently he gives it up entirely. A plan that has proved successful is for the regular leader to turn over the athletic program to capable adult assistants, and have them conduct it outside of regular meetings.

Group Athletics

An excellent plan for conducting athletic tests and feats ax a part of a regular program is given below:
"In group athletics the record is made by a class, club, or any convenient group. The object is not the competition of selected representatives but the participation of every member in athletic activity. The entire membership of the group should be required to take-part, physical incapacitation being the only valid excuse for non-participation. No record should be allowed for less than 8070 of the group membership. The full benefits of group athletics come, not alone from the final competition, but also from the great amount of preliminary practice within the group. In this way the physical fitness of the individual is developed and the spirit

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of team work and social responsibility is fostered. It should be arranged that the competition be between groups of about the same physical ability.
"The record is always a group record, and ill competition the winners are determined by comparing the final group records and not the individual performances.

The size of the group therefore makes no difference because the record is always an average. In events where the individual records are easily determined, the group record can readily be found by the above formula. But in running games it is difficult to find the individual records: without the use of a stop watch. A plan has therefore been devised whereby the timing may be clone with an ordinary watch. The runners are lined up back of the starting line. The timer takes his position near the finish line which should be a mark on: the ground. The signal "go" is given by the timer when the second hand of the watch is on sixty. As the runner crosses the finish line the starter, by a quick downward motion of the hand, signals the succeeding runner to start. When the last one has crossed the finish line the time elapsed is noted. The timer needs to keep only the time required by the entire group to finish the event. This is divided by the number participating to give the group record." l
Eliminating Players. When a comparatively short time is given to active play, as is usual in scout troops and clubs, avoid entirely games in

1"Group Athletics for boys" and "Group, athletics for Girls," Department of Recreation, Russell Sage Foundation.

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which players, when caught, tagged, or hit, must drop out. Also eliminate or vary games in which certain individuals or teams practically always win. To be sure, it is possible to handicap the winners, but unfortunately adolescent boys and girls resent giving or takings handicaps. Occasionally use the "Champ-Sit" contests in Chapter Fourteen, in which the winners drop out, giving the poor ones much needed additional practice. This can be done in duel contests that require skill rather than strength. (See Duel Contests in Chapter Six.)
Securing Moral Values of Play. While it is true that play and games provide excellent opportunity for moral training, it is also true that without proper leadership, they may produce negative moral values. 'In order to develop to the greatest extent possible the benefits that may be derived through games, carefully note the following:
1. Praise good sportsmanship, and as far as possible eliminate the possibilities for unfair play.
2. Allow the players to participate wherever possible in formulating necessary rules, and then absolutely enforce the spirit of the rules.
3. Try to establish as a club tradition the saying, "Whatever the umpire says goes, absolutely!" 4. Emphasize the fact that the individual who plays unfairly or disputes with officials brings discredit to his entire team or club.
5. Encourage by practice the cheering of winners.
6. Suppress all poor sportsmanship without constantly nagging.

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PART I--Relay Races

EVERY leader should be familiar with a variety of relay races, since they are most popular and useful for people of all ages.
Permanent Teams. Permanent teams, similar to scout patrols, are strongly recommended for all clubs. Advantages of permanent teams are:
1. Save time required in each meeting to form teams.
2. Make competition decidedly keener.
3. Make it possible to keep continuous records and scores.
4. Furnish a positive means for development of group morale.
It is true that permanent teams are more difficult to manage in relays because the groups often contain varying numbers of players. This: can readily be adjusted by having the teams with fewer players run a sufficient number of contestants twice so that each team may have an equal chance. It is also possible to use the extra ones as assistants and judges.
Formation of Temporary Teams. Temporary teams may be formed by any of the following methods :
1. Groups that use military drill may form teams and line them up in parallel files by formal tactics.
2. Line up all the players in a single front rank, and Count them off by the number of teams desired.

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Let each player multiply Iris number by two and take that number of paces forward. Then face everybody right or left and close up the teams by marching forward.
3. Suppose four teams are desired: count off by fours and place the individuals in the first set of four to act as captains on spots behind which the other players are to form. Then let the others race to their positions with all 1's on the first team, 2's on the second, etc., as illustrated.
4. Select captains and let them choose teams. Place the captains at the head of the lines upon which the teams are to form. As a player is chosen he falls in behind his captain as illustrated below:

Simple Running Relay Race (1).
At the starting signal the leader of each team runs straight forward, touches a goal line, wall, or fence, and then returns to the starting line, touching off the second runner. Each player in turn repeats the performance of his leader and goes to the end of his line. The team wins whose last player crosses the finish line first.

How to Run Relays
Lines. Mark the starting line, also called "takeoff," very distinctly so that players will not unconsciously

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start ahead of it. When it is not practical to run to a wall or fence, draw a goal line. To avoid disputes, have each player actually touch the goal line with his hand. When possible, it is very desirable to have a tree or fixed post to run around.
Position of Team Leaders. Instead of having the leader of each team go to the end of his file after running, station him in front to see that no one runs before he is tagged and to be sure that everyone starts from behind the take-off.
Methods of Starting. The runners, with the exception of the first one, may start each other by passing an object, such as a handkerchief or a stick. Better still, have the runner touch the last one in the file, who passes the touch forward until the one at the head of the line is touched off.
Use of Doubles. When the playing time is limited, or when the players are fresh, double relays, i. e.? those in which two players are in action at the same time, are preferable to single relays in which only one member performs while the others stand and wait.
The Finish. When the teams are numerous or when the games are played before an audience, mark the last runner of each team so that the spectators and judges can pick the winners. They can be- indicated by tying a handkerchief around the arm, rolling down a stocking. wearing a cap, etc. One of the best methods is to have every member of the team throw up both hands when their last man finishes.
Conducting Relays in a Small Boom. Relays may be conducted in a small space by lining up two teams in one circle. Each player runs around the circle and touches off the nest player. This formation is especially appropriate for mixed crowds of older players

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for great speed cannot be attained running around a small circle.
With the teams lined up in parallel files many relays may be conducted by omitting the run from the starting line to the goal. Then the first player of each team simply runs to the rear, circling his file and touching off the next runner. Then the second player completely circles the file and touches off the third, etc. Relays No. 2 to 9 can be conducted in this manner.
For conducting social relays with players seated in a hollow square see Chapter Four.

Passing Relays

Relays in which the runners carry an object back and forth are preferable to those in which the players run empty handed. When an object is carried, players do not start until they receive the object, which may be passed either from the rear of the line to the front or vice versa;. Any convenient object may be passed, such as an Indian club, a dumb-bell, a stone, a stick, or a ball.

Stride Stand Passing Relay (2).
All players stand-with feet apart and pass an object between their legs from the front to the rear. The player at the end of the file carries the object to the goal line and returns, starting the pass between his own legs. Each player in turn repeats the performance of the first.
Other methods of passing commonly used include passing overhead, passing alternately between legs and overhead, and passing sideward.

Basket Ball Relay (3).
This: variation of the above is the favorite form of passing relay. One basket ball is required for each team, therefore it is usually played with only two teams. When the player at the

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end of the line receives the ball, which is passed by any of the methods described above, he dribbles it to the basket, takes one or more shots at the goal, and returns with the ball to the head of his file. Each player repeats this performance. This game is better training for basket ball when the players are permitted only one try for goal, and are required to dribble the ball instead of running with it. The team that finishes first receives three points and one point additional for each basket scored.

Goat Butting Relay (4).
Each player butts a dumbbell or ball to the goal line and then runs back and passes it to the next player.

Donkey Relay (5).
Players travel on all fours to the goal, there imitate a donkey kick and bray, and then run back man-style.

Kangaroo Relay (6).
This is a variation of No. 5, in which the players hop to the goal as illustrated. Other good animal imitations include the elephant walk, crab crawl, duck waddle, and bear hop. It adds to the fun to have the players make a noise like the animal they are trying to imitate.

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Tumbling Relays (7).
Upon arriving at the goal, players perform a tumbling stunt similar to the backward roll illustrated. It is advisable to station an assistant at the goal line to help those who need it.

Tunnel Relay(8)
Players go through the tunnel on the way to the goal and jump over it leapfrog fashion on the return

Arch Relay (9).
This is a variation of No. 8, in which players go under the arch, as illustrated.

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Additional Simple Relays
The following may be suggestive for simple relays: hop, run backwards, skip rope, jump ditch, climb tree or rope, dribble soccer ball or basket ball, knock down and set up Indian club or stick, balance object on back of hand and throw it back, use first aid carries.

Double Relays
Double relays include those in which two people act as partners and perform together.

Horse And Rider Relay (10).
The heavier player acts as the horse and carries the lighter to the goal line. There the rider dismounts and, grasping his horse by the belt, drives him back to the finish line.

Wheelbarrow Relay (11).
The heavier player wheels the lighter to the goal; then, hand in hand, they run back.

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Spin Around Relay (12).
Half way to the goal, A pivots and swings B completely around, and then they run on to the goal. On the return B swings A.

Leapfrog Relay (13).
In the center of the course A leaps over B and then they run on to the goal. On the return B leaps over A, and runs on to touch off the next pair.

Gymnastic Relays (14)
Partners assist each other In performing gymnastic feats, as illustrated. The following are suggestive: forward and backward rolls, dive or turn handspring over partner, dead Man's lift.

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Double Pass Basket Ball Relay (15).
A basket ball is passed to the rear of each file by any of the passing methods: between legs, overhead, alternately over and under, or sideward. The two players at the end of tile line take the ball to the basket by passing it back and forth. They are required to observe regular basket ball rules, and therefore must not run with the hall, although they may dribble it. Upon arriving at the basket, players take turns in shooting. As soon as one of the players scores a goal, he may assist his partner by getting the ball, but he is not permitted to shoot again. After both players have made a basket, they return with the ball to the front of their file

Jump Stick Relay (16).
Provide each team with a stick at least three feet long. (Wand, staff, rope or belt may be used.) The first two players of each team stand one on each side of their respective lines, and grasp the ends of the stick. At the starting signal, they run with the stick held close to the ground, while their team mates jump over it. Upon arriving at the rear, No. 1 takes his place at the end of the line, while No. 2 runs to the head of the lint?: and hands one end of the stick to No. 3. This second pair repeats the operation of the first, and this time No. 2 stays at the end of the line, while No. 3 carries the stick to the front. Finally, the one who was at the end of the line originally runs across the starting line with the stick. The first one across wins for his team.

PART II--File Games
Line up the players in parallel files for all the games in Part II just as for relay races.

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Centipede Races (17).
Each player joins onto the player in front of him, and in this joined file formation the teams race against each other. If any player loses his grip, his team is disqualified. The teams may be linked by locking hands around waists, as illustrated, or by grasping either belts, hips, or shoulders.

Boat Race (18).
This form of centipede race is amusing to both players and spectators. Each team is provided with a pole or staff. The players straddle the position facing the rear, where the coxswain takes his position facing front. Like every good varsity man the coxswain Cheers his crew, keeps it in step, and steers a straight course.

File Dressing Race (19).
This game is often used at exhibitions and rallies since it affords spectators considerable amusement to see the players scramble for their clothes.
At the starting signal all the members of each file (everybody) run straight forward to a line about ten feet from the starling line, and there they deposit their hats. At the next line, ten feet beyond, they deposit their coats, and at the third line they deposit belts or shoes, and then run on to the goal line. On the return trip they put On their clothing. The first

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team with all members back in line properly dressed wins.

Chariot Race (20).
This game has been a favorite in three Boy Scout troops with which the author was connected. It can be recommended as a spectacular event for meets and rallies.
The players are divided into groups of five, or if patrols are used each patrol enters one chariot. The driver of each chariot sets up a handkerchief in wigwam fashion on the goalline. When the signal is given, the chariots race down the course and as the horses slow down at the turn and circle the handkerchief, the driver picks it up with his teeth, without releasing the grip of either hand. The team wins that crosses the finish line first with its team intact.

Catch, Throw, Sit (21).
This ball relay is popular with both boys and Birds of all ages. One player

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from each team, called the "Starter" (preferably the best ball player), is provided with an- kind of ball and stationed ten feet or more directly in front of his team. At the word "GO." each Starter throws his ball to the player at the head of his file. This player catches the ball, throws it back to the Starter, and then squats or sits down in place. Similarly, each player in turn catches, throws, and sits. The team with all members down first wins.
When this game is played with mixed groups, or where it is impractical to sit down, each player, after returning the ball, steps to the side, thus forming a new file.

Touch (22).
This is a remarkable Fame in that it is enjoyed by all ages, affords a great variety of vigorous action in a short time, and can be played in a very small space.
For a starting signal the leader names an object within sight near at hand. The instant an object is named the players break ranks, run and touch the object, and return to position. The first file with all members in line at attention scores a point. The leader usually names indefinite objects, such as wood. iron, glass, anything black, a mall. On the other hand, he may name one-or more specific objects, such as front and rear wall, rear door and window, or John Jones. (Of course John runs when his name-is called.) The leader can add to the fun by telling the players just what to do when they return to position, thus: "Touch, and come back and stand on left foot-Iron!"

PART III--Opposed Line Games

Line Dodge Ball (23).
Preparation. Divide the players into three equal teams, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. If

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indoors, draw two parallel lines across-the room about fifteen feet apart. If outdoors, draw a rectangle about fifteen feet wide, of a length depending upon the number of players. Station teams No. 1 and 3 on the firing lines, and No. 2 between the lines. Provide a basket or volley ball. If there are more than eight players on a team, two balls may be used.
The object of the game is for the outside players, without stepping over the line, to hit the inside players. Each time an outside player hits an inside player one point is scored for this team. The team wins that scores the greatest number of points after each team has been inside for two minutes. Only the four end players are permitted to recover the ball when it comes to rest within the lines.
When a player is hit he drops dead, i. e., sits down on the spot. The game continues until all are dead, and the team that kills most players wins. Of course if the players are not dressed suitably they may step out instead of droppings dead when hit.

B-l-l-lack and B-l-l-lue (24).
This game is evidently very popular, for it is played in all parts of the country under various names, including Black and White, Heads and Tails, Wet and Dry.
Preparation. In the center of the playing space draw two parallel starting lines, AB and CD, one pace apart. At equal distances from these lines draw goallines. If indoors or on a playground, draw them about three paces in front of the wall or fence, to avoid the danger of the players becoming injured by

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running into an obstacle at full speed. Line up the teams with one foot on the starting line and let the leader take his position between the two teams as indicated at L in the diagram.
The leader starts the game by Galling the name of one of the teams. Suppose he calls "Blues." The Blues immediately run to their goal, chased by the Blacks. All Blues tagged before reaching their goal must join the Blacks. Then both teams return to their respective starting lines again the leader calls either one team or the other. The team that has the most players at the end of the game wins.
Instead of having the players toe the starting line each time, occasionally have them stand on one foot, stand back to back with arms folded, get down on one knee, etc.
To add to the excitement and suspense, call the teams in mixed order and call them in various ways, such as: (1) Stutter the name by holding the letter "L," thus "B-l-l-lack"; (2) Fool both teams by calling neither, thus, "B-l-l-lank," "B-l-l-luing," "B-l-l-lubber"; (3) Call the name as quickly as possible the instant the teams return to the st8rtinp line: (4) When playing with younger children, tell an imaginative story in which the words "Black" and "Blue" occur often and unexpectedly.

O'Grady (25).
This popular recreational method of conducting physical exercises is so well known that a

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detailed description seems unnecessary. As usually conducted, when anyone performs an exercise in response to a command that is not preceded by the words "O'Grady says," he is required to drop out of the game. This results in the players who drop out first getting very little action. Instead of having players drop out, let them do any of the things listed
below :
1. Have all who miss run to a certain point and return.
2. Pause after two or three exercises and have those who missed pay a forfeit by stepping to the front and performing an exercise or stunt.
3. Where space permits, start all contestants on a line in a front rank formation, and have all who do not miss take one step forward after each exercise; finally, those in the front line are declared winners.
Instead of using all formal gymnastics, try mimetic exercises; i. e., informal imitations of actions of persons or animals. Players get more fun out of informal exercises and miss oftener, for they are so interested in the activity that they fail to observe whether or not "O'Grady" issued the order.
Mimetic Exercises. The leader can readily work out his own mimetics for O'Grady from the following serial exercises, which are merely suggestive:

A Day in Camp

Morning Stretch, Flag Raising, Run (in place) to Lake, Dive into Pool Swim out, Breast Stroke Crawl Back to Dock, Saw Wood, Chop Wood, Fire by Friction
,Flip Pancakes, Paddle Canoe, Row Boat, Play Games, Lower Flag

Physical Games

Baseball Pitching, Batting, Punting Football, Running Slowly in Place, Sprinting in Place, Standing Broad Jump, Running Broad Jump, Discus Throwing Shot Putting, Weight Lifting, Boxing, Fencing, Jumping Rope, Skating

pg. 41

Pom Pom Pull-Away (26).
This game has been very popular with bogs for many generations. It may be played as a skating game on the ice, or a running game on the playground. It is played in slightly modified forms under the name of Hill Dill, Red Rover, Dare Base, and Catch of Fish.
Preparation. The one who is chosen to be "It" takes his place in the center of the playing space. The others line up behind a line fifty feet or more from It. (There is danger of players getting hurt when a wall or fence is used for a goal.) A similar goal or safety line is drawn at the opposite end of the field. The side lines should be fifty feet or more apart, depending upon the number of players.
In the simplest form of the game It calls, "Pom Pom Pull-away, run-away, catch-away." Boys from different sections of the country have different rhymes for starting the runners. Older boys prefer to omit

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the rhyme and simply call "Run-away," or "Skateaway." Thereupon every player is required to leave the safety line and run to the opposite side of the field. Any player tagged by It becomes his assistant. Any player running beyond a side boundary is considered caught. The last one caught is It for the next game.

Chain Tag (27).
Chain Tag is an excellent game to play in a comparatively small space while club members are assembling. It requires little organization, and newcomers may enter the game at any time. It is nothing more than a simple tag game in which players join hands with "It" when tagged. Only those on the ends of the chain do the tagging. Only those who are being chased may break through the chain or crawl under clasped hands when trying to escape. If a player is tagged when the chain is broken he is safe. The game ends when the human chain is completed.

Stealing Sticks (28).
Stealing Sticks is worthy of its universal popularity, for it requires group activity, initiative, and personal sacrifice. The element of chance keeps the interest so high that players will play it by the hour.
The playing space is divided into two equal parts and marked out as indicated in the diagram. The object of the game is for each team to capture (steal) its opponent's sticks. The first team succeeding wins.

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Whenever a player succeeds in getting through the enemy's ranks and past the "Stick Guard" to the sticks, he is permitted to take one -prize to his own territory without being captured. When a player is captured,-that is, tagged while on enemy territory,--he is put. in prison. A player is released from prison when one of his team touches him. Any player who frees a prisoner must immediately accompany him to his own territory, and is not liable to capture while doing so.


Since this is not an officially standardized game, special rules may be made to fit particular conditions.
1. Each team should choose one player to act as captain and issue orders.
2. Only one "Stick Guard" and one "Prison Guard" are permitted. The Stick Guard must stand outside of the guard line unless an enemy crosses it.
3. Captains may exchange prisoners, and should be required to do so in cold weather.
4.Prisoners may stretch out in a line toward their territory provided they all touch each other, and provided the prisoner captured last is touching the prison base.
5. If the captains decide that the game will be improved by changing the size of the field or the location of either the prison or sticks, they may do so at any time.
6. No player is permitted to capture more than one prisoner at a time, and each player must accompany the one he captures to prison. Prisoners are not permitted to escape from prison, nor are they permitted to escape while being taken to prison.
7. No one is permitted to capture a stick if any member of his team is in prison. But he may steal a stick while a team mate is being taken to prison.

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BY M. HENRI MARTY Commissaire International des Eclaireurs de France

"No doubt the Americans will be interested in one of the favorite games of France, because it is very similar to the popular American game of Prisoner's Base.
"Divide the players into two camps of equal force. Line up the players of each camp upon a line with about 50 yards between camps.
"To start the game the leader of one of the camps goes over to the opponents' line and slaps the outstretched hands. The third player whose hand is slapped gives chase to the leader. Then several of the players in the leader's camp run out and in turn chase the one who is after their leader.
"When a player leaves his camp after one of the opponents has left his own he has 'hand' on him, and he can make him a prisoner by touching him with his hand. The boy who makes another one prisoner must shout 'Hand' when he catches him. The prisoner is taken to the adverse camp he stands on the limit line, and takes three jumps toward his own camp. The spot he reaches is indicated by a stone, or any other mark. He must stay there and stretch a hand toward his partners, waiting to be delivered.
"The other prisoners of the same camp come and stand near the first one and, hand in hand, they make a chain growing in the direction of their own camp.
"To deliver the prisoners, one of their partners must come and touch one of them with his hand; but the prisoners must form a chain and the first one must

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have his foot on the mark previously mentioned. When a player captures an enemy or delivers a prisoner, he can take him unmolested either to prison or camp.
"When someone shouts 'Hand' or 'Delivered' by mistake, without having taken or delivered anyone, one of the enemies must reply immediately 'Mistake,' and the player is then made prisoner. If he sees the mistake first and shouts 'Mistake' before one of the enemies does, there is no penalty.
"When one arrives in the opposite camp without having been taken (which is called 'forcing the camp'), he may stay there as long as he desires, but when he goes back, he can be pursued, unless another one has been taken or delivered. In this case, he can return quietly to his camp. The player who has forced the camp can only capture or deliver after he has joined his camp again.
"The game is won by the camp which has first made six prisoners, and when one of them has won three times in succession, the boys change sides."

PART IV--Circle Games
Since circle games, with few exceptions, are contests in which each individual is looking out for himself they are not used as much in club work as team

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games. They are played principally in the early part of meetings while members are assembling.

Three Deep Variations

The usual way of playing Three Deep, in which the players form in pairs on a circle and the one being chased jumps in front of a pair, is so well known that further description seems unnecessary. Instead of always playing it the same way; try one of the variations described below.

Two Deep (30).
Two Deep is better than Three Deep for a small number of players. Instead of forming a double circle, form a single circle and play Two Deep the same as the regular form of Three Deep.

Two Deep Leapfrog (31).
In this variation of the above the players stoop down and grasp their ankles as the runner approaches, chased by "It." The player whose back the runner leaps over exchanges places with the runner, and is in turn chased by It.

Locked-Arm Circle Tag (32).
Partners stand side by side facing the center of the circle with arms locked and outside hands on hips: The runner, chased by "It," locks the outside arm of one of the pairs, whereupon the third player is chased.

Animal Cage Three Deep (33).
Form a double circle just as in Three Deep; then have the players on the inner circle face about and form the animal cage by grasping the hands of those on the outside. The player being chased runs into a cage, whereupon the player on the inner circle must run to escape the animal keeper.

Overtake Circle Chase (34).
This is an excellent circle team game that can be played with a large or small group of boys, girls, or adults. When played with adults or mixed groups, walking may he sub-

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stituted for running. If running is used, have the players carry an open handkerchief, a knife or stone on the back of one hand.
Preparation. Form the players in a circle and count them off by fours (twos for a small group) and have the number one players step outside the circle and face to the right.
At the starting signal each number one player runs and tries to tag the player in front of him. When a player is tagged, he goes back into his original place in the circle. The runners continue until only one player is left. When the group is very large, let the players run for about a minute and let all who are not overtaken by that time enter the finals. After all the players have run, the winners compete for their teams in the final chase.
The leader can introduce an element of chance and add much to the merriment of the game by occasionally blowing his whistle as a signal for the runners to turn and run in the opposite direction. This reverses the relative positions of the runners so that just about the time a player expects to tag the one in front of him the whistle sounds and that player turns and tags him.

Swat Tag (35).
Form all the players, with one exception, in a circle and have them stand with their hands behind them. Provide the odd player with a swatter, such as a belt, knotted neckerchief, or rolled newspapers. The odd player, called the "Beater," walks around the circle and places the swatter into the hands of any player he desires. The player who receives the swatter turns upon his right-hand neighbor and tries to swat him continuously while running around the circle. The one who was swatted steps into his original position, the former Beater walks

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around the circle and puts the swatter into the hands of anyone he chooses, and so the game continues.

Spud (36).
Spud is a very popular game with boys of all ages, but is not well suited to girls, unless they are more accurate throwers than the average girl.
All players assemble in a compact circle in the center of the room around one of the players who is provided with a soft recreation ball or an old indoor baseball. This player calls the name of someone just as he drops the ball. If he calls "George," all the other players scatter and George quickly picks up the ball and commands, "Stand," All players stand wherever they are and George attempts to hit one of them. If he hits a player, that player tries to hit another until finally someone misses. When a player misses, one "Spud" is scored against him, and then all the players gather again in the center of the room, while the one who missed drops the ball and calls the name of a player.
The game continues until someone misses three times and becomes "Big' Spud." This unfortunate stands with his face to the wall and makes himself as small as possible. The other players line up behind a line fifteen or twenty feet from the wall and each takes a shot at Big Spud.

Buddy Spud (37).
After boys have learned Spud they thoroughly enjoy Buddy Spud either indoors, outdoors, or in the water. It is played quite the same as the former except that each player works with a partner known as his "Buddy."
If a player's name is called, or if he is hit with the ball, he may either throw at another player or throw the ball to his Buddy who may be in a better position to make a hit. If his Buddy fails to hit a player or if he "muffs" his partner's throw, a "Spud" is

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scored against both players. When a pair has two misses, they are required to go up against the wall the Same as in regular Spud.

Additional Gymnasium and Playground Games

Space does not permit the description of many well known games that are commonly used in clubs. All the games listed below are fully described in Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium, by Jessie H. Bancroft, (Macmillan):

Bombardment, Numbers Change, Bull in a Ring, Poison Circle, Catch and Pull, Poison Snake, Circle Stride Ball, Potato Races, Club Snatch, Prisoner's Base, Follow the Leader, Shuttle Relay, Jump the Shot, Tugs of War, Maze Tag, Various Ball Games

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IT is recognized that the games described in this chapter will be used principally by those who are not fortunate enough to have gymnasiums. However, this would not be true if all recreational leaders recognized the value of social play. To be sure, boys and girls may prefer gymnasium games to social recreation; but, is it not true that many of them may never play social games if they do not play them in the club, because of the fact that the only evenings they are away from home are spent at the club? Many leaders are enthusiastic about social recreation as a sure method for increasing morale and attendance. They conduct at regular intervals an evening program of social entertainment and amusement with its logical conclusion of ''eats.''
The games included in this chapter have been carefully selected to meet the needs of recreational leaders who conduct regular clubs. The games can be played equally well with large mixed groups of boys and girls of varying ages, such as the church social leader meets. Special party games requiring considerable preparation and equipment have been omitted. Popular party games which should be included in the recreational leader's repertoire have been listed. The leader who is not familiar with these old favorites will find most of them fully described with modern interpretations and variation in Social Games and Group Dances, by J. C. Elsom and

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Blanche M. Trilling. This book also contains the old favorite party group dances in improved form:

1. Going to Jerusalem 2. Up Jenkins 3. Twirl the Plate 4. Gossip 5. Numbers Change 6. Poor Pussy 7. Ruth and Jacob 8. Shouting Proverbs 9. The Minister's Cat 10. Ride in Sight 11. Jack's Alive 12. Follow the Leader 13. Birds Fly 14. Statues

Leadership of Social Games

Social games require more personality, tact, and spirit of good fellowship in the leader than do gymnasium or playground games, many of which play themselves after they are started. Social recreation requires almost constant leading to keep everyone in the game. A crowd refuses to be driven, does not want to play by itself, but is anxious to put itself into the hands of a leader in whom it has confidence. The leader must get just as much fun out of leading as the players do out of playing. They catch his spirit and look to him to create it. On the other hand, if he loses confidence or is ill at ease, the crowd reflects this attitude instantly. To be sure of success the person in charge must plan in advance, know the details of the games perfectly, and have all equipment at hand, so that he can give all his attention to the spirit of the game. He should give almost no conscious thought to the technique of a game after it is under way. Observe an experienced successful leader and notice that the fun starts the minute he begins his explanations. The players are sure they are going to enjoy the game before they start to play, so of course they do.

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PART I--Social Mixers

Social mixers or get-acquainted games, better known as "ice-breakers;" are generally used to start an evening of social recreation even with a group of people all of whom are thoroughly acquainted. Such games are designed to create at the outset an attitude of mind and spirit required to make a party successful. The social mixers in this chapter have been carefully designed so that they can he used equally well with individuals who may or may not be acquainted.

Social Treasure Hunt (1).
A Social Treasure Hunt is one of the authors's most successful games. It combines the most desirable features of a Treasure Hunt, a Grand March, the game of Follow the Leader, and in addition is an excellent social mixer.
The players are organized into teams of from four to eight, depending upon the size of the crowd. Then the teams assemble in various places to learn the names of the individual members, elect a captain, select a team name, preferably that of an animal, and practice the call of that animal as their team or treasure sail. To avoid duplication of names, each captain should report the name of his team to the leader as soon as it is selected; then it is a case of "first come, first served."
When all the teams are ready, they are lined up, and either a grand march or a game of Follow the Leader is started. Suddenly the music stops, or the leader blows his whistle, as the signal for everybody to scatter and hunt for treasures, consisting of nuts, wrapped candies, and small favors, previously hidden throughout the house, room, or over a limited area when in the open. Before turning the players

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loose, make it perfectly clear that under no conditions must anyone other than a team captain touch a treasure. When a player sights a treasure, he gives his team call and keeps calling until his captain arrives to pick up the treasure. It adds to the excitement to color the nuts and wrap the treasures in colored paper and then score as follows: 1 point for white objects, 2 for red, and 3 for blue or black.
After the hunt has been in progress for a minute or two, the leader suddenly blows his whistle. This is the signal for everyone immediately to fall in line again to continue the grand march or follow the leader. Again, after a few minutes the leader blows his whistle for the players to return to the hunt. 14 this fashion the game continues until all the treasures are found, if the voices and the endurance of the teams will last that long. At the close of the hunt the team having the most treasures wins. The team finding fewest may be required to give over its treasures to the winners. All other teams are permitted to keep their findings.

Suggestions for Follow the Leader. The possibilities for Follow the Leader are almost limitless; those following are suggested for a Social Treasure Hunt.
1. Figure marching, walking, skipping.
2. While marching--sing, whistle, hum.
3. Imitate animal. (See Relay Races No. 4, 5, 6, Chapter Three.)
4. March on tiptoes, carrying hands in various positions.

Lucky and Unlucky spots (2).
The object of Lucky and Unlucky Spots is for each player to be conversing with a partner on a lucky spot when time is

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called at the end of each two-minute period. The game is usually played in six periods. Before starting, the leader secretly writes the exact location of six spots on as many separate pieces of paper, and at the end of each period one of these is drawn from a hat and read. A simple prize is awarded to the couple standing on the spot, provided a third person is not present. If there is a third person, the spot is declared "Unlucky" and all three are fined (usually one cent). Similarly, if a person happens to be on the spot without a partner, he is fined. The spot is also unlucky for couples who were together at the close of any previous period: therefore, before awarding a prize the leader should inquire, "Have you two been together before during this game?" If the answer is "Yes," a fine is duly imposed.

Medley March (3).
Couples are formed side by side standing in a circle, and then those on the inside are requested to face about. When the music starts or when the whistle blows the individuals in both circles start to march forward, thus separating the couples with the circles moving in opposite directions. When the music stops, the marching ceases, and each player faces the person nearest him. If any of the players are strangers, they introduce themselves and then listen for orders from the leader. After carrying out the specified instruction, a starting signal is given and the players continue the march in opposite directions.
The success of a Medley march depends almost entirely upon the leader's ability in the selection of the things the players are required to do after they introduce themselves. Preceding each command the leader must state which circle is to perform--for example, "Inner circle, skip around your partners." The number of things the players may be called

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upon to do is almost unlimited. In addition to those suggested below, see others in the game of Crows and. Cranes, No. 16.
1. Tell partner your given name, nickname, grandmothers' names, present, past, and prospective address.
2. Walk, skip, run, hop around partner.
3. Talk continuously to partner for thirty seconds on an assigned subject.
4. Pantomime a trade and see if partner can guess it. Suggested trades: butcher, baker, carpenter, bricklayer, cowboy, etc.
5. Imitate the call and action of animals.
6. Assume statue-like poses, such as girl rejecting lover, Romeo and Juliet, henpecked husband, etc.

Who Are You? (4).
This social mixer and the one following are correlated with nature lore, but they can be applied equally well to many club subjects. For a mixed crowd it is advisable to use common advertisements, nursery rhymes, names of states, automobiles, etc.
The host secretly tells each guest upon arrival what he is to represent and pins something upon his chest to help others learn his identity. As guests approach each other they say "Hello! Who are you?" After exchanging their real names, they next try to solve the problem, "What else am It" Each takes one guess, finds out whether he is right, and then moves on. The one who guesses the greatest number of names wins.
Following are suggestive methods for marking players:
1. Pin upon them drawings, prints, leaves, flowers, bark, etc.
2. Write the family name in regular order and jumble

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the species, thus: Fish--Yell Pow Cher! (Yellow Perch)
3. If the names are confined to a single subject, such as birds, jumble the letters thus: Let tan, gear cars. (Scarlet Tanager)
4. Hide the names in written lines or indicate them by riddles. Noun rents are lower. (Wren) What bird is a monarch and an angler? (Kingfisher) A bee with two letters makes my tree. (Beech)
5. Numerous nature riddles, couplets, and verses may be found in The Book of Games and Parties, by Theresa H. Wolcott, from which those below are taken by permission of Small, Maynard & Company.
"The stone that gives words that are sweet to the ear.'' (Blarney)
"Where mountains are divided look, you'll see a flower so white" (Lily of the valley)
"The crane's a stately mannered fowl, though kinder far's the -- ----.'' (Downy Owl)

With plumage black and scarlet wing Upon a cat-tail oft I swing; Amid the swamps you'll look for me For marshland, suits me best, you see. (Redwing Blackbird)

In woodland heights I flourish now But yet, in long ago, The victor twined me round his brow, My name perchance you know. (Laurel)

I yield you a delicious sweet, E'en tell pounds in a season; And cabinet makers like my wood, 'Tis strong; that is the reason. (Sugar Maple)

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Yes or No (5).
The game of Yes or No may be used at the beginning of a program as a social mixer, or it may be played by a group of friends throughout the entire evening. When it is played as a social mixer, the host explains the game to each guest as he arrives and provides him with ten counters, such as peanuts or wrapped candies. The guests move about and talk to each other, introducing themselves if necessary, trying to inveigle each other to use the forbidden "Yes" or "No." Anyone who violates the special rule of social etiquette is required to pay a penalty, giving up one counter to the person who first detects the breach. At the close of the game the one who has the greatest number of counters may be: suitably rewarded, while those who have either lost or eaten all of their counters may be required to pay a penalty.

PART II--Active Games

Active games, including relays, are especially popular. The method for conducting social relays described below will be found most useful where only a limited space is available. The players are divided into either two or four teams. When two teams are used they are seated on opposite sides of the room; four teams are seated as illustrated. Each captain, marked C. in the diagram, is seated on the extreme right of his team. At the starting signal each captain runs to a marked spot directly in front of his team and performs whatever action may be directed.

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While the captains are doing this, all players shift one seat to the right. When a captain finishes his performance, he runs to the empty seat at the end of his line and hands the person seated there some article to be passed, or, in event of no apparatus being used, he simply touches the end player, who in turn either passes the article or the touch along to the head of the line. Each player repeats the performance of his captain. The team wins that is first to have all its players back in their original seats.

Dressing and Undressing Relay (6).
Part I Dressing Race. Let each team select its most effective model and station him upon the marked spot in front of its team. Provide each player with a piece of wearing apparel with which to dress its model, such as a sash, apron, bonnet, hat, necktie, coat, belt, rubbers, umbrella, etc. In relay fashion each player puts the particular thing that has been given to him upon the model of his team. (Of course the models should act as dummies.) The team that gets its model dressed first wins Part 1. Before starting Part II the models should be paraded around the room, and then all players should participate in judging the best dressed models.
Part II-Undressing Race. In the second part of the race each player in turn takes off the particular thing he put on.
The two parts of the above race may be combined in one race if enough pieces of clothing cannot be conveniently provided. Then, half of the players of each team dress their model, while the other half undress him.

Eating Relay (7).
Place a receptacle in front of each team containing something to eat. Each player runs to the receptacle, where he is required to eat

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something and whistle before touching off the next player. Food suggestions: quartered fruit to be peeled before eating, crackers to be buttered, candy to be unwrapped.

Singing and Reciting Relays (8).
Each player runs to a marked spot where he sings or recites a wellknown verse. When lines are to be read, they should be numbered so that each player knows which line he is to read, Newspaper lines may be read, but it is advisable to prepare beforehand copies of something more interesting, such as "Captain Jinks":

"Captain Jinks"

1.I'm Captain Jinks of the horse marines,
2.I feed my horse on corn and beans
3.And swing tile ladies in their teens,
4.For that's the style in the army.
5. Salute your partner and turn to the right.
6.And swing your neighbor with all your might,
7.Then promenade all tile ladies right,
8.For that's the style in the army.

Bottle Change Relay (9).
This is an adaptation of a well-known gymnasium game called Club Change Relay. Two small circles are drawn on the floor in front of each team, and three bottles are placed in one of the circles for each team. The players alternate in putting the bottles from one circle into the other. Of course the bottles must always be stood upright.
A variation of the above consists in having players alternately knock the bottles down and stand them up.

Nut Cracking and Shelling Relay (10).
Place in front of each team a dish containing either nuts to be cracked, peanuts to be shelled, or both. For cracking

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the nuts, provide either a hammer, stone, or a regular nut cracker. If nut crackers are not available, use peanuts only. In relay fashion each player runs to the dish and cracks or shells one or more nuts as may be directed. The winning team is rewarded with the nuts of the team comings in last. Other teams are allowed to eat their own supply of nuts.

Chair Relays (11).
The members of each team may be required either to run around a chair, to sit upon it, lifting both feet. off the floor, or to stand upon it. When folding chairs are available, they are to be preferred, for then each player may be required to open his chair, sit on it, and finally fold it up and lay it on the floor.

Miscellaneous Relays (12).
Below are additional suggestions for relays:
1. Each player takes a stitch or two in sewing on a patch or button.
2. Bounce rubber balls a given number of times. 3. Skip or jump rope. 4. Shell beans or peas. 5. Drive nails or tacks. 6. Roll a hoop, 7. Light and extinguish a candle. 8. Blow up and burst a paper bag.

Variety Passing Race (13).
In this passing race and the one following no running is required. The players may either stand or sit in the same formation suggested for relays. For a Variety Passing Race, place three or more articles of varying weight on the floor in front of the first member of each team. Of course each team must be provided with articles exactly alike. The following are recommended: clothespins, safety pins, tennis balls, magazines, pillows, open umbrellas, pots and pans.

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The leader of each team starts the race by picking up the articles in front of him one at a time and passing them to the second player who passes to the third, and finally the last player places: the articles on the floor in front of him, but the instant he receives the last article he picks up the things one at a time and passes them back. Thus it will be observed that the articles are to be passed to the head of the line in reverse order. The team wins whose leader is first to have all the articles on the floor in front of him.

Unwinding and Winding Race (14).
The first member of each team is provided with a ball of string, the end of which he secures by winding it around a finger. At the starting signal he passes the ball to the second member. Succeeding players repeat the unwinding and passing, until finally the diminished ball reaches the last player, who rewinds it and passes it back. The passing and rewinding continues until the ball reaches the first player. The team that gets its ball back to its leader first wins, provided each member participated in both the unwinding and the rewinding.

Moving Statues (15).
The popular children's game of Ten Steps combined with the game of Statues and played as a team game is popular with both old and young. Divide the players into two teams, and decide which team will first act as "Statues" and which as "Detecters." Line up the teams at opposite ends of the room as illustrated, and advise the leader to stand upon a chair. Then the Statues, one

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at a time, demonstrate the gymnastic or statue-like pose they will assume throughout the game. The object of the game is for the Statues to advance as far as possible while the leader counts ten, and then hold their pose for ten more counts while the Detecters try to detect them moving.
At the starting signal the Detecters face the leader, and the Statues rush forward while the leader counts rapidly to ten. Then the leader blows his whistle and the Detecters turn suddenly and observe the Statues, while the leader again counts to ten. If at any time during this count the Detecters observe any Statue advancing or moving in any way whatsoever, that Statue is pointed out and is obliged to return to the starting line to try again. This is repeated for five or more times depending upon the size of the playing space; then the teams change and the score is taken as follows: one point for each Statue that reaches the center line, and an additional point for each one who advances far enough to touch one of his opponents.

Crows and Cranes (16).
Crows and Cranes is a remarkable game in that it can be played with a large group of all ages in a small space. It can involve just as much or just as little physical activity as may be desired.
Preparation. Count off the players by the number of files desired, always having an even number of files. Line up the 1's in the first file, 2's in the second, etc. Name the alternate files "Crows" and "Cranes," as illustrated. Instruct Crows No. 1 to play against Cranes So. 2; No. 3 against No. 4, etc.
Before starting the game, the leader might explain

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it by saying, for example: "Suppose I say, 'Run
around your partner, passing in front of him.' No one moves until I give the command of execution. Then if I command 'Crows!' the Cranes must stand still while the Crows run around them. The file of Crows that has all its players back in their original places first wins." Following this explanation, the leader might demonstrate by calling the command of execution, either "Crows" or "Cranes," and letting that team run, around partners.
The number of things possible to do in Crows and Cranes is limited only by the ingenuity of the leader. Below are individual suggestions:

1. Hop around partner. (Always pass in front of partner to avoid collisions.)
2. Run around partner, running sideward, crossing feet in front.
3. Animal imitations: donkey bray and kick; kangaroo hop, hands on knees and feet together; duck waddle, hands on hips, etc.
4. Laughing contest: laugh at partner until he can no longer maintain a perfectly serious face, if he even winks an eye, return to position.
5.Talk-fest: talk continuously to partner for sixty

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seconds, telling age, date and place of birth, family history, etc.
6. Duel contests: see Chapter Five for suggestions.

Below are suggestions of things the files may do as a unit:

1. Circle opposite file following leader--either running, hopping, skipping, or walking.
2. Grasp belt or put hands on shoulders of person ill front, and in this formation run around opposite file.
3. In file formation run around opposite file, holdings hands on knees.
4. Follow file leader zigzagging between all members of opposite file.

It adds to the fun and keeps everybody guessing to give commands of execution in various ways as described below:

1. Hesitate especially after more complicated orders, and stutter over the letter "r," thus, "C-r-r-rows," or "C-r-r-ranes."
2. Fool both teams by calling neither, thus, "C-r-r-rakers." "C-r-r-rabs," "C-r-r-rocheters," "C-r-r-ravers," etc.
3. After a simple order, give the command of execution without any frills.

After a few minutes of play the game may be made more interesting if the players are instructed just how to stand when they return to their original positions. When this is done the team wins whose players are first back in line standing as directed. Find suggestions below:

1. Fold arms.
2. Stand on one foot with arms folded.
3. Throw up both hands.

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4. Pose as a statue: for example, Romeo under Juliet's window.
5. Laugh continuously or weep.

School Room Games (17).
The leader who has no place for play other than a school room will find old fashioned school room games very valuable. A few such games are briefly suggested here. More may be found in Games by George O. Draper (Association Press).
Relays. A piece of chalk is given to the first person in each row. In relay fashion many things may be written on the board: such as names or initials of players; sentences in which each player adds one word, the last player completing the sentence; arithmetic sums and tables; rhymed words or lines; lists of flowers, trees, birds; compass points; etc.

PART III-Quiet Games

Earth, Air, Water, Fire (18).
Divide the party into two groups and seat them on opposite sides of a table or a room. A member of team a starts the game by throwing a knotted handkerchief (soft ball, bean bag, bail of paper tied in a handkerchief) to any member of team B, calling, as he throws, either "Earth," "Air," "Water," or "Fire," and immediately counting to ten. Before he reaches ten, the B player must name an animal if Earth was called; a bird or flying insect for Air; a fish or water bug for Water; and if Fire was called, he must remain motionless and silent. If the B player fails to name an object before the thrower counts ten, a Point is scored for the A team. A point is also scored if anyone names an object that was previously named.

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The teams throw alternately, and the one wins that has the most points at the end of the game.
It adds to the fun to permit a player who cannot think of a name quickly to call "Help!" and throw the handkerchief to a team mate.
The above game is especially adaptable for clubs, since permanent groups or patrols may be pitted against each other. The imaginative leader may see fit to substitute for Earth, Air, and Water subjects more appropriate for his particular group. Camp Fire Girls might substitute requirements for ranks and honors; Scouts might call for the name of a tenderfoot, second class, or first class test, and possibly names of merit badges might he used. For example, if a player mere to throw the handkerchief to an opponent and call "First Class" that player would be required to name a first class test before the thrower counted ten.

Ghost (19).
Ghost may be played as an individual game, with the players seated in a circle, or as a team game, with the teams seated opposite each other. The first player starts to spell a word, naming the first letter. The second player immediately thinks of a word beginnings with that letter and adds a second letter. Suppose the first one calls "D" and the second "E." Now the third player must try to add a letter which will not complete a word; so he may add "V." If the next player adds "I" and the fifth can think of no word beginning with "d-e-v-i" except "devil," of course be is obliged to add "L"; but by so doings he becomes a "Half-Ghost." Then the next player starts a new word, and the game continues.

1. Any player who adds a letter which completes a word of mole than two letters becomes a Half-Ghost.

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2. Two Half-Ghosts make a whole "Ghost."
3. Anyone who speaks to a Half-Ghost t becomes a HalfGhost also. Similarly, anyone who speaks to a Ghost becomes a Ghost.
4. Ghosts cannot participate in spelling. They simply try to get others to become Ghosts by talking to them or answering their questions.
5. When anyone suspects that a player has added an odd letter just to keep, from completing a word he may challenge him. If tile one challenged cannot name a word that he had in mind, he is penalized a Half-Ghost. However, if he names a word correctly, the one who challenged him is penalized.
6. When Ghost is played as a team game, the team wins that has fewest Ghosts at the end of the game. When played as an individual game, play continues until all but one are Ghosts.

Fizz-Buzz (20).
This game is a variation of Ghost. Instead of letters and words, figures are used. Each player in turn counts consecutively up to 60. At ii "Fizz" is said instead of 5, and also at 10, 15, 20, or any multiple of 5 up to 60. When 60 is reached, the counting is started all over again, and this time all multiples of 7 are called ''Buzz,'' as well as all figures that have 7 on the end of them. In counting the second time Fizz is used just as it was in the first. Caution the players about the fifties which would be Fizz-one, Fizz-two, etc. Figure 55 would be Buzz and 57, Fizz-Bizz.

Rules. 1.Whenever a player misses he becomes a "Half Ghost."
2. Two Half-Ghosts make a whole "Ghost."
3. Anyone who speaks to a Half-Ghost becomes a HalfGhost and anyone who talks to a Ghost becomes a Ghost.

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4. Ghosts cannot count, but they may try to get others to become Ghosts as in the rule above.
5. The person wins who is last to become Ghost. When played as a team game the team mills that has fewest Ghosts when time is called.

Dumb Crambo (21).
Half of the players, or one patrol of scouts (called the "Actors") go out of the room, while the others (called the "Audience") decide upon either a noun or a verb that the Actors are to pantomime. Suppose the word "rat" were selected.
A messenger then informs the Actors that the word selected is a noun that rhymes with "hat." They decide among themselves upon a rhyming word and
how to act it out. Suppose they selected "bat" and came in and pantomimed ball players swinging a bat. The Audience would discover the error and so inform the Actors by hissing. Suppose the next time the Actors came in, some on all fours like dogs, some like cats, some swinging imaginative clubs-evidently conducting a rat hunt. The Audience would inform them that the word rat was correct by applauding. Then the Audience would change places with the Actors.

Card Spelling Race (22).
Preparation. Divide the party into two teams and appoint one member of each team to act as scorekeeper. Prepare with large type two sets of cards, each containing the same letters, 40 two alike. For sixteen players or less use let "A" to "H" inclusive; for seventeen to twentyfour, "A" to "L"; for twenty-five to thirty-two, "A'' to ''P,'' for more than thirty-two use all letters of the alphabet. Pass out one complete set of cards to each team; if necessary give some of the players two cards, but avoid giving the same person two

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vowels. Select words for the game from the lists below. Each letter appears at least three times in each series and the same letter does not appear twice in the same word.

Words for sixteen players or less with letters "A" to "H."

Aged Bead Caged Fade Badge Cafe Chafed Faced Beach Chab Each Head

Words for seventeen to twenty-four players with letters "A" to "L."

Backed Glade Half Jackie Fickle Glide Heal Jibed Field Globe Hiked Jade

Words for twenty-five to thirty-two players with letters "A" to "P."

Backlog Jacob Modeling Blacking Jailed Obliged Facing Joined Packing Flamingo Machine Pelican Flinched Manhole Pickled

The person in charge of the game calls the word to be spelled out. Instantly the players holding the letters in the word called run to their respective lines at opposite ends of the room. (If-space is limited have those who hold required letters simply step, in front.) The team that first places its letters on the line in correct order receives one point. The scorekeeper of each team acts as judge also and yells out "Finished" when the word is correctly formed. Then the players pick up their letters and return to their respective sides.

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"This splendid game has to do with the letters of the alphabet, and might be called 'Initials,' or a 'Word at a glance.' Besides the pleasure it gives, it may be made decidedly educational. It certainly tends to quicken one's wits and to test one's knowledge along miscellaneous lines. It is fine for children and well adapted to Scout patrols.
'fit is necessary to have cards or slips of paper on which have been written or printed plainly the letters of the alphabet, one letter on each card. It is well to have three or four cards of each letter of the alphabet, omitting the X and Z and Q, or having only one card bearing those three letters.
"The cards are mixed in the pack. One player must act as leader of the game, and he holds all the cards, face downward. He turns them over, one at a time, so that the letters may be clearly seen by each of the players. Just before he turns a card he may say, 'Mention to me some bird whose name begins with this letter.' Then the card is quickly exposed to view. The invitation is open to all; the one who first gives a correct answer gets the card. If no one can think of an answer in five seconds, the leader puts the card into the pack again and gives some other subject, turning another card. The game may be varied by a clever leader to suit almost any group from very young children to college professors. For the younger players the leader may say, 'I am going

1Published by permission from Social Games and Group Dances by J. C Elsom and Blanche M. Trilling. Published by Lippincott.

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to take a walk through the woods. What objects would I be likely to see, the names of which begin with this letter"?' Then he turns the card, which is always given to the player who is first with his answer. When the cards in the pack have been exhausted, the game is over and won by the person who holds the largest number of cards.
"Below is given a list of subjects which the leader may make use of in directing the game:

Literary: Names of authors, poets, poems, essays,

books, magazines, newspapers, character in a well-known novels, Bible names, etc.
Geographic: Names of rivers, mountains, countries, cities, lakes, states, capes, islands, etc.
Natural History: Names of birds, animals, fish, insects, trees, flowers, fruits, plants, vegetables, etc.
Historical: Celebrated characters, warriors, statesmen, presidents, kings, emperors, governors, noted battles, etc.
Musical: Names of musical instruments, songs, hymns, composers, musical notes and signs, etc.
Commercial: Articles found in drug stores, dry goods stores, bookstores, groceries, hardware shops, banks, photographic houses, clothing stores, offices, etc.
Anatomical: Parts of the body, organs, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, bones, etc.
Grammatical: Parts of speech, initials of adjectives, verbs, adverbs, nouns, etc.
Miscellaneous: Names of girls, hogs; articles found in the schoolroom, in the home, in bedrooms, etc.; Darts of automobiles, bicycles, typewriters; names of articles concerned in railroading; objects seen on a city street, on a country road, at church, in tile theater; articles to eat, drink, smell; articles of clothing; etc.

"The above list will suffice to show the great possibilities of the game, and how it may be made interesting

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to groups of varying ages and degrees of mental development. The game may be conducted as a contest by having the players divide into two equal groups, the individual players standing in line, the one giving the answer first going to the head. This plan adds interest to the game, because the position of the players is constantly changing. The game may also be varied for schoolroom purposes by having all the pupils stand. As soon as each child gives first a correct answer he takes hits seat and is out of the game. The slower players, of course, will have to remain standing longer than the rest.
''A good variation of the game is called 'Opposites.' When the card is shown, an adjective and its opposite must be given: for instance, old, young; polite, rude; quick, slow; intelligent, ignorant; bright, dull; etc."

PART IV--Trick Games

A simple trick that will keep everyone guessing is entertaining and thoroughly enjoyed when played during a period of rest after an active game. The object is to see how many people can catch on to the trick. Therefore it is made comparatively easy, so that after the trick is performed several times some will claim to see it, whereupon they are given an opportunity to demonstrate their wits. The trick games in which one person becomes the laughing stock of a party through his confidence in the leader or even through his temporary stupidity, have been omitted for obvious reasons. Certainly they have a place at April Fool Parties, and they may be used with adults who have a developed sense of humor, but they must be used with great discretion with adolescent boys and girls.

Red, White, and Blue (24).
This is a modern

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adaptation of a very old game called Black Magic. You go out of the room while your accomplice takes charge of the crowd and lets anyone select an object in the room to be named by you. He calls you and pointing out various things says each time, "Is it that -?" Finally he names the right thing, and you answer ''Yes.''
In the old game of Black Magic the correct object is the first one named after some black object. In Red, White, and Blue the correct object is the one named after something red the first time; white the second; and blue the third time.

Drawing Numbers (25).
Select some one who does not know the trick to act as your assistant, thus concealing your: confederate who is one of the crowd. Let your assistant take charge of the crowd, select any number less than ten, and call you into the room. You claim that you can tell the number they have in mind provided each person with whom you work will think constantly of that number.
To perform the trick stand behind anyone, covering his face with your hands. Do the same thin:: to several persons, one of whom is your confederate. He signals the number by contracting his jaw muscles the required number of times.
Since this is a very old trick the first or second time you do it several of the guests will offer to duplicate it. Let them tell how they think you do it and then keep them guessing by offering to do it by drawing the numbers but of the heads of people selected at random without laying a hand upon them. To do this you make foolish passes in front of several people, one of whom is seated in such a position that you can watch your confederate while making the passes. He sits absolutely still and starts

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counting when you make your first pass, and you count also. After you make the number of passes corresponding to the number selected, he makes a natural movement thus notifying you to stop counting. To make this trick still more puzzling your confederate can notify you when you make the right number of passes by starting to talk. When the trick is performed in this way, you can do it with your eyes closed.

Spirits Move (26).
To perform this trick you must have an accomplice working with you all the time. While you are out of the room he touches some person in the room, and you name the person without entering the room. The simplest way to perform this is to have your accomplice stand in front of the person he intends to touch. He may stand in front of that person just as you enter or just as you leave. Another way in which the trick is performed is to have your accomplice touch the person who spoke last as you left the room.
Your accomplice points at some one saying, "The spirit moves." Then from without you reply, "Let it move.'' After repeating this several times the accomplice touches the correct person saying, "The spirit touches --." You instantly call the name of the person, thus completing the sentence.
After you have performed the above trick a few times, some of the guests will insist that they be permitted to point out the person. By using the principle described in the game below, Spirit Photography, your accomplice may let them point out the person, provided you are permitted to come into the room to point out the particular person.

Spirit Photography (27).
Select anyone in the room except your colleague to act as your assistant.

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Instruct him to take a magic exposure of some face in the room by holding a piece of paper in front of it for a few seconds while you are out of the room. When you return to the room you pretend to develop the photograph by makings a few magic passes over it, then you study it very carefully and finally tell the name of the subject. Since the tendency of everyone is to suspect your assistant of being the one who is helping you, it is quite easy for ;your confederate to give you the information by any of the following methods :
1. Imitating the exact sitting position and pose of the one who was photographed.
2. Counting the players around the circle going to the right starting with the individual previously agreed upon, and signaling the number to you with his fingers.

Pointing out Objects (28).
Place about six books or similar objects in either a row or a pile. Have the crowd decide upon one of the objects, and then have your accomplice come into the room. You touch the objects at random saying each time, "Is it this?" Finally touch the one selected by the group, and of course your partner answers "Yes."
When performing the trick first, indicate the object by touching the second or the second last object just before touching the one desired. After several persons object to your touching the objects, reluctantly agree to try to perform the trick otherwise. Then give your accomplice the desired information by the number of words you use in the sentence when you call him into the room. For example, if it were the fifth object you might say, "All right, Mary, come in."

Blind Reading (29).
A clever person who is some-

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what of an actor call amaze an audience with this trick, which consists in reading written messages with his eyes closed. To perform the trick you must take one person into your confidence, telling him what to write on his slip. For example, suppose he writes, " He is also instructed to be "Hope to go to camp." He is also instructed to be one of the last to bring up his paper when you call for all papers, placing it on the table directly in front of you.
Select an opportune time during the course of the evening and offer to demonstrate your inherited power of reading written messages with your eyes closed. Pass out small narrow slips, calling attention to the fact that they are all the same size and color. Ask each one who wishes to test his subconscious power of communication to write as briefly as possible some desire or resolution and to place it face down on the table in front of you. It is important to place your table in front of the audience, or, better still, place it in a corner of the room and sit behind it.
Now you are ready to perform the trick. Shut your eyes, pick up a slip, place it upon your forehead, and pretend to concentrate intensely. Pass out buncombe claiming there is too much noise, stating that professional mediums require both silence and darkness to guarantee readings. Claim that someone is trying to make a fool of you, having written some foolish thing which of course cannot be communicated. Finally open your eyes and pretend to read from the slip, "Want the Southern Railroad." Of course that is not what was on the slip, so let us suppose that the following was written: "Wish for a new position." Appear to be disgusted, lay the slip aside saying, "I'll try just once more." Then pick up your colleague's paper and after a little

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hocus-pocus sap, "Mr. Blank, did your wish concern the out-of-doors?" Of course he answers, "Yes." Then ask; "Did you write, 'Hope to go to Camp'?" As previously instructed, Mr. Blank replies, "I thought I wrote 'wish) instead of 'hope."' Then without opening your eyes hold out the slip and request someone to read and see who is correct.
Now, working more rapidly, put another slip on your forehead and, without opening your eyes, tell what was written on the slip that you picked up first: namely, "Wish for new position." Then ask the one who wrote it to raise his hand. While the attention of the audience is directed toward this person, lay the slip aside, pretending to verify your reading by glancing at it as you take it from your forehead. Of course, in the next reading you will tell what was on the slip that you just placed aside.
A clever person can occasionally tell the name of a writer by watching certain persons carefully and remembering where they laid their papers. With a little simple sleight-of-hand work you can accomplish Blind Reading without assistance by slipping in a few papers that you have written yourself. Furthermore, when you read your own papers, you can forget to ask who wrote them and avoid the suspicion of the audience upon this omission by passing out those papers to the audience to verify your reading.

Magic Action (30).
Instruct the crowd to select a verb that can be acted out, and agree to come into the room and perform the action indicated by the verb without a single sound being uttered. Before leaving the room, ask anyone except your confederate to knock when the word has been selected. If possible, arrange the audience in a circle, and have your confederate seated in a rocking chair.

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Come into the room and stand behind someone nearly opposite your confederate. The instant you place your hands on the person's head your confederate begins rocking very slightly. With each motion of the chair you both say to yourselves a letter in alphabetical order, thus: on the first motion "A," On the second, "B," etc. When he stops rocking, you will be saying to yourself the first letter of the word. Then you go to a second person and your partner starts the second letter the instant you touch him. Finally you will go to a person and your confederate will do nothing, informing you that he has signaled all the letters. Then, without saying a word, you act out the verb.
Instead of transmitting the vowels by the method described above, it is much easier to signal them by the use of the hands. To let you know that he is going to send a vowel, the instant you touch a person your confederate crosses his feet and then indicates the number of the vowel with his fingers in the following order: A-E-I-O-U.
When holding your hands on anyone's head, hold your head down also and raise your eyes only while watching your confederate. If you can place him in a shadow, it will be easy to observe the shadows from all parts of the room. When a rocking chair is not available, as at camp, your confederate can signal to you by breathing as heavily as possible and you can both count the movements of his chest. However, to do this you must watch him so intently that you can readily be detected. But if you can put out the lights in the room add place him in a long shadow cast by a light from without the room, even his slightest motion can be detected, since it is magnified in the long shadow.

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"I No" (31)
The leader tells the players that he will let them into the "I No" club on condition that they know the right things. He may start saying, 'I know football,'' and then say to his neighbor, "What do you know?" This player knows the game, and so he replies, "I know geometry." "All right," says the leader "You may join." The next one says,
"I know spelling." "No," says the leader "You can't join." In this way all players are given an opportunity to get into the mysterious society. Only those who claim to know some subject in whose name there is no letter ('I" are permitted to join the ('I No" club. Those who fail to make this club should by all means be given an opportunity to work their way into the "Slam Club" described below.

Slam Club (32).
This game is most successful when used as a follow-up to the game described above. The leader states that he will give all the unfortunate ones a second chance to get into a club, saying, "All you have to do to get into the Slam Club is learn the salute and yell."
Then proceed to teach the salute, which consists of bowing slowly, raising the head, and then bowing a second time. Now teach the words to accompany the salute. On the first bow say, "Oh Wha!" While raising the head repeat, "Tagoo!" Then on the final bow repeat the club name, "Slam." After this is learned the leader gives the candidates the final test, instructing them to put the salute and the words together to the tune of "America." Soon, much to the amusement of the members of the ''I No" club, the Slams discover they are singing, 'Oh, what a goose I am."


"This is a stunt rather than a trick. However, it requires so much coordination and been observation that it can be accomplished by very few people. You will have to practice it repeatedly before you dare do it before an audience. It is splendid for a rainy day at camp as well as for a party or evening social, I have seen it go the rounds of thirty people without a soul doing correctly what is apparently such a simple sequence of ideas and action.
"Sit at a table with a cup and challenge anyone to repeat the simple words and action that you are about to perform. Assure everyone that there is positively no trick or catch to it; then do it twice and let anyone try it.
"First Round. Lift up the cup with the first finger of the right hand around it, at the same time saying, 'Here's a health to Admiral Poof.' Take one imaginary sip at the cup, place it down: on the table once, and with the first finger of the right hand wipe your imaginary moustache first to the right and then to the left. With the same finger tap the top of the table at the right side, and then with the first finger of the left hand tap the top of the table at the left side. Then touch the underneath of the table with right finger on right side and with left finger on left side. Next stamp the right foot once, then the left, and finish by rising a few inches from your chair and sitting down once.
"Second Round. With first and second fingers of the right hand round the cup say, 'Here's here's a

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health health to Admiral Admiral Poof Poof.' Then take two imaginary sips and place the cup down twice on the table. With the first two fingers of the right hand make two imaginary wipes to the right of the upper lip and two to the left. Then mage two taps on the top of the table with the first two right fingers and two taps to the left with the first two left fingers. Then touch the underneath of the table with the first two right-hand fingers and two touches to the left with the first two left-hand lingers, finishing by two stamps with the right and then two with the left foot. Finally get up and sit down twice.
"Third Round. With three fingers round the cup say, 'Here's here's here's a health health health to Admiral Admiral Admiral Poof Poof Poof the third and the last time.' Then sip three times and continue as above, doing each thing three times."

PART V-Program For Large Group

To handle successfully a large mixed group consisting of boys: and girls with parents, such as might be assembled at an evening social function, a father and son or mother and daughter meeting, or even at an outdoor picnic, some means must be devised to get everyone to want to get into the games. The person in charge must prepare a varied program that will be amusing and will, appeal to all present. His assistants must have been previously informed as to the exact part they will have in helping carry out the events. In other words, "Be Prepared."
Starting Right.
The affair should start with an activity that will arouse play spirit in all present. A social mixer game of such a type that late comers can join in at any time is usually used as a starter. Since it is practically impossible to get everyone into

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the game when a crowd is handled as a mass, those present should be divided into groups With a leader in charge of each. A Social Treasure Hunt (1) when organized properly is guaranteed to be an excellent first number for any affair in which groups are to be used in a program of active social games either indoors or outdoors. Any of the other social mixers described in Part I are to be recommended for a less active indoor affair.
Getting Everyone In.
All the members of a large group cannot be kept in constant action, and so some games must be selected in which a few perform largely for the amusement of the others. But some method must be devised to avoid calling for volunteers, otherwise a comparatively few active ones will do all the volunteering while the majority of the crowd will be contented to sit in the grandstand. A method that never fails to get everyone into the game consists in giving each leader a written program with all events numbered. Each leader is also given entry cards. For example, if it is desired that each team enter one man and one woman in event So. 6, each leader would be given two cards as follows: "Event So. 6 Man," "Event No, 6 Woman." The leaders distribute these cards among their teams, seeing to it that everyone is given at least one card. It will facilitate matters considerably if each person is given a program so that when an event is called the entrants from each group map step forward prepared.
Typical Program.
It is impossible to make out a practical program without carefully considering all phases of the situation. In general it is advisable to be prepared with more material than will actually be used so that unforeseen conditions may be met. The program below is a typical one that might be used

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with a mixed gathering at an evening social, an outdoor picnic, or a rainy day at camp:

1. Free for All Team Treasure Hunt.
Everybody is entitled to a treasure, get on a team and get in.
2. Drawing for Entries.
Everybody plays! Get your entry card from your leader.
3. Feeding the Leaders-All leaders and one feeder from each group.
Select your own baby and bottle. No one allowed to feed his own leader.
4. Button Sewing Relay--Four males from each group. Thimbles, magnifying glasses, and swearing not allowed.
5. Candle Lighting Race-Four ladies from each group. Any lady striking a match on the floor will be disqualified.
6. Cracker Whistling Race--One man and one woman from each group.
Those who drop even a crumb will be rewarded with an additional cracker.
7. Beau Tie Race--One couple from each group. Couples remain arm in arm throughout race. Men tie head bands, women neckties.
8. Men vs Women in Rope Skipping Race--One couple from each team.
No points will be awarded for this event. 9. Group Stunt Contest for Everybody.
Each group will present either a group or individual stunt.
Time limit three minutes.
10. Grand Partnership Medley--Four couples from each group.
At all times couples must perform arm in arm or hand in hand.
a. Couples skip hand in hand to the exhibition line.

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There they will be handed a glass of water. Couples lock arms, carry the glass in the hand of the locked arm, and walk to the starting line. Upon arriving each drinks the water from his own glass without unlocking arms. When each member of his team holds his glass upside down the second couple starts.
b. Couples walk to the exhibition line and face the audience.
The man sings up the scale and then the woman sings down the scale. They return to the starting line clapping hands and singing the chorus of "Yankee Doodle."
c. Couples walk to the exhibition line, face the audience, and perform a setting-up exercise for twenty-four counts.
Partners must perform the same exercise in unison.
Return, hand in hand, flopping wings, crowing.
d. At the starting line partners place paper bags on each other's heads, and high step to the exhibition line. There they remove their bags, blow them up, and explode them. The team exploding both bags first wins the event. Bags must go "Bang!"
11. Announcements and Awards.
Anyone not satisfied with his prize may auction it off.

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The great natural desire of boys and girls for hunting, chasing, exploring, tracking, and trailing can find outlet through appropriate games in the woods and camp much better than on the playground. Unfortunately. some leaders fail to recognize this and take balls and bats on hikes or give regular athletic and playground games the most important place in their camp program. Why not leave the city and gymnasium behind when taking boys and girls to the
fields and woods?

PART I--Treasure Hunts

Games of the tracking, trailing, and Treasure aunt variety are not as much used as their universal popularity would seem to warrant. This may be because leaders feel that it, is difficult to lay a good trail. However, if a simple plot is worked out beforehand and a list is made of the things to be brought out on the hunt, the trail will almost lag itself.
The Treasure Hunt written as a story with blank spaces is most valuable because it teaches while it tests. Before laying a trail similar to those below, all of which have been actually used by the author, the plot should be worked out and the things in which the trailers are to be tested should be listed. At camp Permanent trail marks should be selected so that the same trail may be used throughout the entire camping season. Under such conditions it is advis-

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able to write out the story with blanks to be filled in. Then have enough copies made of the, directions for the Treasure Hunt to provide one for each tent, or better still one copy for each two campers. This makes the hunt something more than a game of Follow the Leader.

Delaware Tree Hunt (1).
I used this trail with a group of Boy Scouts on the second day of a two-day hike. The first day the boys were given instruction in trees by the use of several of the tree games in Chapter Eight. The following day the boys were divided into groups of four (a patrol is too large),
and each group was provided with a copy of "The Tree Trail of the Delawares." The words in heavy type indicate the answers of the winning group. One point was scored for each correct answer.

"Many moons ago, before the days of the Revolution, the Leni-Lenape or Delaware Tribe of Indians pitched their wigwams on this very hill. Their Chief trained his warriors in the ways of the woods by following trails. He rewarded winners with ii prize or treasure, and thus we have treasure hunts. Below is a translation of the last hunt of this famous tribe. The team that gets the highest score on this trail will receive a box of candy.
''1. Start from the ashes of last night's council fire, get your bearings from the sun, and in a northwesterly direction you will see a very tall evergreen tree. Let each member tell how, far away the tree is. What is your average estimate? 190 Feet. Now by pacing find the distance to the tree and write down the average. 248 Feet. (If your tribe has an error greater than 25 per cent., practice estimating distances throughout this trail.) What kind of a tree is it? White Pine.
"2. Follow the trail from the tree in the direction of the rising sun, and stop at the first tree on the right hand

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of the path that has distinctly red colored leaves. What is it? Japanese Maple.
"3. Continue to the end of the trail and take the path going north. Within a radius of a hundred feet of the turning point you will find a medicine tree with three differently shaped leaves. Let the braves scatter to see who can find the Sassafras Tree. If the Little Chief will cut into shavings a small loot, he can boil them and make a fine cup of tea for every member of Iris tribe.
"4. Line up the braves across the trail, and run a race to the next point, which is distinctly marked by a line of stones laid across the road. On the right hand of the line you will find a Flowering Dogwood tree in bloom. On the left you will find a Tulip Tree with a, characteristic straight black trunk.
"5. Continue along this paleface trail until you come to a side trail marked by a large piece of dead Pine wood. Wow if you keep a sharp lookout, you will find five trail signs.
"6. A sign meaning This is the trail will be found due north from a Red Maple tree one foot high.
"7. Three stones meaning Turn to the right will be found at the foot of a double Black Oak tree.
"8. The next sign a short distance from the tree means Short distance this way. The upright is of Soft Maple wood and the leaning stick is Pine.
"9. In tile middle of tile path was a sign indicating Note hidden three paces away. It was found in a hole in the foot of a White Maple tree.
"10. The note HP UP HBUF written in Morse Code could not be deciphered, and so the Little Chief made each member hold his left hand on his heart anti raise his right hand toward heaven and repeat after him: "I solemnly promise that I will never, no not even on my dying day or on tile pain of death, divulge the secret code of the Delawares that is about to be revealed to me.' He then told them that they could find the meaning of the message

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by subtracting one letter from each of the code letters. They did this and read Go to gate.
'"11. On the back of the gate written in sign language they found the following: Retrace steps to camp, list every tree at least six inches in diameter within four paces of edge of trail on the right.

White Pine
Red Maple
Hemlock (Don't Know) Tulip
Red Maple Red Maple
White Oak Ash (Rot White) Black Oak

American Elm White Oak
Sweet Gum (Don't Know)
White Maple White Ash
Sweet Gum
Sycamore Black Oak White Pine"

Since the object of this trail was tree study, it will be observed that it was laid so that there was no danger of anyone getting off the track. Trails are aften a complete failure because the trackers get lost. Have no fear of making any trail too easy, but beware of making it intricate.

Trail of Chief Kanohwake (2).
This trail is described just as it was worked out in a scoutmaster training class at Teachers College, Columbia University. I explained the idea to four patrol leaders and provided them with a copy of a Treasure aunt that had been conducted a year previous at the same place under similar circumstances. From these suggestions they finally agreed upon a plot and listed the following things which they wished to include in the hunt: tree, bird, and plant study, estimation, compass work, signaling, and trail signs. Then they went out and laid the trail in less than two hours. The next morning each patrol leader was given a

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typewritten copy of the story with many blank spaces to be filled in. The words in black face type indicate the answers filled in by the winning group. When all the patrols returned, the actual story was read. By the method of keeping score indicated, at the close of the reading each patrol leader was able to announce the score of his patrol.

"Yesterday afternoon a select member of each tribe after a powwow with the Big Chief, laid a treasure trail. Each patrol will be given an opportunity to get the treasure, which will be awarded to-night at the Grand Council Fire. Beavers start at exactly 9:30 this morning; Bears at 0:50; Foxes at 10:10, Minks at 10:30.
"Chiefs are advised to read the entire story to themselves before starting, so that they can provide their braves with the necessary implements of war. Any chief who fails to report to the Big Chief at exactly two hours after his scheduled starting time will be penalized one point for each minute lie is late. The entire tribe of Beavers assembled in the rear of the Big Lodge (Camp Headquarters) at exactly 9:36 and started with six points in the hole for being that marry minutes late. (Score-6) The Little Chief halted them at a deadline drawn across the road within three paces of a clump of six Gray Birch trees. (Score-5) Without crossing tile deadline they estimated the age of these trees. Their average estimate was Eight years old. By counting the Annual Rings (Score-4) they found their estimation Four years short (Score-8).
"Standing at the stump, the chief got his bearings from the sun and pointed out a distant tree, which lie estimated to be South-Southwest. (Score-7) Then lie ordered his braves to improvise a tripod and set up a compass. Everyone took a squint at the compass, and allowing for a magnetic declination of eleven degrees west, they found that the chief had made an error of Pour degrees. (Score-11) Then they walked cross country eighty paces

pg. 95

in the direction of a well-beaten trail, where they turned and continued 222 feet in the direction of the rising sun. On a barrel they found instructions chalked in Morse Code. They interpreted the message Without the help of a book. (Score-10) Following the code instructions,. they found a Bird's Nest in a Hemlock tree (Score-8) "The chief ordered his men to sit down under the tree,. close their eyes as long as it takes to skin a rabbit (three minutes), and on pain of death utter not a single sound. They listened and heard a Crow, Oven-bird, Chat, Oriole, Frog, Bee, Fly, and felt as well a Family of Mosquitos. (Score O) Tile chief found by the sun that it was getting late, and so he moved his tribe on at scout's pace, keeping a sharp lookout for five trail signs. Upon inquiry the chief was surprised to learn that three of his braves did not know these signs. He ordered them to remain behind until they learned the signs in the Boy Scout Handbook.
"Tile wiser braves proceeded and found:

1. This is the trail.
2. Arrow indicating the way.
3. Short distance this way.
4. Turn to the right.
5. Note hidden reading 'End of the trail.'

(Score 5)

When the braves who remained behind arrived, they were given the raspberry whoop.
"At the end of the trail they rested under an evergreen Yellow Pine tree. (Score 6) While resting, the braves who knew the ways of the woods told of all tile things they knew that might be found growing wild that could be eaten either raw or cooked. Then everybody scattered and hunted for edible materials. Five minutes later the chief gave his warwhoop and the braves returned with the following: Rock Tripe, Dandelion greens, Skunk Cabbage, Fiddle-Brake Greens, Wild Grape, Sassafras,

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Sugar Maple, Raspberry tips, Strawberry and Choke Cherry. (Score 16)
"Again the chief gathered his men and asked each one to point out the location of the Big Lodge. Then one of the braves climbed a tall tree and found that five of tile tribe had a perfect sense of location. (Score 21) Then tile members were organized into three groups according to their interests in trees, birds or flowers. Upon arriving at camp they reported their findings to the chief. "Trees oil the right hand within three paces of the trail and over five years old: Hemlock, Pin Oak, White Oak?

Hickory, Dogwood, Choke Cherry, Gray Birch, Red Maple, Sugar Maple (Score 31)

"Birds actually seen: Robin, Oriole, Maryland Fellow throat, Chewink, Redstart, Crow. (Score 37) Birds heard but not seen: Catbird, Song Sparrow, Blue Jay, Warbler, Chat. (Score 42)
"Flowers or blossoms observed without leaving the trail: Dogwood, Huckleberry, Strawberry, Azalea, Rhododendron, Clover. (Total Score 48)"

Trailing City Signs (3).
A formal matter-of-fact city treasure hunt, without an appeal to the imagina-
tion, has less to recommend it than an imaginative
type. Nevertheless it will be found very valuable for use in the city as a substitute for the "woodsy" type. The trail described below was designed to present the possibilities in civic education of this form of activity in a city like New York. It was used for two years by students of recreational leadership and by boys' and girls' clubs.

1. Start from 541 West 120th Street. Go in a westerly direction to a yellow box marked No. 3608. The most important Inscription on the box reads :Police Department. City of New York.
2. Go about 400 feet from the box; toward the highest rise of ground on Broadway. To your left find a tablet

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commemorating the Battle of Harlem Heights fought on that spot on June 16, 1176.
3. Using the figures in the date, divide the day of the month by 2 and the gear by the quotient. The result is 222.
4. Go SSW the number of feet obtained in the answer above to two trees, one of which has the top cut out. That kind of trees are these? American Elms.
5. From here go down Broadway to two green boxes. What is the most important inscription on the one marked "J Section"? Post Office, 309-311 W. 125 St.
6. From here how many fixed devices placed by the city of New York for the safety, service, and convenience of citizens can you see? 16. List them below: Fire plug, Fire box, Mail box, Are light, Lamp post, Street car, Subway entrance, Safety zone, Taxi stand, Newspaper stand, Traffic police, Underground trolley wires, Trash box, Street sign, Sidewalk, Paved roads, Curbstones.
7. Stand under the sign post near the green boxes and look toward the Hudson River. What is the average estimate of your group to the red fire alarm box two blocks away? 350 Feet.
8. Now pace off the distance to the fire box. What is the difference between your paced average and the estimated average? 100 Feet less.
9. What are the directions on the fire alarm box? Turn handle until bell rings.
10. Go from here in a westerly direction until you reach a drinking fountain. Go north down the path and find a shady place to sit down. Close your eyes for three minutes, and do not talk or whisper. What sounds of nature other than voices did your group hear? Sparrow, Robin, Cricket, Running water, Wind rustling leaves.
11. Continue along the path, climb the first steps you come to, and go to the fountain. Use a compass and go SSE to a street corner. From here go SE until you pass under an iron arch.

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12. What is the average estimate of your group of the height of tile building on the right? 100 Feet.
13. Take the path on the left to the first gate on the left. What trees did your group identify on the right and left of the path' Sycamore maple, Sycamore, Red gum, White maple, Catalpa, Mulberry.
While it is more desirable to give each group a
separate copy with blank spaces to be filled in, it is possible to conduct a trail hunt with only one copy. When a single copy is to be used, all blank spaces should be numbered consecutively and the answers should be numbered accordingly and handed in on a separate sheet. a schedule should be written on the last page so that the outline can be passed from group to group. Groups should be very small (preferably two) so that it is more than a game of follow the leader.



"The person who has successfully designed a Treasure Hunt or a trailing contest, open to all the scouts in his town, realizes that it must be both interesting and 'fool-proof,' if such a combination is possible. Below is a copy of a Second Class Trail that we conducted in Kansas City. The numbers indicated the points scored for perfect answers."

Start from south door of Convention Hall. Remember: "d scout is trustworthy." You must neither give nor receive help.
1. Proceed due east to street whose name has been subject of a recent surrey by scouts. Name it............10

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2. Name all car lines passing this point .............10
3. What community activity is housed near this corner?...10
4. Proceed east and then north to "most interesting store in Kansas City." Report observation on Scout window and note any code arrangements in window. (Scouts are on honor not to use printed codes in translating code message.) .................................20
5. Proceed north until you reach a lunch counter, the name of which is a compass direction, face 180 degrees away from direction and report name of office you are facing. ................... ................. .10
6. Proceed north until you reach a well-known sporting goods house. Give name and compass bearing of nearest other sporting goods house from here.................10
7. As you go north, note name of a well-known magazine. Give name and describe location of sign so that it could be easily found by any one reading the description .....10
8. Proceed north to street whose name is two parallel lines, turn west to the street whose name would indicate it was the principal street in Kansas City. Go north until you reach a Scout display which has a message for you. Name knots in display. No. 1 ................5 No. 3 ................5 No.2 .........,..5 No4 ................5
9. Translate message in the window ................20
10. Follow directions given ill message. Name most important feature of display you find next...........10
11. Stop and receive at least five letters in succession from a group of 15 letters that will he signaled very slowly from tile top of tile Westgate Hotel at 1:00, 1:15. 1:30, 1:45, 2:00, 2:15, 2:30, 2:45, 3:00. These letters must he written in tile order received or they will not he counted. Five -points will be awarded for every letter correctly noted. All messages are the

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same, so you need receive only one, ........................75
12. Stop at 902 Grand. Answer questions put to you and have your report scored here.
No. 1 ................20 No. 3 ................20 No. 2 .............;.. .20 No. 4 ................20
13. Proceed to 1010 Grand. Name the knots displayed: No. 1................5 No. 3 ................5 No. 2 ................5 No. 4 ................5
14. Translate message hanging from fifth floor of R. A.
Long Building. ...................20
15. Make a straight line map of trail you have covered so as to show route only.
This is simply to show that you have! covered trail properly .......... 20

Dessert Treasure Hunt (5).
The Dessert Hunt is described as used in camp, but it can be used just as well on a hike.
The camp director sends out a party of select campers to secretly lay a trail, After dinner or supper he announces that unfortunately the regular dessert has not arrived, When the moaning ceases, he holds up a letter saying: "Just at; luck would have it, only this morning I received a mysterious letter locating a spot near which a choice lot of eats is hidden." Then he reads from the letter simple directions that must be memorized in order by the tables. A set of directions is read for each group similar to the one following :

All campers must line up outside of the mess hall by order of tables. Table No. 1 will lead down the main road to a large lock on the right about 200 yards from camp. They will find further directions written on tile rock in Indian signs. At tile crossroad table No. 2 will lead and No. 1 will go to the rear.

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After reading the instructions the director should. repeat it once slowly for each group. The campers who laid the trail should accompany the hunters. Whenever a group hesitates or gets off the track, they should be corrected and penalized one portion of dessert for each error. The final instruction given to the last group may be just a little indefinite so that every camper can enter into the final hunt. For example: "Now everybody get down on hands and knees on a line between here and the alder bush and search every foot of the ground between here and the road, and you mill find the treasure buried." (Box of fruit, watermelon, etc.)

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PART II--Tracking Games

Hunting for Diamonds (6).
This is a modern form of a paper chase without the objectional feature of littering the woods with paper. It can be played anywhere in the city or the country.
Preparation. A day or two before the hunt select two players to act as trail layers with the understanding that they furnish the trail markers, consisting of "pathfinders" anti "diamonds." Instruct the trail layers to prepare a large bag of paper torn into about 3/4 inch squares and mark (preferably with colored pencil) numbers from 2 to 10 upon about onehalf of the squares. The plain squares are called pathfinders, the marked ones are the diamonds.
The trail layers precede the hunters by three minutes or more and lay a clearly defined trail, using a liberal supply of paper. The hunters follow, picking up the pathfinders and diamonds. When the trail
is lost the players scatter, and the one who finds it is on his honor to yell, "Trail! Trail!" before he picks up a single marker. When the trail layers exhaust their paper they indicate the fact by placing their bags in the center of the trail, and then hide separately somewhere within one hundred paces of the spot at which the bags are dropped. Upon discovering a the bags the chasers scatter and hunt for the trail layers. The player win:; who receives most points scored as follows: 20 points for discovering a trail layer, 1 point for each pathfinder, and also the sum of the numerals upon the diamonds.
Hunting for Diamonds is recommended as an individual game for a small group and as a team game for a large group. When it is played by teams,

pg. 103

provide an additional bag of colored paper and possibly a supply of colored yam. The yarn may be hung upon bushes or from branches overhanging the trail. The individual members of each team should be permitted to gather only one kind of marker, thus leaving something for the slow runners to gather.

Sand-Track Pantomimes (7).
Sand Tracking is a subject that has not been given its due share of attention judging from the great interest it creates in camps that use a sand bin. The only equipment necessary is a spot covered with sand or a sand bin about ten feet wide and twelve feet long, and a rake with which to smooth over the moist sand.
Deduction contests in puzzling out stories that have been enacted in the sand are usually conducted by patrols. The contestants are assembled around the bin and given brief instruction and opportunity to observe simple tracks. Of course the leader should give instruction in the kind of tracking that mill be

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used in the story to be enacted. If it were desired to depict for the contest the story of a man with a pack on his back lost in the woods, who finally dropped from exhaustion, tracking related to this kind of action should be given in the preliminary instruction. This instruction might include: tracks of normal person either running, walking, carrying a load, stalking or falling.
After the observation period the patrols retire and the leader enacts the "riddle of the sands." The patrols are then assembled and allowed to study the tracks for a few minutes in absolute silence. Then each patrol retires and assembles the individual observations into a story. The patrol that reports the best story as judged by the entire group, wins.
Detective stories involving tragedy are most popular. For pantomime suggestions see Chapter Six.
These contests are interesting to leaders as well as players, as evidenced by the remark of one of the International Boy Scout Jamboree judges: "These competitions bad their lighter side, even for the harassed judge, whose amusement can be imagined on readings descriptions of dark deeds and awful slaughter where the solution was nothing more difficult than that of a couple of scouts practicing somersaults on the sands."

Animal-Track Races (8).
The sand bin described above is also useful to the camp nature-lore leader. The leader assembles his class to study imitation animal tracks in the sand. Then the players study the tracks and try to run on all fours carrying their feet just as the animal would. After instruction is given rabbit, squirrel, cat, and dog races may he conducted. It is also possible to work out animal riddles in the sand similar to those in the game above.

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"A rabbit race may be conducted either indoors or outdoors. If available, a sandy field or beach should be used. Have all the player" provide themselves with four leaves each, or with four pieces of paper. When playing on a windy day it is advisable to wrap pebbles in the leaves or papers. Arrange the players on a line with a pace interval between players.
''Instruct each player to arrange his leaves in front of him in the shape of a large letter 'Y,' thus arranging them in the form of a rabbit track. Without explaining that the first two markers at the top of the 'Y' represent the tracks made by the hind feet, let the players race to see who will be first to get into the correct position. To do this the players must get. down on all fours placing their feet where the rabbits feet were at the top of the 'Y' with their hands as fore feet placed back of them between their legs. The first one to, do this correctly should be given the privilege of showing the others.

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"After all of the players have learned the correct position let them figure out how the rabbit runs, and let them practice the rabbit run. To do this a player must put his hands down in their respective tracks ahead of him, and then so jump that his feet will overreach his hands. After everyone can perform a rabbit-like run, conduct a ten-yard rabbit dash.
"As a variation of the above race, try a squirrel race in which the hands are placed side by side instead of one behind the other. A cat race may also be conducted in which both hind and front feet move

PART III-Chasing Games

Capture the Thief (10).
This is a game that may be used annually at camp to furnish several hours of excitement. The game is sure to succeed if a clever thief is secretly selected and if he is given a chance to get clear of camp before he is chased. A strong cordon must be placed around the entrance of the thief's den or he will escape very easily.
During the noon meal the cam:;, director tells the campers that he has been informed by a traitor that a clever member of a gang of thieves will attempt to steal the camp baseball (or any other article of convenient size) sometime during the afternoon between 2 and 3 o'clock. The director then announces that the entire group or tent will be rewarded with extra dessert whose member captures the thief before he Peaches his den, which is a marked tree near a wellknown spot about one-half mile from camp. He further suggests that each group or tent captain talk over plans while eating and that all captains get together after the meal to make final plans.

pg. 107

1. No one shall chase the thief until the bugler sounds a special call (instruct the bugler to allow the thief to get out of camp before he blows).
2. No one shall be permitted to stand guard nearer than ten paces to the entrance to the thief's den (a marked tree or rock). However, when the thief crosses this imaginary circle anyone may give chase.
3. If the thief reaches his den without being tagged on the back three times by one person he wins, provided lie does this within one hour of the time he picks up the object. If the thief fails, he loses his dessert.


"This is an old Scotch game, evidently an outgrowth of smuggling. The 'Geg' is a small treasure or object easily handled such as a pocket knife, key, marble, etc.
"The players are divided into two even parties, one called the 'Outs' and the other the 'Ins.' A den about four feet by six in size is marked on the ground in some central place. Both parties agree on boundaries beyond which it is unfair to go, though the space available for play should be very considerable. It is determined by lot or by counting out which of the parties shall be the first Outs, or Smugglers, this being the more desirable position. The Outs have the geg, or treasure, which they give to one of their number in a manner that leaves his identity unknown to the Ins. They may do this by going out of sight and

1. From Bancroft's Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium. Used by permission of tile author and The Macmillan Company, publishers.

pg. 108

choosing one of their number to take the geg, or by standing in a row within sight of the Ins, with their backs to a wall or fence, and pass the geg from hand to hand behind their backs, making many feints and passes intended to deceive the onlookers
"When the geg has been deposited with one of their number, the Outs run and hide, but before their final hiding place must give a call of 'Smugglers!' This is the signal for the Ins to start on the chase. The object of the Ins is to catch the one player among the Outs who is custodian of the geg. The identity of this player may be a sheer matter of surprise on their part, when they will have to challenge any player whom they may catch. If the player holding the geg can return to the den without being caught, his party wins, and again goes out for the next game. But if the holder of the geg be caught before he gets to the den. the Ins win the game, and become the Outs for the next round.
"Whenever one of the Inn catches one of the Outs, the latter is not a prisoner until he is 'crowned'; that is, the pursuer must hold him, take off his cap, and place the palm of his hand on the prisoner's head, when he must cease to struggle. The pursuer then demands, 'Deliver up the geg!' which must he clone at once should this particular smuggler be the one who holds it. This fact is then shouted aloud, and all of the players return to the den. If the player caught should not have the geg, he is allowed to go free.
"Of course it is to the interest of the Outs to engage the attention of the Ins as much as possible upon players who do not hold the geg, thus to give the holder of it- a chance to make the den and so min for his
party-. ''

pg. 109

Blind Animal Stalking (12).
Since the action in most stalking games is not sufficient to satisfy players under normal conditions, such games should be reserved for play following strenuous games or following a meal. Blind Animal Stalking succeeds best with a small group. When there are more than twelve players it is advisable to divide them and play two or more separate games.
Preparation. Blindfold a player (the "blind animal") and let him select one player to act as his keeper. Place the animal and his keeper in the center of a clearing, preferably one strewn with dry branches and leaves. The other players, or stalkers, are stationed on an imaginary circle eight or ten paces from the animal.
The object of the stalkers is to crawl near enough to the animal to touch him without being heard. No running is allowed. When the animal hears a sound he points to the spot from which he thinks it came. When he points out a stalker, his keeper motions that player back and he is required to go to the enter edge of the circle to try again. If no one succeeds in touching the animal before time is called, the one who is nearest to him at the expiration of three to five minutes, acts as animal for the next round.

Sheep Pull Down (13).
This is a simple hiding game that has been accepted for generations by players who feel that they have passed the age of such games as Hide and Go Seek.
The game is started by all of the players gathering around a tree selected as the goal. Now the game proceeds as does Hide and Go Seek, with this exception: when "It" sees a player he throws the stick instead of tagging the goal. If It sees John, he runs in to the goal, throws the stick, and yells, "Sheep pull down

pg. 110

for John." This informs the others that John is now It and gives them time to find other hiding places. At any time a player may run in and throw the stick veiling: "Sheep pull down, run sheep, run!" It must then return to the goal and replace the stick, again giving the players another chance to hide. When the game is played in the woods the general direction in which the stick must always be thrown must be specified, otherwise It will waste valuable time hunting for the stick.

Nature Chase (14).
This game is a variation of B-l-l-l-ack and B-l-l-l-ue No. 24, Chapter Three. It is especially recommended for younger children who enjoy the guessing element.
Preparation. Two captains choose sides and toss to determine which team shall be the "Ins" (the chased) and which shall be the "Outs'' (the chasers). The captain of the chasers or the Outs lines up his team back of the line A-B drawn across a, clearing or the road. The captain of the Ins takes his team to the "Safety Line," illustrated in the diagram. There the Ins secretly select a team name such as a flower or bird. Then they advance to the "TakeOff Line" three paces in front of the other team, and say, for example; "Guess what bird." The member of the Outs on the extreme right of the line of chasers immediately names a bird and his team mates follow in turn naming different birds, until finally the bird selected by the Ins is named. The instant the correct name is called the birds fly (run) toward their Safety Line; their opponents chase them and capture as many as possible by

pg. 111

tagging. Now the birds gather around their captain and select another name and advance to the Take-Off Line; the guessing and chasing continue as before. When the Outs have captured three they exchange places with the Ins and become runners. If at any time the chasers fail to guess the name of the bird, plant, flower or tree that their opponents have chosen, they are required to capture one additional player.

PART IV--Fighting Games

An occasional or an annual fighting or war game is conducted in many camps. The success of such games depends largely on the extent to which the campers put their own initiative into the game, planning details, organizing units, and devising strategic movements. The leader would no doubt find that mere he to read a detailed description of a very fine war game to his campers and then let them choose between that and a simple camp game, the majority would elect the latter. Under ordinary conditions American boys and girls, whether on hikes or in camp, are not fond of the watchful waiting game involving make-believe strategy. Since they prefer short continuous action, fighting man to man in the open, they enjoy skirmishes of the Pioneer and Indian type rather than imitations of long drawn out modern warfare. In this respect American boys differ from Europeans who seem to prefer war games that last for several days. An excellent type of a European war game, North and South. is described with the belief that camp leaders will try an occasional day and night game of this type.

Pioneers and Indians (15).
The object of this game is for a party of "Pioneers" to deliver food supplies to another Pioneer who is supposedly be-

pg. 112

sieged in a camp by a tribe of "Indians." The Pioneer is confined to a tent or small area in the center of the camp. The game is described as it
would be played in the daytime; however, with slight modification, it can be played at night.
Preparation. Divide the players into equal numbers of Pioneers and Indians. Provide each Pioneer with a supply consisting of a piece of paper upon which is written the name of a supply followed by a numeral which indicates the number of points to be scored for that particular supply, for example: Ammunition 25, Gun 20, Can of Beef 15, Hardtack 10, Jam 5.
Both parties are given ten minutes to prepare for the game. The Indian Chief distributes his warriors around the entire camp. The Pioneer captain distributes his men as he sees fit, beyond the boundary of the camp, and he gives each player a supply paper. Of course he gives his best players the most valuable supplies. At the expiration of ten minutes the starting whistle or bugle is sounded and the Pioneers try to get through the Indian lines to deliver their supplies.
The Indians capture Pioneers by any method previously agreed upon, such as:
1. Simply tagging one or more times on the back.
2. Snatching yarn tied around all arm.
3. crabbing handkerchiefs allowed to protrude from a pocket or belt.
4. Calling out numbers, consisting of large calendar numerals fastened to hats.
5. Simply sighting and calling the names when the game is played at night.
The instant an Indian makes a capture the Pioneer begins to count to one hundred, while the Indian or

pg. 113

Indians search him. If, by the end of the count, the Indians fail to find the hidden paper, they escort the Pioneer out of camp and he is permitted to try again.
At the expiration of the time agreed upon (onehalf hour or more) the players assemble and the score is taken. The Indians add the numerical values of all supplies captured from the Pioneers, and the Pioneers add the numbers of the supplies they actually delivered to their comrade. The Indians are not allowed to take supplies from the besieged Pioneer. After a Pioneer makes a successful delivery he remains with his comrade. The party wins that has the larger total after each side has acted as both Pioneers and Indians.


"Our Danish boys are very fond of fighting games with lots of action since our slogan is 'Year round open air life, whatever the weather may be.' I have described one of our most successful war games just as we played it with all of the scouts in a large town. It required forty continuous hours to play the game with fourteen days of preliminary preparations "Each of the twelve districts that participated in the game represented a scout-town. Six of the districts that lived above tire dividing line, marked 'Frontier' on the diagram, represented the 'Northern Army,' and the other six represented the 'Southern Army.' The boys of each division were assembled by leaders whom we may call 'General North' and 'General

pg. 114

South.' A story was told to the scouts which pointed out that war between the North and South was inevitable, so it was decided to begin the hostilities in fourteen days."


1. Enthusiasm created so that practically every scout in town participated.
2. Plans made to begin battle 7 ii. M. Saturday the 21st and continue until 7 A. M. Monday the 23rd.
3. Troops to leave their towns Saturday at 7 A. M. Each troop to bring own provisions, do own cooking, and build shelters in woods. No tents allowed.
4. X town got information from Y town, Y from X, Z from V, etc. Accurate data concerning strength and plans of each town delivered to generals.
5. Following general orders issued by both generals six days before the battle:
a. All troops leave their towns 8 A.M. on the 21st. (Each town given marching route of 12 to 16 miles.)
b. Upon arriving at tile destination at edge of forest indicated on map, each troop prepare shelter for night, prepare food, and await orders.
c. Six disguised scouts spend Friday night previous to battle in the town previously spied upon, secure information regarding enemies' route to battle field and send information to headquarters. These scouts act as spies throughout campaign.
d. Each scout-town delegate one bicycle patrol to scout 011 enemy town. Patrol arrive at enemy town 21/ 6 am. Follow enemy and send information to Headquarters. Bicycle patrol operate until 22/7 p. m. then report for new orders.
e. Each town delegate a bicycle raiding party of 30 scouts. Party- proceed to designated town evening of 20th. On 21st follow enemy, lay ambushes, capture prisoners.

pg. 115

The Battle. Below is copy of orders issued by General North; similar orders were issued by General South. Each town received orders which were opened 22/8 a. m.
The troops spent first night in bivouacs on the edge of the forest. Each troop of the Northern army

opened the following sealed orders at exactly 8 A. M. on the 22nd: "Break camp immediately and remember: A good scout leaves no trail. Hasten to assembly point for Northern army in the forest indicated by N on map."
Upon arriving at N following orders were issued:

pg. 116

"Enemy in strong position at S one mile south. Retire as quickly and orderly as possible to western banks of river and set up bivouacs in forest between n and n.''
When General South learned of movement of North he issued following: "North is weakening, has retired to western bank of river. Follow and erect bivouacs on east shore. Build bridges and rafts and be ready to cross river at 2:30 a. m. at V. Attack the enemy wherever you find him."


1. The battle closed shortly after the great skirmish at 3 a. m.
2. North side wore around arm red ribbon, South side yellow ribbons, umpires white ribbon. Disguised spies carried ribbons under coats.
3. One umpire was assigned to each town. He followed town, kept score and gave orders.
4. A scout was "dead" when an enemy captured his ribbon. One-half hour after reporting death to umpires, scouts were given new lives (ribbons).


The following point system was devised for determining the winner:

Items Maximum North South
1. Information delivered before war. 60...... 30.... 15,
2. Per cent of scouts participating .. 40 20 30
3. Activity of spies throughout campaign 20 20 0
4. Information received from cycle patrols 20 5 15
5. Lives taken throughout campaign 60...... 15.... 22
6. Makings and breaking bivouacs.. 40...... 25.... 24
7. March through unknown forest... 20...... 12.... 16
8. Bridge building and passage of river 40 40 0
9. Proper regard for rules and regulations 60...... 40.... 50
10.Extraordinary fine deeds....... 20...... 0.... 20
TOTALS 380..... 207... 192

pg. 117

Capture the Flag (17). 1
"This is a competition between two troops or two opposing teams in the same troop, the object being to capture the opponent's flag. The game should be played if possible in the woods or in rough country which gives opportunity for stalking and strategy.
"The scouts are divided into two camps, each with a leader and each having its own flag mounted on a light pole or a scout staff. The players of one camp should be marked by a handkerchief or necktie tied around the arm so that a scout can tell at a glance whether another scout is a friend or a foe.
"Each camp has its own territory in which its scouts are free to move as they please, but on which their opponents enter at their peril. The two camps are separated by a boundary line, such as a brook or a trail or some other line that can be easily located. Any scout crossing this line may be captured by the enemy.
"A starting point is chosen near the center of the line, and the game starts with the two troops or camps assembled close together on opposite sides of the line, each in its own territory. The scoutmaster explains the rules of the game, then blows one blast on his whistle as a signal for the two camps to set up their flags.
"The flag may be located at any point within one

1Used with the permission of the Sational Council, Bog Scouts of America, from the Handbook for Boys, twenty-sixth edition.

pg. 118

hundred paces of the starting point. Judgment should be shown in choosing a place where it cannot be easily found or attacked. The staff must be planted in' the ground so that the flag can be seen, though it is fair to make it as inconspicuous as
"After three minutes the scoutmaster blows the warning signal, three blasts on his whistle, and the game is on. The object is to enter the enemy's territory, capture the flag, and carry it across the line into home territory without beings caught.
"Scouts may be posted to guard the flag but must not stand nearer to it than fifty feet unless an enemy scout goes within the fifty-foot circle. The guards then can follow him.
"Any scout found in the enemy's territory may be captured by grasping him and holding on while the captor says, 'Caught, caught, caught!' If he does not hold on longs enough to say ' Caught' three times, the other scout is not captured.
"When a scout is captured he must go to the guard house with the scout who caught him. He is there placed under guard. The guard house is a tree or rock twenty feet from the line at the starting point. The prisoner must keep hand or foot on the tree or rock, otherwise he cannot be released by his friends.
"A prisoner may be released by a friend crossing the line and touching him while the prisoner is touching the guard house. If his comrade succeeds in doing this, both are allowed to return free into their own territory. But if the rescuer is caught by the Guards before be touches the prisoner, he, too, must. go to the guard house.
"A scout can rescue only one prisoner at a time. "If the flag is successfully captured it must be

pg. 119

carried across the line into home territory. If the raider is caught before he reaches the line, the flag is set up again at the point where it was rescued and the game goes on as before.
"If neither side captures the enemy's flag within the time agreed upon, which may be an hour, the scoutmaster calls the game off by blowing the assembly call and the game is: won by the camp that has the most prisoners.
"This game gives great opportunities for team work and strategy, and for the practice of stalking and various kinds of woodcraft. The game is usually won by the team whose leader is most skillful in placing his scouts and planning strategy to mislead the enemy and draw the guards away from the flag so that it may be captured by another scout."

The Crazy Abyssinian Ring (18).
Credit for this game must be given to James A. Wilder, Chief Sea Scout, who introduced the game in Boy Scout circles. It is one of the most popular games played in scout camps.
Divide the campers into two equal parts. One team acts as the disloyal "Army of the King." The others act as members of the loyal "Senate." The soldiers claim that their "King" is crazy and want him deposed. The senators refute these charges and do all in their power to prevent the soldiers from proving their charges before a group of judges at the evening camp fire.
Part I--Securing Evidence. One of the leaders of the camp who has ability in acting is selected as the King. He dresses as crazily as possible and takes a position in a clearing or on a hillside where his actions can be easily observed. About every three

pg. 120

minutes he performs some foolish stunt, such as making a speech to departed spirits, turning somersaults, acting like a jackass, or any clownish stunt that he can think of. This he does for about an hour during the afternoon preceding the evening camp fire meeting.
Each member of the army must provide himself with paper and pencil, because no evidence against the king will be considered unless it is in writing. The soldiers conceal themselves in all kinds of hiding places and take notes. The senators hunt the soldiers and capture them by simply tagging them. When a soldier is captured, he is required to give up his papers and is then released. To distinguish the players, each soldier is required to wear a handkerchief around his head.
Part II-The Trial. At the evening meal the camp director announces that the Kings is going to be tried for insanity at the council fire. After the meal each faction holds: a meeting, collects its evidence, and selects its representatives. Later a mock trial is conducted. Of course the King is allowed to explain his actions. Finally a committee of judges, usually camp officials or visitors, decides upon the King's mental condition.

PART V--Night Games
The games described in Part V have been designed especially for night use. The leader who has never used night games may be surprised at the extent to which even the simplest games are thoroughly enjoyed. All night games should be confined to a comparatively small area. Strenuous games can be recommended as an antidote for the universal first night camp pestilence, wakefulness.

Jack, Jack, Show Your Light (19).

pg. 121

Preparation. This is a simple chase, the object of which is to capture one of the players, "Jack," who is permitted to run where he pleases in a small area with clearly defined boundaries. Select a camper to act as Jack and provide him with a flashlight and a whistle. To avoid confusion all other players must be forbidden to carry a light of any kind.
Assemble all players in a clearing and give Jack a head start of fifty counts, more or less, depending upon the denseness of the woods. At the end of the count the layers scatter and give chase. Jack is required to show his light at intervals of about onehalf minute, by slowly swinging his flashlight in a complete horizontal circle. The players yell (some yell almost continuously to overcome their fright), "Jack! Jack! Show Your Light!" When anyone sees the light he is on his honor to yell, "Run, Jack ! Run!" If, after showing the light, no one tells Jack to run, he should stop, blow his whistle, and swing his light continuously. Finally some one will see the light and yell, "Run Jack! Run !" At the end of about one-half hour the timekeeper blows his whistle as a signal for Jack to stop on whatever spot he happens to be and blow his whistle at halfminute intervals. The player who finds Jack takes his place in the next round.
Usually the players become so enthusiastic about this game that they want to play it again, and again. However, two rounds should suffice for one night.

Hunt the Whistlers (20).
All the members of one tent or group are provided with a whistle (flashlights may be substituted). They are given two or more minutes, depending upon the surrounding country, to scatter and hide. At the expiration of time a bugle is sounded. This is the signal for each runner to

pg. 122

stop in his tracks or hiding place and blow his whistle (or flash his light). At the same time the rest of the campers scatter and try to capture !tag) the whistlers. The whistlers should be permitted to hide wherever they please, but it is dangerous to permit them to take to the water or boats.
The bugle is sounded at one-minute intervals as a signal for the whistlers to blow one loud blast (or swings light in complete circle). The tent that captures the greatest number of whistlers acts in that capacity the next round.

Spy in Camp (21).
The object of this night game is for a small group of spies to get to a fire, built in the center of camp, without being captured (tagged) by the other players, called the guards. It is described as played in a large camp, but it succeeds equally well in a small camp on an overnight hike with one person acting as spy instead of a group of spies.
Preparation. Build a fire in the center of the camp and extinguish all other lights. Select the members of one tent or one patrol to act as spies and wear white handkerchiefs on their heads. Let the captain of the spies take his men out of camp, leaving one behind to act as keeper of the fire. The other captains distribute their tent mates over the particular area of the camp assigned to them by the director, called the commander of the guards. The commander should caution the captains to station at least half of their guards near the outer edge of the camp. If there are not enough players to guard the entire camp, the area through which the spies are permitted to approach the fire must be limited.
When all the captains report that they hare posted their men, the commander of the guards blows his whistle, or the bugler blows "Charge !'' and the game

pg. 123

is on. Whenever a guard on the outskirts of the camp sees a spy enter he yells out, "Spy in camp," followed by the name of his tent, thus warning the members of his tent that a spy has entered their area. Outer guards should be cautioned not to chase spies until they are sure that most of the spies have passed beyond the outer lines. Often the spies sacrifice a man by sending him boldly through the outer line in hopes that foolish outer guards will leave their posts to follow him.
The commander blows a warning whistle a minute or two before time is up to spur all the players to action. Great excitement follows this whistle. Now the spies are permitted to rush for their goal, as the outer guards run in to help check the charge.


After the game has been played once it may be necessary to change a number of the rules.
1. No guard should be permitted to take a position nearer to the fire than ten paces unless he is actually chasing a spy.
2. The spies should be allowed fifteen minutes or more, depending upon the size of the camp, to reach their goal, a circle surroundings the fire.
3. When a spy is tagged, or when he reaches his goal, he is not out of the game, he is simply escorted out of camp and given an opportunity to try again.
4. The spy who takes care of the fire should be permitted to help his mates only by the use of secret signals, and he should not be permitted to shout advice.
5. The members of tile tent group or patrol that captures the greatest number of spies act in that capacity in the next round.

Aeroplane Smugglers (22).
Just before the close

pg. 124

of the evening meal some one rushes up to the camp director and hands him a "radio message" which he reads to the campers. The message states that a party of six aeroplane smugglers ran out of gasoline and were forced to make a landing at a well-known spot near the camp. It also states that in all probability the smugglers will try to get gasoline after dark. A reward is offered for their capture.
After dark the captain of the smugglers takes his position with a lantern on the spot on which the phantom plane landed. His five assistants are known to be near by with gasoline cans (tin cans containing three or four pebbles). The campers surround the aeroplane, but are not permitted to stand nearer to the captain than ten paces unless in the act of chasing one of the smugglers.
When all is in readiness, the director blows his whistle and the game is on. If three of the smugglers succeed in getting to their captain within a time limit of about an hour, the smugglers win, otherwise they lose. Ordinarily it is not necessary to coach the smugglers to get a distance away and rattle their gasoline cans to attract the guards. Often two of them will expose themselves in hopes that all the guards will chase them so that the other three can deliver the required amount of gasoline.

Night Sardines (23).
Night Sardines might better be explained under some other name to adolescents, because it is simply a night adaptation of a simple childhood game of Sardines. It is a game of the Hide and Go Seek type in which all of the players hide in the same place, like a pack of sardines in a box.
One of the players, known as the "First Hider,'' is given about one minute to find a hiding place, from which he is not allowed to move after time is called.

pg. 125

At the end of the minute the other players scatter and try to find the First Hider. When a player locates him, he waits for an opportunity to hide with him unobserved. The game continues until all players find the hiding place. The one who finds it first becomes First Hider in the next round.

Night Nature Hunt (24).
This is an excellent night nature study game. The darker the night the better. I generally use the game for one number of an evening camp fire program as a means of securing good nature study reports. The object of the game is to see which team or group can bring in the best reports of natural objects identified by the senses. It succeeds even with players who are not expert in nature lore.
Explain the game to the campers seated around the fire. If they are not already organized in groups, divide them into teams of four each. Instruct each team or group leader to appoint one or more "Touchers,'' '' Smelleers'' '' Hearers,'' and '' See-ers.'' (Safety first! Omit "Tasters.") Then send the groups out in specified directions, radiating from the fire as a center. At the expiration of five or more minutes blow an assembly whistle. All players then return and take their, seats at the camp fire.
Now the reports are given. First the Touchers name the things identified by touching and feeling. For example, trees can be identified by the feel of their bark, bushes by thorns, rocks by smoothness, soil by its texture, etc. One point is scored for the group whose member gives the most intelligent report. Next the Smellers report, followed by the Hearers and See-ers. The See-ers report only upon stars and constellations actually observed. Finally

pg. 126

the group winning most events is declared winner of the game.
After the game has been played as above, try it in daylight with all players except See-ers blindfolded. Then when the whistle is blown the players remove their blindfolds and return to the fire.

PART VI--Winter Games

With the increasing popularity of winter hiking and camping, 'there is a growing need for outdoor games other than standard winter sports. The requirement for such games is that they be simple and require moderate action. If the action is very intense, without opportunity for occasional rests, there is danger of the players becoming very tired, perspiring, and then catching cold while resting and

pg. 127

cooling off. Many well-known gymnasium and playground games can be used outdoors, such as Pom Pom Pull-Away played on ice skates and Spud played with snowballs instead of a playground ball. (See Games No. 26 and 36, Chapter III.) In fact it is sound practice to use games that the players already know, so that they do not get cold and restless listening to explanations. The following games are used by permission of the Canadian Boy Scouts, and are taken from The Boy Scout Handbook: for Canada.

Siberian Man Hunt- (25).
"a man has escaped through the snow and a patrol follow his tracks, but, when they think they are nearing his hiding place, they advance with great caution because for them one hit from a snowball means death. The escaped person has to be hit three times before he is killed. If he has taken refuge up in a tree or any such place, it will be very difficult to hit him without being hit first. The hunted man has to remain at large for a certain time, perhaps two or three hours, and then get safely home without being caught.''

Arctic Expedition (26).
"Each patrol takes a sleigh or toboggan with harness to fit two scouts who are to pull it (or dogs if they have them, and can train them to the work). Two scouts go a mile or so ahead. The remainder with the sleigh follow, finding the way by means of the trail, and by such signs as the leading scouts may draw in the snow. All other drawings seem on the way are to be examined, noted, and their meaning read. The sleigh carries rations, cooking utensils, etc. Build snow huts. These must be made narrow, according to the length of sticks available for forming the roof, which may be made of brushwood, and covered with snow."

Snow Fort (27).
"The snow fort may be built by one patrol according to their own ideas of fortification; with loop holes, and so on, for looking out. When finished it will be attacked by hostile patrols, using snowballs as ammunition. Every scout struck by a snowball is counted dead, The attackers should, as a rule, number at least twice the strength of the defenders.''

pg. 128

Fox-Hunting (28).
"This game is to be played where there is plenty of untrodden snow about. Two scouts representing foxes start from the middle of a field or piece of open ground, and five minutes afterwards the rest are put on their trail. The two foxes are not allowed to follow any human tracks. If they approach a pathway where other people have been, they must turn off in another direction; but they can walk along the top of walls and use any other ruse they like, such as treading in each other's tracks, and then one vaulting aside with staff. Both of them

pg. 129

have to be caught by the pursuers for it to count a win. The foxes have to avoid capture for one hour and then get back to the starting point."

The Dash for the Pole (29).
"Two rival parties of Arctic explorers are nearing the Pole. Each has sent out one scout in advance, but neither has returned. They know the direction each started in because their tracks can still be seen in the snow. What has really happened is that each has reached the Pole, and each is determined to maintain his claim to it and so dare not leave the spot. They both purposely left good tracks and signs, so that they could be easily followed up, if anything happened. These two, one from each patrol, should start from headquarters together, and then, determine upon the spot to be the Pole--each approaching it from a different direction.
"The two parties of explorers start off together, about fifteen minutes after the forerunners, and each follows up the tracks of its own scout. The first patrol to reach the spot where the two are waiting for them takes possession, the leader sets up his flag and the rest prepare snowballs, after laying down their staves in a circle round the flag at a distance of six paces. When the other partly arrives, they try to capture the staves. The defenders are not allowed to touch their staves, but two hits with a snowball on either side puts a man out of action. Each defender killed and each staff taken counts one point, and if the rival party gain more than half the possible points, they claim the discovery of the Pole. Before the defenders can claim undisputed rights, they must kill all their rivals, by pursuing them; even if only one or two are left. The two forerunners do not take part, but act as umpires."

pg. 130

PART VII--Special Days in Camp

It seems appropriate to conclude this chapter with a form of very popular camp recreation, Special Days in Camp, that might be called All Day Games. To make these days entirely successful, enthusiasm should be worked up well in advance by permitting the campers to participate in making the plans. In some camps these days are great events that are announced in camp circulars so that the campers come prepared with any equipment that might be needed for such days as Indian or Pioneer Day and Circus Day.

Backwards Day (30).
As its name indicates, on Backwards Day as many things as possible are done backwards. Following are a few examples:
1. The first bugle call is Taps. The setting up exercises are postponed until Reveille sounds for retiring at night.
2. The meals start with supper, with dessert as the
first course.
3. The usual morning -program is conducted in the afternoon. The camp fire is conducted in the morning.
4. The day closes with a night dip.

Turning Night into Day (31).
On the clay preceding the eventful night a very light activity program, is conducted, and the campers are required to rest during the afternoon and retire early. About 2 a. at. everyone turns out for a night moonlight hike to study stars and nature lore. Then at daylight the campers are divided into small groups and a bird observation contest is conducted.

Campers' Own (32).
On Campers' Own Day the campers take charge of the camp administration in so far as possible. Of course they assign the adult

pg. 131

leaders to the most menial positions. This day is made decidedly worth while in some camps by letting the campers train for the particular positions beforehand.

Adventure Day (33).
On Adventure Day each group, in charge of a qualified leader, leaves camp after breakfast with provisions for two meals. At the camp fire that night all the campers assemble to tell of their adventures. Those who hare been unable to find adventure are permitted to use their imaginations. Usually each group makes up a piecemeal yarn, letting each member tell a stretch of it.

Military Day (34).
On military Day the camp is conducted along military lines. This may not appeal to some of the campers, but most of them enjoy guard duty at night. Of course the group that wins the inspection honors is given the Dawn Watch.

Happy Day (35).
On Happy Day any person who utters a criticism or an unhappy remark is required to pay a fine (usually dessert) to the person who is first to call his attention to the unhappy remark. All such remarks must be made only to one person in camp called the "Camp Squidge." The " Squidge " is elected, and only those who have proved themselves happy under adverse circumstances are permitted to run for the position.

Auction Day (36).
Auction Day is popular in camps that are conducted for a long period. It is held on the second last day of the season. The campers auction off various souvenirs and pieces of equipment that they do not intend to take home.

pg. 132



Part I -How to Conduct Camp Fires

UNDER proper leadership the activities conducted at an evening camp fire may be truly educational and, at the same time, the finest kind of recreation. The old type of "slap-stick" entertainment is being replaced by a constructive program. Much of the credit for this advancement is due to the Woodcraft League of America. The league conducts both indoor and outdoor meetings in Council Ring formation and has developed this type of activity to a high degree.
The Council Ring. In many camps the council ring is considered somewhat sacred. No one crosses the ring either during day or night without permission

pg. 135

from the camp director or chief. Usually the campers do real manual labor in clearing a spot for the ring, constructing rustic log seats, a fire altar, and something approaching a throne for the leader, who is called Chief.

The Assembly. The campers usually assemble
some distance from the ring and approach it in various ways, depending upon the attitude of mind that the leader wishes to create. If the tenor of the evening is hilarity, the campers approach singing jovial songs. If the story telling is to be emphasized, the leader may select quiet songs or a chant. The Sunday approach may be made in absolute silence with bowed head. A boy's Indian meeting may be preceded' with wild war whoops and a snake dance to the beat of a tom-tom.
Camp Fire Decorum. It will he recognized that to conduct an orderly meeting the Chief must have his campers under perfect control at all times. To do this the campers are usually taught an informal method of procedure. Every camp may work out its own. That given below is successfully used in the Woodcraft League:

pg. 136

Decorum of Council '
"In the council no one may cross or remain within the open space, except the Chief presiding, the members speaking or performing, and the Keeper of the Fire when attending to his duties. Nevertheless the Fire Keeper must not tend the fire at a time when it will interfere with any performance or distract attention at an important moment.
"For assent or approval, we say 'How'; for 'No' we say 'Wah'; the Chief at the 'Council Rock' is addressed '0 Chief,' and speaks not from the chair, but from the 'Council Rock.' Anyone wishing to speak arises, salutes, giving the Woodcraft sign, says, 'O Chief,' and waits until the Chief recognizes him by name or gesture, thus giving the sole right of speech for the time.
"It is not proper to whisper in Council, nor to laugh when a serious matter is beings presented, nor look around much, nor heed not the speaker, nor should one make noise or tap with one's feet or hands, or with a stick, or chew or eat or lounge about, or lie down, or turn to look when some one arrives late, but in all ways act as though each speaker were great and important, however much he may be otherwise. For this is good manners.
"When challenges or games are conducted 'the challenger arises, salutes the Chief, and says: 'O Chief, I, -- of -- Band challenge of -Band.' "
Lighting the Fire.
In many camps all council fires are lighted with ceremony, often including the use of rubbing sticks or candles. The Camp Fire Girls use the one following:

1Seton, Ernest Thompson, Woodcraft League Manual.

pg. 137

Fire Lighting Ceremony (1)
"The wood and kindling are brought to the hearth by the Wood Gatherers, and the Fire Makers arrange the wood for lighting. When all are seated around the place of the fire, a Torch Bearer or the Guardian lights the fire. The Fire-lighting ceremony is completed by the group repeating the 'Ode to Fire' in unison, or by singing 'Burn, Fire, Burn,' or some other appropriate song. ('Mammy Moon,' 'The Sun is Sinking,' 'Now our Camp Fire's Burning Low.')"

Long years ago when our fathers fought with great animals, you were their protection.
From the cruel cold of winter, Son saved them.
When they needed food, you changed the flesh of beasts into savory meat for them.
During all the ages your mysterious flame has been a symbol to them for Spirit.
So to-night, we light our fire in remembrance of the Great Spirit who gave you to us.

The woodcraft League uses the following Indian Ceremony :

Ceremony of Grand Council (2)

" 'Now light we the Council Fire after the manner of the forest children, even as Wakonda himself doth light his fire--by the rubbing together of two trees in the storm wind, so cometh forth the sacred fire from the wood of the forest.'
" (He uses the drill; the smoke comes, the flame bursts forth.)

1Camp Fire (Girls Manual. Council Fire Chapter.
2Woodcraft League Manual.

pg. 138

"'Now know we that Wakonda the Great Spirit hath been pleased to smile on His children, hath sent dawn the sacred fire. By this we know He will be present at our Council, that His wisdom will be with
"In the indoor ceremony the Chief puts a handful of red Kinikinik (red willow), or a local substitute mixed with white cedar wood, in the little fire bowl, so that the smoke and its fragrance are diffused, and says: 'As the Great Central Fire of all reaches gut to the Four Corners of the earth and kindles blazing lights, so at our sacred symbol fire light we our lamps, one each for Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love. And while these lights are blazing bright, we know that we shall grow."'
Camp Fire Programs. Unless there is considerable variety in camp fire programs, it is quite difficult to conduct successfully more than one camp fire a week. With the amount of material now available the best camps are able to conduct a camp fire every other night. To be sure, the campers must spend some time during the day in preparation. This they will do willingly only under proper leadership and only when a variety of appealing activity is included in every program. Following are suggested camp fire activities:
1. Opening ceremonies, songs, chants, and dances.
2. It is much better to conduct business that concerns the campers at a camp fire than in the dining place. Some camp directors receive valuable suggestions by including an item in the evening program called,'' Suggestions for the good of the camp.'' 3. Very brief reports of things of interest that have been observed. To stimulate intelligent, purposeful observation make announcements in advance,

pg. 139

for example: "At the next camp fire we will have reports of birds actually seen between now and then.'' 4. Camp fire games, stunts, and duel contests.
5. Group songs, cheers, and dramatic contests previously prepared.
6. Individual pantomimes, songs, and dramatics.
7. Stories by members or leaders, either read or told.
8. Closing ceremonies, such as "Omaha Tribal Prayer,'' or ''Taps.'' Camps of semi-religious nature may use evening prayers. "Taps" is commonly used in camps. It is sung first in full tone close around the fire, and then a second time, softer and softer while retreating backward from the fire.

Day is done, gone the sun,
From the lake, from the hill, from the sky,
All is well, safely rest,
God is nigh.



"I have used this Indian Ceremony in scout camps
for eight seasons. We usually conduct it at the camps camp fire of each camp period. Undoubtedly it has a desirable influence on camp morale, for time and again the boys remind each other of Old Man Grouch. "For a coffin, a black box with four handles is provided. It is placed in position before the ceremony starts. Two torches are made by winding a liberal

pg. 140

supply of rags around long poles and soaking them in kerosene.
"At the opening of the ceremony two Indian torch bearers walk in very slowly, light their torches at the camp council fire, and retire to the head of the coffin. Then the 'Spirit of Unselfeishness' enters from the north and stands near the coffin. Before speaking, he raises his hand very slowly, gives the Indian peace sign, and then recites his speech in Indian fashion slowly and quietly. After finishing his lines, he sits down beside the coffin facing the campers. The 'Spirit of Cleanliness' and 'Humbleness' do like wise.
"The last speaker, 'Truthfulness,' leads the funeral procession, and is followed by the two torch bearers, then the coffin, and finally the campers. The other three spirits, assisted by an Indian, act, as pall bearers. Each camper throws a handful of dirt on the coffin as he passes the grave without stepping out of the line, and the funeral procession marches back to the camp.''

(Enters from the North)

Ho! Scouts!--I am the Spirit of Unselfishness!
Many moons hare I traveled from the north to be with you at this Pow-Wow. I have been sent by the Great Spirit Wakonda, Chief of all Tribes.
I have come on this perilous journey from my tepee on Lone Star Mountain to warn you of our enemy, the Evil Spirit of Selfishness, that lurks in your camp.
This Evil Spirit causes you to be as pigs in tile eating lodge. When red berries are in camp Selfishness causes you to feast, letting others hunt for themselves. And when there is venison in camp, this spirit causes you braves to eat while the young bucks go hungry.

pg. 141

Scouts, in order that this camp of yours may stand like the sturdy oaks of tile great forest, we must kill this Evil Spirit of Selfishness, who seeks admission to this camp of yours. Let us bury this Spirit with Old Man Grouch, and put Service in the place of Selfishness.
Scouts, I have spoken!

THE SPIRIT OF CLEANLINESS (Enters from the West)

Ho! Scouts!--I am the Spirit of Cleanliness!
I, White Elk, the Medicine Man of tile Tetongs, have paddled through many western rapids and have slept under many moons to be able to be with you at this council fire.
I have come to tell you that the Spirit of Uncleanliness hovers over your camp ready to swoop down upon you and cause many to fall sick in tile path of the Black Spirit. It will cause the Black Death to pass among your people and leave them weakened as the papoose, unable to defend themselves against dangers of the forest.
This Evil Spirit causes the braves to throw scraps of venison on the camping ground, leaving it in an unclean condition. It prompts the young bucks to leave their tepees in condition for the Black Spirit to enter. It

causes all the Indians to leave the eating lodge as a pig pen, filthy and unhealthy.
The Evil Spirit, of Uncleanliness must be buried with Old Man Grouch and with the Spirit of Selfishness, or the Sun will shine no more on this fair camp here on the ancient and historic shores of this beautiful lake.
Scouts, I, White Elk, have spoken!

THE SPIRIT OF HUMBLENESS (Enters from the South)

Ho ! Scouts!--I am the Spirit of Humbleness!
I, tile Medicine Man of the Seminoles, have traveled from tile south over many miles of trail and have faced

pg. 142

many dangers to be at this camp fire to-night to warn you of tile Evil Spirit of Boastfulness that lies concealed in hearts of some of your braves.
This Evil Spirit will cause your braves to speak with loud mouths of the scalps they have taken and the feats they have performed. It causes your young braves to boast of birds and beasts of the woods they have killed with bow and arrow. It makes your warriors as the palefaces, haughty and boisterous. It makes you fight as the panthers, sly and sulking, attacking unseen from tile rear, a coward at heart.
Let not this Evil Spirit of Boastfulness make you braves cowardly and weak. Banish it from this camp so that your warriors may become as the Sun, a Silent Power.
Scouts, I, the Mighty Medicine Man, have spoken!

THE SPIRIT OF TRUTHFULNESS (Enters front the East)

Ho! Scouts!--I am the Spirit of Truthfulness!
I, one of the wise men of the ancient tribes of Delawares, was sent here by the Great and Mighty Chief Tahkodall, to warn you of the Spirit of Untruthfulness that will try to wag the tongues of some of your braves.
This Evil Spirit causes your warriors to answer with lying tongues the questions of the Chief. It makes them tell falsely of their combats and victories over the beasts of the forests and tile palefaces.
It. will cause .your braves to tell untruthful tales of your comrades that your tribe fails to cooperate against the common enemies. The Evil Spirit of Untruthfulness will cause some of your braves to suffer for the crimes and sins of others. The scorching tongue of Untruthfulness will divide your camp, and leave it weakened and subject to the prey of the destroyers of your tepees.
The Spirit of Untruthfulness must be buried with the evil spirit of Selfisllness, Boastfulness, Uncleanliness, together with the body of Old Man Grouch. Let them be

pg. 143

buried so deep that never again will they rise up in the minds of your braves.
On yonder hill is the grave. Let us proceed in single file to the resting place of these evil spirits. Upon arriving at the grave let each scout take 3 handful of dirt and throw it into the grave and cast with it the evil spirits that lurk within him.

PART II--Duel Contests.

Duel Contests, in which two people participate while the others watch, constitute the most popular form of camp fire game. They can be recommended also for occasional use at indoor club or troop meetings. There are two types of duels: first, those requiring little skill or practice that are intended principally to furnish amusement for the spectators, (See Nos. 4 to 3);second, those designed to test the skill, strength, agility, or endurance of the contestants.
How to Conduct Duels. When duels are conducted at club or scent meetings, the groups or patrols should first meet to determine their respective entries for the club finals. When contests are to be conducted at camp fires, the particular games should be demonstrated and all rules thoroughly explained sometime during the day. Then, time should be set aside for each tent leader to conduct preliminary trials to select one person to represent each tent. These group trials must be given leadership; otherwise the tent captains are liable to appoint representatives without try-outs.
Group Preliminaries. The following method for conducting group try-outs insures the participation of every member. Suppose there are eight members in the group. Pair them off, and simultaneously

pg. 144

conduct four contests. Now divide the players into two groups, the Winners and the Losers.

By the above tournament arrangement, the Champion will have won all of his matches, and the "Champ-Nit" will have lost all of his.
at the evening meeting the group champions may contest, against each other to determine the camp champion. Often it is more amusing to arrange the losers in a tournament to select the camp ''ChampNit. ''

Talk-Pest (4).
The two contestants face each other in the center of the ring and upon the word "Go," start talking. Sometimes the subject upon which they are to talk is previously announced. When this is done, the contestants usually make a speech, so it is funnier to simply instruct them to continuously talk at each other on any subject they please. The time limit is usually sixty seconds. The rules are: (1) Talk so that spectators can hear; (2) Do not use bands when talking; (3) Carry on as much conversation as possible with more nonsense

pg. 145

than sense; (4) All spectators participate in selecting the winner; (5) Repeating same phrase more than twice disqualifies contestant.

Laugh-Fest (5).
A Laughing-Fest is similar to a Talk-Feet. It is an excellent first number for the humorous part of a camp fire program, for everybody joins in the laughing.
The contestants stand in the center of the ring and laugh continuously for sixty seconds. The one who produces the greater variety and volume of laughs wins. The spectators act as a jury in selecting the winner.

Whistling, Singing and Reciting Fests (6).
The following may be substituted for laughing in the above contest: whistling, singing the first line of popular songs, reciting nursery rhymes. A similar rhyming contest consists in repeating a rhyme by interjecting after each word the number of that word in the rhyme. Suppose the rhyme selected were Little Jack Horner. The contestants start in together saying; "Little (one) jack (two) Horner (three) etc." The one who finishes first or gets farther without a mistake wins.

Slap the Duck (7).
The contestants take starting positions as illustrated. The object of the slapper A is to slap

pg. 146

the face of B, who chooses her own time to quickly duck down and up through the outstretched hands of A. The slapper is given five chances to hit the duck, then they exchange and B acts as slapper. The one who succeeds in hitting oftenest wins. It looks easy, but much to the amusement of the spectators, the striker rarely hits.
The leader must caution the striker to stand with arms outstretched and head back to avoid being bumped in the head when the duck suddenly raises up.

Pillow Fight (8).
The well-known Pillow Fight, usually illustrated with the contestants sitting astraddle of a pole, may also be conducted by standing the duelists on a rail, log, or bench. The object of each contestant is to knock his opponent off the rail. Players may hold their pillows or sacks with either one or both hands and may strike wherever they please. If both players fall, a defeat is scored against the one who touches the ground first. A player is also defeated if he drops his pillow or if his antagonist knocks it out of his hands.

Friendly Enemies (9).
The contestants are blindfolded and stand with left hands clasped and right feet together. Each holds a soft swatter, such as a stuffed stocking or a roll of paper, in her right hand.
A starts by calling to B, L 'Where are you, friend a'' Then, without releasing her grasp or withdrawing her foot, B gets into any position she chooses, and

pg. 147

then, without moving an inch, she answers, "I'm here.'' Immediately A strikes at the spot from which the voice came. If she succeeds in hitting her "friendly enemy'' on the head, she receives one point.
Then B asks the question and when A answers she tries to hit her. They continue for about two minutes, and the one who hits oftenest wins.
This game can be highly recommended for any occasion, for it is very amusing to see the contestants repeatedly hitting space. It can also be played by having the players clasp hands and lie down.

Prune Tug-of-War (10).
This contest is better known as a party or social game than as a camp fire duel. Tie a prune or piece of candy in the center of a piece of string about five feet long. The object of the contest is to see which one can reach the prune first by winding the string around her tongue. The contestants are not allowed to use hands or bodies in any way.

Eating Contests (11).
There are many other eating contests which are popular for spectators, but they must be used with discretion and then only on rare occasions, because of the inadvisability of swallowing food whole. Such contests as watermelon and pie-eating, and cracker-whistling are so well known that they need only be mentioned.

Coin Hunt (12).
Place coins in a pan of flour,

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and have contestants, with hands tied behind, try to get the coins out with their mouths.

Buzzing the Bees (13).
Although three people are required for this contest, it is called a duel because the two "Bees" work together as partners. The object of the game is for each bee to knock off the
"BUZZER'S' hat when the "Buzzer" stings him; i.e., slaps his palm. The Bees must not lift either foot from the ground while striking at the Buzzer, and similarly the Buzzer must not lift a foot while dodging.
Study the illustration and observe the position of all the players. The Buzzer stands astride in the center and the Bees take a similar position on each side of him with feet touching. Each Bee has his inner hand free and the knuckles of his outer hand against his inside ear next to the Buzzer.
The one in the center starts by buzzing away, first into the ear of the. one Bee, and then into the ear of other. Suddenly, the Buzzer slaps the palm of one of the Bees, whereupon that Bee immediately tries to knock off the Buzzer's hat. If he succeeds without lifting either foot from the ground, three points are scored for the Bees. However, if he lifts a foot, one point is scored for the Buzzer. Similarly, if the Buzzer lifts a foot while dodging, one point is scored for the. Bees. The Buzzer may also score a point by tempting a Bee to hit him by delivering a false blow or feint. If the Bees score six points first, they win.

pg. 149

The Bees should be instructed to keep their free hand in readiness to strike at any instant, and in striking they should hit downwards.
Of all the duel contests designed principally to furnish amusement for the spectators (Nos. 4 to 13) Buzzing the Bees is generally considered the funniest.

Chinese Get-Up (14).
The contestants sit back to back with arms folded and legs extended. At the starting signal they arise without unfolding arms. The one who stands erect with heels together first wins.
The usual method for conducting Nos. 14 to 26, is to declare as winner the one who wins two bouts out of three.

Underhand Slap (15).
Players take starting position, as illustrated, looking straight into each other's eyes, palms touching with arms extended horizontally from the elbows.

pg. 150

The object of the contest is for the one whose hands are underneath to withdraw them very quickly and strike the backs of the hands of her opponent. The players alternate in striking and dodging. Score two points for striking both hands, and one point for striking one. The one who has the greater number of points after two or more even turns or innings is the winner.

Hand Slap (16).
This duel is usually fought with the contestants standing upon a line drawn upon the floor or ground. However, it is better to have them stand upon a rail or log, either laid upon the grounder mounted upon boxes as illustrated. Notice that the players touch forward toes together, place rear toe against the heel, and hold left hand behind back. The object of the contest is to knock the other person off balance by slapping palms.

Knocking Off Hats (17).
This form of boxing, in which players attempt only to knock off each other's hats, is especially popular with boy scents, probably because of the fact that they wear broad brimmed hats.
When boxing gloves are available, many comical forms of boxing may be conducted for the amusement of the spectators. The

pg. 151

names of the following are practically self-explanatory: barrel boxing, blindfold boxing, smudge boxing, can and glove boxing. In can and glove boxing the blindfold boxers get down on hands and knees with a boxing glove on one hand and a can full of pebbles in the other.

Cock Fighting (18).
Each contestant holds up whichever ankle he prefers and holds his arm behind as illustrated by the player on the right. The contestants take their position opposite each other just outside of a six-foot circle. At the word "Go," they hop into the circle, and the one wins who succeeds in knocking his antagonist off balance or out of the ring. If a player releases his grasp with either hand, it is also considered a defeat.

Shoulder Shove (19).
This contest is used by girls and is a variation of Cock Fighting. The players take the position illustrated, hopping on whichever foot they prefer. At the starting signal, the girls hop into the ring and with their shoulders, try to shove each other out of the ring or off balance. It is a foul to lift the folded arms from the body.

Battle Royal (20).
This is a variation of Nos. 18 and 19. Instead of having only two in the ring, four or more enter, and the ring is at least eight feet in diameter. This game is often used for conducting

pg. 152

the finals of a Cock Fight or a Shoulder Shove. A Battle Royal is conducted
twice, and if the same person wins both times, he is declared champion; otherwise the two winners fight I single duel to determine the final champion.

Rooster Fight (21).
This is another ring game in which the entries battle to push each other out of the rings or off balance. Instead of holding a stick under their knees as illustrated, the players may grasp their toes, ankles, or better still, their shoe strings.

Stick Pull-Up (22).
Of the numerous stick twisting and tugging contests a Stick Pull-Up is the most popular. The object is to pull the stick away from your opponent or to pull him off the ground. On alternate pulls the players change grips, i. e., the one who has the inside grip for the first pull takes the outside grip for the second pull.

Dog Fight (23).
The "Dogs" take a starting

pg. 153

position as illustrated with a wide collar or belt around their necks. Each tries to pull his opponent completely across the line. If a player ducks his head and permits his: collar to slip off, a defeat is: scored against him.

Indian Hand Wrestling (24).
This is probably the best known and most popular strength contest. Each wrestler advances his right foot and places it against the outside of his opponent's right foot, They grasp right hands with arms straight. In order that neither of the players may secure an unfair advantage by pulling before the word ''Go,'' use the following commands for: starting: "Position" (take position illustrated); "Grip" (grip tightly without bending arms): "Pull!" A fall is credited to the player who forces his opponent to move either foot or touch the floor with any Dart. of his body.

Indian Leg Wrestling (25).
The contestants lie down as illustrated. As the leader counts slowly to three each player raises his inner leg (bent knees not allowed). On count three the players instantly lock knees and try to roll each other over.

Busting the Broncho (26).
The object of this contest is for the cowboy to break the broncho by remaining upon his back for two minutes. The broncho

pg. 154

bucks, plunges, twists, and turns in An effort to throw the cowboy. If in doing so he takes his hands from his knees or falls, the rider wins. If any part of the cowboy's body touches the ground, if he releases his grip, or carries his feet to the front by wrapping his legs around the broncho, a victory is scored for the pony. This event may also be conducted on a time basis; that is, the players take turns riding, and the one who stays on longer wins.

PART III--Informal Dramatics


Editor of tile Girl Scout Magazine American Girl
Whenever bogs or girls Bet together in groups, at camp or elsewhere, there we have dramatics. If dramatics are not included in a recreation program, quite spontaneously they spring up, because there is in all of us that land of "Let's Pretend."
Let's go to camp! It is evening; the campers, sitting in a circle, are silhouetted against the trees surrounding: the magic circle. The camp fire is settling down to a steady glow. Suddenly the campers lean forward ! As if from nowhere, an Indian Braves steps into the ring. Slowly and silently he steals to the fire's edge and, lifting his hands to his lips, sends

pg. 155

forth a clear call. Then other members of his tribe glide from the shadows.
A legend that the campers: have previously heard in story is enacted. Why do the campers love this? Because it appeals to their imagination and natural love of beauty and romance: because it is a legend about the very part of the country in which their camp is situated.

The Tenderfoot Camper (27).
It is another evening in the same camp--"Stunt Night". This time the fire is much brighter; in fact, it is dazzling. Now laughter echoes and there is great merriment as glimpses are caught of the improvised costumes. (During the morning it was announced that each group or patrol would be expected to dramatize "The Tenderfoot Camper.") Does the tenderfoot find himself in distressing situations similar to the stunts now given", He certainly does! Of course he doesn't know how to roll his pack, make a fire, cook, or make his bed on the around. Apparently he only knows two things: how to eat and bow to get into trouble. At this jolly camp fire we see these and many other stunts portrayed, with judges deciding upon the winners.
What kinds of dramatics are popular? All, binds! But every leader must decide whether his or her group is to have a more extended production (a carefully rehearsed play or pageant) in addition to informal dramatics. If you wish to give the more extended productions, two points are important:

1. Secure the best trained director or coach possible.
2.'Give a good play.

If you cannot afford the services of a trained leader, splendid help awaits you in selected lists of

pg. 156

plays and pageants published by The Bureau of Educational Dramatics, Community Service, 315 Fourth Avenue, New Pork City.
The Director of the Bureau of Educational Dramatics will, upon request, make special suggestions for a group's dramatics if you will write for them. Tell the director the number to be in your play, the age of your group, type of play desired, length, stage facilities, whether Sour group has done other producing,, etc. My experience, which is not different from that of others who have produced plays and pageants, is that the best plays are not only the most readily produced but are also the ones most audiences best enjoy and most casts enjoy working upon.
References on Informal Dramatics. Shall the leader who wishes to produce informal dramatics make any preparation for them? If he is wise, he mill! "Be prepared" Have with you several books which furnish ideas for all occasions Producing Amateur Entertainments, by Helen Ferris (Dutton), is a collection of stunts especially designed for use at camp and club. It contains stunts, musical numbers, song specialties, tableaus, pantomimes, as well as ideas for entire evening programs. Much of the material in this book was gathered from summer camps throughout the country.. Add to this one or two good song collections: Twice Fifty-Five Community Songs (C. C. Birchard); Folk Songs Chanteys and Singing Games by Farnsworth and Sharp (H. m. Gray). Add also a good collection of poetry such as Louis Untermeyer's This Singing World (Harcourt Brace $ Company), and a good collection of fairy tales: and one of Indian legends. This should he sufficient equipment for any summer's successful work in informal dramatics.

pg. 157

PART IV--Legends, Songs and Stories

We have a great heritage in our Indian legends, in the world's great folk lore, folk songs, and ballads. In our beautiful and picturesque Indian legends every camp director will find much material. The Indian legends are our American folk lore. The romance in them is universally appealing. Their setting is that of our own country. The trails of their adventure and romance linger upon the trails where we set our feet to-day. More than this, most of our boys and girls love to dress as Indians. The dramatization of these legends may 'he made a living and vital thing to campers if they themselves share in the actual work of the dramatization.

Preparatory Work. Secure an authentic Indian legend, preferably
about your own part of the country. Talk with your librarian about this. Make every effort to secure an authentic legend. When

pg. 158

there are so many lovely ones it is a pity to use garbled versions.

Work on the Dramatization . Tell the story around the camp fire. Perhaps you will wish to tell several.

pg. 159

Finally let the campers select the one they like best, Carefully study the outdoor spot where the dramatization will be most effective. You may see fit to stage the legend on a single spot. Or you may have an outdoor progressive dramatization, with the audience moving from place to place for the various
Indian Lore References. The following books are suggested for Indian legends: Indian Folk Tales, Nixon-Roulet (American Book Company) ; Stories the Iroquois tell their Children, Bowers (American Book Company);The Trail Book, Mary Austin (Houghton,

For help in working out your rhythms see American Rhythms by Mary Austin (Harcourt, Brace and Company).
For Indian songs and suggested ceremonies see Indian Story and Song, and Indian Games and Dances by Alice G. Fletcher.
Folk lore such as old and beloved fairy tales are widely used for dramatization. The competition idea may be utilized in working these out, by permitting each group or patrol to work out either the same story or by letting each work out one of its own selection.
Musical Dramatizations and References. The following books are filled with excellent material for musical dramatizations: Twice Fifty-Five Community Songs (C. C. Birchard); Folk Songs , Chanteys and Singing Games , by Farnsworth and Sharp (H. W. Gray).
Folk songs and ballads; may be given with a violinist and a story teller to aid in producing the desired effect. The actors enter, single file, headed by the violinist and the story teller dressed in appropriate

pg. 160

costumes playing the air of the ballad. The story teller takes her place at the side of the stage and relates the tale (she may sing if desired).
As each part of the story is related or sung, the actors enact, the incident. The music continues softly, throughout. At the close of the story all exit with the violinist at the end of the procession.
Story Telling. Story telling is a favorite camp fire activity. It is especially valuable when the stories told are dramatized by the campers. The following list of camp fire stories, suggested by Mr. L. L. MacDonald of the Camping Department of the Boy Scouts of America, contains an abundance of excellent material for both boys and girls:

Camp Fire Stories

1. Mystery Stories
"Water Ghost" from Water Ghost, and Others, J. K. Bangs.
"The Brazilian Cat" by A. Conan Doyle, in Around the Fire Stories.

pg. 161

"The Devil and Tom Walker" from Tales of a Traveler, Washington Irving.
2. Indian Legends
Blackfeet Indian Stories, George Bird Grinnell.
The Punishment of the Stinzy, George Bird Grinnell.
Pawnee Hero Tales, George Bird Grinnell.
3. Adventure Tales
Around the Fire, II. hi. Burr.
With the Indians in the Rockies, W. J. Schultz.
Tad Shellon, Boy Scout, John Fleming Wilson.
4. Biographical Hero Stories
American Book of Golden needs, J. Baldwin.
Pathfinders of the Trail, A. C. Laut.
The Story of the Trapper, A. C. Laut.
5. Additional References
The Boy Scout Book: of Stories, F. K. Mathiews -Appleton
Camp Fire Verse, Haynes and Harrison--Duffield
Poems of Action, Porter-Association Press.
Told by the Camp Fire, Cheley--Associated Press.

PART V--Bible Story Dramatization

The dramatization of Bible stories is a delightful part of the life of many summer camps. Beautiful Bible stories, given in the outdoors, assume fresh significance when given effectively. Special problems will be met here. The leader must not work upon

pg. 162

these stories until they become stilted and the campers tire of them. The presentation must not be too crude or the reverence of the audience will be dispelled.
Only careful preparation will enable you to have ready those stories which can best he produced in your camp. Perhaps you will wish to have, instead of elaborate productions, simple Sunday afternoon or evening affairs. Published Bible story material will furnish many suggestions for less formal dramatizations and suggestions for costuming.
References . If you can secure but one book, Drama in Religious Service by Martha Candler !Century Company), contains descriptions of the best work being done in the field of religious drama, together with practical suggestions on producing them. It also contains an excellent list of religions plays and pageants, and a list of hymns and other musical selections that may be used. This last is especially helpful in producing artistic effects.
The Dramatization of Bible Stories by Mrs. E. E. Miller (University of Chicago Press), contains valuable suggestions on simple settings, costumes, and properties. Many plays are given as worked out with a group of small children.
Dramatized Bible Stories for Young People by Mary H. Russell (Doran), contains Biblical material for bogs and girls of the 'teen age group such as is used for Sunday service programs in summer camps.
Services for The Open by L. I. Mattoon and H. D. Bragdon is arranged especially for camp use. It contains hymns, songs, and readings that may be dramatized.
Bible Stories . The following Bible stories that

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lend themselves readily to dramatization will suggest many more: Ruth and Naomi, Joseph and his Brethren, Hoses and the Ten Commandments, Esther, The Healing of Naaman, David and Jonathan. All of the above are published in the form of plays in Six: Bible Plays, prepared by the Bureau of Educational Dramatics of Playground and Recreation Association of America. (The Century Company.)
Sunday Camp Services. Practically all camps conduct appropriate Sunday services in the open. The following description of the Camp Fire Girl Ritual, taken by permission from Drama in Religious Service, is very suggestive.
"For the most part the Sunday ritual, wherever held, is non-sectarian, and is adopted with equal interest and participated in equally by Catholics, Protestants, Christian Scientists, and girls of Jewish faith, though it is always deeply symbolical and spiritual in nature. Biblical readings are chosen to illustrate the Seven Laws of Camp Fire. The ceremonial lighting of the candles, the singing of such ceremonial songs as "Burn, Fire, Burn," with symbolic dramatic action, the enacting in pantomime of simple stories such as Ruth and Naomi or loses in the Rushes, and the singing of hymns are all features of the programs. Such programs have a definite artistic unity and a definite idea back of them as maybe seen by a glance at the specimen services of this character which are printed in the Book of the Camp Fire Girls. Local programs, however, take on an additional significance, and often even an additional beauty, when the girls are encouraged to rewrite the ceremonials, incorporating into them their own individual imaginative conceptions, their own symbols, and their own poetry."

pg. 164
PART VI--Pantomimes


Pantomimes, in which all meaning is conveyed by gesture and, expression alone, are very popular both at camp and at indoor club meetings. Pantomimes may be acted out either by individuals or by groups. For older campers or for those who have had experience in pantomiming, such work can be produced spontaneously at-the camp fire with no preparation whatsoever. Otherwise it is better to announce the pantomime contest some time during the day, allowing younger or inexperienced people time for -preparation. Much better results are obtained when time is given for preparation.
Boys and girls should be taught that good pantomimes are those that are true to life. There is great temptation to exaggerate them, fearing ,that they mill not carry themselves. But they will to an unbelievable extent. Besides being true, each little movement must make a picture. It is also well to remind beginners that too many motions will blur the picture.
Individual Pantomimes. Individual. on-the-spur-of-the-moment pantomimes are often called camp or club "movies." In them only one person acts at a time. The leader explains the idea of the pantomime, announces the theme, such as "Robinson Crusoe coming upon footprints in the sand," and then calls for volunteers to enact the story. As many as desire may be permitted to try it, and then a vote is taken to determine the winner.
"Movie" Pantomimes. Either serious or humorous "movies" in which the leader and actors put their own originality, portraying incidents in their

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camp or club life, succeed best. "Movies" may be taken from Mother Goose stories, fairy tales and legends, or modern stories. Below are a number of concrete suggestions most of which are taken from Producing Amateur Entertainments:
1. Daniel Boone finds traces of a recent Indian camp.
2. Hiawatha mourns Minnehaha.
3. An over-night hiker strolling along a river bank meets a rattlesnake.
4. A bride burns the dinner after the guests have arrived.
5. A Ford car stalled in traffic.
6. A superstitious person meets a ghost passing a cemetery at midnight.
7. His first shave. Her first beau. 8. Little Red Riding Hood meets the wolf. 9. "Tom, Tom the piper's son, Stole a pig and away he run."
10. "Little Miss Muffet, sat on a tuffet, Eating her curds and whey, Along came a spider, and sat down beside her; And frightened Miss Muffet away."

Group Pantomimes. To insure success care must be taken in the introductory work of producing a group pantomime. Particular care must be taken in its selection: Of course it is best to let the group participate in this selection, for naturally they will prefer the thing that appeals most to their imaginations. For all but the simplest pantomimes time is required for adequate preparation. When teaching group pantomiming, it is advisable to announce the theme and conditions of production well in advance. It stimulates morale to let the groups get together

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to practice and work out their own pantomimes. In fact, they have more fun practicing than producing.
Boys and girls enjoy pantomiming stories that have been told to them and songs that they love. A story may be told at a camp or club meeting, and following this, an announcement may be made that at a certain time in the near future each group mill hare an opportunity to pantomime the story in competition. At this time announcement should also be made regarding the condition of award and production, similar to those following:
1. Each member of the group must participate.
2. The story must be depicted briefly with no unnecessary movements.
3. Whether or not costumes or properties mill be permitted.
4. Whether or not there shall be any music, humming, or Whistling.
5. Whether or not a story teller or the actors shall be allowed to speak. (To be technically correct pantomiming should be done without words. However, since many are improved by the addition of a few words they are often permitted.)

Following are amusing suggestions for group pantomimes for clubs and organizations:
(1) A typical patrol meeting, (2) A club's first hike, (3) The initiation of a new member, (4) A group of mothers watching their daughters take a life saving test.
Complete working details for the following group pantomimes will be found in Producing Amateur Entertainments:
Courtesy to Every Customer, page 154. A Business Meeting, page 155.

pg. 167

A Camp Fire Pageant Number. page 160. A Woodcraft League Number for Boys, page 164. A scene at Troop Headquarters, page 169. A Pantomime of Class Work, page 180.

Laws and Promises (28).
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, Girl Reserves, Woodcrafters, and club members enjoy pantomiming various points in their Laws or Promises. In fact, dramatization is generally recommended as one of the best methods for teaching Laws or Promises. A specific law may be dramatized, or each group or patrol may dramatize a Law of its own selection. When the latter is done, groups guess the Law depicted and vote upon the best presentation.
Girl Scout Number (29).
Any organization can work out verses that can be presented either in tableaux or pantomime similar to the one below:

GIRL SCOUT WEEK Monday's Scout is at the tub, Her Sunday Clothes to rinse and rub.

Tuesday's Scout will roast and stem And cook fresh potatoes just for you.

Wednesday's Scout is bent on Thrift, To patch the hole and darn the rift.

Thursday is Scout Service Day, For helping your neighbor in many a way.

Friday's Scout is rosy and strong She camps and hikes tile whole day long.

Saturday's Scout is happy and gay, For this is Baby-Caring Day.

While Sunday's Scout presents to you Her un-uniformed back in the family pew!

pg. 168

For working details of the above, see Producing Amateur Entertainments, page 179.

Camp Fire Girl Number (30).
The Camp Fire program offers an abundance of material. Take for example :


As fuel is brought to the fire
So I purpose to bring
My strength
My ambition
My heart's desire
My joy And my sorrow
To the fire Of Humankind.
For I will tend
As my fathers hare tended
And my father's fathers
Since time began
The fire that is called
The love of man for man
The love of man for God.

John Collier

Boy Scout Day in Camp (31).
A Day in Camp is naturally a favorite with boys, for they enjoy the physical more than the aesthetic. A program of a day's activities is briefly presented, starting with the boys crawling out of their tents at Reveille, and ending with that beautiful song "Taps."

Game of Still Movies (32).
An individual camp fire game played in Woodcraft League Councils is that of announcing a subject and asking one representative from each tribe or group to stand and pose in statue-like form his or her interpretation of that

pg. 169

subject. The participants rise, and then the subject is
announced, as, "You are Romeo under the balcony." Then the leader says "Pose I" The judges decide which participant wins. The tribe having the largest number of winners at the end of the game is the final winner.

Pantomime Rainy Day Game (33).
Nursery rhymes offer great fun for a pantomime party game or for a rainy clay at camp. Divide your group into as many teams as desired. Announce that each is to select secretly a nursery rhyme to be pantomimed. The maximum time that each group will be allowed to produce its rhyme is also announced. Then each group is given about ten minutes to prepare. At. the end of the preparation time, all of the groups are assembled, and one at, a time the various groups put on their pantomimes. The object of the game is to see if the spectators can guess the rhyme. The team that depicts its story best in the opinion of the judges is declared winner.

PART VII--Camp Fire Stunts

What is a stunt? Everyone who has seen one knows! It is informal dramatics of any kind, usually designed to provoke the laughter of the audience. Here, exaggeration is a much-desired attribute. Stunts are greatly aided by spoken lines: which in most instances should be worked out beforehand in order that they may be pointed and truly humorous. Unfortunately, space permits the description of only a. few stunts. Other successful campfire stunts in-

pg. 170

elude dialogues and take-offs of the vaudeville type, musical numbers. song specialties, camp minstrels, mock trials, the imitation of a surgical operation, an auction, and camp graduating exercises with a prophet, historian, and essayist. R number of stunts of the vaudeville and circus type may be found in
Games For Boys by G. S. Ripley. (Henry Holt Company.)
Take-Offs. Great care is required in take-offs so that no one's feelings are seriously hurt. Remember: hurt feelings last much longer than laughter. Instead of taking off individuals in the camp, try to take off types of individuals, such as telephone operator, country rube. a would-be detective, an organ grinder, etc. The usual camp take-offs in addition to the universal favorite, take-offs on the camp leaders, include: the camper always getting into trouble. the heavy eater, setting-up exercises, arrival of the daily mail, the camp "blow hard," and the homesick member.

A Community Song Leader (34).
The following is taken from Producing Amature Entertainments, page 17.
"The well-known character 'Powerful Katrinka' is Food for this. Sleeves rolled up, rolling pin in hand, she means business. She reads a letter from General H. Quarters to the effect that whenever she led the singing in the front line trench, the enemy ran tile other way. She sets to work, systematically. She divides her audience into melting sopranos, basso profundos, dramatic altos, and squeaky tenors. Great confusion. Discords. She labors. Katrinka's audience mar be on the stage, or she may work with the real audience."
Stunts for Adults. Adults enjoy stunts just as

pg. 171

much as boys and girls. The following stunt was first given extemporaneously by the Secretaries of the National League of Girls' Clubs. It can easily be modified to fit any organization.


A Burlesque on a Busy Life-in a Series of Vaudeville Sketches

Properties: A large clock face painted on a sheet. Movable hands roughly constructed. A "barker" supplies comments on the scenes, announcing each event and moving the hands of the clock with exaggerated solemnity.
6 A. M. Secretary wakes up. Is stretched out across two chairs. Brief cave for pillow. Jumps up fully dressed, including goloshes. Takes off curlers, puts on horn-rimmed spectacles, grabs clothes, stuffs them into suitcase, and runs.
7 A. M. Catches train, droppings brief case and spilling everything over platform. Registers intense agony. Finally falls into last car (cars represented by chairs humorously labeled).
8 A. M. Opens mail, seated at desk piled with huge letters. Reads funny letters aloud and is continually answering telephone.
9 A.M. Stimulates a community. Frantic speech with hits on local needs.
10 A. M. Interviews applicants for other secretarial positions, all of these being absolutely impossible, showing remarkable ignorance as to qualifications. 11 A.M. Attends meeting of Advisory Board. 13 AM. Eats luncheon (which is brought in from outside to her desk). Desperate hurry. Talks

pg. 172

through telephone, at the same time writing on typewriter.
1P.M. Coaches a play. Soothes stars, arranges scenery, supplements orchestra, improvises properties, etc.
2 P.M. Returns to office. Remembers need of constant effort toward good publicity. Examines bundle of newspapers; calls up newspaper office and complains that the Editor has given two lines to-day to the Republican Convention instead of devoting the entire issue to Girls' Club news. Apparently receives apology.
3 P.M. Cooperates with all other organizations. Walks about, shaking hands with many people, radiating good will.
4 P.M. Gives a talk before a parlor audience on ''Efficiency through Poise and Repose.'' 5 p. M. Leads Community Singing. 6 p. M. Attends a Club Supper.
7 P.M. Helps prepare for a Club dance. Trouble with the orchestra.
8 P.M. Chaperones the Dance. Fixed smile. Difficulties in getting people introduced.

pg. 173



UNDER normal conditions boys and girls have so little time for water work that they usually have little time for play but instead have Do emphasize serious work in swimming, diving, and life saving. As a result the use of water sports is, limited almost entirely to water carnivals and swimming meets. For this reason the most commonly used games are those that furnish either interest or amusement to the spectators.

PART I--Novelty Races and Games
Novelty races are the most popular form of water events. Most of the races and games are well known, so they are described as briefly as possible. When prizes are to be awarded, most of These races are conducted as individual events; otherwise they are run as relay races.

pg. 177

Tub Race (1).
The contestants, seated in a tub race to a goal, propel the tub with their hands.

Hand Paddle Boat Race (2).
Four or more contestants race in a canoe or rowboat, paddling with their hands only.

Umbrella Race (3).
Swimmers race a short distance carrying an open umbrella. Anyone who allows the cloth top of his umbrella to touch the mater is disqualified.

Candle Race (4).
Swimmers, robed in either pajamas or night dresses and caps, race to a float. There each contestant is provided with a candle and matches. They return to shore with lighted candles.

Spoon and Egg Race (5).
Contestants race a short distance carrying an egg, or something similar upon a spoon held with the teeth.

Disrobing Race (6).
Contestants swim out to a float and there, in deep water take, off extra clothing and place it on the float. The first one who climbs onto the float after disrobing wins.

Obstacle Race (7).
On the way to a goal the swimmers are required to go over and under various obstacles.

Run, Swim, Paddle (8).
Contestants are divided into teams with about four on a team. They run to the edge of the water, swim to a canoe or rowboat, climb in, and paddle to shore with their hands.

Crocodile Race (9).
Three or more good swimmers race to a goal joined together as a team, each indi-

pg. 178

vidual placing his hand upon the hips of the one in front of him.

Alligator Race (10).
This is similar to the Crocodile Race above. The members of each team swim on their backs, joined together by locking legs around waists.

Tag Games (11).
Many forms of tag are played in water. The most common include Cross, Wood, Ball, and Canoe tag.

Ball Games (12).
The following ball games are popular in the water: Polo, Keep the Ball, Dodge Ball, and Volley Ball.

Follow the Leader (13).
This is especially popular where a springboard is available for diving.

Holding the Fort (14).
One person is stationed on an object called the "fort," such as a float, barrel, or log. The other players try to capture the fort by pulling the possessor off.

Pom Pom Pull-Away (15).
This game, described in Chapter Three, is especially popular in a pool.

"Buddy" Spud (16).
This is described in Chapter Three.

Pillow Fight (17).
The contestants sit astraddle a pole, over the water, and try to knock each other off with a waterproof pillow.

Horse and Rider (18).
This contest is usually conducted in water waist deep. Contestants are mounted on their partners' backs. The riders try to pull each other off their horses. This is conducted as a duel contest or as a free-for-all fight.

Rope Tug (19).
Two people, in shallow water, hold a rope with a wide rag tied around the center. They hold the rope parallel to the shore, where two teams are lined up. At the starting signal all the

pg. 179

players rush to the rope and try to pull it over to their side.

Scrambles (20).
Free-for-all scrambles are enjoyed by both players and spectators. Pennies, greased watermelon, or a live duck may be used in scrambles.


"This water game is exceedingly popular and is especially good for public exhibition, being spectacular and full of amusement and excitement.
"The outfit needed is:

(1) A sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood; it should be about three feet long and nearly a foot thick at the

head. It may be made realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends will serve.
(2) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about three feet long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs. Sometimes the barbs are omitted

1By permission from the Woodcraft Manual, copyrighted by the Woodcraft League of America.

pg. 180

altogether. Each head should hare an eye to which is attached twenty feet of one-quarter-inch rope. On each rope, six feet from spearhead, is a fathom mark made by tying on a rag or cord.
(3) Two boats with crews. Each crew consists of a spearman, who is captain, and one or two oarsmen or paddlers, of which the after one is the pilot. All should be expert swimmers or else wear life belts during the game.

"The game. Each boat has a base or harbor; this is usually part of the shore opposite that of the enemy;
or it obviates all danger of collision if the boats start from the same side. The sturgeon is left by the referee's canoe at a point midway between the bases. At the word 'Go!' each boat leaves its base and. making for the sturgeon, tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to the base. When both get their spears into it, the contest becomes a tug-of-war until one of the spears pulls out.
"The sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow touches its proper base, even though the spear of the enemy is then in the fish: or it is landed when the fish itself touches base if it is also in tow at the time. The boats change bases after each heat.
"Matches are usually for one, three, or five sturgeons. Points are counted only for the landing of the fish, but the referee may give the decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the delinquent may be set back one or more boat-lengths.
"Sometime the game is played in canoes or boats, with one player as spearman and crew.''

Rules: It is not allowed to push the sturgeon into a new position with the spear or paddle before striking.

pg. 181

It is allowed to pull the sturgeon under tile boat or pass it around by using the line after spearing.
It is allowed to lag hands on tile other boat to prevent a collision, hut otherwise it is forbidden to touch the other boat or crew or paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish or to touch it with the paddle or oar, or to touch Sour own spear while it is in the fish, or to tie the line around the fish except so far as this may be accidentally done in spearing.
It is allowed to dislodge the enemy's spear by throwing your own over it. The purpose of tile barbs is to assist in this.
It is allowed to run, on to the sturgeon with tile heat.
It is absolutely forbidden to throw the spear over tire other boat or over the heads of your crew.
In towing the sturgeon the fathom-mark must he over the gunwale, at least six feet of line should be out when the fish is in tow. It is not a foul to have less, but the spearman must at once let it out if the umpire or tile other crew cries "Fathom!"
The spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle or oar at mill, but riot to resign his spear to another of the crew. The spearman must be in his boat when the spear is thrown.
If the boat is upset, the judge's canoe helps them to right.
Each clew must accept the backset of its accidents.

PART II--Life Saving Rescue Races
Director of Life Saving American Red Cross Tile: games below are designed to stimulate the teaching and practice of life saving, and therefore have a very legitimate place in every camp waterwork; program. When used in a meet, these games

pg. 182

should be announced well in advance. The life saving instructor should then spend due time instructing the prospective entrants, and he should encourage every swimmer to enter.

Boat Rescue Race (22),
Preparation. Provide a rowboat for each team of four members. One acts as steersman, two as oarsmen, and a good swimmer as victim. The victim of each team is taken by one of the officials in a rowboat to a spot a quarter to a half-mile off shore, Now all is in readiness to start the race.
When the signal gun is fired, the victims dive in and call for help. At the same instant the crews launch their boats and row to the swimmers. (The swimmers are not allowed to swim toward the boats; they simply remain afloat near the official's rowboat.) Each crew picks up its team mate and races to the beach. The instant the boat grounds, one of the crew carries the victim to the shore by the use of the fireman's lift. Next the victim is given resuscitation by the Schaefer Method. Time is taken on the sixth inhalation, which must be given in proper time. Any team failing in this operation is disqualified.

Head Carry Race (23).
Preparation. The swimming instructor pairs off' the members of his class ac cording to height. After giving a demonstration and instruction in the head carry, he allows the teams to practice. When he is satisfied that all of the entrants are prepared, he conducts the race.
The contestants line up, hanging on the edge of a pool, dock, or float. At the starting gun one member of each team carries his partner to a goal about twenty-five yards distant. There swimmer and patient change places, and the one who was previously carried returns carrying his partner to the starting point.

pg. 183

The patient Is required to lie on his back with arms folded and ankles crossed. The rescuer carries the patient at arm's length. He covers the victim's ears with the palms of his hands, using his legs only in swimming. (See Fig 31.)
Variations of the above race may be conducted, using any of the carries illustrated in this chapter.

Flag Relay Race (24).
This may be conducted as an individual race or as a relay. When conducted as a relay, station half of the members of each team at one end of the pool or on the dock, station the other half at the other end of the pool, or on a float about twenty-five yards from shore. The first member of each team is provided with a flag Or neckerchief secured to a staff six feet long. At the starting signal the first member of each team swims with the flag to the opposite end of the pool or to the float, and hands the flag to the second member of his team. The second member returns with the flag and hands it to the third member, and so on, until each member has carried the flag.
Since this race is designed to encourage proficiency in the cross chest carry (see Pig. 30), the arm in which the swimmer carries the flag must not be advanced beyond his head. Any team that gets its flag wet should be disqualified.

Retrieving Relay Race (25).
Preparation. Divide the players into teams of about four each, and line them up on the dock or on one end of the pool. Provide an ordinary brick or stone for each team. Place these on the bottom at a depth of about eight feet.
At the starting gun, the first member of each team swims to the spot over which the brick for his team is located. There he does a surface dive, retrieves

pg. 184

the brick, and swims to the surface. He holds up the brick with extended arm, to be sure that the judge sees it. Then he drops the brick, swims back, and touches off the second member of his team. The succeeding players repeat the operation of the first. The team wins whose last player touches the take-off first.

Life Line Relay (26).
Preparation. Before this relay is conducted, the entrants should be given instruction in coiling and throwing a life line. (See Chapter Fourteen.) Each team of four or more swimmers must be provided with a rope twenty-five feet or more long. (If extra life-buoys are available they may be used, but the regular camp life saving apparatus should remain in place ready for use.) To take the place of a life-buoy, a block of wood may be secured to one end of the rope and the other end may be fastened to the edge of the pool or dock. A judge should be appointed for each team.
No. 1 of each team coils a rope and throws it straight out as far as he can. Then he dives in and swims out with the object on the end of the line until the rope is stretched taut. When the judge sees that the rape is taut, he calls to the team "Pull." This is the signal for No. 2 to pull in his team mate. When No. 1 touches the dock, he lets go of the lope. Then No. 2 repeats the operation of No. 1. and So. 3 pulls in No. 2. This is repeated by succeeding members until finally No. 1 pulls in the last member of his team.

Buoy Running (27).
The object of Buoy Running is to furnish practice for surf rescues. It is a variation of the above race, and is commonly used at tank life saving meets. A team is made up of a swimmer, a subject, and a hauler. A buoy must be provided for each team.

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The swimmer jumps in with the buoy and swims to the subject at the opposite end of the pool. Then the third member pulls both his team mates to the edge of the pool.

PART III--Recreational Method of Teaching Swimming
American Swimming Association This method of teaching swimming is based upon the idea that, to combat the fear of non-swimmers. it is necessary to substitute for that fear pleasant mental pictures and desirable ideas, which will absorb the mind as completely as possible. The play and competition suggested below seem to capture the imagination of beginners to such an extent that fear, the greatest obstacle in teaching swimming, is overcome in the first lesson. The method may be used equally well with a large or small group.
Teaching Swimming. The swimming instructor must recognize that it is impossible to teach anyone to swim while he is afraid of the water. So the first and decidedly the most important thing to do is: to gain the confidence of the learner while helping him to overcome his fear. After this, breathing, balance, relaxation, and coordination must be taught.
1. Hungry Duck (Confidence).
To get beginners to put their faces under water it is not sufficient to instruct them to do so with the assurance that the Rater will not hurt. It is sounder pedagogy to entirely eliminate the words "hurt" and "fear" and create a motive for putting the face under. This can readily be done by play, competition, and story.

pg. 186

The class should be lined up in a semi-circle, facing the shore, in water waist-deep. The instructor says: "Let's think of the hungry duck. Every time she is hungry she puts her head under water to look for food. If she can see under water, so can we. I'll look and tell you what I see." Then the instructor very calmly takes a deep breath, puts his head under, and holds his arm out at full length, apparently counting his fingers. Withdrawing his head from the water, he says to the class: "I could see every one of my fingers. Now We'll do it together. Open your eyes after your face is under. Take a deep breath, take your time, and count your fingers. Ready--Go !''
2. Motor Boat (Breathing). The second step to teach in swimming is breathing, for to be at home in the mater one must breathe properly. In the majority of swimming strokes the face is carried beneath the surface of the water. Air is inhaled, or rather gulped in, by turning the face sideward and lifting the month out of water Exhaling is done under water, through the nose. This may be taught effectively by the story of a motor boat.
"Sow let's play we're motor boats. A motor boat is a very efficient breather, because it takes the air in through its carbureter and lets it out under water through the exhaust. Sow I will take a good breath through my carbureter, close it, put my face under, and exhaust through my nose. Sow let's all try it." Class repeats three times.
3. Jelly Fish (Balance). After breathing. we must teach balance to get the body in the horizontal position required for navigation in the water. To get the members of the class in this position, let them imitate a jelly fish.

pg. 187

"Now that we have found that our faces and eyes will not shrink from washing, we can bob around like a lot of jelly fish. Squat down with bent knees, grasp an ankle in each hand, and put your face under water, tipping forward." The instructor may then conduct a contest to find the best jelly fish.
4A. Sleeping Turtle (Relaxation).
Next teach the beginner to relax and give himself up to the buoyancy of the water. To do this it is necessary to let him see that the water will support his body.
"Did you ever see a turtle floating about warming his back in the sun? By stretching the arms forward, lowering the chin to the chest, and pushing ourselves forward, rye can imitate a turtle like this." (Instructor demonstrates.) "You see how we can sprawl on the surface of the water if our faces are under. Now, we'll all try it."
4B. Sleighride. "Do you know that we can take a sleighride over the, surface of the water, just as though it were ice? We'll use our outstretched arms as runners and push off from the bottom with our feet, and slide over the top of the water with our faces under like this. Now we'll have a race to see who can coast farthest."
5A. Steamboat (Coordination). The last step in the swimming lesson is to coordinate the mental and physical. The quickest way to do this is to instruct the beginner to use his leg and arm muscles in a way that he is already accustomed to. In the "Beginner's Crawl Stroke," which is taught in the three steps to follow, the coordination required is so perfectly natural that it can be acquired in a few minutes.
"Now that we can coast, we can imitate an old fashioned steamboat by paddling our legs up and down, keeping the knees straight and splashing the

pg. 188

water slightly with our feet. We'll not throw away our sleds while we play steamboat. We'll keep the sled runners (arms) ahead of us and attach the stern paddles to the rear of the sled, thus.'' (Demonstrate, making progress by the use of the legs only.)
5B. Windmill. "Now stand up and let your arms revolve like those of a windmill. Start With the right arm reaching straight ahead, and the left in line with it, in the rear, and then whirl the arms. When a big wind comes along and blows the windmill into the water, the movement of the paddles keeps the windmill moving on down the river." (Demonstrate, making progress by the use of the arms only.)
5C. Steamboat-Windmill Combination. "Let us suppose that the windmill and the steamboat met each other, became friends, and continued down the stream together. The windmill revolving its arms in front and the steamboat paddling along in the rear. Then they look like this. (Instructor demonstrates Beginner's Crawl Stroke.)
''Now, do you remember the motor boat breathing? Roll your body as you whirl the arms, and kick the feet, getting your breath through the carbureter (mouth) and letting it out through the underwater exhaust (nostrils). The result is swimming- a rough 'crawl,'--but swimming.

PART IV--Life Saving Methods

By JOSEPH L. UNDERHILL Life Saving Representative, Pacific Division,
American Red Cross

Life savings is a subject in which boys and girls are especially interested. The novelty of the methods,

pg. 189

the idea of heroism and service, and the possibility of qualifying for membership in a Life Saving Corps are great incentives.
Teaching Life Saving. All of the material presented in this article, with the exception of the carries, may be taught on land. Death-grips in particular should be taught on land before they are tried in the water. Unfortunately, many leaders believe that campers should be expert swimmers before they are taught life saving. To be sure, a person must be fairly proficient in the water before he can, with confidence, practice life saving in deep water, but there is absolutely no objection to teachings every boy and girl the land work of life saving.
In view of the modern idea of physical education -"To be truly educational we must find forms of exercises which are in themselves purposeful and worth while"--why not teach this worth-while activity to every boy and girl? Life saving set to music has been used on land in a number of camps as a form of exhibition or in pageantry. It is also practiced in modern gymnasiums as a form of physical exercise in place of formal work.
Life saving instruction is generally divided into four parts, taught in the following order: The Approach, Breaking Death-grips, Carrying or Towing the Subject in the Water, Artificial Respiration.

In approaching a drowning person there is danger of being grasped and taken down. To avoid this a person may be approached by three safe methods:
1. The person may be approached from the rear, and carried by any method desired.

pg. 190

2. When it is necessary (as in boat accidents) to
approach a drowning person from the front, the rescuer should grasp the victim's opposite wrist and quickly turn him around, by one jerk. To do this the swimmer should extend his left arm and grasp the victim's left wrist or vice versa.
3. The third method, which is illustrated, is recommended for use in calm clear mater.
Fig. 1. Dive under the water and grasp the subject's knees, placing one hand on front of the knee and grasping the other knee from behind.
Fig. 2. The patient can easily be turned around by pushing with the left hand and pulling with the right. Now the victim should be pushed to the surface and carried as illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9.

A swimmer should use his foot to push a subject away in case he tries to grasp him. Caution swimmers never to use their knees for fear of injuring the subject.

pg. 191


When teachings "breaks," arrange the class in a line by pairs. Have those who are performing the break stand facing the instructor. Personally, when time permits, I prefer to demonstrate the breaking of a grip informally, letting the class follow step by step. Then I have assistants (the camp life savers) help those who have difficulty, making sure that every member can perform the break. Now the fun begins ! Instead of letting the class operate informally, I have them break the grips to counts. I count faster and faster each time, lettings those who succeed within the specified count remain in the front line and having those who fail take a step back. (Do not have them drop out.) After this has been repeated five or six timer;, those in the front line are declared winners. Be sure to have the pairs change each time; that is, act first as victim and then as rescuer.
When life saving is conducted as a game, partners do not hangs onto each other as though in a strength contest. Boys have a tendency to grip too tightly, whereas girls often take too lax a hold. To make the release of any grip effective, the rescuer must complete it by turning the subject's back toward him, raising him to the surface, and placing him in whatever position he desires, depending upon the carry he wishes to use. It has recently been discovered that it facilitates carrying considerably to raise the patient before starting the carry. So that this may become second nature, it should be taught with every break. Swimmers should be permitted to grasp their patients by the position necessary for the carry they prefer, and not by the carry shown in illustrations. Those who cannot swim should be taught the position illustrated, since it is the most natural carry. Even

pg. 192

in land work, teach the rescuers to grasp their patients firmly to prevent them from struggling When breaking any death-grip in the water, the rescuer should take a deep breath and allow himself to be submerged with the subject. Thus he can take advantage of the natural tendency of a drowning person to release his grasp when he feels that he is going down.

Wrist Grip with Thumbs Underneath

Fig. 3. Instruct the subject to grasp both wrists with thumbs underneath, as illustrated.
fig. 4. Release subject's grip on left wrist by bringing left forearm suddenly downward and outward, bringing the pressure against the subject's thumb. (Instruct class to remember the rule: Always put pressure against the thumbs in any handgrip, for they form the weakest part of the grip.) Fig. 5.With left hand reach across and grasp subject's left wrist.

Fig. 6. Break subject's grip on right hand by bringing right forearm suddenly downward and to the right.
Fig 7. Turn subject completely around by pulling his left arm across your body to the left, and

pg. 193

place right hand under his chin, holding him against you.
Fig. 8. Release grip of left hand and place it in small of subject's back, pushing him up on his tiptoes. (When performing this in the water, push the subject to a horizontal position on the surface of the water.)

Fig 9 Take right hand across chest carry as illustrated or if preferred, take left hand across chest carry. (See Fig 30)

Wrist Grip with Thumbs Above

Fig. 10. Have subject grasp both wrists with thumbs above, as illustrated. Now remind the class of the rule, Pressure against thumbs, and let rescuers work out the break themselves: since it is practically the same as the one above.
By observing Fig. 5 it will be realized that the rescuer must work very rapidly to prevent the subject from grasping him a second time with his free

pg. 194

hand. Expert life savers break a double wrist grip by omitting the operation illustrated in Fig. 3, allowing the subject to retain his grasp with the right hand. Then the grip with that hand is released automatically when the subject is swung around into the carrying position. Try it!
In view of the fact that it is rarely possible for a drowning person to securely grasp both wrists of a rescuer, the above double wrist grip is not a required American Red Gross life saving test.

Double Grip on One Wrist

Fig. 11. In order to break this grip properly, it is necessary for the subject to take it and kneel, as illustrated, when working on land.
Fig. 12. Reach over with right hand and grasp subject's right wrist, placing right foot over onto subject's left shoulder. (If rescuer cannot reach shoulder with his foot, he must bend his elbow.) Fig. 13. Push his shoulder away with your foot, thus releasing the grip of his left hand. At the same time pull his right wrist across ;your body, turning him as indicated by the arrow.

pg. 195

Fig. 14. Place your free hand under his chin.
Fig. 15. Pull him to his feet and draw him closer to you even than illustrated in Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Release your right hand, and with it push up under the small of the subject's back. (When this step is performed in the water the subject will be brought to a horizontal position as required for a proper carry.)

Pig. 17. Take whatever cross chest carry desired. By observing Fig. 16 it will be seen that the rescuer can readily take any of the carries illustrated on pages 200, 201, 202.
If time, permits, let the members of the class work out the breaking of the grip in which the subject grasps the rescuer's left arm.
Another method for breaking the above grip is to reach over with the free hand and grasp the subject's far wrist. Then break the hold of his near hand by pushing downward. Then turn the subject by pulling his far arm toward you, and complete the break as above.

pg. 196

Front Strangle Hold
Fig. 18. Have subject take a front strangle hold with head over right shoulder, as illustrated.
Fig. 19. Reaching up and over the arm nearest to the subject's head, place your right hand against his right cheek, fingers clutching under the jaw. Place your left hand under the subject's right elbow, as illustrated.
Fig. 20. Twist subject's head backward and to your right, at the same time lifting his elbow over his head. Now turn him completely around as indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 21. Place your right hand under his chin and your left under the small of his back, pushing him up onto his tiptoes.
Fig. 22. Change hold to carry position desired.
Let the class work out the breaking of a front strangle hold when the subject has his head on the left shoulder.

pg. 197

Back Strangle Hold
Fig 23. Have subject take back strangle hold, as illustrated, with his left arm in front of, or below, his right.
Fig. 24. Grasp subject's left forearm firmly with both hands.
Fig. 25. Jerk downward, grasping subject's left wrist with your right hand, twisting inward as indicated by the arrow. At the same time grasp his forearm at the elbow with your left hand.

Fig. 26. Duck your head under his left elbow.
Fig. 27. Retain your grip on the subject's left wrist and continue to twist slightly. Pull his arm to the position of a wrestler's hammer-lock hold, and place your left hand under his chin. Push upward on the wrist under the subject's back.
Fig. 28. Change hold to carry position.

pg. 198

Breaking Two People Apart

Fig 29 To rescue two people who are grasping each with a front strangle hold, approach from the rear and grasp one of the victims below the chin with both hands. Place your foot upon the shoulder of the other, as illustrated. Pull with the hands and push (not kick) with the foot, breaking them apart. Then perform the rescue. In a great many instances one of the two will be able either to swim or keep afloat while you swim to shore with other.
When practicing the above release, instruct students not to resist strenuously, as there is danger of injury.


The Cross Chest Carry

Fig. 30. The cross chest carry is particularly advantageous when the subject is struggling, and may be used after breaking any grip. In this position the subject is held firmly by the arm across the chest, and is unable to interfere with the rescuer's stroke. Either the left or right arm may be used across the chest, according to the rescuer's best swimming position. Note that the rescuer's hip is under the center of the subject's back, and that his hand extends as far under the subject's far shoulder as possible, in order to prevent pressure upon the subject's throat. With

pg. 199

this carry the rescuer should swim with a scissors kick and a long arm pull.

Head Carry
Fig, 31. Cover the subject's ears with the palms of your hands so that the middle finger rests along his jawbone on each side, as illustrated. Swim, using either a frog-kick, or a vertical or reversed scissors kick. In the last-mentioned, the rescuer turns his hips slightly to one side, and the legs are separated

pg. 200

as in the side stroke, with the upper leg opening backward and the lower leg opening forward. In this carry, swim with Your chest high, letting the mater support you as much as possible.

Hair Carry
Fig. 32. Subject may be carried by grasping the hair with the fingers toward the forhead. Swim on side, with the side arm pull and scissors: kick, as in the cross chest carry.

Bathing Suit Carry
Fig. 33. A carry, similar to the hair carry, may he effected by grasping the subject's bathing suit or clothing.

Tired. Swimmer Carry
Fig. 34. This is used when the subject is perfectly normal with the exception of being tired. He places his hands on the rescuer's shoulders, and, keeping his arms straight, lies back on the water with his

pg. 201

chest slightly arched. The rescuer uses the breaststroke.

The Schaefer method of artificial respiration explained below is in general use in the resuscitation of persons suffering from electric shock, and suffocated

pg. 202

by smoke, gas, or drowning. The treatment should be applied at the place where the rescue is effected. Do not waste time in trying to get water out of the stomach, but take advantage of any slope of the ground by placing the patient's head down-hill. Then proceed as follows:

Fig 35. Place the patient face down, with his head on the back of his left hand, so that his mouth and nose are off the ground. Open his mouth and see that his tongue is forward, and that there is
nothing in the mouth to prevent breathing. If it is
necessary to pull the tongue forward it is advisable to prop the jaws open with a stick between the back teeth.

36. Extend patient's right arm forward to expand his chest, taking care to leave room enough between his mouth and arm for breathing.

Fig- 37. Straddle patient's legs about six inches above the knees. (If more convenient, straddle one leg only) With palms up, press the sides of the hands against the upper ribs.

pg. 203

Pig. 38. Continuing to press inward on the ribs, pull the hands toward you until they find a natural stopping-place, which should bring the little fingers over the lowest ribs.

Fig. 39.By flattening the hand around the ribs so that the wrists are the width of a palm apart (as illustrated), the correct position for the pressure is found. Keep the thumbs and fingers together. (This assists in keeping the elbows straight when the weight is applied.) Lean forward, applying your weight on the hands with a gradually increasing pressure.
Note that, when this position is correct, a vertical line through your shoulder falls behind the back of your hand. Thus the pressure is forward and downward at the same time. As you apply the pressure, repeat slowly the words, ''Out goes the bad air.''

pg. 204

comes the good." Repeat the application and the releasing of pressure as before, timing yourself by the repetition of the phrases mentioned. One complete respiration (pressure and release) should take about five seconds; that is, between twelve and fourteen respiration's to the minute.
While you are working, if there i!: any help at hand, send for a doctor. Someone may be sent for warm blankets and aromatic spirits of ammonia, or for hot tea or coffee. Another may loosen the clothing and rub the arms: and legs toward the heart to stimulate circulation. If aromatic spirits of ammonia is: available, a cloth may be moistened with it and placed near the patient's mouth for inhalation. Although this supplementary treatment may be helpful, it should not interfere with the work of the person who is applying artificial respiration. Continue the work until the patient begins to breathe freely. If you tire, let one of your helpers relieve you. When the patient regains consciousness, a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a glass of water may be given him, or hot water, tea, or coffee, if the ammonia cannot be obtained. Then carry him to a quiet place and put him in bed, under medical care.
Should no results be obtained by the methods used, the efforts to revive him should not be stopped for at least two hours, as it is impossible to determine before that time whether or not the attempt may be successful.

Fig. 40. Suddenly release the pressure of tale body. Fig. 41. Relax as you Repeat the words, "In

pg. 205



NATURE study, which might better be called nature lore, aims to promote love of the great out-of-doors. 811 that is usually attempted is to give young people a speaking acquaintance with nature, rather than an intimate knowledge of it. Observing, collecting, smelling, and tasting are decidedly more valuable than book study or microscopic observation. Certainly these have a legitimate place in advanced classes, but even there field work comes first. Books have their place as guides to birds, bugs, trees, and flowers, after the living things have stimulated a true desire for further information. The so-called "hand-

pg. 209

minded" person may find an approach, to nature through the making of leaf prints, photographs, herbariums, aquarium, or museums, but he should not stop with these, because "collections alone make museums, not naturalists.''
The Play Way in Nature. Experience has shown that the supposed "natural love in all of us for nature)' is not sufficient to motivate this activity throughout a camp or club season. We must recognize that boys and girls join these institutions for fun and more fun, so we should try to satisfy this desire, at the same time malting the fun purposeful and worth while. We can utilize the play spirit in teaching nature lore by conducting games, contests, and treasure hunts. It is not to be inferred that the play method is all-sufficient, but we can be assured that by its application nature study can be practiced in such an enjoyable way that it will become a life interest and a constant source of wholesome, healthful recreation.
The games and methods described in this chapter are designed as a play way of teaching. When the
same game is played twice, it will be increasingly more difficult to secure interest and attention; therefore, the leader who hopes to teach by the recreational method must have a large repertoire of games. It is advisable to play more than once only those games that prove to be very popular.
Selecting and Playing Nature Games. When selecting and using nature games, bear in mind that the quiet games, although less popular than the active games, are generally better for teachings purposes. Quiet games that have less playing value from the boy's and girl's viewpoint succeed better on rainy days at camp, or when they follow those of the run-

pg. 210

ning, hunting, or chasing variety. At such times the players are more willing to sit down to discuss the things that they have been hunting and observing. When discussion is conducted in the form of a game, all become interested participants, while a formal discussion usually results in a conversation between a few, with the leader doing practically all the talking. The length of time that a group Trill remain interested in a nature game demanding considerable mental alertness depends largely upon its knowledge in the particular subject of the game.

Nature Point Race (1).
This game map be successfully played with either beginners or advanced
nature students. It is described just as I played it
with a gang of boys that I accidentally ran across in a park.
"Hello, boys! Do you want to play a game?" The answer was "Sure,'' so we started immediately.
"We'll have a race. Three points for first place, two for second, one for third. Instead of saying 'Go,' I'll name something growing within sight and you run and bring it to me. Understand? Let's try it. Ready, set,-A Weed!" Away they ran.
When they returned, I simply wrote down the names of the winners and started the next race. "Ready, set, bring me a leaf that you can cook and eat that has a--Fellow Flower!" Most of them returned with the correct leaf, a dandelion. So they continued, bringing the longest leaf (a blade of grass), the broadest leaf (a wild rhubarb), something alive (an ant), etc. Occasionally I allowed them time to catch their breath while we discussed the things they had gathered.
Finally me came to that part of the game to which I was leading. I called for a particular maple leaf,

pg. 211

and since no one knew it, we stopped the game, hunted together, and found three different kinds of maples. We studied them and then ran more races for specified maple, leaves, but in no instance u-ere the boys permitted to bring a leaf from the particular tree that we had identified. It was interesting to note that as the game progressed the boys were just as much interested in nature lore as they were in their scores.
Here is a better way to keep score than that described above. It can be used in many games. Before starting, have the players gather counters such as small pebbles, acorns, nuts, or seeds for the leader, who in turn passes them out to the winners. The one who has the most counters at the end of the game wins.

By DR. WILLIAM G. VINAL College of Education, Providence, R. I.
"Appoint leaders to choose teams. Give them illustrated tree books or leaflets and tell them to study oak leaves. At a signal, give them three minutes to obtain a white oak leaf. The tree should be known to be nearby. At the end of three minutes blow a whistle. For those back in their places with a white oak leaf (no more, no less), score a point. Seat, send them scouting for a red oak acorn, a Balm-of-Gilead bud, and so on. The team scoring the greatest number of points represents the group of best tree SCOUTS"

Nature spell Downs (3).
Spell Downs may be applied to nature lore for the purpose of review. Avoid the type in which those who miss are eliminated.

pg. 212

The Spell Downs described below should follow an instruction period or an active nature game.
Individual Spell Down. Line up the contestants or seat them before the leader, who is provided with nature specimens, photographs, or prints previously studied or observed by the group.
The leader holds up a specimen and asks the person on the extreme right to name it. If it is named correctly, the next in line is asked to tell one fact about it. Failing to name it or making an incorrect statement about it sends the person in error to the end of the line, and the next in line is given the same question. The leader continues with all specimens in the same manner. The one who misses least wins.
Team Spell Down. This is a variation of the above in which two teams or patrols are pitted against each other. When a contestant misses, he goes to the other side. The team having the greatest number after each member has been asked one question wins that round. The team that wins two rounds out of three is declared the final winner. When beginning a new round, all players start with their original teams.
Write Downs. Provide each contestant with card and pencil. Pass nature materials down the line and have the contestants write the names of the specimens in the order in which they are passed. If time permits, it is advisable to tag each specimen with a number. The individual or team naming the greatest number correctly wins. This is simply a recreational method of conducting an examination that is enjoyed by adults more than by children.

Roadside Cribbage (4).
This game is popular with all hikers, for it makes long hikes seem remarkably short in either city or country. It can be highly

pg. 213

recommended to Boy Scouts for their fourteen-mile hike, for even two people can play it. The object of' the game is: to see what individual or group can first score twenty-one points for observing specified objects. Only the person who observed such an object first scores.
Preparation. Divide the hikers into groups of no more than eight, and let each group conduct a separate game. While hiking along, have each player gather twenty-one small counters such as pebbles, acorns, nuts, seeds. Sow take a rest and decide upon about six specified objects to be observed. The lists following are suggestive:

City List
Each match button, or pin . . 1 Point
Each dog or cat . . 1 Point
Each specified common tree. . 1 Point
Each specified automobile . . 1 Point
Each bird or flock of birds flying . . 1 Point
Each bird or flock of birds sittings . . 2 Points
Each person or group of persons in uniform. . 2 Points
Each horse of a specified color. . 2 Points
Each specified tree. .2
Points (Exclude sparrows and "Flowers")

Country List
Each horse, cow, crow, or flock of same . . 1 Point
Each specified common tree, plant, flower, etc.. 1 Point
Each different bird or flock of birds flying . . 1 Point
Each different bird or flock of birds sitting . . 2 Points
Each bird nest . . . . . 2 Points
Each specified uncommon tree, plant, flower, etc. 2 Points
Each wild animal, snake, bug, etc. . . 2 Points
Each animal or bird track . . 2 Points

pg. 214

The leader or umpire of each group should bring up in the rear, permitting no one to leave the road, lag behind, or stop. Players yell out when they sight an object included in the game. The one who yells first "pegs" by throwing away one or two counters. The one wins who "pegs" all his counters first.
Roadside cribbage can be made interesting throughout a longs hike by observing objects first one one side of the road then on the other, by spotting objects at least a hundred feet away, by frequently announcing scores, etc.


"This may be played as a group game for a time when on a long hike. It is also an excellent individual game for a small group. Assign a numerical value to certain trees. One group map take one side and the other the opposite, or the points may go to the side recognizing the tree first. In this case it leads to long-range recognition by form. (Trees "en masse" and silhouettes suggest interesting rainy day projects for the notebook.) "

Holding the Front (6).
This very simple hike game? is useful for a small group or patrol hike. The hikers travel in single file. Occasionally halt the file and ask the person in front to identify a tree or plant on the side of the road, or some distance ahead. If he fails, he is sent to the rear of the line and the second in line is called upon at the next halt.

I Saw (7).
This is good for summarizing and reviewing the work done on a field trip. It may also be

pg. 215

conducted as a follow-up game to many of the more active games while resting after a meal or during a hike.
The first player names an object that he observed some time during the trip and briefly describes it. The second player mentions the object described by number one and adds one observed by, himself with a brief description For example. he might say, "I saw a white oak (mentioned by So. 1) and a fiddler crab which was," etc. The succeeding players mention in order things named by those preceding. Those who miss or mention anything previously named may choose to perform a stunt, pay a forfeit, or run the gauntlet.

Tree Identification Contest (8).
This is described as a tree contest, but it may be readily modified to fit any nature subject. This is an excellent field method of introducing to older players a new subject, at the same time exposing them to several good books or guides on the particular subject. It is described

pg. 216

as a group contest, but it may be conducted as an individual game. Group work is decidedly preferable,
for it stimulates more discussion, and the individual
members who may recognize the trees immediately are either interested in telling their fellow members about them or are amused listening to their remarks.

Preparation. Divide the party into groups of four or five. Select group leaders to keep score and report. Provide each leader with a guide boob or manual, containing accurate tree illustrations.
The instructor points out a tree; the groups separate and, by actual study of their references, report its exact identity within three or four minutes. Insist upon group leaders reporting the majority opinion of their members, making it necessary for everyone to have an opinion. Score one point for naming the genus and one additional for the species. Suppose the tree is a pin oak. Group A reports, "Pin oak"; score two. Group B leader says, "We

pg. 217

call it an oak but are not sure of the kind"; score one. Group C reports, "We'll take a chance on scarlet oak"; score zero.
Interest may be stimulated by the following:

1. Allow each group to select a tree to be identified.
2. Identify distant trees at long range by their forms, foliage, or peculiarities.
3. Score one point for each important commercial, medicinal, or woodcraft use of any part of tile tree.
4. Score one point for most accurate estimation of tile distance of the tree, its height or diameter.

When the judge renders his decision he will find such an interested audience that he will be tempted to talk too long, especially if he is an expert. It adds to the fun to hare ;1 member of the group time him and make him stop at exactly the end of two minutes or so. Let him deliver his lecture at the end of the hike.

Scouting for Nature (9).
This is an application to nature study of the well-known game Scouting for
Words. It is described as it might be used in re-
viewing a tree hike; however, it can be applied to various forms of nature study.
Preparation. Provide tree specimens, collected on a previous hike, such as leaves, buds, flowers, fruit, bark, root. If specimens are not available, provide a set of cards, each containing one letter of the alphabet in large type. Divide the players into teams with no more than eight on each team and preferably four. Number the members of each team consecutively, so that each team has a number one, each a number two, etc. Seat the players by teams.
The leader holds up a specimen saying, "Number ones, what is it ?'' The number one who names it first

pg. 218

scores one point for his team. Similarly the numbers of other players are called in regular or in mixed order. The team with the highest score at the end of the game wins.
When the game is played with cards, the leader flashes a card with a remark similar to one of the
following :
1. "Give me the name of a tree beginning with
that letter."
2. "An adjective describing some bark with that letter."
3. "Commercial use of red cedar beginning with
The leader who wishes to be prepared with thought producing questions will write them beforehand on the backs of his cards. If this is not done. there is
no real need for the cards, since it is just as well to call out the letters.

Nature Naming Contest (10).
Preparation. Divide the players into two equal teams and number the players of each team beginning with No. 1. Seat the members of each team together, tell them they may help their team mates by telling them the name of a tree, but that they must not tell anything about the tree.
Start the game by sayings to No. 1 of team A, for example; "Same a tree beginning with the letter 'A?' and tell at least one thing about it." No. 1 may reply, "Apple, I eat 'em." Then the leader turns to So. 1 of team ''B,'' who may say, "Apricots, I eat 'em too." Then No. 2 of Team "B" continues, if he call think of another tree beginning with'' A,'' until finally one of the players will he unable to think of another tree beginning with "A." Then a point is scored for the other team, and the player who missed

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starts the game by naming a tree beginnings with "13." Thus the game continues with the successive letters of the alphabet until one team scores ten points.

Tree Hunt (11).
The individual hunting and stalking element in this game makes it universally popular, whether or not the players are familiar with nature lore
Preparation. While the players are at lunch or otherwise busily engaged, instruct some one familiar with trees to go out. secretly and put chalk marks on ten or more trees within a well-defined territory. If the trees are chalked in numerical order, there is great danger of some of the younger players stretching their imagination. To avoid this possibility, label the trees with familiar characters that can be seen from a distance,, such as numerals, letters, letters in signal code, and trail signs. Provide each player with a pencil or piece of charcoal and a card.
Tell the players the boundary limits and instruct them to scatter and hunt for marked trees. Caution them to observe trees from as great a distance as possible in order to avoid revealing their location to their competitors. Each player receives one point for each tree found and one additional point for each tree named correctly.
If the leader is using this as a teaching game, he should, when checking results, take the players to the marked trees and study them for a few minutes.

Hidden Trees (12).
The game of Hidden Trees is usually conducted as a quiet indoor game. Each player is given a card with sentences similar to those below containing hidden trees. The person wins who underscores the greatest number of trees. It will be recognized that this game is an indoor party game

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rather than an outdoor nature game. It can be made a good nature lore game by applying it to game No. 11, Tree Hunt, marking each tree with a card containing its hidden name.

Ailanthus. We found a eat-tail, ant, husk of corn, etc.
Beech. A bee chases you only when you chase him.
Cherry We feed the young flycatcher rye seed.
Elm. Tile model made by hand was best.
Hickory. He deserved Iris name "Thick O Rynn."
Locust. Tile jello=custard tasted great at camp.
Maple (Red or White) The red map led (or white map) to the treasure.
Oak The rope broke so a knot was tied. Pine He came out on top in every test.
Poplar. He preferred gumbo soup to any Japanese dish Red Gum. He preferred gumbo soup to any Japanese dish.
Willow. We saw a whipoor will, owl, and skunk.

Hidden Birds (13).
The Hidden Birds in the sentences below can be used just as in the game above.

Canary. Can a rye grower still make a living?
Crow. The scouts held tile crowd back.
Eagle. They tried to organize a glee club.
Haseko. Although awkward he succeeded.
Owl. Tile hollow leads to the cave.
Raven. Deerslayer avenged the scalping of Iris friends.
Robin. They decided to rob instead of work.
Starling. The evening star lingered in the west.
Wren. The widow rendered her mite.

Twenty Questions (14).
This is an adaptation to nature study of the well-known social game Twenty Questions. It can be used by a person familiar with

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nature study as an interesting recreational method of giving instruction in identification. When the leader is not an expert, the game may not have as great teaching value, but it will be quite as enjoyable. In fact, the players seem to enjoy the Fame more when

the leader has to give up than they do when he succeeds.
The leader may say to the players: "I will leave the room. (Or go beyond hearing distance when out-of-doors.) While I am out, decide what tree I am to be. When you have selected a tree, call me, and I will try to and out what I am. If I ask no more than twenty questions, I win; if I ask more than twenty, you win. You must answer either, 'Yes,' 'No,' or 'I don't know.' "
Then the leader appoints an assistant to take charge of the group while he leaves the room. He should tell the assistant: "In selecting tile tree take all the time yon want. Have those who know the tree tell about it so that you can all answer my questions correctly, for when anyone answers incorrectly or says 'I don't know,' that question does not count against me." When playing with a group of beginners in nature study, the leader should tell them the kind of questions he expects to ask.
Since very common objects are usually selected, the leader generally wins. Often the leader will discover what tree he is supposed to be after asking a few questions; however, he will make the game more interesting if he will continue until he has asked nearly twenty questions. When the players disagree as to the answer, give them a. tree guide and retire while they learn the correct answer. Here is a sample list of leading questions, some of which have an element of fun:

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1. Am I very common around here?
2. Am I green throughout the year?
3. Will I be at least twenty-five feet tall when I grow up?
4. Are my leaves alternate?
5. Am I simple in respect to my leaves?
6. Are my leaves entire?
7. Would you say that I am rough underneath? (The leaves)
8. Did you ever see me wearing a conspicuous flower?
9. Do P smell sweet?
10. What do you think of my shape, is it easily distinguished from a distance?
11. Do human beings relish eating any part of me?
12. Does my bark peel off in thin horizonal layers?
13. Is my wood of commercial value?
14. After asking all these questions would you say that I am quite thick; that is, at least a foot in diameter?

Are You? (15).
This is a variation of Twenty Questions. It is described as a tree game, but it may be applied to any nature study subject. It is an excellent indoor or rainy day camp game, but it succeeds best while the players are resting on a hike.
Divide the players into two or more teams, or use scout patrols as teams. Choose a person who is familiar with trees to be a "Tree." The object of the game is to find out what tree the player has in mind, by asking indirect questions. After each player has asked one or more questions so that the total does not exceed twenty, the teams retire to discuss the answers. Each team that names the tree scores either one point or two points. For example: score one point for "oak''; score two points for "white oak." The Tree usually answers ''No'' or ''Yes,'' but if he feels that a question is too direct, he may refuse to answer, for example: "Are Sour leaves shaped like

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a white oak ?" "Are you growing within five feet of this spot?" Types of legitimate questions are listed under the game Twenty Questions (14).

Nature Hand Baseball (16).
This game is very popular with both sexes and all ages. It may be played out-of-doors on a plot one-fourth the size of a regular baseball diamond or indoors in a room much smaller. The catcher takes his position alongside of home plate instead of behind it. Here he acts as both catcher and pitcher. He tosses a very soft ball (indoor or playground) to the batter, who hits it with his hand. Notice that no time is lost through wild pitches or passed balls. The rules are the same as regular baseball with two exceptions; namely. base stealing is not allowed, and a runner may be put out by being hit with the ball as well as by being tagged.
Whenever a player is put out, he takes a leaf from his pocket (other natural objects may be used) and shows it to the one who put him out. If this person fails to identify the object correctly, the umpire reverses his: decision and calls the player safe.
When a player's nature specimen is identified, he may trade with some other member of his team, or he may get another specimen. When players are at bat, their captain should encourage them to tell each other about those specimens that their team mates fail to identify.
Nature Baseball should be explained to a group of players just before starting on a nature hike, During the hike, one particular subject should be studied. One member of the party should be appointed official collector to gather one specimen, no more and no less, from each object observed. Upon arrival at a suitable spot where the game is to be played, the objects gathered by the official collector should be reviewed.

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Then sides should be chosen, and the players are instructed to scatter to find one specimen each. Now assemble the players, play the game, and be assured that with such preparation it will succeed.

Matching Leaves (17).
This game can be played with small groups of all ages whether or not they are familiar with trees. It succeeds best on grounds containing a rather large variety of trees.
Part I Collecting Contest. The leader can start the game without lengthy explanation, saying; "Everybody scatter when I give the word 'Go.' Collect as many different binds of leaves as you can find, no two from the same tree. Pick one leaf,--no more, no less ,--from each tree. At the end of three minutes I'll blow my whistle. After that do not pick another leaf, but come back here on the run. Ready,--Go!" When the players return, seat them in a circle. and hare each player lay his leaves on the ground in front of him, Inspect quickly to see that none have duplicates or leaflets. The one who had the greatest number of leaves wins Part I.

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Part II Matching Contest. To start the game one of the players (preferably the one who had the fewest leaves in Part I) holds up a leaf so that all may see it, saying, for example? "Here's a tulip." The leader pronounces it either right or wrong. If wrong? the player is required to discard the leaf; if right, every player who has a tulip leaf holds it by the stem, blade down. When the player sags, "Ready.--Spin !" all who have a tulip leaf spin it. letting it fall to the ground. All leaves that fail to match !top side or under side) the one of the original player are handed over to him. The players who match him retain their leaves. The one wins who has the greatest number of leaves after each player has had a turn.
This game invariably provides the leader who is familiar with trees a splendid opportunity to teach the various species. For example, if someone holds up a leaf saying, "Here is: some kind of a maple," the leader should interrupt briefly to teach the different kinds of maple.
If there is any objection to the element of chance in this game. it may be eliminated by simply handing over the leaves instead of spinning them.

Rim's Nature Race (18).
This is a variation of an old observation contest called Kim's Game. The addition of running, trailing, team work, and nature lore make this race more popular than its parent.
Preparation. Unobserved by the players, lay out upon a clear spot about twenty natural objects such as bark, leaves, acorns, nuts, fruit, flowers, weeds. roots, bugs, rocks. If possible, have each player secretly contribute to the collection. Divide the players into two or more small teams anti line them up behind a starting line a quarter of a mile or less from

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the spot on which the objects were placed. If time permits, make a trail such as is used in Hare and I-founds from the starting line to the objects; otherwise omit the trailing and plate the objects upon a clearly defined path or road. Provide each team with a pencil and card.
At tie starting signal the players follow the trail, or, if trailing is omitted, they simply race to the objects. Advise them to spend considerable time resting and observing the objects. The leader should station a responsible person at the spot upon which the objects are placed to maintain absolute silence while the players are observing. At the expiration of about one minute after the arrival of the first runner all the players race back to the starting line where they assemble by teams. One member of each team writes down all the things his team mates can remember. The team wins that receives the greatest number of points as follows: 3 for handing in the first list, 2 for second, 1 for third; 1 for each object named anti 2 for each object named specifically. For example: for ''Pine'' score 1 point, for "White Pine'' score 2 points.
With the running and trailing omitted, a variation of this observation race may be played indoors. Under these conditions it is better to provide each player with pencil and card and play it as an individual game.

Guess My Name (19).
This advanced nature lore game, suggested by Dr. E. E. Bowen of Newark, New Jersey, will he found very popular in nature study schools or classes. It has been used successfully in Woodcraft League Tribes by Dr. Bowen.
Preparation. Have some one thoroughly familiar with nature lore prepare descriptive lists similar to

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those given below. Notice that each descriptive statement is followed by a number indicating its playing value. The most obscure statement is numbered eight, while the last anti most obvious is numbered one. Provide each player with a pencil and card.
Have some one read the statements and the numbers, each of which indicates the numerical value assigned that particular statement. From these the players guess the name of the object being described. They write their guess followed by the number. If desired, a different guess may be made for each statement read. Each player receives a score equal to the number on which he guessed the name of the object. The one who has the highest score at the end of the game is the individual winner.
The inventor of this game has formulated twentyfive descriptive lists similar to those below-, hut unfortunately space permits the publication of only sample specimens. It would be excellent to have each member of a nature study group work out a list for the other members to guess.

I am a Vine
I am a perennial vine, climbing by rootlets..(Score) 8
I bloom in June. My flowers are small, fragrant, and greenish white 7
I have berries in the fall. They are smooth, white, wax-like 6
My stems contain a milky, acrid juice 5
I belong to the sumac family 4
My leaves, in clusters: of threes, are short stemmed and oval pointed 3
My leaves never seem dirt?-, but are always a shiny green 2
I am poisonous to the touch ................... .. 1
I am the Poison Ivy.

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I am an Animal I
have four feet but my track would lead you to think I had hut two 8
I can move through tile woods more quietly than any other animal, excepting other members of my own family 7
I am normally carnivorous, but often learn to eat other things 6
I hare no distinct marking, but am most often black or white or gray, though sometimes I shade to tan .. 5
My tail almost equals the length of my body ....... 4
I feed whenever food comes my way; I especially delight in prowling at night ................... ..... 3
I have been domesticated, but my veneer or domesticity is quite thin ................2
My call is distinctive, and is often heard on the back fence at night ............... 1
I am a Common Cat.

I am a Bird
I am larger than a humming bird and smaller than an ostrich...............8
I am larger than a robin and smaller than an eagle . 7
The Indians named one month, or moon as they called it, after me. It is the same as our March; sometimes it is called the wakening moon ........... 6
My nest is of sticks in tall trees ................... 5
I am fond of fresh sprouted corn, and am wary of men with guns ........ . 4
I am a permanent resident of the rural section of Northwestern U.S. ..... 3
I am black in color ................... .......... 2
I call "Caw! Caw! Caw!" .................. .. 1
I am a Crow.

I am a Flower
I am seldom more than a foot high. I bloom from April to June ......... 8
I seldom venture out of the woods ................. 7
I like to keep my feet wet and always carry an umbrella 6

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My leaves are divided into three parts, and I seldom have mole than one 5
That which many people call my flower is not a flower at all ............4
My fruit is a cluster of bright scarlet berries that are Food to eat when cooked 3
I grow from a bulb, which has an acrid bitter taste when raw, but which also is good to eat when cooked. 2
I get my name from my resemblance to an old time pulpit, with its hood
I am Jack-in-the-Pulpit.

I am a Tree My foliage stays green throughout the year .......8
My leaves are very small ................... 7.
My wood is handled more than any other wood 6
I am a great help to the thrifty house-wife when winter wraps are stored ............5
My wood has an aromatic odor ..........4
My scientific name is Juniferus Virginiana 3
I am used for bean pots, fence posts, etc. for my wood is very durable in wet soil 2
"When the humid showers hover over all the starry spheres, And the melancholy darkness gently weeps in rainy tear's, 'Tis a joy to press tile pillow of a cottage chamber bed, And to listen to the patter of the soft rain overhend."
-On the shingles made of my wood. ................ 1
I am the Red Cedar.


''Children playing in vacant lots or open fields frequently notice rosettes made by the leaves of such

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weeds as evenings primrose, docks, teasel, mullein, plantain, and the like. The story of why these plants adopt such forms, particularly in the fall months, may be easily explained by this game.
"Ask each player to collect five stones or sticks and place them on a line along the side of the field toward the sun. If the game is played in the morning, place them on the east side, and if in the afternoon, on the west. Then point out to the players in the field three weeds whose rosettes are more or less common. Explain that these rosettes have been formed by plants that wished to make the most of the sunshine of the year and had clustered their leaves close to the ground to prevent being destroyed by frost. If you can and wish, you might also point out other weeds that had not formed rosettes and had been destroyed by the frost because they had not sought safety in the rosette habit. The game is built about the struggle between the weeds which desire to get wealth from the sun and the frost which interferes with them.
"After you have shown to the children the three weeds, let them walk across the field, locating as many of the weeds as they can, and finally line them up on the side of the field opposite that where the units of wealth (stones and sticks) were placed.
"Select a good active individual who knows the weeds well to act as 'Jack Frost' and be 'It.' At the start of the game the players dash across the field, attempting to avoid being tagged by Jack Frost, either by escaping him or by standing on one of the three kinds of weeds chosen and naming it correctly. When a player is tagged by Jack Frost, he assists him in capturing others. To prevent individuals from being satisfied with the name of but one plant,

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insist that no individual can name the same plant twice in succession. Individuals who get across the field without being tagged by Jack Frost pick up a unit of wealth (stone or stick) and return with it if possible to the other side. The individual who carries the greatest number of units of wealth across the field wins the game.
"A variation of this game may be played in winter, using the dead tops of weeds above the snow as safety zones, or it may be played with three leaves as safety zones. Such variations are not so satisfactory from an educational standpoint because they do not: teach anything fundamentally true about plants chosen for safety."
Nature Projects.
nature projects afford the finest kind of nature lore education with recreation following as a by-product. Projects in handicraft, such as making a collection or developing a museum, and the taking of a tree census should not be presented as games or contests, for then the participants have every right to expect that the emphasis will be placed upon play. When they discover that it is largely work, the majority of them are inclined to feel that they were cheated. The project method demands that the learners, under wise guidance, do their own purposing, planning, executing. and .judging in a description of whole-hearted manner. The following a method used by the author in conducting a tree census is an attempt to show the practical application of this theory.

Camp Tree Census (21).
This work was conducted in a two-week camp with thirty boys, ten to fourteen years old, from the Horace Mann School of New York City.

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Considerable interest was aroused in tree study largely by the use of games. Some of the boys suggested that trees be listed on the camp activity chart and be included in the point system for the winning of the camp letter. The program committee, consisting of a representative from each tent, decided to list twenty-five of the most important species to be found in the vicinity. They knew so little about trees that they were unable to make out this list. The leader recognized the possibility of a useful project, and so did not give the boys the list which they so much desired. That evening, when suggestions for the good of the camp were called for, the chairman of the program committee told of his difficulty and suggested a tree census contest. Details were discussed and the project was accepted by the entire camp.
Expressed in educational terms, they accepted whole-heartedly a purposeful activity for which they felt a need. To be sure, we gave the program committee suggestions before they presented the idea to the entire camp. While it may be true that a large percentage of the original plan came from the leaders, the committee would have told you that ninety five per cent of it was theirs.
It was decided to conduct a contest to see which tents could, within three days, find and number at least twenty-five different species of trees. After the entire camp received general instructions from the camp tree expert, the members of the five tents met separately and planned their own method of procedure. Armed with necessary tree guides or leaflets the boys went out in groups. Underneath the tent numbers, tree numbers mere written to correspond to the names on the tree list which each tent

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handed in. It took the committee of judges several days to cheek up the results. Not a single group had a list without errors. but everyone in camp learned a lot about trees and the large majority of the campers enjoyed it.

pg. 234



WE should know trees as we know people, have a speaking acquaintance with many and be intimate with a few. Intimacy can come only from longs association, when you will come to know your tree friends by their bark, their buds, their flowers, their fruits, and their shapes, as well as by their leaves. You will also know their habits, the kind of places they frequent, and the trees they associate with.
This Tree Chapter is only an introduction. It gives the common and scientific name of each species, a word about the individual peculiarities of each, and drawings of the leaves, (occasionally of the fruits), which are the best first-acquaintance tags.
Instead of using many different characteristics to individualize a species, an effort has been made to find and record some one peculiarity that will set a tree apart from other related species. In instances where this has not been found practicable, the least possible number of distinguishing marks has been noted.

1Reproducted by permission, Copyrighted by The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio. This chapter can be obtained in Lefex form from the above museum for fifteen cents per copy. It is especially recommended as a working manual for the tree games in Chapter Eight and for general tree study.

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It is a rule of nature that nothing is more constant than variation. This applies especially to the leaves of a tree, no two of which are exactly alike. Some vary more than others. If, therefore, one is in doubt about the identification of a tree, he should not depend upon one leaf, but should examine ten or fifteen leaves taken from different parts of the tree. He should lay them out in a row. discarding the one or two of exceptional form or size, and make his decision on the larger number which more closely resemble one another and which we speak of as typical or as representative of the species. The freak never represents the group, whether it is among people or among leaves of trees.
This introduction is based largely on the leaves because they are the easiest means of identification. They may be said to be near the tree all the year, since they are attached for six months or more to the tree, and are often found on the ground beneath during the winter. The bark, while distinctive to the skilled observer, is as difficult to describe as a person's face. Buds, flowers and fruits, together with the shape or habit of the whole tree, are equally characteristic, but the scope of this chapter forbids extended discussion here.

One Hundred and Sixteen Trees

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Trees with leaves in the form of needles or scales, conebearing, except cedars.

1. White Pine, Pinus strobus. Leaves 3-4 in. long in clusters of 5.
2. Pitch Pine, Pinus rigida. Leaves. 3-5 in. long, in clusters of 3.
3. Jersey Pine, Scrub Pine, Pinus virginiann. Leaves 11/23 in. long, twisted, in clusters of 2. Cone scales withl sharp,

4. Austrian Pine, Pinus laricio austriaca. Leaves 4-6 in. long, in clusters of 2. Needles of Red Pine, Pinus resinosa, are tile same as those of Austian Pine except they have 2 resin ducts while those of the Austrian Pine have 4 resin ducts (see fig. 4a).
5.Scotch fine, Pinus sylvestris. Leaves 1-4 in. long, twisted, in clusters of 2. Cone scales without a prickle.
6. American Larch, Tamarack, Lalix laricina. Leaves not over 1 in, long. The only member of the family whose leaves fall in winter.. It may be known I,y its clusters of more than 5 needles scattered alone the branches.
7 .Douglas Fir, Douglas Spruce, Pseudotsuga taxifolia. Leaves 3/4 13/4 in. long. not ill clusters, scattered alolng brlanches. A fir is an evergreen tree with flat needles which do not have leaf stalks. Foliage soft to the touch; branches pointing upward.
8.Colorado Blue Spruce, Picea pungens. Leaves 3/4-11/4 in ling. A spruce is an evergreen tree with stiff sharp pointed, 4-sided needles. The Colorado Blue Spruce may be known by its silvery foliage at the ends of the branches which are flat horizontally.

9. Norway Spruce, Picca abies. Leaves 1/2-1 in. long, stiff, sharp-pointed 4-sided. Foliage stiff to the touch, branches drooping . Large cones 4-6 in. long.
10. Hemlock, Tsugn canadensis. Leaves about 1/2 in, long, flat, blunt with distinct leaf stalks, whitish beneath.
11.Arbor Vitae, Thuja occidentalis. Leaves reduced to flat scale hugging the twigs. Twigs Are flat.
12. Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana. Leaves reduced to flat scales hugging the twigs Twigs are cylindrical.

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Willows have long narrow leaves.
18.Black Willow, Salix nigra Leaves 1/4-3/4 in. wide. Only willow of tree size with 2 crescent-shaped stipules at the base of each leaf.
14. Peach-leaved Willow, Salix amygdaloides; Leaves 3/4 11/4 in. wide, with sharp teeth. Its leaf is broad, tapering to

a long slender tip.
15. Crack Willow, Salixz fragilis. Leaves 1/2-11/2 in. wide, with 10-14 blunt teeth to the inch. The weeping willow is the only other having so few teeth to tile inch.
16. Weeping Willow, Salix: babylonica. Leaves 3/16-5/8 in wide, very slender with 10-15 sharp teeth to the inch.
Poplars harp trembling leaves because the leaf stalks are flattened sideways.
17. White Poplar, Populus alba. Leaves 4-7 in. long. Under surface of leaves cottony-white.
Is.American Aspen, Populus tremuloides. Leaves 11/2 21/2 in. long. The leaves of this poplar are roundish-heartshaped with more than 6 teeth to the inch.
19. Large Toothed Aspen, Populus grandidentata. Leaves 3-5 in. long. As the name implies, tile leaves have large teeth, 5 or less to the inch.
20. Downy Polar, Populus heterophylla. Leaves 4-7 in. long, veins downy beneath. This is the only poplar whose leaf stalk is riot at all flattened sideways. Map be recognized by tile blunt tips and heart-shaped bases of its leaves.
21 Balsam Poplar, Populus balsamifera. Leaves 3-6 in. long, whitish beneath. May be distinguished from the Balm of Gilead by its narrower leaf, which is rounded and widest at tile base, tapering gradually to tile tip.
22.Balm of Gilead, Populus candicans. Leaves 4-6 in. long. May be confused with the Balsam Poplar because both have brown, sticky, aromatic buds. Its leaf, however, is broader and is hairy beneath.
23. Carolina Poplar, Cottonwood, Populus deltoides. Leaves 3-6 in. long. The leaf-blade of this poplar is triangular and longer than broad.
24. Lombardy Poplar, Populus nigra italica. Leaves 2-4 in. long. This poplar also has triangular-shaped leaf-blades but they are broader than long. Tree a slender spire.

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WALNUT FAMAILY, Juglandaceae

Trees with pinnately1 compound leaves alternately arranged on the twigs. The twigs also are alternately branched. Walnut leaves may easily be mistaken for ash tree leaves except the leaves of the ash are opposite each other on the twigs and the twigs are oppositely branched.
25. Butternut, White Walnut, Junlans cineren. Leaflets 11-17, 2-4 in, long. Pith of twigs chocolate brown. Its leaves and fruit are both sticky and hairy
26. Black Walnut, Walnut, Juglans-nigra. Leaflets 11-23. 2-4 in, long. Pith of twigs cream color. Its leaves and fruit are neither sticky nor hairy.
27. Shag-bark Hickory, Carya ovate. Leaflets usuallv 5, upper ones 5-7 in. long. Known by the loose shaggy bark of the trunk and its large globular fruit.
28.Big Shell-bark, Rickory, Carya laciniosa. Leaflets usually 7, upper ones 5-9 in. long. Has large egg-shaped fruit 13/4-21/2 in. long, and orange colored twigs.
29. Mockernut, Hickory, Carya alba. Leaflets 7-9, upper ones 5-8 in. long. This hickory has large globular fruit in which are large nuts with a very small kernel, hence the name Mockernut.
30.Small-fruited Hickory, Carya microcarpa. leaflets 5-7, upper ones 3-6 in. long. Twigs; covered with hairs. Known by its small glolular fruit which is less than 1 in. long and has a sweet kernel.
31.Pignut, Hickory, Carya glabra. Leaflets 5-7, upper ones 3-6 in. long. Twigs smooth. The fruit has a thin husk which is winged.
32. Bitternut, Hickory, Carya cordiformis. Leaflets 7-11, upper ones 4-6 in. long. Twigs and fruit hairy. The Bitternut may be distinguished by its bright yellow buds and the bitter kernel of its nut.

1The term pinnately comes from the word pinna, meaning feather, and is used to describe compound leaves, which have a central stalk like the shaft of a feather.
The term palmately has its origin in the word palm, and is applied, to compound leaves whose leaflets branch from the end of tile leaf-stalk.

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BIRCH FAMILY, Betulaceae Trees with thin finely-toothed leaves and slender twigs.
Flowers in catkins.

33. Hop Hornbeam, Ironwood, Ostrya virginiana. Leaves 3-5 in. long. The only tree whose fruit resembles hops.
34. American Hornbeam, Blue Beach, Carpinus caroliniana. Leaves 2-4 in, long. Bark bluish gray. Fruit a loose cluster of nuts? each protected by a small arrow-head leaf.
35. Black Birch, Betula lenta. Leaves 3-5 in. long. Reddish bark and twigs with wintergreen taste.
36. Yellow Birch, Betula lutca. Leaves 3-8 in. long. The twigs have a wintergreen taste, but tile bark of tile trunk is dirts yellow covered with shaggy curls.
37. River Birch, Red Birch, Betula nigra. Leaves l1/2-3 in. long. This tree resembles tile Black Birch ill the color of its Bark, which is greenish brown, and the Yellow Birch in the ragged papery bark of the trunk, but its twigs are without the wintergreen taste.
38. Gray Birch, Betula populifolia. Leaves 21/2-3 in. long, triangular, tapering tip. Bark white, but not papery.
39. Cut-Leaved Birch, Betula pendula dalecarlica. Leaves 1-21/2 in. long, deeply cut. Trunk-white, branches drooping.
40. American Canoe Birch, Betula alba papyrifera. Leaves 21/2-41/2 in. long, larger than those of other birches. Bark of trunk creamy white, papery. Branches not drooping.

41. Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum.- Leaves 4-7 in. long, sour. Flowers and seed pods about the size of and in clusters like those of Lily-of-the-Valley.

LINDEN FAMILY, Tiliaceae Leaves unevenly heart-shaped. Fruit like cherry stones, attached by a Stalk to a wing.
42.Basswood, Linden, Tilia americana. Leaves 5-6 in. long. Leaves are smooth, but not silrery beneath.
43.White Basswood, Tilia heterophylla. Leaves 6-7 in. long. May be known by its silvery white leaf, woolly beneath.

44. Persimmon, Diospyros virginiana. Leaves 4-6 in. long. By the fruit you may know it; plum-like, puckery when green, yellow when ripe, sweet when frost-bitten.

pg. 248

45. Beech, Fagus grandifolia. Leaves 3-5 in. long. Known by its smooth light-gray bark and its slender brown buds.
46.Chestnut, Castanea dentata. Leaves 6-8 in. long, coarsely-toothed. Fruit a prickly bur with 1-3 nuts.
OAKS. All have acorns.
47. White Oak, Quercus alba. Leaves 5-9 In. long, with rounded lobes. Acorns sweet, in a shallow woody cup.
48. Post Oak, Ouercus stellata. Leaves 6-8 in, long. The leaf has rounded lobes and its shape suggests that of a cross.
49. Bur Oak, Quercus macrocarpa. Leaves 6-12 in. long. Has corky wipes on the young branches and a deep acorncup with fringed rim.
50. Swamp White Oak, Ouercus bicolor. Leaves 5-7 in. long, soft downy beneath with few shallow rounded lobes, Acorn-cup woody with slightly fringed edge and with long stem.
51. Yellow Oak, Quercus muhlenbergii. Leaves 4-7 in, long, with about 12 rather sharp teeth on each side. Small acorns half in the deep thin cup.
52. Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus. Leaves 4-7 in. long, with coarse rounded teeth. Acorns almost 1/2 enclosed in deep thin-edged cups.
53. Red Oak, Quercus rubra. Leaves 5-9 in. long, with bristle-pointed lobes. Very large acorns in flat shallow cups.
54. Pin Oak, Quercus palustris. Leaves 4-6 in. long. Acorns tiny. A cone-shaped tree like a Spruce, with drooping branches.
55. Scarlet Oak, Quercus coccinea. Leaves 3-6 in. long, red in fall. Kernel of acorn white. Buds blunt, hairy near tip.
56.Black Oak, Quercus velutina. Leaves 5-10 in. long, red in the spring. Kernel of acorn yellow. Buds pointed, hairy all over.
57. Black Jack Oak, Quercus marilandica. Leaves 5-7 in. long. A peculiarly shaped leaf (fig. 57) rusty-hairy beneath.
58. Laurel Oak, Shingle Oak, Quercus imbricaria. Leaves 4-6 in. long, resembling laurel leaves. The bunching of leaves at the ends of branches will help, identify this oak.
59. English Oak, Quercus robur. Leaves 21/2-5 in. long. The English Oak may be known by its leaves, which are bluegreen beneath and have rounded lobes and an ear-shaped base.

pg. 250

One Hundred and Sixteen Trees

60. Slippery Elm, Red Elm, Ulmus fulva. Leaves 4-7 in. long, rough on both surfaces. Called Slippery Elm because of its thick mucilaginous inner bark.
61. American Elm, White Elm, Ulmus americana. Leaves 4-6 in, long, rough upper surfaces. Inner bark not mucilaginous. Tree vase-shaped.
62, Cork Elm, Ulmus racemosa. Leaves 3-6 in. long, both surfaces smooth. Tile corky ridges on the bark of the branches distingnish this elm and give it its name.
63. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis. Leaves 2-4 in. long. The Hackberry is distinguished by its leaves, the margins of which are entire near the base, toothed above.
64. Osage Orange,.Maclura pomifera. Leaves 3-5 in. long, shiny, tapering. The Osage Orange has thorns on its branches, a growing spine in the angle of each leaf.
65. Red Mulberry, Morus rubra. Leaves 3-5 in. long. The tree may be distinguished by its leaf, which is rough above and hairy beneath, often irregularly lobed.
66. White Mulberry, Morus alba. Leaves 3-5 in long. Unlike the Red Mulberry the leaves of the white Mulberry are smooth and shiny.
MAGNOLIA FAMILY, Magnoliaceae Trees with large tulip-shaped flowers and cone-like fruit.
67. Cucumber Tree, Magnolia acuminata. Leaves 6-10 in. long. Two things distinguish this tree: its large shiny leaves, and its cone-like fruit, green ripening to red.
68.Tulip Tree, Liriodendron tuIipifera. Leaves 5-6 in. long. So other tree has a leaf with a flattened top indented to the midrib,.
CUSTARD APPLE FAMILY, Anonaceae 69.Papaw..Asimina triloba. Leaves 10-12 in, long. In addition to the shape of tile leaves the Papaw mall be distinguished from the Cucumber Tree by its fleshy fruit.
70. Sassafras, Sassafras variifoliun . Leaves 4-6 in. long. The Sassafras has three distinguishing marks: mitten-shaped leaves, yellowish green twigs, a sassafras taste.
WITCH HAZEL FAMILY, Hamamelidaceae 71. Sweet Gum, Liquidambar styraciflua . Leaves 3-5 in. long, glossy, five-pointed. The leaves of the tree suggest maple, but their reeesinous fragrance and corky wings on twigs will always identify the tree.

pg. 252

ROSE FAMILY , Rosaceae Trees whose fowers have 5 petals and whose fruit is pulpy with one or many seeds.
72. Apple, Pyrus malus. Leaves 1-3 in, long, thick, toothed, woolly beneath. Fruit 11/2 in. or more in diameter.
73. American Crab, Pyrus coronaria. Leaves 3-4 in. long, irregularly toothed, often lobed. Fruit 1-11/2 in. in diameter, yellomish green. Branches often prolonged into short thorns.
74.European Mountain Ash, Pyrus aucuparia. Leaves compound. 7-15 leaflets, 3/4-2 in, long, blunt, hairy beneath, toothed, entire near the base. Fruit 1/2 in. in diameter in convex clusters.
75. Shad Bush, Amelanchier canadensis. Leaves 3-4 in. long. Tree noticeable in tile spring because of whitish leaves.
76. Cock-Spur Hawthorn, Crataegus crus-galli. Leaves 13 in. long. Fruit has one or two nutlets.
77.Dotted Hawthorn, Crataegus punctata. Leaves 2-3 in. long, gray-green, prominently veined. Fruit has 3-4 nutlets.
78. Scarlet Hawthorn, Crataegus coccinea. Leaves 1-5 in. long, rough and hairy. Fruit has 3-4 nutlets.
79..Downy Hawthorn, Crataegus mollis. Leaves 2-4 in. long, thick hairy beneath. Edible fruit with 5 nutlets.
80. Black Cherry, Prunus serotina. Leaves 2-5 in. long, with incurved blunt teeth. Black fruit.
81. Choke Cherry, Prunus virgininna. Leaves 2-4 in. long, thin with sharp spreading teeth. Bitter red fruit.
821 Wild Red Cherry, Prunus pennsylvanica. Leaves 3-5 in. long, sharp-pointed incurved teeth. Twigs have brown pith.
83. Sweet Cherry, Prunus avium. Leaves 3-5 in. long, dull and soft in color and texture. Fruit large, yellow or red, sweet, not in grape-like clusters.
84.Sour Cherry, Prunus cerasus. Leaves 3-4 in. long, smooth on both sides, stiff like parchment. Fruit large, red, acid, not in grape-like clusters.
85. Wild Plum, Prunus americana. Leaves 2-4 in. long, sharply toothed. Smooth red one-seeded fruit about 1 in. in diameter.
86.Peach, Prunus persica. Leaves 3-5 in. long, finely toothed. Velvets fruit 11/2-3 in. in diameter, stone deeply sculptured.

pg. 254

PULSE FAMILY, Leguminosae Trees with pea-like flowers and pods.
87 Kentucky Coffee Tree, Gymnocladus dioica. Leaves twice-compound. Leaflets 2-21/2 in. long. No thorns on the branches or limbs.
88.Honey Locust, Gleditsia triacanthos. Leaves twicecompound. Leaflets 11/2-2 in. long. Large thorns on branches or limbs.
89. Redbud, Cercis canadensis. Leaves 2-5 in. long. Only tree of the family with a simple leaf.
90.Common Locust, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Leaves once compound. Leaflets 1-2 in, long. Tnigs and pod smooth.
91.Clammy Locust, Robinia viscosa. Leaves once compound. Leaflets 1-2 in. long. Twigs sticky ;pods hairy.
QUASSIA FAMILY, Simarubaceae 92. Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus glandulosa. Leaves compound. Leaflets 3-5 in. long. Leaflets with teeth or notches at their bases. May be mistaken for sumac.
SOAPBERRY FAMILY, Sapindaceae The only family with palmately compound leaves.
93.Horse-Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum. Leaflets 57 in. long. Fruit a prickly bur. If the leaf has 7 leaflets the tree is a Horse-chestnut.
94. Ohio Buckeye, Buckeye Aesculus glabra. Leaflets 3-6 in. long. If the leaflets are 5 and the bur prickly it is Ohio Buckeye.
95. Sweet Buckeye, Fellow Buckeye, Aesculus octandra. Leaflets 4-7 in. long, 5 in number. If the bur is not prickly the tree is Sweet Buckeye.
PLANE-TREE FAMILY, Platanaceae 96. Buttonwood, Plane-Tree, Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Leaves 5,-10 in. long. Has patchy greenish-white and brown bark and button-ball fruit on a stringy stalk.
BIGNONIA FAMILY, Bignoniaceae Large heart-shaped leaves. Fruit a long cylindrical pod.
97. Hardy Catalpa, Catalpa speciosa. Leaves 8-12 in, long. Thin leaves, thick bark, large pod hardly 1 in, thick.
98. Common Catalpa, Catalpa bignonioldes. Leaves 5-8 in. long. Thick leaves, thin bark, small pod about 1/4 in. thick. Leaf same shape as that of the Hardly Catalpa.
GINKGO FAMILY, Ginkgoaceae

99. Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba. Leaves 3-6 in.long . No other tree has such a leaf, leathery, fan-shaped with a deep notch at the tip.

pg. 256

MAPLE FAMILY, Aceraceae All maples have winged seeds in pairs.
100.Mountain Maple, Acer spicatum. Leaves 211-4 in. long, 3-5 lobed. white-downy beneath. Its distinguishing mark is a coarsely-toothed leaf with a triangular-shaped middle lobe.

101. Sugar Maple, Rock Maple, Acerl. saccharum. Leaves 3-6, in, long, 3-5 lobed. The leaves of the Sugar Maple are lobed but not toothed, which distintuishes it from all but the Black Rock and Norway Maple.. Its leaves differ from those of tile Black Rock in being smooth and thin; from tile Norway in the absence of milky sap in the leaf stalk.

102. Black Rock Maple, Acer saccharum nigrum. Leaves 5-6 in. long, 3 lobed, very thick, edges wavy but not toothed. The only maple whose leaves have green, hairy under surfaces.

103. White Maple, Soft Maple, Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum. Leaves 4-8 in, long, deeply 5 lobed. Tile White Maple may he known by two leading characteristics; deeply cut leaves with silvery-white under surfaces.

104. Red Maple, Acer rubrum. Leaves 3-4 in. long. ,3 sometimes 5 lobed. The distinguishing mark is a finely-toothed leaf with a middle lobe whose edges are parallel near the base of the lobe,

105. Norway Maple, Acer platanoides. Leaves 3-5 in, long, lobed but not toothed. The Norwav Maple might easily be mistaken for the Sugar Maple where it not for the fact that it is tile only member of the family which has milky juice in its leaf stalk.

106.Sycamore Maple, Acer pseudoplatanus. Leaves 3-5 in, long, 5 lobed. This tree may he readily recognized by its thick coarsely-toothed leaves which are dark green above and whitish beneath.

107. Box Elder, Ash-leaved Maple, Acer negundo. Leaves pinnatelv compound. Leaflets 2-4 in. long. Tile only maple whose leaves are compound, whose fruit remains attached during the winter, and those leaf scars meet around tile twig.

pg. 258

OLIVE FAMILY, Oleaceae Two characteristics distinguish the Olive Family, pinnately compound thin leaves and single-winged seeds.
108. White Ash, Fraxinus americana. Leaflets 3-5 in. long. Twigs and leaf stalks smooth. May he known by tile whitishgreen under surfaces of its leaves and small seeds about 1/4 of the whole fruit.

109. Biltmore Ash, Fraxinus biltmoreana. Leaflets 3-6 in. long. Twigs slid leaf stalk hairy. Known by the whitish and hairy under parts of its leaves, and its seeds which are about 1/3 of the whole fruit and over l/8 ill. thick.

110.Red Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica . Leaflets 3-6 in. long. Twigs, buds and leaf stalk hairy. Called Red Ash because the inner side of bark of branches is reddish. In addition its leaves are green and hairy beneath and seed parts nearly 1/2 the whole fruit, and less than 1/4 in. thick.

111. Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica lanceolata. Leaflets 2-5 in. long. Twigs smooth. Distinguished by tile bright green and smooth under Darts of its leaves.

112. Blue Ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata. Leaflets 3-5 in. long. Seed part surrounded by the wing of tile fruit. This is the only ash whose twigs are four-sided and four-winged.

113.Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra. Leaflets 3-G ill. long. Seed part surrounded by wing of fruit. The only ash whose side leaflets are without stalks.

DOGWOOD FAMILY, Cornaceae The dogwoods have thin leaves without teeth and with veins curving from the middle toward the tip.
114. Flowering Dogwood, Dogwood, Cornus florida. Leaves 3-5 in. long. If the leaves are opposite on the stem it is a Flowering Dogwood.
115. alternate-leaved Dogwood, Cornus allernifolia. Leaves 3-5 in, long. If the leaves are alternate oil the stem it is an Alternate-leaved Dogwood.
116.Tupelo, Pepperidge,: Black Gum, Nyssa sylvatica. Leaves 2-3 in. long, alternate. If the pith of the twigs has cross partitions it is Tupelo. Leaves bright scarlet in October.

pg. 260


In the preparation of this chapter the following authorities have been consulted: Gray's Manual of Botany, 7th Edition, which has been the guide for the scientific names; Britton and Brown's Illustrated Flora of the United States and Canada; Schaffner's Catalog of Ohio Vascular Plants, Ohio Biological Survey, Vol. 1, Bulletin 2; Keeler's Our Native Trees; Collins' and Preston's Key to Trees; Otis' Michigan Trees; Burns and Otis' Trees of Vermont; Bailey's Encyclopedia. of Horticulture.
Most of the drawings are from original specimens, and 911 of them are done by Miss Mildred C. Green.
Thanks are due Dr. Charles H. Otis, Professor of Botany, Western Reserve University, for his very generous and painstaking criticism of the text and drawings; to Director Paul M. Rea of The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, for inspiration and sympathetic help during the preparation of the manuscript; and to Mr. I. T, Frary, of The Cleveland Museum of Art, for helpful criticism of the drawings.


pg. 262



"A WOODSMAN is known by his fires." In order to take care of ourselves in the open we must understand the principles of fire building and be able to apply them to the materials at hand. No one can become a good outdoor cook unless he is a good fire builder, for as the backwoodsmen tell us: "The most of cookin's fire building."
It is not expected that anyone will use all the fires described in this chapter. Study those best suited to your environment, and teach them as they are needed. The person who takes an occasional picnic hike will need only the simplest cooking fires. The leader who gets beyond the "hot dog" or "bacon bat'' stage will use many cooking fires. The overnight hiker and campcraft leader must be familiar with many types.
Experimental Method of Instruction. Some leaders use the individual experimental method for the first lesson, permitting each person to gather whatever materials he pleases and then lay a fire in whatever way he thinks best, thus learning by mistakes that the leader points out later. Others claim that this method wastes wood, time, and patience, and eventually produces poorly cooked food.
Group Demonstrational Method. Some prefer to organize the party into small groups and permit each group to lay a fire after an experienced person has

pg. 265

demonstrated some desirable-form of fire building. The instructor should, by the question or developmental method, point out the importance of the following :
1. Selection of proper tinder, or the making of a fuzz-stick for starting the fire.
2. Importance of draft, and necessity for observing the direction of the wind.
3. Reasons for making all necessary preparations, including wood supply, food, and the hanging of the pot, before lighting the fire.
4. Varieties of wood to produce the best flame for boiling woods for making coals for broiling.
5. How to shelter a match and light a fire in a high wind.

pg. 266

6. Precautions to be taken in clearing the spot before laying the fire.
7. Most Important: be absolutely sure always to put the fire out.
The above points will be better retained if they are developed one at a time, while the demonstration is being given step by step. For example, after demonstrating either a fuzz-stick or a substitute for it, let each group gather material and make one. While they are doings this, the instructor should lay a sample fire and hang a pot. lie may then assemble the groups again to discuss the type of fire and the pot-hanger. Then a spirit of competition may be introduced by announcing, "When your fire is ready to light, call me. The first fire that passes inspection wins. Go!"
Fire-Building as Handicraft. In ordinary practice fire-building is taught only in connection with cooking. However, at camp it is taught as handicraft, or knife and ax work. Naturally it is popular because any boy or girl, with the simplest form of visual instruction (photographs), can lay many types of fires. Many camp and club leaders teach fire-building by ,simply dividing the class into small groups and passing out photographs containing all necessary instruction on the back of the picture. When this is done, the thought-producing questions which follow each fire should be used for group discussion, otherwise the work will result in mere imitative handicraft.

PART Starting Fires

First a curl of birch bark dry as it can be, Then some twigs of softwood, deed, but on the tree, Last of all some pine-knots to make the Kittle foam,

pg. 267

'And there's a fire to make you think you're setting right at home.l

Fuzz-Stick (1).
Every hiker or camper may test his skill with a knife by trying to whittle a fuzz-stick.
All that is required is a piece of dry wood (preferably soft), a sharp knife, and a little skill in using it. Point the end of a piece of wood about a foot long and an inch thick. Holding the pointed end, rest the other end against something solid (not your leg, unless you have a first aid kit handy), and whittle long thin shavings, leaving them attached to the stick. The trick of whittling so that the shavings remain on the stick can be easily accomplished; pull up on the stick, and cut a little deeper as you near the end of the cut.

Fuzz-Stick Substitutes (2).
Hikers without sharp knives and without ability to whittle (the woods are full of them) mast use a substitute for a fuzz-stick. Gather a large handful of very small, bone-dry twigs, plant stalks, or weed tops, at least a foot long. Break off both ends of the bundle so that the sticks are of about the same length, and crack the middle across your knee. Hold the halves at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and with the ends scratch a depression in the ground so that the twig wigmam will stand rigidly.

1. What is the objection to starting a fire with paper or leaves? Did you ever see a real woodsman, do it?

1Seton, Ernest Thompsoll. Two Little Savages.

pg. 268

2. How are the lives of birch, trees endangered when children are taught to start fires with birch bark?
3.What hardwoods are suitable for whittling fuzzsticks?

Pyramid, or Wigwam Fire (3).
A pyramid fire is popular with novices who enjoy watching a big blaze The expert outdoor cook is annoyed by the blaze because he usually prefers glowing hardwood embers The objection to a pyramid fire for cooking is that the center falls to only a small bed of coals surrounded by blazing and smoking chunks. Hikers, however, should be familiar with this fire, since it is commonly used for starting other types of fires.
Erect one or more fuzz-sticks, or a fuzz-stick substitute, and set upright around it in wigwam fashion

pg. 269

sound, dry wood varying from the size of your thumb to that of a lead pencil.

When starting any fire, remember:
1. Hardwoods produce better coals than softwoods.
2. split wood burns faster than round branches.
3. Fire burns upward; use long sticks.
4. Fire needs air; leave plenty of space for it.
5. Lay the fire and have a supply of wood before lighting.
6. Conserve heat; hang the kettle before lighting the fire.

PART II--General Cooking Fires
Selection of Firewood. Since coals that last for a

Fires and Fire-making 271

long time are most desirable for cooking fires, care must be taken in selecting firewoods. To be sure, at times we are forced to use whatever is at hand. "Beggars can't be choosers." With few exceptions, sound dry hardwoods will produce good coals. Since there is such great variation in the fuel value of woods, the study of firewoods offers an opportunity to correlate nature study with fire-building. To become an efficient fire-builder a hiker must study and experiment with the woods in his territory.
The following woods can be recommended to a greater or lesser degree: apple, aspen, white ash, beech, yellow birch, cedar, elm, eucalyptus, hickory, ironwood, locust, hard maple, mesquite, spruce, and all the white oaks.
When forced to use green woods, try the following: white ash, yellow birch, and sumac.
For kindling the fire most of the dry softwoods are good. Dry sumac is very good. Small dead softwood or hardwood branches that are found on or under the trees are good. When obtainable, there is nothing better than dry or dead pine, spruce, or balsam knots. Although birch bark, particularly yellow birch, is very good, in general it is unwise to teach children to use it for starting fires. Why?

Crisscross Fire (4).
Every outdoor enthusiast should be familiar with this fire because it has no superior for producing a bed of glowing embers in a remarkably short time. The advantage of this method for either starting or replenishing a fire is that it gets air from all directions.
Lay a small pyramid fire about six inches high around a fuzz-stick, and on each side of it place a two or three inch foundation-stick about a foot long.

pg. 270

Upon these build up a. crisscross structure with uniformly sized, dry, hardwood sticks the size of your thumb.

For a quick luncheon, lay a crisscross fire, and-before lighting it, hang the kettle to boil. Just before the wood pile drops, sear your steak or chops in the hot flame. When the wood falls to a bed of coals, lower your pot. Using the foundation-sticks as a rest for the frying pan,: proceed with your frying or pan-broiling. If you have been so fortunate as to, find good firewood, you should be enjoying your meal twenty minutes after you light the fire.

1. Why do split sticks burn better than whole branches?
2. Would a crisscross fire be good for a night camp fire
3. In teaching fire-building would you use a crisscross fire or a pyramid fire as lesson number one?

pg. 272

Trapper or Hunter Fire (5).
This fire has been the favorite cooking fire of America since the days when wood seemed inexhaustible. In the early days: little thought was given to various types of fires, for it was generally considered that the trapper fire had no equal for cooking purposes. This tradition still exists, but because of the increasing scarcity of logs in most parts of the country, we must consider other fires.
The principles of the trapper fire should be carefully studied so that they may be applied to modifications of this old favorite where stones or earth must be substituted for logs. Note the following:
1. Method of retaining and confining the heat.
2. Heat reflection and radiation.

pg. 273

3. Direction of wind and control of draft.
4. Support for holding pots and pans.
To build a trapper fire, lay the side-logs either parallel or at an angle, at such distance apart as will accommodate the size of the various cooking utensils. Use a damper-stick as illustrated when starting :he fire, when adding fuel, or when it is desirable to increase the draft.

There are several methods of starting

There are several methods of starting this fire, depending upon the use to which it is to be put.
(a) ,When a small meal is to be cooked, lay a crisscross fire; when it burns down, place the side-logs in position.
(b) When several large utensils are to be heated, remove the log on the side from which the mind is blowing, lay a long fire against the remaining log and when it is well ablaze, replace the other log.
(c) When baked potatoes are on the menu lay the side-logs on two damper-sticks, put plenty of tinder (dry leaves may be used) between the logs, lay a liberal supply of firewood in crisscross fashion on top of them. When a sufficient amount of ashes and coals have been formed, completely bury the potatoes between the logs. Then replenish the fire and cook the rest of the meal.

1. How would you lay a trapper fire with reference to the wind
2. In what respect are stones inferior to wood for sidles?
3. Would you prefer fast-burning or slow-burning woods for the side-logs of a permanent fireplace? Which. for or single meal?
4. How would you use a trapper fire for baking bread? (See Files No. 15 and 16)


Backlog Fire (6)
This modification of the trapper fire requires only one large log It is especially and frying are to be carried on simultaneously. It is easy to regulate so that the cook may have "Blaze for boiling, coals for broiling.''

Lay the backlog at an angle of about sixty degrees to the direction of the wind and build a fire against it on the side from which the wind is Flowing. Hang the pot against the backlogs as illustrated. When a sufficient amount of coals have been formed, rake them back between the firelogs for frying or broiling.

1. What is the object of the backlog?
2. Would stones answer the purpose quite as well as wood for a backlog? For Firedogs?
3. What is the objection to placing the backlog at right angles to the direction of the wind?

pg. 274

4. In what respect is this fire superior to a trapper fire? How is it inferior?

Trapper-Backlog Stone Fireplace (7).
As its name indicates, this is a combination of a trapper and a backlog fire in which stones are substituted for logs. If large stones of nearly equal size are not available, build up the fireplace with smaller stones to a height of four or five inches. It is safer, especially if small stones are used, to hangs the pot rather than to rest
it upon the stones. Why?

The fire may be started with a pyramid lay, or by putting a liberal supply of inflammable material such as leaves, bark, grasses, or twigs between the stones. Then pile the firewood in crisscross fashion on top of the stones.

pg. 276

1. If you could get logs, would you use then instead of stones? Why?
2. How, would you lay this fire with reference to the wind? How would you regulate the draft if the wind shifted."
3. What other method could you use for hanging the pot?

Scout Cooking Lay (8).
This cooking lay will appeal to leaders who use a group or patrol organization, as the work may be apportioned into eight parts as follows:
1. Erect the crane described in No. 27. 2. Make the pothook described in No. 28. 3. Cut side-logs.

pg. 277

4. Gather small sweet sticks for the grill.
5. Make a fuzz-stick and gather tine kindling.
6. Gather firewood. 7. Dig the potato trench. 8. Prepare the food.
If potatoes are to be baked, scoop out a long narrow trench three or four inches deep, just large enough to contain the potatoes in a single layer. (If the bottom is lined with small stones, fewer coals will be required.) Lay a narrow crisscross fire the length of the trench and at least a foot high. When it supplies enough coals to cover the potatoes completely, bury them. Sprinkle a thin layer of ashes or dirt over the potatoes and rekindle the fire.
To bake potatoes properly is the most difficult thing a beginner tackles. He usually tries to bake them in glowing embers, because he fails to realize that he must burn a large supply of wood and secure ashes enough to cover the potatoes completely. About ten minutes before the potatoes are done-they require about forty-five minutes to bake-lay the grill and broil the meat. Do not place the green firedogs until you are ready to broil the meat. Be sure to bank them with dirt to prevent the air From getting under them and setting both the logs arid grill ablaze. Stones are better than wood for side supports. Why? Notice forked branches are not used for either the grill, pothook, or uprights

1. What kind of fire other than a crisscross could be used to produce coals' quickly?
2. What sweet woods are good for the grill? What poisonous Woods should be avoided? (See No. 28.) 3. Do you prefer the split upright on the left to the one on the right?

pg. 278

PART III--Fires In The Ground

Open Trench Fire (9).
Trench fires have not been used much in the United States because wood is still plentiful? and it is less trouble to build a fire on top of the ground than beneath it. They are used principally in parks and reservations, where required by law. However, trench fires are used more than any other type of fire in European countries, where it it is necessary to retain all possible heat in order to conserve fuel. Any fire in a hole is more comfortable to work at in hot weather, for the heat does not radiate as readily from the sides. It is the safest fire to use when the wind is blowing hard, or when the ground is covered with dry grass or leaves.
The trench is made by digging an excavation about twice the length of the space that the pans will occupy

pg. 279

Slope it gradually from the windward end to a depth of about one foot in the rear. Make it a little narrower in the rear than the width of the pans and nearly twice this width in the front. Why? If the soil is sandy it is advisable to line the hole with small stones.

Closed Trench Fire (10).
An open trench fire may be easily converted into an all-round camp cooking fire; simply close the deep end and use it as an oven. Line it with firestones, and cover it with a thin flat stone or a piece of heavy sheet metal. The fire will burn very much better if a chimney is erected.

1. How should the trench be dug with reference to the prevailing wind?"
2. How would YOU start a trench fire?"

pg. 280

3. Why does a trench fire consume less wood than built upon the surface of the ground
4. How would you use a closed trench for baking?

Cooking Fire in a Hole (11).
A fire in a hole is good for individual or small group cooking. It can he recommended because it is particularly useful for cooking the kind of food that hikers usually carry. After using it, throw the earth and garbage into the hole to put out the fire, and leave the place clean.

Dig a hole about a foot in diameter and six inches deep, and throw the earth on the side opposite that from which the wind is blowing. If potatoes are to be baked, dig the hole a little deeper and cover the bottom with small stones. If the soil is sandy, line the entire hole with stones.

pg. 281

To start the fire, fill the hole with any inflammable material (such as birch bark, leaves, grasses or dry small twigs), and lay a hardwood crisscross fire over the hole. If boiling is to he done, hang the kettle and light the fire. In a short time the water will boil and the hole will be partly filled with hot coals ready for cooking the rest of the meal.

1. Why pile the earth on the lee side of the hole?
2. How would you use a fire ii, a hole for baking beans? For baking biscuit? Potatoes?
3. What are the disadvantages of a fire in, a hole?

Automatic Stew Fire (12).
As its name indicates, the automatic stew fire feeds itself and is used for stewing. After the cook has experimented with this

pg. 282

fire several times, and he may leave camp for an hour or more and return to find his stew still simmering.
Dig a hole at least a foot deep and a little less than twice the diameter of the stew-pot:. Be sure to make the sides of the hole almost perpendicular. Why? Fill the hole with a substantial supply of inflammable material and kindling. Lay a hardwood crisscross fire over the hole, hang the pot on the lug-

pole, and light the fire. The stew mill boil vigorously until the burning embers: fall into the hole. Then lower the pot by hanging it on a. pothook so that its bottom is just below the surface of the ground, and stand slow-burning wood vertically around the edge of the hole. When these sticks burn they fall into the hole, replenishing the fire.
Slow Burning Firewoods. Cherry, chestnut, red elm, locust, red or white maple, red oak, and sycamore burn slowly when green, but they eventually form good coals.

1. What are some things that might happen to upset the theory of an automatic stew fire?
2. Would there Be any advantage in lining the hole with stones?

Trapper-Trench or Chinook Fire (13).
The combination of a trapper and a trench fire, called a Chinook fire, can be highly recommended for a permanent camp since it may be used to cook or bake any camp dish.
Dig a trench as described for Open Trench Fire No. 9, and place a slow-burning log on each side of it. If a camp crane is not used, the kettle may be placed upon the cross-sticks. A close-up view and

pg. 283

description of the rustic swinging crane illustrated may be found in Rustic Crane No. 29.
For hard boiling, the kettle should be hung before the fire is lighted, The coals drop into the trench; when a sufficient quantity has been formed, they may be raked into the shallow end for frying or broiling. ! For baking, heat two large cross-sticks till they are aglow, -place them over the deep end of the trench, close the rear of the trench, draw the coals forward, anti place the pan in the oven thus formed. As this

pg. 284

oven is entirely surrounded by heat, care must be taken not to let it become too hot.

1. Would there be art advantage in, using stones instead of side-logs?
2.How would you regulate the draft if the wind changed?
3. Under what conditions would it be advisable to line the trench with stones?
4. How would you start this fire"

PART IV--Baking Fires

Reflector Baking Fire (14).
This fire is used for baking or roasting in a reflector oven. A high fire and some kind of structure, called a fire-back, are required to throw the heat into the oven. The fireback illustrated is made by driving stakes and laying logs against them.

pg. 285

Fast-Burning Firewoods. Since coals are not essential for this fire, common building lumber and box woods may be used. If in the woods, gather a large supply of sound dead branches about the size of your thumb. Dead laurel and old dry roots are very good for a baking fire. If green wood must be used, be sure to split it, and try to secure the better burners, such as alder, white ash, birch, dogwood, hickory, hornbeam, hard maple, white oak, spruce.
Baiting Biscuit. When using a reflector oven for baking biscuit, place it before the fire as soon as you ; light it, so that the biscuit Will heat gradually and raise as much as possible before a hard crust is formed. When the biscuits are nearly done, place the reflector very close to the fire to brown the tops.

1. Would a large stone be as good as logs far a fireback?
2. How should this fire be placed with reference to the
3. What is the serious objection. to building a fire against a decayed fallen tree?
4. How could you mate a reflector oven out of' a large rectangular oil can?

Trapper Reflector Fire (15).
This ingenious modification of a trapper fire might well be included in the repertoire of every one who cooks in the open. You may be surprised to find that you can bake with it quite as well as with a reflector oven.
First build a trapper fire as illustrated in the insert, and let it bum until the side-logs are well aglow. Put the baking pan on this fire until the bottom of the meat, fish, or bread browns. (Use only moderate heat for biscuit.) Now, working very rapidly:
1st. Rotate the logs so that the glowing surfaces

pg. 286

are in a plane of about sixty degrees; prop one log on top, of the other as illustrated, or rest logs against driven stakes.

2nd. Set the pan nearly upright against a stone (preferably hot) or against a stake driven into the ground. When cooking meat, replenish the fire occasionally. No additional fuel will he required for biscuit, which mill bake in ten to fifteen minutes.
3d. Rotate the pan occasionally, and during the last few minutes place it very close to the fire for the contents to brown.

Trapper Biscuit Oven (16).
This modification of the trapper fire is useful for cooking foods that will

pg. 287

bake in moderate heat in a comparatively short time. For baking biscuit, place the pan on top of a moderate trapper fire that has burned long enough to kindle the inner faces of the logs. In about five minutes the dough mill be raised and the bottom will be browned, Have everything in readiness, work rapidly, and build the trapper oven as follows:

1st. Over the spot on which the fire was burning turn the logs face downward.
2d. Place logs or stones under the burning logs to raise them from the ground and rake out the coals, thus forming the oven.
3d. Cover the pan, place it in the oven, close the front and rear, and in ten or fifteen minutes the biscuit should be baked.

1. Would you prefer to build an oven on flat ground or against the side of a bank? Why

pg. 288

2. Would there be an advantage or a disadvantage in building this fireplace on a rock?
3. How; would you operate this oven to bake things that require considerable time to heat?
4. What kind of logs would you prefer for the top of the oven? Could you substitute flat stones for logs?

Outdoor Stone Stove (17).
This fireplace can be recommended principally for frying and baking in a permanent camp. If it is to be used for boiling, a hole should be cut in the stove top. The construction of this fireplace appeals to boy and girl campers.

Dig out the side of a hill, line the excavation with stones or metal, cover the top with thin flat stones or with a piece of sheet metal, and erect a chimney. Remember: the larger the stove, the more heat required and the greater the possibility of failure.

pg. 289

To use the stove as an oven, burn a big fire in it until the top is hot enough for frying. Then with draw the fire, place the baking pall inside, and close both the front anti the chimney. Set the pan upon something so that it does not come in direct contact with the hot bottom.

1. How could you start this fire?
2. Would a stone stove appeal to your club if built upon your regular hiking ground?
3. Would this be a good fireplace for a scout to build in order to obtain his merit badge in cooking, or for a camp fire girl to obtain a fire lore honor?

Clay Oven (18).
This can be recommended principally for foods that bake quickly in a moderate heat. Many of them are built each summer by boys and girls

pg. 290

in camp. The tendency is to build the oven too large.
The oven is made by plastering met clay around an inflammable form or core. Use a small empty box or barrel for the core, and leave an opening for the door. A log may be used for the chimney core. Let the clay set for a few days, carefully remove the chimney core, and complete the drying by burning a slow fire in the oven for a day. Then apply a thin coating of clay to fill up the cracks.

Prepare the oven for baking by burning an intense fire in it for an hour or two, depending upon the size of the oven. Withdraw the fire, place the food in the oven, and close both the door and the chimney.

1. Could a better oven be made by simply digging a hole ,a the side of a bank: and erecting a chimney
2. Why are ovens built upon the surface of the ground inferior to those made below the surface of the ground?
3. Would a clay oven be a good thing to recommend as a back-yard project?

PART V--Camp Fires

Log Cabin Council Fire (19).
This fire is used for illuminating a camp fire circle or council ring. It is intended for summer use and is designed to furnish light rather than heat. The pyramid fire built in the center of the log construction mill burn brightly regardless of changes in direction of the mind. The object of the side-logs is to hold the firewood erect so that it will produce a tall conical flame.
The tendency of inexperienced campers is to build as large a camp fire as their mood supply mill permit. The experienced director knows that he can secure a more desirable atmosphere by building a small bright

pg. 291

fire; so he saves the large bonfire for grand celebrations.
Selection of Wood. Select very slow-burning woods for the green side-logs, (See Very slowBurning Firewoods, No. 21.) For the firewood used to produce the blaze select dry softwoods, old lumber, box wood, or the better burning hardwoods, split thin. Remember, split wood always burns better than round sticks. Why?

Star or Lazy Man Fire (20).
Since this fire is fed with long logs, it is: used for many purposes by campers who are without axes or are too lazy to use them. It can be recommended to overnight hikers who happen to be without an ax. When one of the sleepers is awakened, he can replenish the fire without getting out of bed by simply rolling the log beside which he

pg. 292

is lying into the fire. The rollers upon which the radiating logs are placed also serve the purpose of damper-sticks, for they raise the logs from the ground permitting them to burn more freely. Since the ends of large logs will smolder all night, a lazy man fire may be used to make a smudge by covering a it with dry grass dampened or weeds soaked with water.

Non-Sparking Night Firewood. To insure a fire that will burn throughout the night without shooting embers on your blankets, you must select the fuel carefully. The following woods are good: white oak, white ash, hard maple, birch, beech, dogwood, ironwood, locust. Avoid the very slow-burning woods listed in Nessmuk Fire No. 21. Discard dry seasoned moods that crackle and scatter burning embers such as balsam, box elder, cedar, chestnut, hickory, poplar, tulip, sassafras, spruce, and most of the evergreens.

pg. 293

1. Why would this fire be good for cooking a stew?
2. What kind of a fire would you build in the center of the logs to get heavy logs burning

3. Which would be safer for outside bedding, a poncho or blanket?

Wind-Break Reflector or Nessmuk Fire (21).
This fire is designed for cold weather camping, to throw heat into a tent or lean-to. The backlogs, which should be very slow-burning green logs, break the wind and reflect heat into the shelter. The best slow-burning woods (See Fire No. 12) should be used for firewood.

When this fireplace is to be used for several nights, the atone Adirondack Wind-Break (illustrated in the insert) is preferable to a log structure,
Very Slow-Burning Firewoods. Aspen, basswood, balsam, box elder, buckeye, butternut, chestnut,

pg. 294

swamp elm, hemlock, gum, larch, persimmon, poplar, pine (black or white), red maple, red oak, sourwood. sycamore, tulip and willow burn very slowly, especially when green.

1. What would you use to chink: the backlogs? Why chink ?
2. The wind-break might be made to stand erect, or to slope forward or backward. Which way is best? Why?
3. If a large boulder were available fir the wind-break, would you select it in preference to the backlogs?

Alarm Clock Fire (22).
This ingenious contrivance was used by lumbermen and woodsmen before alarm clocks were carried in camp outfits. When it was necessary for one member of a party to arise before daylight to prepare breakfast, so that the others could move at the break of day, the alarm clock fire awakened the cook. It was also used in the north, in extremely cold weather, to arouse sleepers and prevent them from freezing.
The spring bed, illustrated on the ends of the long

pg. 295

bed posts, is made of boughs. The other ends of the logs are wedged under a large bowlder. A fire, the size of which must be determined by experiment, is kindled under the post supporting the sleeper's feet. This alarm clock is guaranteed to be more effective than the bedroom type, for since it lets the sleeper down, it never fails to get him up.

1. Can you suggest any other way to make this kind of a fire?
2. Can you think of a practical situation in which you might use this fire
3. Would any of your club members be interested in experimenting with it on art overnight hike?

PART VI--Fire Construction Work And Handicraft

Cooking Altar (23).
A cooking altar, or elevated fireplace, Will be found convenient in a permanent camp or on a regular hiking ground for either cooking or the night council fire.
Notch and lay logs in log cabin fashion to the height desired for the top of the altar. Fill this in with stones and earth, or lay small green sticks across the top logs and cover them with small stones, earth or sod. For a more permanent fireplace, the top may be covered with cement or sheet metal.
Any type of fireplace may be erected on top of the altar. The one illustrated is a stone modification of the trapper fire. The swinging pot-hanger in the rear is described in detail in Swinging Crane No. 29.
Durable Woods. Select for foundation logs heavy pieces of durable wood, such as catalpa, red cedar, cherry, cypress, butternut, locust, sassafras, white oak, yellow pine.

pg. 296

1. How would you build a cooking altar without logs?
2. What other kind of pot-hangers would be good?
3. Could you interest a group in erecting a permanent cooking altar in a public park as a community good turn?
4. How do you, account for the fact that people rare/21 use natural altars such as bowlders?

Camp Fire Altar (24).
For an all-summer camp it is advisable to build an elevated fireplace in the
center of the council ring, similar to the Cooking Altar No. 23.
Drive a metal pipe into the center of the altar so

pg. 297

that it projects a foot or more. Fasten to the top of the pipe a metal cross or a metal wheel in a horizontal position. This arrangement holds the firewood in wigwam shape, permitting an unobscured high flame, so that a comparatively small fire will illuminate a large circle. Camp fire games and challenges can then be conducted without danger of the players falling: into the fire.

1. What kind of a fire would you build for a council ring in cold weather, to produce both heat and light?
2. Why do many camp directors light camp fires without matches and with ceremony?

pg. 298

3. Do you prefer a log cabin method for holding the firewood in position to the metal structure above?

Single-Stick Pot-Hangers (25).
A single-stick pot-hanger, also called a saster, wambeck, or spygelia, is generally used when a single kettle or pot is to be hung over an open fire

Hanger No 1 The end of this hanger is pointed and driven into the ,ground. The log that supports it may be placed in various positions to regulate the height of tile pail.
Hanger No. 2. This model is especially recommended for use upon stone Or very hard ground, where it would be difficult to drive a stick.
Hanger No. 3. This is the rustic type of hanger most often illustrated, but unfortunately it is the least economical because three forked sticks are required to make it.

pg. 299

Hanger No. 4. This: model, made without forked sticks, illustrates a modification of No. 3. The combination of a split stick with a straight stick driven in front of it is substituted for the forked upright. The hanger is secured to the ground by driving, at an angle, a straight stick on each side of it.

1. On which side of the fire' with reference to the wind should the hanger be placed
2. Which, hanger can, be most easily raised or lowered?
3. Which of the hangers do you prefer? Why?
4. How would you hang your pot if you built your fire at the base of a steep bank?

Camp Crane (26).
A camp crane should be used when more than one pot is to be hung over an open fire. Select for the cross-stick, also called lug-pole or lug-stick, a piece of stiff green wood about as thick as a broomstick. Forked sticks are usually illustrated for uprights in spite of the fact that they cause unnecessary destruction of wood, and: are difficult to drive. Straight split sticks answer the purpose just as well as the usual forked sticks. The construction on the right illustrates a method of using a split lugpole, while the one on the left illustrates a split upright. The insert shows how seasoned wood that splits easily may be used for split uprights. The pail No. 1 is hung over the end of a long pole which is simply placed on the cross-stick, without being driven into the ground. No. 3 illustrates an excellent method of improvising a double boiler.
Woods Difficult to Split. The following woods are good for the cleft sticks because they do not split

pg. 300

readily, especially when green: buckeye, elm, gum, cherry, maple, tupelo, hemlock, locust, sycamore. Saplings do not split as easily as mature branches.

1. How would you drive a forked upright?
2. Would you object to the "citified" method of driving nails into the uprights and laying the lug-pole across them?
3. Would you split and cut the uprights to shape before or after driving them?
4. Would you recommend a metal crane for a permanent camp?

Pothooks (27).
The cut on page 302 illustrates a close-up view of the pothooks shown in use in the Camp Crane No. 26. Pothooks are known by many names including pot-claws, pot-chips, gib-crooks, qallows-crooks, and hakes.

pg. 301

Pothook No. 1. The first pothook has much to recommend it because it is made without the use of a forked stick. To make it, select a stick of the length required, bore holes with a scout knife at each end at an angle, as illustrated, and fit wooden pegs into these holes. Is there any objection to substituting nails for pegs'
Pothook No. 2. Notice that the hook and notch are on the same side of the main stick. This is often made with a notch cut on the other side similar to No. 4. Which do you think is better?'
Pothook No. 3. The upper part of this is made by drilling a hole through the main stick and passing through it the end, which is shaved down to the bark. A split may be used instead of a hole if you hare no borer on your knife.
Pothook: No. 4. This is made by cutting two forked sticks, as illustrated, and nailing or lashing them

pg. 302

together with a piece of bark, root, or wire, This is an interesting piece of handicraft but ha; little to recommend it as a pothook.
Pothook No. 5. This is an excellent form of pothook that may be used for hanging a pot at different .heights. It is illustrated in use in Camp Crane No. 26 for hanging a double boiler.

1. Which of these pothooks do you prefer? Why?
2. Do you object to the use of manufactured metal chain hangers?
3. Would you advise doing away with rustic pothooks and substituting for them straight sticks with nails driven into them?

Rustic Broilers (28).
These fascinating pieces of handicraft may be used repeatedly if they are made

pg. 303

from stout branches, and the broiling or toasting is done over a bed of embers without flame.
Broiler No. 1. Split the stem below the fork or bore a small hole through it at an angle, as illustrated. Bend the end of the branch and cut it to a size that will fit tightly into the hole in the main stem. Weave cross-sticks, at least as thick as a lead pencil, alternately over and under the central stem.
Broiler No. 2. This is made without the use of a forked branch. The bent stick may be secured either by lashing, as illustrated, or by the method described for broiler No. 1.
Broiler No. 3. This can be made without difficulty if you are fortunate enough to find a branch forked just right.
Broiler No. 4. This simple broiler serves the purpose as well as any of the others.
Broiler No. 5. This is more substantial than any of the others and is preferable if a double forked branch can be found.
Broiler No. 6. This illustrates So. 5 reinforced.
Broiler Woods. Great care should he taken in selecting woods for making broilers. They must bend without breaking, must not taste bitter, and must not burn below the broiling temperature. The following are recommended: ash, beech, elm, ironwood, maple, sassafras, sweet gum.
Avoid poisonous woods including: laurel, poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, and rhododendron. The tannic acid in most of the nut and acorn bearing trees tends to make the meat


taste bitter. Beech and hickory, however, seem to be exceptions.

Rustic Swinging Crane (29).
This is a useful and interesting woodcraft project for a permanent fireplace. Secure a straight stick for the upright and (if you are lucky enough to find it) a double forked branch for the swinging arm. Nail or lash a piece of tin or tough bark to the end of the forked branch. After the upright is driven, cut a notch completely around it to fit the fork of the swinging arm.
Lashing Material. Lashing may be made from bark, rootlets, branches, vines, grasses, and hemp. Both the bark and withes (flexible slender twigs or branches) of smooth-barked trees that peel easily, may be used. Small trailing rootlets of the following trees are good: cedar, cottonwood, hemlock, fir, spruce, tamarack. The beaten inner fibrous bark of the following trees was used by Indians: basswood, buckeye, cedar, elm, hickory, locust, leatherwood, mulberry, osage-orange, white oak. Remember: lash with a clove hitch.

1. How would you, make the lower end of the swinging arm if you could not find a properly forked branch?
2. Could you make a practical swinging crane from straight sticks only?

pg. 304

3. Could you use pipes and pipe fittings to make a swinging crane for a permanent fireplace?

Iceless Refrigerators (30).
The construction of iceless refrigerators appeals to boys and girls on overnight trips.
Refrigerator No. 1. This is the simplest refrigerator possible when a stream of water is available. The food is stored on stones placed in the water. The top should be closed to keep out animals.

pg. 306

Refrigerator No. 2. When water is not available, dig a hole, line it, and close it in, as illustrated.
Refrigerator. No. 3. When time permits and the necessary materials are available, an excellent box refrigerator can be made. Cover an empty box with a wet burlap bag, or with canvas. If this is kept moist constantly, the evaporation of the moisture will keep cool foods stored within the box. Keep the burlap moist by the use of wicking, as illustrated; or better still, hang a perforated old, tin can over the box and occasionally fill it with water.

PART VII--Fire by Friction

World Champion Fire Lighter

Fire by Rubbing Sticks (31).
"I have experimented in fire-making for several years and am delighted to do a special scent Good Turn by describing my method, which differs very little from the one described in the Boy Scout Handbook for Boys. The author has asked m to tell you how I established the records, so I'll do my best. The illustration below is from an exact, duplicate of the rubbing stick set that I used.
"A few minutes before the start of the contest in Kansas City, I prepared a fire-pit by rubbing it with a drill just as I would in actually making a fire. Then I laid aside my apparatus, taking care that

1Dudley Winn Smith, Eagle Bog Scout, of Independence, Mo., is the holder of the world's record for making fire by friction. Time for Flint and Steel, 43/5 seconds; for Rubbing Sticks 6 2/5 seconds. Anyone who has difficulty in obtaining fire-making materials may purchase them from the champion.

pg. 307

nothing came in contact with either the charred end of the drill or the fire-pit. Next I worked a small handful of absolutely dry red cedar bark tinder into a thick round pad and placed it directly under fire pit of my American elm board. When the starter said 'Go' I drew my bow back and forth with long complete strokes. In about three seconds a little pile of smokings black charcoal issued from the pit. Then I stopped rubbing, picked up both the board and the tinder and blew directly onto the smoking pile, which immediately turned the my

pg. 308

into a red ember. In 7 1/5 seconds after I drew the first stroke the tinder burst into flame. Luckily for me the three timers all agreed.
"The suggestions below are given in hopes that they will help you make fire rapidly. I worked a long time before I was able to produce a blaze in less than a minute. Do not get discouraged if you fail at first; keep trying and you are sure to succeed.
The Bow. "I find a long bow by far the best. Mine is twenty-nine inches long and has a three inch bend. The easiest way to secure the thong so that it can be adjusted quickly is to drill two holes in the end of the bow, as illustrated. When using the bow, hold the board very firmly with your foot, or you will never get a spark. When you stop bowing, do not let the drill fly, but lift it out of the pit.
The Drill-Socket. "A very hard substance must be inserted in the drill-socket to prevent excessive friction. I use the glass knob of a coffee percolator top. The pressure on the drill socket must be increased gradually.
The Fire-Pit. "When a new fire-hole is made, the pit should be drilled before the notch is cut. The end of the drill should be pointed only for starting a new hole; after that it should always be kept round. while bowing the spindle must be held exactly perpendicular to the board. A 'U' shaped notch is better than a 'V.' a spark can be produced more easily by putting a little sand in the pit.
Woods for Fire by Friction. "Of the common moods of the United States I have found American elm decidedly the best for both the board and the drill. Since establishing my record I have discovered that yucca (a wood found on the desert) is even better than elm. I hare repeatedly produced an ember

pg. 309

with yucca by two complete strokes of the bow. It requires nearly three seconds to do it with elm. These are the only moods I have tried that produce an ember that you can blow into the instant you stop rubbing. Other woods must be allowed to stand a few seconds or must be fanned gently with the hand to produce the spark. I have tried the following woods and have listed them in the order in which I prefer them: yucca, American elm, red elm, balsam fir. red cedar, willow root, cypress, basswood, sycamore, cottonwood, poplar, soft maple, white pine.
"A thin fire board is superior to a thick one for both speed and ease. I use boards from a quarter to three-eighths of an inch thick and get from six to eight fires out of one hole. A small drill is also better. I use octagonal drills a half to nine-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and nine inches long.
Tinder. "I have not found anything superior to red cedar bark for tinder. To prepare it, pound a piece of bark into a fluffy mass with a club; then the tinder remains in a mass and does not fly into your face when you blow it. The following sorts of tinder are listed in the order in which I prefer them: red cedar bark, white cedar bark, inner chestnut bark, cottonwood bark, inner red elm bark, miscellaneous bird and field mice nests, crushed spruce needles, beaten rope fibers. It is not generally known that the quickest way to get flame is to put milkweed silk in the center of a pad of red cedar bark."

Fire by Flint and Steel (32),
"The following materials are required to make fire with flint and steel:
(1) A very hard substance that will produce a spark when struck with steel, such as flint, quartz, agate, chert, jasper, and petrified wood.

pg. 310

(2) a piece of hardened steel, the back of a knife blade, or a file.
(3) Highly inflammable material that will ignite from a single spark, such as charred cotton, cigar lighter wick, candle wick, or fuse rope.
(4) Tinder similar to that used for making fire with rubbing sticks.

"The materials that I used in establishing my record consisted of the following: piece of quartz, flat file, charred cotton flannel, cedar bark. I have experimented with several methods of producing fire with flint and steel, and have made the best time with the one described below.
"Place a few flakes of black charred cotton flannel on a round pad of cedar bark. Hold the steel in your left hand about an inch above the cedar and perpendicular to it. Now strike the steel a glancing blow with a sharp edge of the flint held in tile right hand. When you acquire the knack of striking the spark, it is very easy to catch it upon the charred flakes, and then to blow the pad of cedar into a flame.
''To char the cotton flannel, set it afire and smother it when it is well ablaze between two pieces of paper or cardboard. Pick out for use only the black pieces."

pg. 311



THE expert indoor cook without experience in outdoor cooking has much to learn. The science of cooking is the same, regardless of where the operation is performed, but the application must be modified to fit very different conditions. As few utensils as possible are carried, the weight and bulk of food and the ingredients of recipes are reduced to a minimum, prepared flours are used, fresh eggs and milk are often replaced by powdered and condensed products, and seasoning is usually limited to salt and pepper. The most important difference lies in the production and control of heat, which is obviously more difficult in the open than in the kitchen.
Teaching Cooking. Cooking cannot be taught intelligently outdoors as a separate subject. Boys and Girls mould not be interested in outdoor cooking if they were supplied with gas stoves. Their interest is divided between cooking, fire-building, use of knife and ax, construction of rustic devices, gathering of wild materials and wood! and finally eating. Of these interests eating often seems least important in view of the food they sometimes eat and seem to enjoy.
The camp or club leader who is interested in cooking should list the things he wishes to teach and work them out in projects.

pg. 315





Nature Lore


Pyramid or Crisscross

Fuzz-Stick or Substitute

Material for starting fires Woods for producing coals

Steak or Chop

Trapper or Fire in Hole

Rutic Broiler- or Forked or Split Stick

Sweet, non-poisonous woods Lashing materials

Stew, Cocoa, or Sassafras Tea

Automatic Stew or Scout Lay

Camp Crane, Pothook Wooden Spoon


Slow-Burning woods Wild materials for seasoning Sassafras roots

Chicken 'Imu"

Fire in Hole with Crisscross Lay


Sweet leaves Rooks

Short Cake

Baking Fire or Oven

Reflector Baker, Log Fire-Back


Berries or Fruit

pg. 316

Group Organization. When only one meal is to be cooked, it is advisable, especially with a group of beginners, to let each be his own chef. When wood is scarce, two or more should be assigned to one fire. The scout patrol cooking organization below can be recommended for large groups on an overnight bike or camping trip. Even then it is customary to let the group leader change the assignments at each meal.

Patrol Cooking Organization

Official Titles

Special Duties

Patrol Leader

Officer in charge

Assistant Patrol Leader

In charge of supplies


Prepare food


Cook and assist chef


Chop wood

Water and Fire Tender

Get wood and water


Serve and wash dishes

Sanitary Officer

Keep everything clean

Suggestions for Teaching Cooking

1. Experiment in the back yard or on the kitchen range,
2. Cook a thing yourself before you try to tell others exactly how to do it.
3. Get a woman or domestic science teacher in the neighborhood to instruct your leaders,
4. Try a kabob on the first hike.
5. Invite parents and let them help cook; they enjoy it,
6. Cooking without utensils is more fun to boys and girls than the use of utensils.

pg. 317

7. It is easier for club members to get food than money.
8. Ordinarily it is unwise to say, "Bring anything to cook that you want."
9. The leader has enough to do without cooking for himself.
10. Do some cooking on every hike; if necessary, occasionally let a few cook for all.

PART I--Broiling
Broiling is cooking over lowing embers by direct heat. all fresh, tender meats should be broiled to retain their juices and delicious natural flavors. Since this method of cooking can be performed without utensils in a short time, the person who takes only an occasional hike should carry meat suitable for broiling. Cheaper cuts of meat are as nourishing and tender as the better cuts when properly cooked, but require more time, preparation and seasoning.

Methods of Broiling

1 Rustic-Broiling. Rustic-broiling,- i.e., broiling with utensils that map be improvised with materials gathered in the woods,--is a popular hike method of cooking. Small pieces of meat may be held on a forked or split stick.

pg. 318

An entire steak may be broiled on a rustic broiler. (See No. 28, Chapter Ten.) A still simpler method of using straight sticks is described in Fire No. 8.
2. Rock-Broiling. Broiling can also be done on a large hot rock. A dry solid rock must be used. A seamy rock, particularly if it contains moisture, will fly to pieces when heated. An especially good way to broil a fish is to place it between two hot rocks which may be carried away from the fire so that the cooking can be done in comfort.
3. pan-broiling. Meat can be broiled in a pan quite as well as on a broiler or camp grill. However, the hiker who wishes to do pan-broiling should carry a heavy cast iron pan. The broiling may be done in the pan as directed for rock-broiling.

Suggestions for Broiling

1. Have a sufficiently large bed of glowing embers without flame or smoke, so that the fire need not be replenished,
2. Sear or seal the outer surface of the meat by short exposure to intense heat. To do this, place meat almost on the hot coals for a minute, turning about every ten seconds. Searing done in this manner answers the purpose quite as well as that done in a flame.
3. In pan-broiling and rock-broiling, have the pan or rock reel-hot and turn the meat often. The secret of successful broiling is to have ample heat without blaze and to turn frequently.
4. Salt meat after it is broiled; salting before draws the juice.
5. Glut off' excess fat. Blazing fat deposits a film on the meat that spoils its natural taste.

pg. 319

BY JAMES A. (PINE TREE JIM) WILDER Chief Seascout of the Boy Scouts of America

"Author and Gentle Readers, Ahoy!
"Picture here on the beach a neat hole in the ground, just the size of my seascout cap. See, I have cut out the sod and stowed it to windward, with grass down and roots up, and I have covered it with the earth next excavated. Notice that this is a fireproof contraption, and that furthermore you will find no trail when I leave. 'A good camper leaves no trail.' Six weeks from now I would have difficulty in finding the spot, albeit I intend to cook my dinner here over red-hot coals.
"I peck the hole full of hardwood chips, end on, and build my fire a-top, feeding it with broken chips as they ,do in Labrador.
"I have here a slab of meat, a tender bit of flank steak, hammered, and cut into pieces somewhat

larger than a quarter but smaller than four bits, in fact just the size of thirty cents.
"Now I cut and bark a green twig the size of my little finger, that tastes sweet, as long as my arm. (The twig tastes sweet, not my little finger.) I point the end of the stick and upon it

pg. 320

impale my beef. Remember: for rare, pack close together; for well done, a shade apart. Should a flavor be wanted, bore a hole in an onion and alternate slices of onion with the beef. Roll it in flour and set it aside by sticking it in your little mound of earth, safe as silk.


"Now for the bun, the great standby of the Sundowners, or tramps in Australia. This is not a twist ribbon of dough on a broomstick--it is a bun on a twig.

"Recipe: one fistful of flour, five-finger pinch of baking powder, two-finger pinch of salt, and a gob of butter, with mater from the brook or scuttle-butt.
"Mix thus: open the bag of flour, roll back the top, scoop out a depression and put in your dry stuff with the butter, and crumble up just a fistful Now trickle in the water, stirring with a paddle of wood made on the spot, until it is stiff enough to handle. Work it out to a longish bun and wind it around a stick just like the kabob stick. The art is to have the dough carry as much Rater as will stay aboard the stick: the wetter the lighter, and the riskier.
"Coals being white-hot now, stab the hillock with one end of the bun stick and bring the dough to within two inches of the smokeless furnace. Watch it ! It will try to fall off: fool it? twist the stick until she holds, and bake it to a dark brown.
"Now bring on the kabob. Sear it close to the coals and then salt it. Ciro at Monte Carlo salted after, Frederic of the Tour D'Argent, Paris, salted before searing, so they say, and both were great

pg. 321

cooks. As you like it, then. I follow Ciro and salt and pepper my kabob after searing.
"The kabob and bun will be done at the same time. If my fire was too hot, I will have to split my bun and toast it on the inside. Now hurry! Destroy both by eating them. Don't burn your mouth!
"Put out your fire, resod, dance on the place, water it, and shove off. It has taken from first to last just thirty minutes. If it takes longer, you need a doctor."

Kabob Variations (2).
Mr. Wilder's kabob is one of the most popular individual outdoor dishes. Since it is so delicious and since it can be cooked with invariable success on the first attempt, it is replacing the proverbial "hot dog." Those who are not fond of onion can substitute for it celery, apple, or any other vegetable that may be relished ram.
Those who like bacon may try this addition to Mr. Wilder's kabob. First put one end of a long narrow strip of bacon on the stick, letting the other end hangs down. Next proceed to impale the meat and vegetables. Now take the dangling end and stretch the bacon strip over the entire kabob, piercing the end to hold it onto the stick. In this way the steak is basted while broiling. If the bacon is cut into squares and put on the stick at intervals, it will be found that the thin edges will be burned while the center will be uncooked.
The following method of broiling steak is similar to a kabob. Secure a stick much heavier than a kabob stick and impale only the vegetables upon it. Cut the steak in longs strips about an inch and a half wide. Wrap the steak spirally around the vegetables and secure it with splinters, long thorns, or wire. If desired, pin a strip of bacon on the steak.

pg. 322


BY EDITH M. ("ALBSKA") KEMPTHORNE National Field Secretary, Camp Fire Girls

"To the optimist every turning hides a possible thrill. Adventure or the search for romance in unexpected places lends a never failing joy to, commonplace existence. Even an egg and a hot stone will savor of both when approached with an expectant attitude.
"First search for just the right stone of a comfortable thickness to hold the heat and a largeness to suggest a dinner plate. Place the stone in a bed of glowing embers, meditate awhile, and when the stone is so hot that water sizzles on its surface, anoint it with two lordly strips of bacon and lo! what delicious odors greet us !
"After a few minutes of sizzling and further meditation we turn the bacon, placing it in the form of a circle, thus making a nest for the egg.
"We hold the egg above the fast crisping bacon, and knife meets shell with one sharp, zipping blow. Out of the partially divided shell we carefully pour the golden contents into the bacon nest, holding the edges with the knife until the egg decides to stay put, Watch it! See it congeal into a beautiful mosaic! Now rye slip the bacon and egg between the waiting pieces of toast, and without the semblance of a blush we suck the last bit from our finger tips and strain our eyes for another egg and more bacon.
"Some enrich the color scheme with slices of tomato fried with the egg. Again, there are those who eschew bacon. To those we recommend anointing

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the rock with butter, and making the egg nest with a slice of bread with its center removed."


BY JANE DEETER RIPPIN National Director, Girl Scouts

"At the long trail's end, when the hikers tire, Let two lusty Scouts build a bright camp fire, While two others wearing the Scout Cook's' Grid' Delve into the food pack to see what's hid !

"Pull out the health-giving short Ribs of Beef, And scrub the Potatoes clean!
String each Rib on the wire that bound up the pack, With a bit of onion between !
Stretch this across the hot glowing coals, Using to hold it two stout poles !

"Add two Scouts all attention to turn as they sizzle --the Ribs, not the Scents.
Meanwhile each potato in its clean brown skin Among the coals should be tucked in? "The crisp cool air through the hemlocks, green And the whiffs from the Ribs make appetites keen. For about thirty minutes Anticipation! Then salt and REALIZATION ! "Oh Joy! What Food!
Isn't it good to be a Girl Scout !''

PART II--Frying

Cooking by completely immersing the food in deep fat is technically known as "frying," popularly as "French frying." This is seldom done on hikes for it is neither practical nor economical. It is extremely

pg. 324

difficult to keep the fat at just the right temperature without burning it on an open fire. When the best fat is used, olive oil, it is expensive, for a large quantity is required. Of course these objections do not hold in a permanent camp where a range is available and when the same oil can be used repeatedly.
Sauteing. Cooking with but little fat in the -pan is termed ''sauteing,'' but it is often incorrectly called "frying." In sauteing use just as little fat as will prevent the food from sticking. Any additional fat is absorbed by the food, robbing it of its natural taste and rendering it more difficult to digest.
Sauteing is very much used in the open, although scientific indoor cooks consider it a poor method of cooking. However, some of the indoor objections are not serious in the woods. The odor of frying fat vanishes almost instantly, and with increased appetite and stimulated digestion the additional fat is readily assimilated.
Suggestions for Sauteing

1. Use as little fat as possible, adding more only when necessary to prevent burning.
2. Have the pan hissing hot before putting in the fat, then let the fat get hissing hot before adding the food.
3. Cook first on one side, then on the other. 4. Set pan on bed of glowing coals.

BY FREDERICK K. VREELAND Boy Scout National Camp Committeeman
"Yum yum! The very thought of it makes my month water so I can hardly tell it. It fairly melt sin

pg. 325

your mouth and there never is enough to go around.
"First catch your puff ball. This is not always easy to do, hut when you do find one of these great big mammoth puff balls, never pass it by. They grow on the ground, from the size of a full grown football to that of a baseball, and they are as nice and white on the outside as a new National League twirler. When they are right to eat, the inside is solid, firm, pure white meat. When they begin to turn brown and powdery they are too old and are unfit to eat.
"Peel the puff ball and cut it in slices one-half inch thick. Put these in a pan half full of salt mater brine, put a cover over them with a stone to hold it down, and let them soak overnight.
"In the morning put some butter in the frying pan, get it sizzling, drop in the slices and cook until they are a nice golden brown. Be sure to stand to windward while you are cooking them because if you get one whiff of the aroma you will not be able to wait until they are done. When they are browned on both sides hurry up and eat them while they are hot. Then pity the absent ones.''

by THEODORE ROOSEVELT Assistant Secretary, U. S. Navy Department

"My personal opinion is that I am an excellent cook in the woods, but I am sorry to say that certain of those who have lived on my cooking do not agree with me. Practically all my cooking has been done in the ubiquitous frying pan, and almost all of it is

pg. 326

garnished with what out West we used to call 'overland turkey,'--namely, bacon.
"I am very fond of trout cooked western style. Clean the trout carefully. Cook in your fry-pan enough bacon to give you sufficient fat to prevent the fish from burning. Now dip the fish in pancake batter, lay a couple of pieces of the partly cooked bacon inside the fish, and place it in the pan. Cook him well, in a very hot pan, beings careful not to let him shrivel, which will happen if he lies too long on one side.
"If to the above recipe you will add a ten-hour hike, hunt, or fish, you will find it excellent."

BY HORACE KEPHART Camper and Author

"I am particularly fond of small trout fried Just right. Of course you can fry any small brook or lake fish the same way as you fry trout, but for me it is very difficult to find a substitute for trout.
"Small fish, including trout, are generally fried too hard and ruined with absorbed pork grease. If you like cracklings, why not take pork straight and fry it crisp a But if you want trout, cook them in such a way as will preserve their delicate natural flavor.
"Don't despise the little fellows, six to eight inch ones. Rightly prepared they are the best, brook trout particularly, but rainbows mill do. Here is a trout dish for the piscatorial gods.

Mr . Kephart is the author of an excellent book, Camp Cookery, which is now to be had in his combined volumes of Camping and Woodcrarft from the Macmillan Company.

pg. 327

"Carry along a quart can of real olive oil, not a cheap substitute. Deep frying, the only way permissible with small fish, takes a full quart of oil for a ten-inch frying pan. You know it can be used over and over again if clarified by heating with sliced potato and then strained through double cheesecloth.
''Trout for frying are commonly rolled in seasoned bread, cracker crumbs, corn meal, or are dipped in batter. This is especially necessary when they are fried in the common way, with little fat, because the coating keeps grease from soaking into the fish. They may be similarly prepared for deep frying, but a, coating is not really needed. When enough oil is used to completely immerse the fish, and when the oil is hot enough. the outside of the fish is seared instantly and so seals the inside in a grease-proof envelope.
"Make the: fire early enough to have a level bed of red-hot coals without flame or smoke. Flame would set the oil afire. Temper the heat by sprinkling ashes over the coals. Have a pair of fire irons, side-logs, or stones for holdings the pan level over the fire. Get the little trout ready. Pour the quart of oil into the pan.
"Now comes the trick! Heat the oil to just the right temperature. It must be smoking hot, and a little more, but not hot enough to turn acrid or catch afire. Olive oil stands a higher heat that lard or pork grease: that is one reason why it is the best friture. To test the temperature, when the oil begins smoking, drop into it an inch cube of soft bread; if it turns golden brown in thirty to forty seconds, the heat is right.
"All these preliminaries are done almost automatically by an experienced cook, but every detail must

pg. 328

be written out for the beginner, and followed. Now then--
"Wipe the fish dry on a clean towel,--otherwise its moist surface will make the hot oil splatter. Drop the trout into the pan so that it is completely immersed; then another, and another, at such intervals as slot to check the heat. As soon as one has turned a golden brown, the color of amber, take it out. It is done. So with all of them. Eat while hot. "This is not pork cracklings: It is TROUT !"


DR. FRANK CRANE Author and Writer

"Here I am in trouble again. All because I happened to be off my guard one day and stated that I could cook round steak so that it would taste as delicious as: chicken and as tender. Hence, being challenged, I lay my cards on the table, to wit, namely, as follows:
"Have the butcher cut you a round steak thin. A little thicker than a lead pencil. He will insist on cuttings it thicker, saying it will be juicier and so on. Draw your revolver and compel him to obey you. Then have him cut it into portions, each about the size of your hand. Don't try to cook the steak all in one piece. It must be in small sections, just as fried chicken is best when each joint is cooked separately. Then with his sharp knife (which is much better for the purpose than any knife you have at home, because be knows the art of sharpening and you don't) have the butcher crisscross each piece on both sides so that they will be in tatters, almost ready to fall apart.

pg. 329

"Put in the frying pan some good sweet fat. Don't use butter; it burns. Don't fry in deep fat, as with doughnuts, but use plenty of fat, as with fried chicken. Rub each portion of the raw steak in flour, rubbing it in well. Drop pieces into the hot skillet. Cover it with a lid and keep it covered. This cooks it through and makes it tender.
"Fry till a golden brown, turn once in a while, and season to taste with salt and pepper. You notice the process is exactly as with fried chicken, southern style.
"After you lift out the meat, put in the flour, and heat to a dark brown. Mix water and milk and pour into the hot fat and meat particles left in the skillet. Just how much, you will have to find out by experiment. Let it boil: up and boil down, keep stirring, until you have gravy of the right consistency. If the result is not good it is because you have not followed directions."

DILLON WALLACE Author and Explorer

"'Darngoods' is known to every trapper and seasoned camper in the north country as an easily made, satisfying, and palatable camp bread, particularly when a man it; working hard on the trail and has limited time for baking. The darngoods is nothing, indeed, but ordinary biscuit dough, with shortening omitted, fried in hot fat.
"To a quart of flour add one teaspoonful of salt and one reunited tablespoonful of good baking powder. These are approximate, for the true camper will measure with his eye rather than bother with spoons.

pg. 330

Stir the dry ingredients thoroughly until well mixed. Add sufficient water to make a medium stiff dough. (I mix all dough with a stirring spoon, though Indians invariably mix with the hands. This is a good way to clean the hands, if they are soiled, which usually is the case, and it gives the Indian bread a 'flavor.' Mix with the hands, before mashing, if the Indian flavor is desired.)
"The knack in making good darngoods is in the frying. Over a good bed of coals heat your lard in a frying pan, as hot as possible without burning it. (Crisco is superior to lard for frying purposes, as it may be heated to a higher temperature without burning) The frying pan should be one-third full of melted grease. Cut from the mass sufficient dough to make a cake, when molded, as large in circumference as the frying pan. Mold it out into a round, thin cake that will just fit into the frying pan. It should be about one-quarter inch in thickness. The tendency is to make it too thick, in which case it will not fry through evenly.
"The usual method is to shape the cake with the fingers, pulling it out from the center until it is of proper form and thickness. Lay the cake flat in the hot grease, and fry. If the fat is thoroughly heated, as it should be, the cake will not soak grease. When' it shows a rich brown around the edge, turn it. When brown on both sides it will be done, and will have swelled to nearly an inch in thickness. In taste it resembles unsweetened doughnuts. It's 'darn good' out in the bush."

PART III--Stewing and Boiling

The difference between stewing and boiling is one of temperature only. Things cooked slowly at a temperature

pg. 331

just below the boiling point are stewed. It is comparatively easy indoors to bring a pot to a boil and then let it simmer or stew for hours by simply turning down the gas. To do this in the woods would require a person to spend an afternoon stewing. Who wants to do this",
The hiker who specializes in stew can cook it in true stew style by first boiling it gently for about half an hour and then burying it in a bean hole. If be is an expert fire-builder, he can try an Automatic Stew Fire, No. 12.
The indoor method of making a stew by searing the meat and then covering it with boiling water can be practiced in the woods. The following combination of stewing and boiling produces a very good dish and is the method commonly practiced on hikes. The meat is thoroughly seared in the pot in which it is to be cooked. Then the kettle is hung over a hot fire, and since cold water draws the juices, only a very little water is added. As this boils, more is added gradually until the meat is covered. Of course the meat must be stirred during this process. Then after the meat has boiled the other materials are added as instructed in the recipes. The little juice that may be drawn from the meat by this process adds to the flavor of the liquid and does not noticeably detract from the taste of the meat.

Suggestions for Stewing and Boiling

1. When stew is wanted in a hurry, use better cuts of meat. To retain the flavor of tough meats and soften the fibers, stew for hours.
2. When cooking a stew for a group, use two kinds of meat; lamb and beef, beef and veal, chicken and veal.

pg. 332

3. Hike stews are often enriched by adding a can of tomato soup, bouillon cubes, or chili sauce.
4. If flour is added for thickening, mix it to a smooth thin paste. Add this to the stew a few minutes before serving. Boil three minutes, stirring constantly.
5. Boiled food is not generally used in hike cooking. Exceptions include rice: potatoes, and macaroni prepared with tomatoes or cheese.
6. Don't expect to produce a good stew in a pot without a cover.


Mrs Herbert Hoover President Girls Scouts

"Below is a copy of Albert's stew just as he cooked it and described it to an admiring group of Girl Scouts at the Day Camp.
"The way is, you know-for, say a half dozen folks. You take about a pound and a half o' lamb, cut up, and a pound o' beef. Trim the skin off-' well and most o' the fat. Brown this in the 'kittle' first, then pour in plenty a' boiling water and cook for about a halfhour. Cut up-kind o' small- an' onion: a couple of carrots, a small white turnip, some celery, parsley and any other vegetables you like or hare on hand. Put some salt in with a small can o' tomatoes--if you like 'em.
"Put in the potatoes about twenty minutes to onehalf hour before you are ready to eat the stem. It ought to cook about two hours, but longer does no harm if cooked kind a' slow."

pg. 333

Dumplings for stew (11).
Dumplings make an excellent addition to stem. The recipe below is quite the same as a regular biscuit dough with shortening (fat) omitted.
Flour, 2 cups.
Baking-powder, 3 teaspoonfuls.
Salt, 1/2 teaspoonful.
Milk, 1 cup. (Water or equal parts water and evaporated milk.)

Mix dry ingredients thoroughly. Add the liquid and stir to consistency of a soft dough. Drop the dumpling mixture into boiling stew, and continue boiling twelve minutes without lifting the cover.


By DR. Wm G. (CAP'N BILL) VINAL Rhode Island College of Education

"You have no doubt eaten hike dishes the most important ingredient of which was the item that did not appear in the recipe; namely, a preliminary ten-mile hike. The beauty of hike chowder is that you can loaf around camp all day and still enjoy your evening 'Chow.' It is especially adaptable for a large crowd, since the only eating utensils required are a cup and spoon. Of course you can whittle out a spoon if you are a good camper.
"For ten huskies, peel and dice 6 potatoes and boil until nearly done, While they are boiling, cut 2 onions and 1 pound of sliced bacon into small pieces, and brown lightly in a pan. When the potatoes are almost done, pour off the water and add the browned

pg. 334

bacon and onions, 2 small cans of corn, and 1 quart can of tomatoes. Season with pepper, salt and sugar. Let the mixture simmer for about twenty minutes or until the flavors are blended and the potatoes are soft."

PART IV-Roasting and Baking Roasting
in hot ashes or hot sand is an easy and practical method for cooking potatoes and corn. Roasting meats and baking breads in front of a fire are more difficult, because of the fact that the heat is hard to regulate and reflect. The person whose purse will permit a reflector oven can bake easily, but the ordinary hiker does not carry a reflector and so he must devise other means, as illustrated in Fires No. 14, 15, 16 and 17.

Baking Doughs and Batters. Outdoor baking is confined largely to quick-raising breads, such as biscuits, Johnny Cakes, corn cakes, and griddle cakes. In some of the recipes it will be observed that more baking powder is listed than the amount usually stated for indoor cooking. This is recommended because the action of baking powder is retarded in the open. To obtain full power of the raising agent, do not add liquid until the fire is just right. Moisture acts on baking powder immediately, and so when the

pg. 335

dough is allowed to stand some of the gases escape, "Put these things in the.

BY FREDERICK K. VREELAND Boy Scout National Camp Committeeman

"To my mind there are only two kinds of camp bread-Johnny Cake and others. If you judge from this that I like Johnny Cake you will not be far wrong. I like it because it tastes good; I like it better because it is great stuff for travelers or hard workers; I like it best of all because you can eat it three meals a day, seven days a week, without getting tired of it. I have never camped with anybody who didn't end up by liking it almost as well as I do.
"For an extended camping trip mix all the ingredients dry in a paraffined cotton bag holding enough to last a week, then all you have to do when you want a Johnny Cake is to mix the stuff with water and bake it. Easy?
"Measure with a cup enough corn meal to fill your bag one-third full. Add an equal amount Of white flour if you are using white corn meal; or about onequarter more flour if you use the hard yellow meal. Count the number of cups of each. Scoop out a little crater in the top of the flour and measure out the following for each two cups of the above mixture:

1 level teaspoonful of salt
2 level teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar
1 level teaspoonful of baking soda (bicarbonate)
1 heaping teaspoonful of powdered egg
1 heaping teaspoonful of powdered milk

pg. 336

crater in the sack of flour, take a big spoon and stir. Then stir some more

Keep on stirring until you have everything mixed, clean down to the bottom. Then tie it up and keep dry until you are ready to use it. Milk and egg powder may be purchased from a camp outfitter who carries food supplies. In the above, four teaspoonfuls of good baking powder may be substituted for the soda and cream of tartar.
"To make the cake, take about half a cup of Johnny mixture for each person and add to it enough water to make a batter thin enough to pour. Be sure to have your fire ready and your greased pan hot before you add the water. If the batter stands for even a short time, the baking powder will go stale and the bread will not raise. If your pocketbook affords it, the easiest way to bake is in a reflector oven in front of a high fire. (See Reflector Baking Fire No. 14.) If you are traveling light, the Johnny Cake tastes just as good when baked quickly in a frying pan. (See Fires No. 15, 16, 17.)
"Bake until well browned on the bottom and crusty on top, then loosen tire Johnny Cake with a knife, turn it out of the pan, and flop it back carefully upside down. Stand it in front of the fire until ready to eat it. The purpose of turning upside down is to let steam out to prevent the Johnny Cake from getting soggy."
crater in the sack of flour, take a big spoon and stir. Then stir some more Johnny Cake without Egg (14).
For short hikes, where only a small quantity of Johnny Cake is wanted, one may use the following recipe without egg.
Mix thoroughly 1 cup white corn meal, 1 cup flour, 4 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 teaspoonful salt and 1 tablespoonful sugar. When the fire is ready, stir

pg. 337

in a mixture of 1 cup each of evaporated milk and one cup of water.
The winter hiker should remember that snow acts in batters as eggs do. When using it, use less liquid and stir in lightly a few tablespoonfuls of snow.

By DOUGLAS Fairbanks

"Mix thoroughly two cups of flour, 1 tablespoon of sugar, and 1/4 teaspoonful of salt. Stir in slowly one cup of milk and then break into the mixture three eggs. Now exercise your strong right arm for five minutes in a circular motion. If your right will not hold out, there is no objection to putting in a few lefts. That is, beat it for five minutes. Cook on griddle or frying pan in hot butter. Roll up and fill with any kind of fruit, sprinkle with a little sugar and serve hot.
"You will note that my recipe calls for three eggs. I admit that this makes a very tasty dish, but personally this does not annoy me. When I am outdoors and hungry I'm particular, but I'll admit that I have often had to put up with whatever we happened to have. So, if you get into your knapsack and find the eggs badly damaged, substitute one teaspoon of baking powder for each minus egg.''

Griddle Cakes (16).

Flour, 3 cups.
Baking Powder, 2 teaspoons.
Salt, 1/2 teaspoon.
Sugar, 2 tablespoons.
Milk, 2 cups.
Butter, 1 tablespoon.
Egg, 1.

pg. 338

Mix dry ingredients, add milk, melted butter and egg. Beat thoroughly and drop by spoonfuls on greased hot griddle. When full of small bubbles on top and brown on the bottom, turn with a bread knife or pancake turner and bake on the other side. Turn only once; twice turned cakes will be heavy. Serve hot with syrup or sugar.
Canned corn, sliced apples, bananas, or raisins map be added to the above mixture to make a richer dish, in which case less liquid is required.

Biscuits (17).

Flour, 4 cups.
Butter, 4 tablespoons.
Baking powder, 8 teaspoons.
Water, 1 1/2 cups.
Salt, 1 teaspoon.
Condensed milk, 1/2 lb can.

Mix dry ingredients thoroughly, then rub the butter in with the finger tips. Grease and flour the baking pan, and be sure that the fire is right before adding condensed milk and water to the flour mixture.
Since it is difficult to roll the dough and cut it into biscuits when hiking, just as good results may be obtained by making a softer dough of such consistency that it may be pushed off the spoon with another spoon to form little mounds in the pan.
For convenience in carrying the dry ingredients and butter may be mixed at home and carried in a heavy paper bag.

Clam Bake (18).
Clams may be baked and steamed on a bed of hot stones covered with sea-weed. Gather enough smooth stones, about the size of two fists, to form a bed of sufficient size to hold the clams placed two or three deep. Build a large crisscross fire two feet high and distribute the stones throughout the pile. In an hour or more the fire: will bum down.

pg. 339

and the stones will be very hot. Some of them may burst while heating; so stand back from the fire.

Throw out the blazing embers, cover the stones with a layer of damp (not soaking wet) sea-weed. Lay your clams on next, cover with more sea-weed, and steam about forty minutes for round clams, and twenty minutes for little necks.
Those who have attended a clam bake will admit that they ate their share of the proverbial "peck of dirt," most of which came from the sea-weed on top of the clams. Green leaves that are not bitter or poisonous may be substituted for the sea-weed and sand.

PART V--Special Hike Cooking

Some of the most ancient methods of cooking are still practiced on hikes. The novelty of such dishes appeals alike to old and young. Cooking in the ground on hot stones combines steaming, roasting, fireless cooking! and pressure cooking.

pg. 340

BY ERNEST THOMPSON SETON ,4uthor and Chief of the Woodcraft League

"I learned this ancient method of cooking without utensils many years ago from a tribe of Indians. I have used it often for cooking various foods, and have always found it to produce tasty food in addition to creating the interest of even old-time Woodcrafters.
"Dig a hole, preferably in clay, two feet deep and one foot wide. Build a fire alongside of the hole, and heat about twenty stones, each as big as two fists. Get a board about a foot square (avoid pine and other resinous woods), split your fish, and lash it to the board. For lashing the Indians used vines, grasses, small trailing roots of evergreen trees, beaten inner fibrous bark, and flexible tender twigs.
"When the stones are red hot, dump them into the hole until they fill it within six inches of the top, and cover them with a layer of cold stones. Now, turn the board upside down and put tile fish on top of the cold stones, and cover the top with clay, well pressed down. At the edge of the pit make a hole with a stick, and into this pour half a bucket of water, and close up the hole. Of all the roaring and rumbling you ever heard short of a volcano, this will be the most surprising. After half an hour carefully remove the clay and you will find a beautifully- planked fish.
"If you do not have the stones red hot, the fish will not be thoroughly cooked. If you do not hare a row of cold stones on top, the hot ones will char the fish, burn the bindings and make the fish taste bitter from the burnt herbage: If you use wood that has resin in it, the fish tastes the same. Meats re-

pg. 341

quire a little longer to cook than fish, depending upon their thickness. Potatoes require an hour and a half."


BY LORNE W. BARCLAY Vice-President, The Childrens Foundation

"To you, Hawaii map mean flower garlands, hula hula dances, straw skirts, ukeleles, but to me it means 'Imu,'--the most savory way of cooking known to man and at the same time one of the simplest.
''With 'Pine Tree Jim' Wilder I arrived at Hawaii and we were given a regal reception by the governor, a band, a choral society, troops of boy scouts, and both plain and notable citizens. The evening celebration consisted of a luau, an Hawaiian feast similar to an American barbecue--prepared by the grown-up members of Troop 5, Honolulu, Boy Scouts of America. Incidentally, the party included fourteen scoutmasters who had formerly been scouts in a troop that Mr. Wilder started in 1910.
"Thirty of us squatted around small leaf-covered tables some fifteen inches high. We listened to the thrumming music of guitar and ukelele, and ate many good things that came out of this imu hole The leaves served as plates; for knives, forks, and spoons we used our fingers.
"Imuing is a method of cooking without utensils in a hole in the ground on a bed of extremely hot stones. This famous imu consisted of fish, a small

pg. 342

pig, sweet potatoes, corn on the cob, and bananas. Such a menu and so easy to prepare !
"Now. how to imu as I learned it in Hawaii, for we must leave this famous party and give you the cooking recipe. For the first attempt I would advise you to try a chicken dinner.
The Chicken Dinner. "Dig a hole about fifteen inches square and fifteen inches deep. Gather enough stones (porous if possible) about the size of a baseball, to completely line the hole. Fill the hole with tinder and kindling. Lay over it in crisscross layers a two-foot pile of firewood with stones interspersed throughout the pile. If good hardwood two or three inches thick is used, it will burn down in about an hour, and the red-hot stones will drop into the hole. You cannot get the stones too hot. Any stone is liable to burst when heating, so stand back.
"Sow, working very rapidly, proceed as follows:
1. Remove' the blazing embers, and spread the stones so that they completely line the hole.

pg. 343

2. Cover the stones with about a peck of sweet leaves such as basswood, sweet birch, sweet gum, wild grape, maple, sassafras. Vegetable tops, such as beets, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, are even better than leaves. Avoid leaves from the nut-bearing trees, most of which are bitter because of the tannic acid they contain.
3. Put the chicken on top of the leaves in the center of the hole, and place sweet potatoes or any other vegetable desired around the chicken. (If you like fish, Substitute fish for chicken. Fish is especially good imued.)
4. Cover all this completely with another peck of leaves.
5. Spread a large piece of wet canvas or burlap over the hole and cover the canvas completely with earth.
6. At the expiration of two hours the dinner will be cooked. To produce an even tastier dish take the chicken out in an hour and a half and fasten it to a stick or spit, and brown it over a bed of glowing embers, by constantly turning it? French rotisserie style. At this point it is time to get hungry.
"After a few experiments with chicken, you are ready to venture into the, field of real Hawaiian imus, cooking Small pigs, fish, and lamb as well as vegetables."


DILLOS WALLACE Author and Explorer

"Soak 2 pounds or about 1 quart of beans for six or eight hours. Pour off this water and start in fresh

pg. 344

water containing 1/2 teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda and 1 teaspoonful of salt. Boil for about ten minutes or until the skins crack when you take out a few on your spoon and blow on them. Drain and place in the bottom of a baking pot a layer of beans, then a layer of sliced salt pork, then a layer of finely sliced onions. Repeat until the pot is filled, with a layer of salt pork on top. Pour in enough boiling mater to cover the beans and bake in a bean-hole about six hours or overnight." (See recipe So. 22 for cooking in a hole.)

Beans without Soaking (22).
Beans age best soaked for several hours, but if the large, variety, not too dry. is purchased? they may be started in cold water with l/2 teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda. Let the beans come to boil slowly, and boil gently about 1/2 hour, or until skin cracks when blown upon. At the same time score with pour knife about 1/2 pound of salt pork and parboil this separately.
Drain, put half the salt pork in bottom of kettle, then the beans with seasoning of salt, pepper, 1/2teaspoonful of dry mustard, 1 tablespoon full of molasses or sugar, and the rest of the salt pork on top. Cover the beans with boiling water and hang over a moderate fire to cook slowly for two or three hours.

A Meal under the Sod

Here is a meal that may be cooked in a bed of hot coals under the ground while the entire camp is out for an afternoon hike. Not a soul is required to stay behind, even to watch for vandals, for all the food is completely covered with earth.

Baked Ham and Potatoes (23).
Place sliced raw ham in a covered baiting dish, and then fill the dish

pg. 345

with raw potatoes sliced very thin. Sprinkle generously with flour and season with pepper. (Do not salt; there will be sufficient salt in the ham to season the potatoes.) Pour in enough milk to just cover the potatoes and clot with butter on the top.

Brown Betty (24).
Line a baking dish with thin slices of bread. Cut four to six apples in thin slices, and alternate layers of apples and bread crumbs: Sprinkle over each layer of apples a mixture of one teaspoonful of cinnamon with three-quarters of a cup of sugar. Pour over enough milk or water to come almost to the top of the ingredients. and clot with butter. A beaten egg is a desirable but not an essential addition.

Fire and the Hole The above dishes may be cooked exactly the same as the old pioneer favorite, "Beans in a Hole." Dig a hole a foot deeper and a foot wider than the space that the two dishes will occupy when placed one on top of the other. Fill the hole with tinder and kindling, and pile good firewood on, top of the ground in crisscross

pg. 346

fashion. Inexperienced fire-builders do not realize how much wood is required to fill a hole with coals. Be liberal! If the wood is uniform and comparatively small in size, it will fall to a bed of coals in about an hour. In order to secure an even bed of coals all the mood should be piled before the fire is lighted.
Desirable Firewoods. Cooking in a hole is doomed to failure if the firewood selected will not produce lasting coals. A few good firewoods are listed below in order of their preference: hickory, white oak, eucalyptus, mesquite, white ash, hard maple, locust, yellow birch, spruce.
Cooking in a Dole. When a sufficient bed of coals is formed, shovel out all but a six-inch layer. Work rapidly, putting in the barn and potatoes first, and then on top of that, the Betty. Pack the dishes completely with coals and cover the top with earth. In four hours, more or less, depending upon the size of the dishes and the lasting power of the coals, the meal will be cooked. If heavy dishes are used, there is little danger of burning. As soon as the heat of the coals is spent, they simply keep the food hot. Ordinarily no harm is done by leaving the food in the hole overnight. In fact, that is the customary method of cooking beans. When foods are to be left in a hole for a long time, a liberal supply of liquid should be used, otherwise the cooked food will be very dry. A thrifty method for cooking in a hole is to dig a hole on the spot over which the evening camp fire is to be built. Then, at the close of the evening meeting, the dishes are buried in the coals and are ready to eat in the morning.

pg. 347

SWEET CORN variations (25)

By J0SEPHINE LITTLE National Camp Secretary, Y. M. C. A.

"Roosting Corn in Sand. The next time you go on a hike during sweet corn season arrange to pitch camp near a farm house where you can purchase corn on the stalk. If you are fortunate enough to fire near the ocean, try this way of roasting corn on your next beach hike. Remove the corn silk, twist the ends of the husks tightly, and then soak the ear in 'the briny.' In the meantime you should have had a fire in a hole burning on the beach. When the sand is as hot as you think Son can get it: your oven is ready. Working rapidly, bury the corn in the hot sand, rebuild a fire over this spot, and continue cooking the the rest of your meal. In about thirty minutes or less your corn will be ready to eat. The only possible difficulty is that you will not have enough corn.
"Roasting Corn in ashes. If you are not fortunate enough to live near a beach, you can use the above method for roasting corn by putting it in hot ashes just as you would roast potatoes.'' (See recipe No. 26.)
"Corn on a Stick. Ream out the end of the corn cob with a knife or pointed stick. Sow remove the husks, impale the ear on a stick, and roast over a bed of moderately hot coals. The beauty of this method of roasting corn is that all seem to enjoy it, regardless of the fact that some of them will fail to observe your instructions about hot coals, and will insist upon putting the corn in the flame, claiming that they especially enjoy black corn. The blackening process happens

pg. 348

in a very few minutes; then they eat the corn and declare 'best I ever tasted.' Great imaginations!
"Boiled Corn. Try this way of boiling your corn, and see if it does not taste just a little better than the method usually used in the kitchen. Remove the corn silk and a few of the outer husks and then tie up the ends. In salted water, boil gently for ten to twenty minutes, depending upon the size and freshness of the corn. Remember there' is more danger in overboiling corn than in underboiling it. Overboiling toughens the outer skins of the kernels and makes it less digestible and palatable."

(Cat-Tail Root, Twist, Steak, Sassafras Tea, Banana Short Cake)
By L. L. MacDONALD National Camp Director, Boy Scouts of America

"When the author asked me to give you a recipe or two, I was puzzled; but when he said, 'Oh, give them any old thing,' that answered the question. So here are some of the oldest things I know. If you succeed, you will get 'the thrill that comes once in a lifetime.' Before you try it with your bogs and girls, go out into the moods and lose yourself to all inhabitants, particularly your friends. I failed once before 'company,' and I am sure that my reputation as a cook in, that part of the country could be better.

Roast Potatoes or Cat-Tail Roots (26).
"If you happen to be near a swamp, try eat-tail roots instead of potatoes. If anything: they taste a little better, and they hare greater food value. You know Washington's

pg. 349

soldiers discovered that these were good to eat that hard winter at Valley Forge.
"If you insist upon being a raw tenderfoot, you will simply chuck your potato or cat-tail root into the fire? producing a tiny black ball. If you try it the may described below, you can roast them without so much as a single black spot on the skins. Scoop out a hole about four inches deep, just large enough to hold the potatoes. Now lay a quick fire over, the hole (I prefer a crisscross lay for speed), and produce a bed of glowing embers the size of your hat. (For ladies I recommend the size of a man's derby.) Then wrap the potatoes (or roots) in green leaves, scrape about half of the coals aside, drop the potatoes into the coals left in the hole, and cover them completely with embers. Sprinkle just enough dry earth, sand, or ashes over the coals to keep out the air, thus preventing combustion and keeping the potatoes from burning. If none of your friends are around, look at your watch to time the potatoes. (If you have company, you had better look at the sun for the time; otherwise they mill remind you that you agreed to cook without utensils.) In twenty-live to forty minutes, depending on the the size of the potatoes and the quality of the embers, your potatoes will be baked. Test them by thrusting a pointed stick into them without disturbing your coals. If you meet no serious resistance, withdraw the potatoes, and poke several small holes through the skins to let the steam out and keep the center mealy.

The Twist on a Stick (27).
"Most tenderfeet invariably eat potatoes as dessert, because they start to cook the rest of the meal the instant after they put in the potatoes. Let us try to cook this meal so that we

pg. 350

can eat everything in proper order with our real dessert last.
"As soon as your potatoes are in the fire, rebuild it just at the edge of the potato hole. While this is coming up, cut a stick upon which to bake your bread. Try to get a stick at least two inches in diameter. (Avoid woods that taste bitter.) Shave the bark of-f one end, and point the other. Jab the pointed end into the ground over the fire, and heat the peeled end.
"Now get busy and mix your dough. Since you agreed to use no utensils, you must mix it in tile bag. Scoop out a depression in the top of your flour with a wooden stick or paddle whittled just for the occasion, put in a five-finger pinch of baking powder and a two-finger pinch of salt. Since this is to be a short cake, add also a five-finger pinch of sugar. (But be careful; dough containing sugar has a tendency to burn) Add a piece of butter the size of your thumb, and work it into tile mixture with just enough flour to make a fistful. Now trickle in enough water or milk to make a rather stiff dough. Work this just as little as possible, molding it into a ribbon about three fingers wide and as thick as the end of your little finger. Wind the ribbon spirally on the hot stick. Pinch the dough together at each end to prevent it from unwinding.
"By this time your fire will he a bed of glowing coals. 80 drive the pointed end of the twist-stick into the ground at a very sharp angle, bringing the dough near the coals. Be sure to twist the twist occasionally while making your tea.

Sassafras Tea Boiled in Paper or Bark (28).
"Boiling Water in Paper. You say. 'He can't boil water in Paper.' Try it at home and convince yourself.

pg. 351

It's easy! You cannot use a common grocery bag because that is secured with glue that will melt. To make your bag, take a piece of heavy paper about eight inches square. First fold it across the corners, AD. Open the paper and fold a second time diagonally across the opposite corners, BC. ;Vow fold in one inch on all four edges.
Then turn in the corners and pin them together, and you have your boiler ready. Place the dish over a small burner on the gas stove, put in enough water to nearly fill the dish and turn on the gas. Your water will boil, provided the flame does not touch the paper above the water line.
"Boiling Water in Bark. To make a bark dish, select a piece of birch bark free from holes and shreds. To make it pliable, heat it gently over the fire. Fold
it just as you did the paper and fasten the corners
with thorns or splinters. The water can be boiled in the woods by placing a bark vessel directly over coals, provided no flame strikes it. Have a bed of glowing embers without flame and build a square stone fireplace just a little higher than the top of the coals and just a little smaller than the bottom of the vessel.
"I almost forgot to tell you how to make the sassafras tea. Wherever you find sassafras you will find numerous small deformed saplings which will never mature into trees. Pull up the smallest one, cut off the root and wash it. Shave about one inch of the root, bark and all. Let the shavings boil for a minute or two, sweeten to taste, and you have a delicious drink.

pg. 352

Broiling a Steak on Coals (29).
"If you are not fastidious, broil your steak directly on a bed of glowing embers. I prefer mine broiled that way to any other indoor or outdoor method I have ever tried. Stir a fairly large bed of hot coals so that the small coals will sift to the bottom, and throw out all smoking chunks. Drop the steak onto the coals and in three or four minutes turn and cook the other side. Turn only once.

Banana Short Cake (30).
"While you are eating your hot steak, potatoes, and a piece of twist, cook your dessert. Lag a banana on what is left of the coals and turn it a couple of times. In about ten minutes the skin will turn to a dark chocolate color. Sow Split the skin, season the banana with a little salt and butter, spread it between and on top of twist, and imagine you have banana short cake."


"During the World War I had the high pleasure of serving for two months as cook for our ambulance section. Were are three desserts I discovered while experimenting on the digestions of my comrades.

Tutti-Frutti Stew (31).
"Dried fruits-prunes, apricots, peaches, apples, figs--made up the bulk of our dessert ration, as they do of most camp menus. Unfortunately, soldiers and campers soon tire of the same old stewed prunes or apricots.
"I found that richer flavors and an infinite variety could be had by mixing together two or more fruits, Invite to the pot any fruits you have around-whether dried, previously cooked, canned, or fresh.

pg. 353

Stew the mixture with a slice of lemon and enough sugar . to make a fairly thick syrup, and then defy the hungry mob to tell you what's in it--or to say it isn't good.

Caramel Rice Pudding (32).
"This stunt I picked up from a cook attached to a French artillery section. Christmas, 1917, his outfit and ours were at the front near St. Quentin, far from the frills and tidbits of grocery anti pastry shops. Yet with only rice, sugar, and a dozen raisins he concocted a tasty dessert. Here's the how of it:-
''First he boiled the rice, with plenty of water and a little salt, until every grain of rice was cooked through. Then be drained the water off. Next he put some sugar into a pan and held it over the fire until it partly caramelled; that is, turned brown. He added just enough water to the sugar and caramel to make a syrup as thick as molasses, mixed this up with the rice, molded it into a sort of cake, garnished it with the few raisins he had, and placed it before a reflector fire to toast the outside to a light crust. Is it good? Try it!

Chocolate Bread Pudding (33).
"Of course you know the regular bread puddings made with raisins, or other fruits, but did you ever try Chocolate Bread Pudding? It helped make our outfit safe for democracy during a week when the only sweet things in our larder were cocoa and condensed milk.
''In its simplest form this dish can be made by mising together left-over cocoa and bread crumbs. But, of course, the richer the sauce, the tastier the pudding:--
"Take chocolate or cocoa, milk !fresh, evaporated, or condensed) and sugar, and a pinch of salt; mix together and bring to a boil, making a rich, sweet,

pg. 354

fairly thick sauce. Taste as you go along, and use your judgment about proportions. Pour this sauce into a pan of rather dry bread crumbs; bake for ten or fifteen minutes."

By STEWART EDWRD WHITE Author and Camper

''To one who lives in the woods and cooks according to materials at hand instead of his desires, recipes are apt to be an aggravation to one's peace and quiet content.
''I cook things as I get hold of them; and use a wild, free and untramelled imagination in! combining what I happen to have on hand. By sticking to basic principles as to the food elements required for different types of dishes, I am generally pretty successful. For example a pudding consists of starchy base, a binder, (like eggs), sweetening, and a flavor. Thus one can make a bully pudding with macaroni, though macaroni is not generally considered pudding material.''

Candled Apples on a Stick (35).
Corn syrup, 1 can.
Granulated sugar, 2 pounds.
Butter, 1/2 cup.

Cook together, stirring constantly until boiling point is reached. Boil until it gathers in a soft ball when a little is dropped in cold Water.
Have the apples all ready on either a sweet birch or sassafras stick and dip the apples into the candy. Twirl them in air until candy sets, clip in pail of cold

pg. 355

water, then place on oiled paper or buttered dish until cool enough to eat. Work rapidly, clipping all of the apples before the candy hardens. This is enough for about twenty apples.

Hike Ice Cream (36).
Grated pineapple, 2 small cans.
Condensed milk, 2 cans.
Lemon extract, 1 teaspoon.

Mix the ingredients in a covered container and place in a larger container. Pack with ice and salt or snow and salt. Stir the mixture for the first fire or ten minutes to start the freezing evenly and to avoid lumps; then cover the container entirely With snow or ice and let stand to freeze.
Other fruits and extracts may be substituted and frozen in like manner, but the above combination has proved most tasty.

TART VII--Beverages

Cocoa (37).
Since many parents object to their children drinking tea or coffee, the wise leader will use cocoa only. The novice invariably burns his cocoa. This can be avoided by adding milk after the cocoa comes to a boil, and then stirring for two or three minutes before taking off the fire. To avoid extra dish washing, do not mix cocoa to a paste with water. Simply mix the cocoa thoroughly with sugar and then add it to boiling water. The usual proportion is one level teaspoonful of cocoa and one teaspoonful of sugar to one cup of a half-and-half mixture of milk and crater.

Chocolate (38).
The novelty of making a drink out of a bar of sweet chocolate appeals to boys and girls so that many of them prefer chocolate to cocoa.

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For a rich drink, add a five-cent bar of chocolate to a pint of milk, or to its equivalent in evaporated form. (Condensed milk makes the drink too sweet.) During cooking, the mixture must be stirred constantly, and should be heated until it comes to a boil.

Coffee (39).
The experienced woodsman takes no chances when cooking his beloved coffee. He waits until the water comes to a boil before adding the coffee. He lets it boil for a few minutes, standing guard every minute to see that no tenderfoot by chance upsets it. Never make weak coffee in the woods; let those who prefer it weak do their own weakening. Use a heaping tablespoonful for each cup, and remember that most camp cups are considerably larger than a regular coffee cup. Certainly there is no objection to cooking the coffee in a cheese cloth bag, if you make sure that the one who ties the bag allows plenty of room for the coffee to swell. Sometimes as a substitute for the regulation methods of settling the grounds with a dash of cold water or an egg shell, the woodsman dashes a burning stick (well aglow) into the pot.

Tea (40).
As a rule the "old-timers" prefer tea to other beverages, because it is easy to carry, easy to make, and is just a little more refreshing than any' other drink. All tea drinkers have their pet brand:; and special methods of preparing it; let the inveterate drinker cook his own.
The principal thing to bear in mind is that tea should never boil, and that it should not stand on the grounds for more than four or five minutes.

pg. 357


THE justification of signaling in any recreational
program depends upon how it is taught and how it is used. Naturally, the boys and girls are not enthusiastic about the latent value of signaling, nor in the training they may derive from practicing it. They are most concerned about the fun they get in using it. Unfortunately, signaling is often taught as a purely abstract subject, so that boys and girls are interested only in passing a test.
Since signaling is generally considered the most difficult subject in the scout program, this entire chapter is devoted to it. An effort has been made to describe in detail practical recreational methods of teaching signaling. The "how" of teaching is emphasized.
Creating Interest. If boys and girls are given sufficient guidance, those in whom the constructive instinct is strong will enjoy the making of such things as sending and receiving devices, signal towers, signal flags, code cards, and secret codes.. Since scouts are usually required to pass official tests with flags, their leaders sometimes forget that boys and girls are also interested in using more novel methods of communicating. They should be encouraged to practice in pairs or small groups, outside of regular meetings, sending by flash lights, lanterns, butters, tapping,

pg. 361

whistling, gestures, writing secret codes, etc; It may be well to advise the leader who has a choice of systems that the International Morse Code lends itself to novel methods and general service more readily than any other code.
Teaching Signaling. Since a scout is required simply to know the alphabet to pass the second class signaling test, the tendency of instructors is to do the apparently easiest thing,--namely, to teach sending first and then to take up receiving of single letters. However, experts are of the opinion that the emphasis should be placed on receiving from the start, and from the very start signaling should be taught in relation to words. I have found, in teaching both children and adults, that, if emphasis is placed upon recreational receiving methods at the outset, the learners become so interested that they practice both sending and receiving outside of class.
It is advisable to defer teaching the use of flags until after the majority of the class are familiar with the entire code. Anyone can acquire correct form more readily when he can give his undivided attention to it. Notice, in the method of teaching the code described below, that the instructor (sometimes one of the members of the class) sends and the class receives in the first four lessons.

Lesson I
International Morse Code. The first lesson includes the letters consisting of either all dots or all dashes. If tile class will eventually be required to pass an examination with a flag, it is advisable for the instructor to send the letters by that means so that the class may receive a correct first impression.

pg. 362

Teach the letters by opposites; that is, first E, then T, and so on in the order listed below:

Semaphore Code. Teach the letters of the first circle by opposites,--i. e., A on the right, then G on the left; similarly B and F, C and E, and D last. In a few minutes the majority of the class will be able to receive the letters in any order and hence will be able to receive words in signaling games No. 1 and 2.

Executing Word Orders (1).
Preparation. Arrange the players in any convenient standing or sitting formation facing the instructor. If sufficient space is available, line them up in a single front rank; i. e., shoulder to shoulder. Before the meeting write out a list of words of action, using only the letters of the first lesson, similar to those below.
Morse Code. Words indicating action formed with the letters E, T, I, M, S, O, H.

Hiss Hist Hit Hoist Hoot Meet Mess

Miss Shoo Shoot Sit Smite Test Tom-tom

Semaphore Code. Words of action using the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G.
Add Cage Dab Dead Deface Edge

Efface Face Fade Gab Gag Gage

pg. 363

Send a word, and have all who think they understand it take one step forward; or if sitting, stand. Then call out "Execute," whereupon those who receive the word perform tile action indicated by it. For example, if "Sit" were sent, all who received it correctly would sit clown when the leader called "Execute."
It adds to the fun and gives the poorer players a part in the game if you occasionally give a verbal word order, or have those who succeed execute their orders upon those who fail. The following Morse Code examples are suggestive:
1. Sent H-i-t and command: "Upon a person behind poll who failed--Execute!"
2. Send S-m-i-t-e and command: "Gently, upon the right cheek of one who failed--Execute!" 3. Send T-i-e and command: "About the hands of some one in the back row, with a handkerchief as in the Fireman's Drag--Execute!''

Individual Touch (2).
This game is a variation of the one above. The chief difference is that the names of objects to be touched are signaled instead of words of action. The leader sends the name! of some object in sight and then commands "Touch!" Those who understand the message run and touch the object and return to their original position in the line, while those who failed to receive the word do nothing. The list of words below will be suggestive.

pg. 364

Morse Code. Names of objects or persons formed from the letters E, T, I, M, S, O, H.

Him Home Hose Miss Mit Settee Shoes

Smith Stem Teeth Tie This Those Toes Tom

Compass work may be included in this game by giving orders such as the following: "Touch the wall, the compass direction of which begins with E." "Touch the SE corner of the room (or S-SE)." Semaphore Code. Names of objects or persons formed from the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G.

Ada Babe Badge Bag Bead Bed Beef Cage

Dad Dead Edge Egg Face Fag Feed Gab

Leaders' Notes for Lesson I. Be prepared! Know the letters. Write out word lists. Let instructor do all sending in this lesson to avoid errors anti delays. Assign letters for neat lesson. Suggest that everyone get a partner and work outside of class. Get the members to make out word lists for the next lesson.

pg. 365

Lesson II
Morse Code. Review letters E, T, I, M, S, O, H and add the letters beginning with one dot in the order given below:

Semaphore Code. Review A,B, C, D, E, F, G and add H, I, K, L, M, N. Notice "J" is not in this series of the second circle.

Patrol Order(3).
This is a patrol competition combining the individual games No. 1 and 2. It is a recreational method of using the letters, of the first two lessons. The class must know the letters thoroughly before the game can be! played successfully.
Line up the patrols in parallel single files facing the instructor, and spend a few minutes reviewing letters of lessons I and II.
The leader, either a member of the class or the regular instructor, signals to the players a word and then commands either "Touch" or "Execute." "Touch" follows the name of an object r "Execute" follows a word indicating action. All who receive the word perform the action as directed, return to their position in the file, and throw up both hands. At the same time those who fail to receive the message must run to the end of the room or field, return to their position in the file, and throw up their hands also. The patrol with all hands up first wins. Find word lists below.

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Morse Code. Words composed from letters E, T, I, M, S, O, H, A, W, J, R, L, P.
Names of Objects
Hat Jaw Lamp Mat Paper Pipe Post
Rail Rope Seat Shirt Wall White Wool

Words of Action
Hop Leap Limp Roll Slap Sleep Smile
Spell Spin Stamp Tap Tease Throw Weep

Semaphore Code. Words composed from letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H I, K, L, M, N.
Names of Objects
Back Ball Beam Bill Black Chalk Knee
Lead Leaf Limb Line Man Nail Neck

Words of Action
Bend Call Change Climb Dance Fan Feel
Hike Inhale Kick Kneel Lean Lick Lift

Lesson III
Morse Code. Review letters E, T, I, M, S, O, H, A, W, J, R, L, P and add tile letters beginning with one dash in the order given below:

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Semaphore Code. Review A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, and add O, P, Q, R, S, the letters of the third circle.
If the class is not exceptional, it will be found that by this time the majority have studied by themselves and know the entire code. If the instructor desires to keep the class together, he must find a means of teaching tile slow members that will be interesting enough to hold the attention of the brighter ones. An old-fashioned spell down is one solution of this problem. If a large majority of the class know their letters, instead of conducting a spell down try games No. 6 anti 7.

Patrol Signal Spell Down (4).
This spell down is intended for a single patrol or for a group of about eight. For an entire troop or a large group use game No. 5. Notice that the players who miss do not drop out in either of these so-called spell downs. Line up the patrol in a single front rank, facing the leader. The leader sends a letter to the one on the right of the line. If he names it correctly he retains

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his position, otherwise he goes, to the foot of the class. An element of fun that will appeal to the good signalers is to have those who miss three times run the gauntlet or perform a stunt.

Troop Signal Spell Down (5).
Divide the troop into two teams, or use patrols as teams, lining them up in single front rank on opposite sides of the room. The individual members of opposite sides signal letters to each other in turn. Whenever a player fails to name the letter correctly one point is scored for the opposing team. To get more fun out of a Spell Down when the Morse code is used, try trick methods of sending, including eye winking, finger wiggling, toe lifting, and pocket bulging.

Executing Messages (6).
This is a variation of Game No. 1, Executing Word Orders. It differs from the game used in the first lesson in that messages are used instead of single words. In response to the leader's command, "Execute," the -players obey the message. Those who fail to receive the message are required to run to the end of the room or field and return.
Tills may be played as an individual game by a single patrol, or as a team game by a troop or large group. In a patrol game the member wins who executes the message and gets back into his original position first. In a troop game, the patrols are lined up in single files and the patrol wins that has all players back in file first.
Morse Code. The commands below are composed from the letters of the first three lessons. Omit words containing U, F, V, G, Q, Z.

Kneel down, Catch me, Loosen belts, Exhale twice
Come here, Yell America, Cheer Bill
Repeat alphabet, Shine shoes, Scratch head

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Semaphore Code. Omit words containing T, U, Y, J, V, W, X, Z.

Smack lips, Snap fingers, Rock hack, Spell name, Cheer me
Slay legs, Kick high, Send message, Inhale deeper, Sings song

Word Forming Contest (7).
Boys and girls enjoy the puzzle element in this game, but it is of little value unless the words formed are actually used. Word forming contests may also be used in games No. 1, 2, 3, 6 in the first two lessons.
Preparation. See that each member is provided with a pencil and card when this is played by a single patrol. Pencils are so scarce that it is usually necessary to conduct an inter-patrol contest requiring only one pencil for each patrol.
The individual or patrol wins that forms a given number of words (twenty-five or more) first, using the specified letters. This may also be conducted on a time basis, i.e., the one wins who has most words when time is called.

Lesson IV

Morse Code. Complete the alphabet with the following letters :

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Semaphore Code. Complete the alphabet with the letters T, U, Y, J, V, W, X, Z.

Training Expert Signalers. It should not be assumed that expert signalers can be developed by merely playing games, for such efficiency comes only with serious practice. The signaling comes that conclude this chapter are recommended only as a recreational method for reviewing the: subject. After the code is mastered each patrol should be organized into two groups for the conduct of field work including the use of conventional signs. Another plan, the name of which captures boys and girls, is called the "Buddy System." Each person selects a partner or a ''buddy'' and practices with him.
Morse Receiving Card. A receiving card will enable beginners (who need a crutch, especially adults) to receive accurately with remarkable ease. In fact, almost anyone who knows the difference between dots and dashes can, by the use of the card, place his finger on a letter the instant after it is sent. This ingenious device is devised primarily to encourage beginners in field work. To make the card, copy the code as printed below, raising the lines that separate each series by holding the card against a window and tracing

pg. 371

each line heavily on the back of the card. A still better way to raise these important lines is to glue toothpicks on the front of the card.

When using the card, instruct the sender to pause a little longer than usual while you take your eyes off him to look down at the card. Suppose he is sending the letter "G"; the instant you see the first dash,

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slide your index finger over to the dash column. When he sends the second dash, without taking your eyes off him, slide down the column until you bump over the first raised line. Then when he finishes with a dot, if you do not know the letter, look down at your linger, which will be almost upon the letter "G." For field practice a writer and a receiver work together as follows: the receiver calls dots and dashes just as they are sent, allowing the writer to locate the letter almost instantly. If the receiver does not recognize the letter, he says, "Blank," whereupon the writer fills in the letter and underscores it. In this manner receivers discover the particular letters that cause them difficulty.
Semaphore Receiving Card. The semaphore card illustrated can be used just as the Morse card. It is: constructed upon the principle of the semaphore clock. Each solid black square indicates the fixed position of the key flags for

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that particular circle. The other squares indicate the positions of the flags for the various letters just as they appear to the receiver. Notice that in any given circle the key flag is always nearest six o'clock, going around backwards.

Scouting for Letters (8).
Scouting for Letters is an adaptation of that splendid game Scouting for Words. Anyone who intends to use this game should read a full description of the parent game, Scouting for Words (23), Chapter Four.
Preparation. Prepare a Yet of twenty-six cards, each bearing on its face one letter of the alphabet in large type. On the back of each card write the letter in code form. !Large letters printed on gummed paper may be purchased in stationery stores.) The leader holds up a card, and gives it to the player who first names it correctly. The one who has the greatest number of cards at the end of the game wins. The leader is reminded that he is using this game to review the code, therefore he should give everyone a chance to observe the card before he passes it to the winner.

Scouting for Answers (9).
This is a variation of the above game that can be correlated with many subjects. It is described here as used in a first aid quiz. Scouting for Answers has little to recommend it from a purely signaling point of view. It is merely a recreational method of correlating signaling with other subjects.
With the troop seated and the members of each patrol numbered, the leader starts the game by saying, for example, "All No. 1's stand... Now give us something important in first aid beginning with this letter." Suppose he then sends "S," whereupon one

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of the No. 1's immediately calls out "Shock." "Right," says the leader. "Now give us the treatment for shock." If the player responds correctly, one point is scored for his patrol. The leader completes a round by calling all numbers. The patrol having the most points: at the end of the game is declared winner.

Patrol Alphabet Sending Relay (10).
Preparation . Line up the patrols in parallel files: at the end of the room or field. Provide the first runner of each patrol with a signal flag (two flags for semaphore).
At the starting signal the player at the head of each file runs forward to a sending line marked upon the floor or ground, faces his patrol and sends the letter A. He then runs back and hands the flag (two flags for semaphore) to the next in line, who runs forward and sends B, while the first runner goes to the end of the line. In this fashion the alphabet is sent in regular order. Tile team wins that receives most points scored as follows: 1 point for each letter sent correctly;

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3, 2, and 1 point for finishing first, second and third. Since this contest combines running and signaling it will be enjoyed by both spectators and scouts at inter-troop meets and rallies. It adds to the fun to use what is known as "Jackass Signaling," i.e., indicating a dot by kicking the right leg, a dash with the left leg, and a double kick and a bray at the end of each letter.

Numeral, Initial, or Name Relays (11).
Simple variations of race No. 10 may be conducted in which players send either numerals, their initials, or their names. Such relays can be conducted successfully after the second lesson in signaling, because one of the very first things boys and girls practice sending is their names, and they can learn the numerals in a few minutes.

Patrol Alphabet Speed Contest (12).
Send each patrol to its corner to practice sending the alphabet with flags and to determine its fastest sender. Then assemble the troop for. an inter-patrol contest. One at a time, the winning representatives from the patrols send the alphabet in regular order, calling each letter as it is sent with only a momentary pause between letters. The patrol wins whose representative has the lowest number of points scored as follows: add to the number of seconds required to send the alphabet one point for each error, and one for each time the flag gets: twisted. Also deduct five points for the representative who has the best form, judged by the entire troop. This contest is very valuable because it encourages scouts to practice sending outside of regular meetings in an attempt to better their records.

Patrol Exhibition Contest (13).
Send each patrol

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to its corner to practice sending letters in alphabetical order in unison with signal flags or with gestures. After about ten minutes practice, assemble the patrols and line up one patrol in a single file in front of the remainder of the troop. The patrol leader calls letters in alphabetical order one at a time, and the patrol responds in unison, sending the letter called in slow rhythm. If anyone makes the semblance of an error, it can be instantly detected by anyone. The patrol that sends the greatest number of letters without a single error wins.
The leader must not be surprised if, the first time he tries this contest, all of the patrols make many mistakes. If he announcers that the contest will be conducted every meeting for a. month and advises the patrols to practice at their weekly meetings, they will show remarkable improvement at the end of the month.
A patrol sending contest can be highly recommended as a spectacular contest for scout exhibitions and demonstrations. Since every individual realizes that each mistake he makes will be instantly detected by the spectators, scouts will willingly spend hours practicing before giving a public demonstration. For the final demonstration the scouts who can send the entire code perfectly should be selected. Instead of sending the alphabet it will be much more effective to send a message written on the spot by a prominent member in the audience.

Word Belay (14).
Preparation. Let each patrol select its best receiver and send him from the room or the field. Provide each receiver with a pencil and card. Line up the patrols in relay formation at one end of the playing space. Select a word containing at least as many letters as there are players in the largest

pg. 377

patrol. Of course the smaller patrols must run one or more members a second time. Now let the patrol leaders assign the letters of the word selected to the members of their patrols. Bring in the receivers, station them in front of their respective patrols? and start the race. At the word "GO" the first player of each team runs forward to a sending line marked on the floor or ground, sends the first letter to his team mate, then runs back and passes his flag (flags for Semaphore) to the second player. Each succeeding runner repeats this operation sending the particular letter assigned to him. The last one completes the word and sends the conventional sign for "End of Word," whereupon the receiver yells out the word. The team whose receiver calls out the correct word first wins.
It mill be found that boys and girls will receive more accurately if the letters of words are sent in inverted order. If they know the letters are inverted they will concentrate on each letter instead of anticipating or guessing.

pg. 378

Letter Race (15).
This race is popular with younger children, Cubs and Brownies.
Preparation. Line up the players in teams just as for a relay race. Give the players of each file either a number, a letter, or both.
The leader signals one of the assigned letters or numbers and then Galls out "Go." This is the starting signal for all who were given that letter to yell it out and run straight forward to a given line or wall and return. The one who gets back into line first wins, and one point is scored for his team. Should anyone run at the wrongs time one point may be subtracted from the score of that team.

Capture the Signaler (16).
This is a very popular hike game because it involves simple signaling, jumping, and chasing. It will be also found valuable when it is desired to hurry hikers along.
Preparation. Line up the players across an open field or road and station the signaler who is to be captured about twenty-five yards in front, in the direction in which you intend hiking.
The signaler sends a letter, pauses, and then calls it out. 811 who understand it take one standing broad jump forward. Nest he sends a word of two letters and those who receive it correctly take two broad jumps. Similarly three and four letter words are sent. When those who receive the last word finish their fourth jump, everybody breaks and runs. The one who captures the signaler takes his place in the next game.

Signal Chase (17).
Boys take to this game readily, for it is nothing more than an adaptation of signaling to the popular game of Chalk the Arrow. Those who lay the trail, instead of simply chalking an arrow in the direction that they have gone, use code signs previously

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agreed upon. The game may be recommended to patrol leaders who may work out signals with their patrol members. The following are suggestive: "T" means "This is the trail"; "R," "Turn to the right"; "L," "Turn to the left"; "N," with a numeral written beside it in code means "Note hidden so many paces in direction indicated by arrow."

Signal Baseball (18).
It is very simple to correlate signaling with any form of indoor or outdoor baseball. When a player is put out, he signals a letter to the individual who made the "Put-out." If this person fails to answer the signal correctly, the batter or runner is given a second ''life'' and declared safe. (For a more complete description of a similar game see First Aid Baseball, Chapter Thirteen.)

Signal Tag (19).
The principle used in Signal Baseball can be applied to any game in which an individual puts out or tags another individual. Cubs and Brownies enjoy signal tag. When a player is tagged, he signals a letter or numeral to the person who tagged him, and if that person fails to interpret the signal he is still "It."

By W. S. CONDLE, Scoutmaster

"First I divided the boys into two parties and sent them out of the room. While they were out I wrote the following on the blackboard in code: 'Go to Evans' store on High Street for further instructions.' "When they reached Mr. Evans' store they found another paper written in code sending them to a second store, where I had left a map showing the principal streets in the city, buildings, our scout headquarters, and the flower bed on our lawn. Then above

pg. 380

the map I had some reading matter pertaining to Scouting with the word 'Bed' worked in as the key to show them where to start from to find the hidden treasure. Underneath the map mere instructions telling them to go so many paces west, so many east, so many south and so on until they found the buried treasure. (A pound box of jelly beans.)"

Secret Codes (21).
Scouts enjoy inventing their own secret systems of communicating with each other, similar to the one below. Suppose the secret code number were plus 312 and a scout wanted to ask a fellow member: "Will yon go?" He would prepare the message for transmission as follows:

Then he would send or write the secret message: "Zjno zqx hq." Notice that this was obtained by substituting for each letter of the real message a letter farther along in the alphabet as indicated by the figure above it. Thus the first letter of the message Z was found by adding to W, the first letter of the real message, three letters.

Crisscross Secret Writing (22).
The code below has been found to be very interesting to boys and girls. It is easy to learn and use, yet it keeps the uninitiated guessing. No study is required. Both parties who

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wish to communicate in crisscross writing sit with the code above before them.
If the writer were to send "Will you go?" he would write it as follows:

The reader would observe in the code the letters "WX" opposite the arrow pointing to the left. He mould know the letter "W" was intended, otherwise a clot would have been included in the arrow. Similarly he mould locate the square and cipher the letter "I." Notice the dot in the third figure indicating that of tile two letters, "L" is the one intended be-
cause it has a dot over it.
The crisscross code can be easily changed every day in the week. Suppose a message were sent on Thursday the fifth day of the week. The alphabet mould then start with "AB" in the fifth or center space. It is also possible to change the code every day in the month .
Test Sentences. The following sentences, designed for examinations, contain all the letters of the alphabet.
1. Sympathizing would fix Quaker objectives.
2. A. squirrel jumped into view but the black fox only gazed.
3. Mixing a few jet black lazy cats provoked the quarrel.
4. Gaze in extreme joy at quaint hooks filled with very curious paces;
5. A frowning big vice consul quickly punished many jailed ex-citizens.
6. Big prize market value would justify equal exchange.
7. We signify extra prompt zeal by the adjective quick.
8. The brave woman joyfully coaxed the quizzing pickets.
9. The could amaze jokers vexing them by qualified replies.
10. Knowledge proofs are quite above hazy mixed conjectures.



scoutmaster and Scout Captain ask yourself, ''Am T. a grade A, B or C leader? Do I teach Scouting by play, competition, dramatization and experiment as far as possible (Grade A) ; or by observation, demonstration and recitation (Grade 13); or by lecture, book study and examination (Grade C) a" The Chief Scout, Sir Robert Baden-Power, after one of his visits to America, made the interesting observation that the tendency of many American leaders was to "hog it all." He stated further that he did not design the Scouting program as a lot of subject matter for adults to teach to boys and girls, but rather as a program of character-developing activities for boys and girls to teach each other in groups or patrols under the guidance of men and women. With this statement as a basis, Scouting might be described as a program of citizenship-training activities, taught by patrol leaders under the wise guidance of adults, requiring scouts to do their own thinking, planning, executing, and judging.

PART I--Knot Games and Methods
In starting a new troop considerable attention should be given to knots. This subject will have very little appeal if taught as mere hand manipulation in the form of a test to be passed. When handled 387

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388 Scouting Games and Methods

properly, rope work is valuable. (1) It furnishes real and purposeful reasons for patrol meetings at the very start of the troop. (2) It gives troop leaders an opportunity to discover quickly scouts who have practical leadership ability. (3) It gives the more skillful scouts an opportunity to help their fellow members, thus creating fine patrol morale and scout spirit.

Knot Lesson I
This first lesson is very simple, but it holds throughout the interest not only of those who do not know the work, but also of those who are perfectly familiar with knots, including even first class scouts. It includes the square knot and correlated trick nets. As a follow-up to this lesson, the Knot Relay Race No. 5 may be conducted during the troop play period.
Preparation. Line up the troop by patrols in a. single front rank. See that each member is provided with a neckerchief, a handkerchief, or preferably a piece of sash cord about four feet long. If manila rope is used, secure the ends with electrician's tape, adhesive tape, or rubber bands. Never attempt to

pg. 388

teach whipping in the first lesson; it is very difficult and uninteresting.
Teaching the Knot. Stand at the extreme left of the line with back toward the class so that everyone can follow easily. Demonstrate the tying of a square knot with the troop following your actions step by step. When the patrol leaders report that all of their members can tie the knot, conduct a "Champ-Nit" Contest.

Knot "Champ-Nit" Contest (1).
Let the patrol leaders take charge of their patrols, take them to their patrol corners and line them up in single front ranks. On the word "Go" from the scoutmaster or captain, everybody (except patrol leaders who are stationed in front of their patrols) ties a square knot, pulls it taut, and drops it to the floor. Each patrol leader inspects the knots, picks the winner of his patrol and has him step out to act as his assistant. Then the patrol leaders take full charge of their patrols and repeat the above operation, always having the winner step out. After six such contests in a patrol of eight there will be one person left who has

pg. 389

lost every time. He is declared the Patrol "Champ Nit." Now the entire troop is assembled, and by the same process tile Troop "Champ-Nit" is determined from the individual patrol representatives.
Miscellaneous "Champ-Nits." "Champ-Nit" contests similar to the one above are highly recommended for many subjects, because those who have difficulty with the particular thing that is being taught are the very ones who are required to perform the action repeatedly.. This play may of teachings was introduced into Scouting by Sir Robert Baden-Powell who 'first used it successfully with a regiment of soldiers. In training men in dueling he paired them off, and after the first round all who won were eliminated. This operation was repeated in successive rounds. When the final loser was determined, he was not half bad, for he had fought nearly five hundred duels.
The inventive leader will recognize the value of "Champ-Nit" Contests and will devise ways of applying them to many forms of Scouting. The author uses these contests often as a means of review in a troop operated by the patrol method and composed largely of first class scouts. Before the patrols go to their patrol corners, they are instructed to select patrol "Champ-Sits" in such subjects as the following: knots, signaling, bandaging, whittling camp fire duel contests, etc. Then the patrols assemble in troop council rings formation, and the senior patrol leader runs a troop "Champ-Nit" Contest.

Water Rescue Race (2).
This game is especially designed to teach the use of a square knot in a dramatic and impressive manner. However, when the game is used with second or first class scouts, any of the joining knots might be used.

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Part I--Making the the Life Line. Line up the patrols in parallel files. At the starting signal each player joins his rope to that of the person in front of him, and throws up both hands. The patrol with all hands up first wins Part I.
Part II--The Rescue. To secure the desired dramatic effect and to arouse the imagination of the players, Part TI must be directed very carefully. Without explaining why, march the first member of each team straight forward to a distance judged to be a little less than the length of the joined ropes. Now excitedly explain: "Your team mate is in deep water sinking. You have a life line! Save him without letting ,7, single member of your patrol touch the water ! Go !" Now instruct the victims to pantomime a drowning person and also tell them to pull hard on the line when they catch it. The team that hauls in its victim first wins.
The fact that one or more of the patrols mill undoubtedly fail to save their mates impresses all the players that, to be useful, knots must be tied correctly and also that they must know how to coil a line in order to throw it accurately. (See Rope Coiling, Chapter Fourteen.)
Knot Tricks. To arouse and interest your scouts in rope work so that they will practice it during the week, close the first lesson by demonstrating the magician's trick of upsetting a square knot, and the thief knot. Do not make the mistake of actually showings how the tricks are performed. Ask those who catch on to show no one else and see how many will work the trick out before the next meeting. Boys and girls will spend infinitely more time in trying stunts and tricks than in formal knot tying.

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Knot Lesson II

The second lesson may include the rope work that beginners have difficulty with, such as bowline, sheepshank, and whipping.
The instructor should demonstrate these one at a time, and then permit those who have difficulty to get help from their patrol leaders. After a few minutes practice on the knots, conduct competition No. 3.

One Step Tying Competition (3).
In advanced troops this may be conducted by patrols with patrol leaders in charge. Under ordinary conditions it will be better for an adult to take charge of the troop with the patrol leaders acting as judges in their respective patrols.
The instructor names one of the knots previously taught, commands "Go," and then begins counting aloud slowly. Following a certain count previously agreed upon (five more or less), the leader commands, 'Rope,--P)own!" whereupon every one drops his rope. The patrol leaders inspect the knots and have all who tied correctly take one step forward. This is conducted several times, the leader counting one less each time. Occasionally command "Ready, Set, Behind your Back, Tie." Finally those who have taken most steps forward, those in the front row, are declared winners.
At the close of the meeting announce: "At the next meeting we will have a final knot-tying contest. Be prepared to tie all the required knots. The winners mill be the knot leaders of our troop, and thereafter they will do all the instructing and examining."
At this time it is advisable to give those who have shown leadership ability in rope work illustrated knot material to be studied during the week.

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Knot Lesson III
This lesson is nothing more than a formal examination to determine the best knot tyers. Keep an accurate record of all the work, and Five everyone credit for all knots tied correctly. Give the one who is declared "Knot Chief" a copy of this record, and have him, with the assistance of those appointed as instructors, help all who failed, either, at future meetings or by appointment. After this lesson any of the knot games that follow may be played for the purpose of review.



The two scoutmasters were just back from camp, and were sitting by the fire planning the winter's work for their respective troops. "What I intend to do," said Goodenough, "is to start again from zero, beginning with the tenderfoot tests and Working up through the second and first class subjects, but the thing I am up against is how to teach my fellows tile practical use of all these things. I feel that they look upon them as just stuff to be crammed up in order to get through their tests and nothing more. Take knots, for instance, Skipper. How on earth am I to get away from the usual dull way of doing them? I find that knotting just bolts my boys to death."
"Well," said Skipper, "Why not do as I did? Take a leaf out of the Sea Scouts' book, and show your chaps not merely how to tie the knots, but how to put them
to practical use. The name reef knot means nothing to a boy unless he can actually see tile use of it in reefing a sail, and this applies to knots generally. So what I did was to invent a stunt which gives the boy plenty of fun,

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teaches him knots in a way that he will never forget, and incidentally gives him some idea of managing a. sailing boat. We have rigged up a sort of boat which we call the 'Saucy Sal,' and after the boy has been taught his knots by Iris patrol leaders, we take him -for a sail in the clubroom, during which, although not a single knot is mentioned by name, all the tenderfoot knots are used by the scout during the cruise.

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"Have a look at my sketch here and you will get the idea. To rig up your boat you will take three pieces of inch wood 3 feet by 3 inches and nail them together for the base as shown in Sketch R. Fix a cocoa-till lid on the center board in which to step your mast and screw in four cup-hooks at each corner. get hold of an old tent pole for a mast, attach four guys (they are called shrouds by the way) and step your mast. Now you want an old piece of cloth, burlap or canvas about 6 feet by 5 feet. Cut a piece off the top, as you see in this Sketch B, and attach the head to a scout staff, which thus becomes your gaff or yard. Sew on a few curtain rings for cringles, attach a strop to tile gaff 2 feet from the throat, and you are nearly ready to set sail. If in the clubroom, just draw the outline of a boat's deck on the floor, step your mast, have an old box in the stern to form a locker and provide a seat, have some cords for halliards and sheet, also a reel with a broken fishing line and a stick for a tiller, and the 'Saucy Sal' is complete. If you want to see it working, come along to the clubroom tomorrow evening and we will take you for a sail." Accordingly Goodenough went along to Skipper's headquarters the following evening, and found the Saucy Sal ridings at anchor on the clubroom floor and Skipper talking to a young scout alongside.
"Want to pass your tenderfoot knots, did you say?"
"Yes, please sir."
"Oh, well, never mind about that; suppose you come for a sail instead. Be careful how you get in, now; step right in the middle, that's it, good! Just look in that

pg. 395

locker there and you will find a piece of cord with a thimble spliced in it; tie it up here on the mast.') (Boy ties clove hitch.) "Now reeve the! halliard through this eye and tie it to the loop in the strop." (Boy ties bowline.)
"Whats that"" Why is it called a halliard? Why, because it hauls up the yard of course. Have you done that? Good? Now bend the sheet onto this cringle." (Bog ties sheet bend.)
"Is that why it is called a sheet bend, sir?', "Why, of course. Now then, let's shore off; you take the tiller and we will see if we can make the buoy over there. Be careful! We don't want to foul any of the other craft. Now we are going in fine style."
"I say, I don't quite like the look of the weather, there seems to be a squall coming. We must take in a reef." (The skipper and boy reef sail, bending sheet on to a higher cringle.) "Please, sir, that's why they're called reef knots then?"" "Yes, rather, that's it. I say, old chap, what do you say to a bit of fishing?" "Rather, sir."
"Well, you will find a line in that locker. What? It's broken )"
"Never mind, just join it up." (Boy ties fisherman's knot and starts to fish.)
"Look here," said Skipper, "we must be getting back. Ready about! Lee ho! That's the style, you're getting on well. See if you can bring her in yourself. When you get alongside you will hare to drop the sail quickly. I will just show ;you ii dodge for dropping it yourself." (Boy ties sheepshank.) "Now then, all you have to do is pull out the halyard, and down comes Sour sail. Right away, home we go!"
"You get the idea, Goodenough," said Skipper, jumping out of the boat. "Tim has shown that he can not only tie the knots, but also that he knows how and when to use them. The whole thing costs but a few shillings to rig up,

pg. 396

and you can see that with a little ingenuity quite a lot of elementary seamanship can he taught--handling a boat, use of lights, compass directions and so on--and at the same time you can get quite a lot of fun out of it." "What's that, Tim? When can you pass your Tenderfoot knots? Why, you have done it already on board the boat. That's all right. Good night, old man."

Knot Relay Races (5).
Line up the patrols in single files at one end of the room or field. Half way between the patrols and the goal line, at the opposite end of the running space, station one examiner for each patrol. Notice in the diagram that no player acts as examiner for his partner. Instruct each patrol to run as many courses as there are numbers in the largest patrol. Since patrol No. 3 has seven runners, patrol No. 4 must run two men twice and patrols No. 1 and 2 must each run one man twice.
At the starting signal the first member of each patrol, while running, ties a knot which has been previously demonstrated and practiced.
He hands the finished knot to the examiner of his patrol and runs on to the goalline. The examiner inspects the knot, tightens it, and hands it to the runner on his return trip. The runner unties the knot, passes the rope or neckerchief to the second member of his team, and goes to the end of his file. Succeeding runners repeat the performance of the first one, The team wins that receives the greatest number of points scored as follows: one point for the team that

pg. 397

finishes first, and one point for each knot tied correctly.
Below are tying and untying suggestions for the above race:

1. Tie square knot and untie by the upsetting method.
2. Untie and tie the inspector's shoe string using a true bow knot.
3. Join a piece of rope or string to the inspector's handkierchief, using a sheet bend or a weaver's knot.
4. Put a single or double blackwall hitch on the inspector's arm.
5. Tie around the inspector's leg or arm a clove hitch, timber hitch, fisherman's bend or two half hitches.
6. Stand behind the judge and put a bowline around his body, tying it in front of his chest as would be done in raising a person. (See illustration below.)
7. Tie the inspector's wrists together with a handkerchief as for a trench carry or fireman's drag.
8. Tie various knots behind back or with eyes closed.

This relay can be Used to advantage for exhibition purposes or rallies. Inform the spectators that the contestants do not know what knot they will be required to tie. Then have the examiners hand the runners a card of written instructions when they run up. Have no two cards alike for the same team. This should not be tried unless all contestants are sure of their knots, for it is a real test of ability.

pg. 398

Centipede Rope Race (6).
Preparation. Line up the patrols in parallel files as for a relay race, and provide each player with a short piece of rope.
Part 1--Tying Race. Each player ties his rope around his waist and then throws UP both hands. The team with all hands up first wins Part I. Use a joining knot that will not slip, such as square, square bow, surgeon's, sheet bend, or bowline.
Part II--The Centipede. Before starting the race, instruct each player to grasp firmly the rope tied around the waist of the one in front of him. In this formation each file runs to the opposite end of the room or field, turns around to the left, and returns. Caution those in front to increase speed gradually and slow down at the turn so that those in the rear do not lose their grip. If any player loses his grip, his team is disqualified.
Part III Untying Race. After all have crossed the finish line, line up the teams and conduct an untying race. The first team holding all ropes overhead wins.
A humorous variation of the centipede race may be run by having each contestant tie his feet together with one end of his rope. Each player holds the end of the rope of the one in front of him, and in this formation the files hobble forward a short distance.

Line Pull Over (7).
Preparation. Divide the players into two teams, and line them up facing each other on opposite sides of a line, with one foot touching the line. Provide each player with a piece of rope and have him pass it around his opponent's waist.
At the word "Go," each player ties his rope around his opponent 's waist with a knot that will not slip, and then tries to pull him over the line. The team wins that has most players on its side of the line at

pg. 399

the end of one or two minutes. No one is permitted to put his hands on his opponent's rope to prevent him from pulling or tying.

Rope Throwing Contest (8).
This contest creates more interest than would be expected,-in fact, it is quite as popular as the old game of Rings Toss. It is recommended for use at camp or in a troop or club room before or after regular meetings. It has been used successfully with younger boys and girls as an individual club test. When used thus each individual must receive a minimum number of points in a given number of throws,-for example, ten points in five throws.
Preparation. Make a target upon the floor or ground by drawing three concentric circles, about one, two, and three feet in diameter. Twenty feet or more from the target (depending upon the length of the rope and the ability of the players) draw a line behind which the contestants must stand when throwing.
This may be conducted as an individual contest, patrol contest, or tournament. Each contestant is allowed three or more throws. If any part of the rope lies within the center circle score 3 points, 2 points for the middle circle, and 1 point for the outer circle.

PART II--Compass Games

Teaching Compass Points. The points of the compass may be readily taught by the use of games. The leader announces a game and immediately proceeds to teach the compass points that will be required to play the game. In order that players may get to the game as quickly as possible, and so that mental alertness will be required while playing it, the leader should only stop longs enough to teach the points of one

pg. 400

quadrant, letting the players reason out the other points as required.

Compass Point Change (9).
This is a variation of a well known game called Numbers Change. Instead of being numbered, the players are named after the points of the compass.
Preparation. Seat or stand the players in a large circle upon the circumference of an imaginary compass, Mark only the major points N, S, E, W. Name each player after the compass point that he is standing upon. Station the player who is to be "It" in the center of the circle.
It calls two compass points, whereupon the two players who are standing upon those points must change places, while It tries to secure one of their places. If he succeeds, the person without a place becomes It. When players change places they also change names, taking the names of their new positions on the compass,

Compass Swat Tag (10).
This is an adaptation to compass practice of a popular Game called Swat Tag or The Beater Goes Round. (See No. 35, Chapter Three.)
Preparation. Provide a roll of newspaper, boxing gloves, knotted neckerchief or any other thing that can be used for a soft swatter, Arrange the players in a circle standing on the points of an imaginary
compass. Mark the major points N, S, E and 7;V, and simply draw lines on the circumference of the circle for the other points.
The leader. takes his position in the center of the circle and hands the swatter to one of the players, at the same time naming a compass point The player who has the swatter goes to the person he thinks is standing on the point named and gives him one swat

pg. 401

as a starting signal. Following this signal, he chases his victim around the circle, and tries to swat him until he returns to his original position. Then the leader takes the swatter and gives it to another player, and so the game continues.
If any player makes a mistake and swats a person who is not standings on the spot named, he may be made to pass around the circle and receive a swat from each player.

Patrol Compass Race (11).
Preparation Line up the patrols on a starting line and number the members of each patrol as indicated below:

Explain the game, and then permit each patrol to assemble around its circle to study the points. Instruct each patrol to indicate each point on the circumference of the circle by simply drawing lines. Now assemble the patrols behind the starting line and you are ready to play the game.
Assign, preferably in jumbled order, a different point to each player, thus: "Number 1, go northnortheast; Number 2, southwest; Number 3, southsoutheast"; etc. Of course the major points are never assigned. At the starting signal each player races to his circle and touches the point assigned to him with his toe. The leader allows only a few

pg. 402

second for players to find their points and then he commands "Halt," whereupon everyone stops deadstill. The patrol leader counts the number correct on his team and reports. The team having most correct at the end of two or more rounds wins.

Compass Facing (12).
This is a recreational compass game rather than a teaching game. It can be played with any group of people and is recommended for use during a meeting to provide activity for people who have been sittings for considerable time. Tile beauty of the game is that it can be played with a room full of people, for standing room only is required.
The leader directs everybody to stand and face north. Then in rapid succession he calls either states, cities, or compass points. Players quickly face the direction of the city called.
If the leader has ability as a story teller, he can make the game more: interesting by giving his directions in story form thus: "I moved from S W-to Chicago--where I met a girl from New Orleans--who formerly lived in the south. I married her and we went from Chicago-to San Francisco, and then traveled around the world three times.''

PART III--Scout's Pace Races

Patrol Scout's Pace Race (13).
Scoutmasters often fail to remember that running is one of the favorite activities of adolescent boys. This race is recommended as a method of practicing scout's pace and satisfying the insatiable desire of boys for running. It should be used only at the very Close of a troop meeting, and following the run every boy should be required to go home.

pg. 403

Have a scout with a bicycle measure from the door of the troop room as many one-mile courses as there; are patrols in the troop. Lay the courses by measuring points one-half mile away, making each round trip a mile from the troop room. Assign to each, patrol one course, and start the individual patrol members at intervals of at least one minute. Have the patrol leaders run first and let the scoutmaster record the official time of these leaders. Then have the patrol leaders record the time of the members of their respective patrols. The team that receives the lowest average number of points scored as follows wins: anyone running the mile in exactly twelve minutes receives zero; for each second over or under twelve minutes score minus that number of seconds.

Inter-Troop Scout's Pace Race (14).
This race is designed for troop meets and rallies. It provides for a large number of participants.
Start the runners from one or more points approximately a mile from the field at which the spectators are assembled. Of course the runners are not informed as to the exact spot at which the mile ends, and they are not permitted to carry watches. All entrants start off together. Exactly twelve minutes after, the start a gun is fired as a signal for all runners to stop in their tracks. A scoring system similar to the one following may be used Everyone within 50 feet on either side of the exact spot at which the mile ends receives 5 points; 100 feet, 3 points; 150 feet, 1 point.

Scout's Pace Window Race (15).
Lay out one mile round-trip courses just as in the race above (No. 13). Arrange these coursers so that the runners will all pass the same store window, the contents of which were previously noted by the senior patrol

pg. 404

leader. The race is conducted the same as No. 13, except that thirteen minutes are allowed for running the mile. This gives the scout one minute (scent to estimate the minute) to observe the contents of the window. Score the run just as in game No. 13 To Let the final score subtract from the average running score of each patrol the average number of things observed in the window.

PART IV--First Aid Games

First Aid Baseball (16).
Of the many first aid Games that I have personally used with scouts, the following has been most successful. The boys asked for it repeatedly, and we used it especially the night before any of the scouts were to appear for official first aid examinations. It can be played either outdoors, or indoors on a comparatively small area.
Preparation. Divide the troop into two teams with any number of players on a team, and toss for ''Ins'' or "Outs." Now the two teams meet separately, and the captain of each assigns to each member of his team a first aid ailment or injury. The teams are allowed plenty of time to discuss their ailments to be sure that each player knows just how he must dramatize his particular ailment.
The ball game is played much like regular baseball. A soft playground or rubber ball about three inches in diameter is hit with the hand, and a runner may be put out just as in regular baseball and also by being hit with the ball. The pitcher, who acts as the catcher also, takes his position just outside the diamond at home plate opposite the batter. When a player is put out, he is given a second chance as follows: The instant the umpire calls "Out" the player acts out or pantomimes his particular ailment.

pg. 405

If the ailment involves unconsciousness, naturally the boy cannot answer questions, and so he must drop to the floor in an unconscious condition. However, if he is conscious, he must answer questions that are put to him. The person who put him out acts as doctor, diagnoses the case, and then gives or tells the treatment. If he does this to the satisfaction of the umpire, the victim is declared out, otherwise he is declared "Safe." If, because of poor acting or unconsciousness, the doctor is unable to diagnose the case, the umpire orders the victim to tell his troubles anti the failure is not counted against the doctor.
It will be recognized that this game can be applied to many farms of Scouting. In knot baseball a player when put out would be required to tie a certain knot; in tenderfoot baseball he would be required to answer a tenderfoot question, in signaling he would be called upon to receive either a letter or a word, in nature study he would have to correctly identify a nature specimen, etc.

First Aid Question Baseball (17).
This is a mental game that may be used as a recreational method for conducting examinations in various subjects.
Preparation. Divide the players into two teams. Since it is not essential that the teams be of equal size or ability, it is well to pit patrols against each other.
Seat the patrols opposite each other at one end of the room with a chair between them indicating "home." Lay out the diamond by placing chairs for the three bases. Appoint a person proficient in first aid as well as baseball to act as umpire.
The first batter takes his position in the batter's chair. A member of the "Outs," who is of the same scout rank as the batter, is selected to pitch a question

pg. 406

at the batter. The batter answers to the best of his ability. Wow the pitcher tries to cut down the value of the hit (answer) by criticizing the answer. If other members of the Outs can think of further criticisms, they add them when the pitcher has finished. This completes the action for the Outs. Wow for the first Dime the umpire enters the game, correcting any errors and deciding upon the number of bases the batter shall be given, or whether he is out. When three are out the sides change places.
The umpire should award the batter the base merited by his answer as discussed by the Outs. For example: poor, batter is out; fair, batter gets first base; good, second base; excellent, third base; perfect, home run.


1. Each player of the Outs takes his turn as pitcher.
2 A batter may be caught out on the fly. To do this the instant a batter makes a mistake a member of tile Oats must jump up and correct it.
3. a player on base may attempt to steal by adding to or correcting an answer given by a batter on Iris side.
4 If a player is on base and a member of the Outs makes a mistake, tile player is allowed to advance a base on tile fielder's error.
5. Instantly after a question is asked tile umpire be, gins calling strikes. If he calls three strikes before tile batter begins to answer, lie is out.
6. If a pitcher pitches a question that has been asked before, the umpire calls a ball;, and calls for a new pitcher.

Patrol First Aid Chain Quiz (18)
This is an adaptation of a spell down with one patrol pitted against another.
Seat the patrols in line opposite

pg. 407

each other. No. 1 of patrol A asks No. 1 of patrol B a first aid question. If the latter answers incorrectly, he joins the chain of his opponents (sits on end), and loses his opportunity to ask No. 1 of patrol A a question. If he answers correctly, he remains in his position and asks his opponent a question. The other players in turn repeat this operation, asking questions back and forth. The! questions asked depend upon the rank of the one who is to answer; that is, a first class scout is asked a first class question, etc. The patrol that has most players on its side after every player has had a turn wins.

Ailments and Remedies (19).
Part I-Ailments. A schoolroom with a large blackboard is desirable for this game, which will be found valuable because of the discussion that automatically accompanies it. The patrols are seated in files, and each member in the first seat is provided with chalk. The first player of each patrol writes an ailment that may have been assigned to him or that be may have thought of himself. He returns to his seat and hands the chalk to the second player, and so on until all ailments are written. The team wins that completes its list first with no two alike.
Part II--Remedies. This is another relay race in which the teams write opposite the ailments partial remedies in a few words, as suggested in the list below :

Ailments and Remedies
1. Burn--Oil
2. Cut Artery--Tourniquet
3. Drowning--Schafer Resuscitation
4. Fit- Wedge Teeth
5. Shock--Heat and Stimulation
6. Simple Cut--Iodine and Bandage
7. Sprain--Heat and Rest
8. Toothache--Oil of Cloves

pg. 408

Patrol Bandaging Relay (20).
Preparation. Send each patrol to a corner of the room to practice the various applications of the triangular bandage. Explain that in the game to follow no two players will be permitted to apply a bandage to the same place on it victim. After all patrol leaders report that they are prepared, line the patrols up in parallel files at one end of the room. Station a person in front of each patrol to act as both victim and judge.
Part I--Applying the bandage. In regular relay fashion each player in turn runs to the victim and applies his bandage as previously directed by his patrol leader. Each patrol receives one point for each bandage reported correct by the judge. The team that finishes first receives one additional point.
Part II--Removing Bandages. Again in relay fashion each player removes his bandage. The patrol with all bandages removed first wins.
When the patrols are uneven, the judges may be selected from those that have the greatest number of men. Of course scouts can use their neckerchiefs as bandages.
When some of the scouts are without neckerchiefs the following variation of the above relay may be conducted, in which only one bandage for each patrol is required. The judge is stationed in front of each patrol. The first player puts on the bandage, the second player takes it off and carries it to the third who puts it on, etc.

Transportation Relay Races (21).

pg. 409

Line up the troop anti teach methods of carrying the injured. Send the patrols to their corners and let them practice the carries under the direction of their patrol leaders. After a few minutes practice line up the patrols in parallel files for the relay.
The Race. Carries in which two players carry one are to be preferred for relays to those in which one person carries another. For this race a wooden chair is recommended. No. 1 is carried a short distance by. No. 2 and 3. Then they run back, and No. 2 is carried by No. 3 and 4. This is continued until the last two players in the file carry a victim. When patrols of uneven numbers compete, some of the players in the smaller patrols will have to be carried twice to give all teams an equal chance.

Official Boy Scout First Aid Race (22).
Below is a copy of the official first aid race of the Boy Scouts of America. The patient must not be more than ten pounds lighter than the average weight of his rescuers. In official races two scouts act as rescuers. However for practice work this may be used as a patrol event.
"Scouts run 50 yards to patient; apply triangular bandage to head, and spiral reverse from wrist to elbow

pg. 410

put arm in triangular bandage sling form fourhanded seat and carry patient back at a walk. Team to furnish bandages. Surplus bandage need not be brought back with the patient. Judge--a doctor or first aid expert--shall disqualify team if all bandages are not correctly, neatly and firmly clone, or if scouts run with Or jolt patient."
It must, be recognized that the events in which national records are determined on a time basis must be absolutely standardized. When events similar to the above are conducted for exhibition purposes rather than in an attempt to establish a national record, they may be varied. Usually the rescuers do not know what injuries the victim has until they reach him and read a card pinned upon him. The victim is often carried to the starting line on a stretcher, and the distance is usually less than 50 yards. First place is awarded to the team whose first aid treatment is best, regardless of tile time, provided it finishes within a time limit of about ten minutes.

PART V-Campcraft Contests

Tenderfoot Fire Race (23).
This contest is especially designed for use in the first lesson in fire-building However, all scouts present might be allowed to enter, for they all enjoy it. The object of the race is to build a fire that will burn a line stretched taut between two uprights. The line (string or heavy cord) should be a foot and a half high and may be stretched between trees. Be sure to clear a lane at least four feet wide underneath the string.
Part I--Fire-Building. Divide the contestants into teams of two each if fuel is plentiful, otherwise use patrols as teams. Let each team select its spot

pg. 411

under the line, cautioning everyone to make due allowance for the wind. Now let each team gather material to make a Buzz-Stick Substitute. (See Fire No. 2, Chapter X.) Then assemble all the contestants, show them how to make substitute. and also demonstrate a. Pyramid Fire. (See Fire No. 3, Chapter X.) Finally explain the following rules of the contest:
1. No fire to be more than one foot high.
2. No one allowed either to touch a fire or add a single stick of wood after it is lighted.
3. The team whose fire lay passes inspection first wins Part I.
Part II--Line Burning Race. Since the object of this contest is to teach the laying of a simple fire, every fire should be critically inspected before starting the race. After passing inspection, each team is given two matches and when all teams are ready the starting signal is given. The team whose fire burns the line through wins.

Fuzz-Stick Whittling Contest (24).
This contest might best be conducted at the indoor meeting preceding the hike upon which the Patrol Water Boiling Contest No. 25 is to be used. It presupposes a sharp knife, and since they are rare the contest should be announced a week Give each contestant a softwood stick in advance.

pg. 412

about one inch square and one foot long. At the word "Go" everyone starts whittling. The one who has the greatest number of shavings: on his stick at the expiration of a two or three minute time limit wins. Following is a better way to score recommended by the Woodcraft League: "Allow one hundred points for perfection. Take off five points for each sliver that falls to the ground, and five points for every sliver that is under four inches long. Other points may be taken off for bad form. The idea is to produce a full fuzz-stick that will surely catch fire from one match."

Patrol Water Boiling Contest (25).
Part I--FireBuilding. Part I, the preparation for the race, is the most important part of this contest, which is designed to teach scouts how to lay a fire that can be used to cook a small meal in the shortest time possible.
Have the senior patrol leader carefully erect a crisscross fire 12x12x12 inches and hang a pot over it. (See Fire No. 4.) Then assemble the patrols and discuss the fire and pot-hangers. Mow see that each patrol is provided with the necessary equipment, and let each patrol get busy preparing for Part IT. Each patrol should be assigned a specific spot. These spots should be close together so that the scent leader can supervise the troop. When patrols report "Ready,'' their fires should be inspected. The patrol whose fire passes inspection first wins.
Part II Water Boiling. When all fires have passed inspection, the Water Boiling Contest is started. Tile patrol whose water boils first wins.
Suggested Rules. 1. The size of each fire should be no larger than one cubic foot.
2. Two matches are allowed each patrol.' After the fire is lighted no one is permitted to touch either the fire, the pot, or the pot-hanger. To farm a wind-

pg. 413

break, the members of any patrol map form themselves in any way they please. No one should be permitted to create an artificial draft.
3. Each pot should contain one quart of water.
4. Each patrol leader should act as judge for some patrol other than his own.
5. Judges shall not pronounce "Boiling" until the water breaks out in the form of steam and large bubbles over its entire surface. As the boys say, the water must be "jumping." When small pails are available, add a spoonful of powdered soap or soap shavings to the water and then pronounce: "Water must boil over.''

Individual Water Boiling Contest (26).
The following is the official Water Boiling Contest, of the Boy Scouts of America.
"Officials to furnish a one-quart water bucket with wire handle, single ply tin, filled with water to within 1/2 in of top, shavings of soap added: one stick of

pg. 414

well seasoned wood 311 by 3" by 36"; two matches Contestants to furnish knife or as. No preliminary preparation of fireplace or of wood permitted. Only two matches allowed and spilling of water disqualifies. Water must boil over.''

Pup Tent Pitching Contest (27).
This is a contest for two scouts recommended for rallies and intertroop meets. Each scout carries a shelter-half rolled and tied with a tent rope like a blanket roll. The scouts are also provided with standard length poles and the required number of tent pegs. All of the scouts in the contest fall in on line with sufficient working distance between pairs. At the word "Go" one of the scouts of each team marks the spot for his front tent pole by making a heel mark on the line, and together the partners erect their tent. When, the scents have erected their tents to their own saisfaction with poles erect, all buttons buttoned and sides taut, they line up in front of their tents, throw up both hands, and yell to attract the attention of the judges.

PART VI--Estimation Contests

Distance Judging Contest (28).
This is a patrol contest designed for practice in estimating distance and for a preliminary lesson in map making.
part I--Determining Pace. Line up a patrol on a starting line drawn across the road. Let each member walk down the road and mark the spot that he estimates to be one hundred feet from the starting line. Now measure the distance, and declare as winner the one nearest the one hundred foot mark. Then let each player pace this distance several times at a natural walk to determine the average number of steps he takes in one hundred feet.

pg. 414

Part II--Estimating Distance. Now continue the hike and point out a distant spot along the route. The patrol leader writes down the estimate of each individual to the indicated spot. Sow the distance is paced by each player and the average distance determined. The one whose estimate is nearest correct receives 3 points; second, 2 points; third, 1 point. A number of distances are estimated: the one who has the highest score at the end of the hike is winner.

Patrol Night Estimation (29).
This contest is designed for night scouting for a patrol at camp. Sometime before the night hike the scouts should hare practice in estimating and pacing distance, similar to that described in game So. 28 above.
One of the scouts goes on ahead for whatever distance he desires and holds up a flash light. Each scout estimates the distance to the light. Then they all walk on pacing the distance they estimated. Every scout is on his honor to stop at the spot he estimated the light to be. To avoid calculating, each scout estimates the distance by the number of his own paces. The one nearest the exact spot wins. Of course the scout who showed the light will conceal himself and secretly mark the spot.

Troop Estimation Contest (30).
This contest will appeal to scoutmasters because it suggests a practical way in which to use the members of a troop committee.
Preparation. Arrange to have the troop committeemen, the assistant scout masters, and the scoutmaster at the meetings place before any of the scouts arrive. Prepare each man to take charge of one of the requirements in estimation,-including distance, size, number, height and weight.
When the first 'scout arrives, the senior patrol leader hands him a card and sends him to the scoutmaster

pg. 416

The scoutmaster tests the scout in one of the estimation requirements, writes his score and name on the scout's card, and sends him on to the next examiner. In this way the scout meets the members of the troop committee. This operation is repeated with all scouts in order of their arrival. Thus all members of the troop meet all the troop leaders and receive practice in estimation. The patrol wins that receives the highest average score.

PART VII--Scout Drill

Scout Drill (31).
Some form of drill is absolutely necessary to facilitate the handling of a large group in an orderly and efficient manner. Unfortunately, military drill requires a precision and accuracy of movement which can be obtained only by intensive practice under the direction of a person who has had considerable military training. As a substitute for military drill a form of drill called Scout Drill is becoming popular with both scouts and their leaders. Scout Drill is especially useful for leaders who have not had military training, and for that reason it is very much used throughout the country in leadership training courses.
Scout Drill of the individual is the same as military drill in such fundamentals as attention, rests, facings, dressings, steps, marchings, etc. It differs principally from military in that marching and maneuvering are not used to secure formations. Instead of marching to formations by commands, the scouts run to the positions required in response to a silent arm signal given by the leader in command. Boys and girls look upon Scout Drill as a game. They respond more quickly to quiet signals than they do to formal commands; in fact, they race to positions as football players jump to

pg. 417

signals. However, it must not be assumed that scouts will become proficient in any form of drill without considerable practice.
1."Freeze." Before giving any command, the leader gives the troop call or blows a whistle, whereupon every scout faces the leader, freezes on the spot (ceases all activity), and watches and listens for a signal or command.
2. Informal Assembly. To call the troop or a patrol together for a yell or rally the leader blows a whistle, or gives the troop or patrol call, and then swingy his extended right arm in a small circle over his head. The scouts gather by patrols in compact order in front of the leader.
3. Single Rank Formation. To get the troop to fall in by patrols in a single rank, the leader stands with right arm sideward horizontally, palm to the front. He stands three paces in front of the spot upon which No. 1 of the first patrol is to stand as right guide. In scout drill, wherever space permits, scouts form in single rank with an interval between patrols. The senior patrol leader usually takes charge of the troop in regular formations.
4. Parallel File Formation. To form the troop by patrols in parallel files for games or instruction, the leader stands with right hand raised and fingers spread. He takes his position three paces in front of the imaginary line upon which patrol No. 1 falls in with the other patrols at intervals at the left of the first.
5. Council or "U" Formation. To form the troop in a "I!" shape for ceremonies, business meetings, or instruction, the leader stands with upper arms extended sideward and forearms raised. He takes his position in the center of the "U" with patrols So. 2

pg. 418

and 3 in front of him, patrol No. 1 on the right flank, and patrol No. 4 on the left flank.
6. Troop Circle formation. To form a circle, the leader stands with right arm extended forward pointing at the spot on which No. 1 of the first patrol is to take his position, as right guide. Then the leader turns around in a complete circle to the right with right arm still extended.

Patrol Drill Competition (32).
This competition is designed for the troop beginning drill. It will suggest more! advanced competitions for troops proficient in drill.
Immediately following drill instruction, line up two patrols in single front rank facing each other, with a two or three pace interval between opposite patrols. A command is given by the leader and executed by all the players. Each player is supposed to observe errors of the player directly opposite him. When anyone fails to execute a command perfectly he is pointed out by his opponent or by the leader and then he is required to join the opposite patrol. The patrol that has most players at the end of the game is the winner. To prevent players from missing intentionally. so that they may rejoin their own patrol, all who miss a certain number of times (three or more) should be required to run the gauntlet.

pg. 319


To make this chapter complete it has been necessary to include more knots than the average person will ordinarily require. Where several methods for tying the same knot are given, select the most useful one for the particular conditions under which the knot will usually be tied. The illustrations are made from actual photographs, so that any knot may easily be learned by following the illustrations step by step.

PART I--Knot Elements and Terms
part I must be studied carefully in order to understand the terminology used throughout the chapter.

1. A Bight is formed by laying any part of a rope Alone side of or parallel to any other part of the rope.

Rope Parts
a. The Free End is the part used in tying: the knot. The Standing Part is that upon which the pull is exerted. An End Loop is formed by placing the free end either over or under the standing part. 423

pg. 423

Underhand Loop
3.This is formed by picking up the rope wit palms down, making a loop: with the left hand, and placing it under the part in the right.

Overhand Loop
4. Form a loop by laying a turn on top of the part in the right hand.

Bound Turn
5. This is formed by coiling the rope completely around itself, as illustrated, or by turning it around an object.

Simple Hitch
6. Pass the rope around an object and partly secure or hitch it by placing the free end E over the standing part.

pg. 424

Half Hitch
7 Many authorities do not distinguish between a simple hitch and a half hitch. In a half hitch the end is passed over the standing part and then secured more firmly by passing it under its own standing part. If the object about which a half hitch has been made is withdrawn, an overhand knot will remain.

Overhand Knot
8 This is illustrated both loosely formed and drawn taut. Pass the end either over or under the standing part, and then through the end loop. This is the simplest of all knots. It is used to form other knots, to secure the end of a rope from unraveling, or to prevent a rope from slipping through a hole.

PART II--Whipping and Lashing

For practicing knot-tying use rope at least a quarter of an inch in diameter and four feet long. White, woven, cotton rope, or braided clothesline, called sash cord, is preferable to twisted or stranded manila or hemp rope. Sash cord may be used for a lesson or two without binding the ends.
Whipping, or securing the end of a rope to prevent it from unraveling by binding it with whipping cord, is a rather difficult and uninteresting operation,

pg. 425

which should not be taught in the first lesson if it can be avoided. For this lesson the ends may be, bound with adhesive tape, electrical tape, or rubber bands. If the instructor cannot conveniently do this before the first lesson, he may teach the temporary whipping. Fig. 9.
Any form of whipping is less liable to come off if it is dipped in hot paraffin. The only way that a whipping can be made absolutely secure is to sew it with a needle. Use! hard, strong twine such as fish line; never use soft string. The secret of successful whipping is to pull each turn just as hard as the twine will stand, and lay all turns as closely together as possible.

Temporary Whipping'

9. Hold the end of a short piece of twine on the end of the rope with the left thumb, and take a: loose turn anti a half around both twine and rope, winding toward the left hand.

10. Pass E over A and under turns B and C.

1The author has never seen this in print before. It was taught to him by Mr. J. M. Drew of tile University of Minnesota.

pg. 426

11. To complete, pull hard on both ends of the twine !no harm clone if they break), and cut both ends as closely as possible.

Whipping Stranded Rope
12. Unlay one strand of the rope, and place the twine in the space left by the strand.

13. Relay the strand, and wind the twine around the rope three or more times, pulling each turn tightly.

14. Lay the end of the twine E on top of the whipping and hold it in place with the thumb of the left hand. Take three or more turns around both the twine and the rope.

pg. 427

15. To complete the whipping, pull the end in the direction indicated by the arrow, and cut off the surplus twine as closely a possible.

Single Whipping
16. Fold back three inches of the end of the twine, lay the bight thus formed on the end of the rope, and hold it in place with the left thumb. Wind the twine toward the end of the rope around both the bight and the rope.

17. Take the desired number of wrappings and pass the end E through the end loop of the bight. To complete, pull the end A until the loop is half way under the whipping, and cut off the surplus twine.
This form of whipping is also called center lashing, because it can be used when the ends are inaccessible, to lash together ropes, poles, etc.

pg. 428

Rope Lashing

18. Start all lashings by putting a clove Hitch (See Fig 65) on one of the members. bind them together with the desired number of turns, take a turn or two between the members around the lashing, and finish by tying either a square knot or a surgeon's knot underneath.

PART III--End Knots

An end knot, also called a stopper knot, is used to prevent the end of . rope from unravelling or to prevent it from slipping through a hole or through a pulley block. End knots vary from the simplest of all knots, an overhand, to the fancy manrope knot.

Blood Or Double Overhand Knot
19. This gets its name from the fact that it is used in a whip lash supposedly to draw blood.

Figure Eight Knot
20.Pass the end over and then under the standing part, and finally down through the end loop. This is easier to untie than an overhand knot and causes less strain on the rope fibers.

pg. 429

Stevedore Knot
21. This is a simple variation of the figure eight, made by carrying the end around the standing part twice before passing it through the end loop.

Crown Knot
22. This is used for starting and finishing fancy end knots. To make it, unlay the end for about three inches, and pass A down between B and C.

23. Lead B between A and C.
24. Pass C through the loop of A, and tighten by simultaneously twisting and pulling each strand.
An End Splice may be made by weaving the loose ends of a crown knot alternately over and under the rope strands.

pg. 430

Wall Knot
25 Lead A behind B, and form a loop on the left as illustrated.
26. Lay B behind A and C.
27. Twist C around B, and pass it through the loop of A. Tighten by twisting and pulling.

Wall and Crown 28.
This combination makes a secure end fastening Make a wall and put a crown on top of it.

Double Wall

29. This will securely hold an end subject to hard usage. Make a single will loosely, and follow the lead of each strand a second time.

pg. 431

Manrope Knot
30. "First a wall,
Then a crown, Now tuck up,
And then tuck down."
This is not difficult to make with colored strands.

PART IV--Joining Knots

SQuare Knot
31.Lay the left-hand rope on top of the right, and hold both with the left hand, as illustrated.

32. Reach under with the right hand and twist the top rope around the one underneath.

33. Cross the rope in the right hand on top of that in the left.
Caution beginners to remember that first the left is crossed over the right, and next the right over the left. Failure to cross in this opposite manner produces a false reef or produces a granny knot.

pg. 432

34. Twist the ends around each other and tighten the knot.
Can a square knot be made just as well by crossing the right over the left in, the first operation"

35. Since a knot instructor must be able to detect errors quickly, he should study carefully the cuts of finished knots, in order to have a clear mental picture of them.
Wherein does a granny differ from a square?
A square knot is used for joining dry, equal sized small ropes, twine, or bandage.

Upsetting Square Knot
36. Hold with the left hand and jerk with the right.

37. Pull with left hand, sliding the rope through right palm.
An instructor can use this as the magician does. Tie a square knot, and pass it to some one to tighten. Then take it saying, "Oh! I can get it tighter than that." Pretending to tighten upset it, and slip the end through.

pg. 433

Thief Knot
38. A leader can have a lot of fun with a thief knot. After teaching square knot he says to the class. "A funny thing, look! If I tie this knot behind my back it will not hold." Then, behind his back, he forms a bight in the left hand and passes the other end up through the bight and around it.

Surgeon's Knot 39.
Twist the ends each other twice. Now, if the wrists are crossed, the first part of the knot will tighten and hold while the second part is being tied.

40. Finish just as in the square knot.
Why is a surgeon's knot better than a square knot for tying bundles?

True Bow Knot
41. This common knot is often tied incorrectly in shoe strings, making a granny knot. In a true bow the bights lie on the same side of the loops as the standing parts.

pg. 434

Fisherman's Knot
42. Lay the parts to be joined side by side. Tie overhand knots around standing parts. When tied correctly the free ends and the standing parts lie within the loops of the overhand knot.

A fisherman', knot will hold small wet or dry lines of equal or unequal size, of the same or of different material.

Weaver's or Thumb Knot
43.; Cross the ends, placing left on top of right. If the ropes are of unequal size the larger must be on the left, on top.

44. Carry the (smaller) rope in the right hand toward the body, and pass it under its own end and over the end of the other rope.

45. Pass the larger rope through the loop, behind the thumb, and into the palm. Notice that the left thumb has remained on top of the larger rope throughout all of the above operations. That is why this is also called "Thumb Knot. "

pg. 435

46. Hold the bight in: the left hand and jerk with the right.

47. To facilitate untying, insert a stick when the knot is used to join temporarily ropes that are under heavy strain or in the water.

Sheet Bend
48.When ropes of unequal size are to be joined, remember the saying; "B-R, big bight," and form a bight with the bigger rope. Pass the smaller rope up through the bight.

49.Paw smaller rope away from the body, and under the bight.

pg. 436

50. Now pass smaller rope under its own part and pull taut. The names "Sheet" Bend" and "Weaver's Knot" are often used synonymously since the finished knots are very similar. However, the finished knots are not exactly the same and they are formed differently. The sheet bend gets its name from the fact that sailors use " to bend (tie) a sheet (rope used to set a sail).
The weaver's is named thus because weavers use it constantly for joining broken threads, since the finished knot is very small. Both knots are used to join various materials of equal or unequal size

Double Sheet Bend
51. In a double sheet bend the end of the smaller rope is passed around the bight twice, going under its own standing part each time.
This is more secure than a single sheet bend, and is especially useful for joining heavy, wet, slippery lines, leather thongs, etc.

Tiller Hitch
52. This is a sheet bend with an end doubled back upon itself.
A tiller hitch is used to join lines so that they can be released very quickly if necessary, as in a boat tiller line.

pg. 437

Carrick Bend
53. This is very easy to tie when started as illustrated. Make an underhand end loop with one of the ropes, hold it on a flat surface. and lay the other rope under it.

54. Now weave the rope in the right hand alternately over and under each part that it crosses.

55.To complete, the ends must be lashed to the standing parts. when used without lashing, an excellent knot is formed that might be called a double bowline, but it is not a carrick bend.
A carrick bend is principally used to join very heavy cables or boat towlines.

pg. 438

Joining Knot Board
56. The illustration of the knot board shows the following less common joining knots: Binder Knot, Bowline Bend, Flemish Loop, Hawser Bend, Reeving Line Bend.
This type of board requires study of a specific knot subject and is more valuable than the usual heterogeneous board.
What other knot boards might be made illustrating specific subjects How many of the knots can you name without looking at the titles

PART V--Hitches and Ties

Blackwall Hitch
57. This simple hitch is made by passing the free end behind a hook, and then under the standing part.
A blackwall hitch is used for raising and lowering heavy weights. Great care must be taken when using it, for it will hold only when under constant strain.

Timber Hitch
58. Pass the line about the timber from left to right, and secure it with a half hitch. To complete, pass the free end around a second time.

pg. 440

Timber Hitch Secured
59. In practical work a timber hitch is secured with a simple hitch as illustrated. This hitch prevents the timber or other object from twisting and turning while it is being hauled or towed.

Killick Hitch
60. This variation of a timber hitch is made by jamming the two hitches together, even closer than illustrated
A killick hitch can be especially recommended for securing a stone to an anchor line.

Two Half Hitches
61. This hitch is often made incorrectly, by doing the thing that is most natural, i.e., making the first hitch as illustrated and finishing by passing the end under instead of over the standing part.

pg. 441

Fisherman's or Anchor Bend
62. Take a round turn about an object, pass the end over the standings part, and then under the turns.
63. Finish with a half hitch, and secure, either by jamming the hitches or by a lashing.

Malay Hitch
64. This illustrates a method of joining together boards without nails for bridge and tower building.

Clove Hitch
This is probably the most valuable of all hitches. It is used for securing a line to a round object, mooring boats, fastenings guy ropes, starting lashing, etc.
There are many methods of making a clove hitch; however, if only one is to be learned, the following is recommended since it can be used anywhere.

pg. 442

Clove Hitch Around Post
65. Pass the end around the post over the standing part, around the post a second time and then under its own part.

Beginners Clove
66 Make two underhand loops, and hold as illustrated.
67 Place right hand loop on top of left, drop over an object, and tighten.

Sailor's Clove
68. Hold strain with left make underhand loop with right, and drop it over a post
69. Complete with a second underhand loop.

pg. 443

Cowboy's Clove
70. Make overhand loop and hold it in left hand. Grasp rope about a foot away from left hand with palm of right hand up.

71. Turn right toward body forming underhand loop, bring knuckles together, and grasp both loops with left hand.

Circus Clove
72. Cross right arm over left and pick up the rope.
73. Uncross arms, and let ends drop, forming two loops.
74. Pass right loop into left hand.

pg. 444

One Hand Clove
75. Grasp a bight with right hand, palm down.
76. Turn palm up, crossing the bight.
77: Carry hand above crossing, grip bight firmly with thumb, turn palm down, and pick up nearer part. If grip of thumb was maintained you have a clove hitch.

Hitching tie
78. Pass line around POST, leaving a long free end. Hold with left and throw free end over, forming loop, L.
79. Reach through L and grasp free end
80. Pull a bight through the loop.

pg. 445

81. Jam the knot against the post, and, to prevent a clever animal from untying, pass end over standing part and through the bight.
The hitching or manger tie is used for securing an animate or inanimate object to a post, beam, or ring. It is especially recommended for fastening a life-boat, because it can be released by a single quick jerk.

Cattle Rustler's or Lover's Knot
82. This knot may be recommended as an excellent method for securing the ends of a middy Die or neckerchief, as illustrated.
To facilitate illustrating, rope has been used instead of cloth, and the hands have been reversed (i.e., the left hand has been placed upon the left) so that the illustrations can be followed with less difficulty.

pg. 446

83. Place a rope, neckerchief, or middy tie around the neck. Pass the end of A around the left- thumb, and hold it against the body with the left hand.
84. Pass B over and around both parts of A.
85. Bring A down, between the crossing of A and B and place it between the fingers. Now grasp B with the right hand from behind.
86. Pass B over A and then through the loop around the thumb. To complete, straighten the folds and even the ends.

pg. 447

PART VI--Fixed and Running Loops

Sailor's Bowline
87. Place free end on top of standings part, and hold both: parts with right hand. Grasp loop with left hand about six
inches below the right. Notice: palms are down.

88. Turn palm of right hand:: up, at the same time carrying q the part in left hand around free end, as indicated by arrow in Fly. 87.
This kink is a little difficult;
but it is so much superior to the "Landlubber Method" of making an overhand loop and passing the end through it, that it is worth the effort.

89. Pass end behind standing part and then down through the loop.

pg. 448

90. To tighten, hold both loop and free end with right hand and pull with left.
The sailor's method of tying a bowline is the one most commonly used and taught.

A bowline is used for any purpose in which a fixed loop is needed on the end, of a rope. It is 80 commonly used for life saving that it is sometimes called the life saving knot.

Cowboy's Bowline
91. Pass end about post or animals neck. Form overhand loop, and hold as illustrated.

92. With thumb and first two fingers reach through L and grasp S. Hold end between third and little finger and pull through loop L.

pg. 449

93. Pass end through the bight.
94. Turn end back upon itself and jerk with left 95. What is the difference between the sailor's a cowboy's bowline?

Underhand Bowline
96. Start with half hitch.
97. Transfer loop to standing ,part by pushing up with the left and pulling down with right.

98. Complete as illustrated.
The cowboy and underhand bowline hitching are used as ties.

pg. 450

Bowline on a Bight
99. Form a bight, and secure the figure illustrated by. any of the methods below.
a. loosely tie an overhand knot.
b. Form an overhand loop, and pass the end of the bight through it
c. Use the method, illustrated in the sailor's bowline, Figs. 87 and 88.

100.Pull the bight down, open it, pass it behind the overhand knot, and hold it with the left hand.

101. Reach under loop with right hand, grasp parts coming down through and pull them taut. Remember: maintain grip of left hand throughout.
102. Bowline on a bight complete.

pg. 451

Man Sling
103.When a bowline on a bight is used as a man sling one loop should be made smaller than the other. Pass smaller loop over victim's shoulders and the larger under his knees Use one line as a guy rope to hold him away from the building while he is being lowered with the other. A bowline on a bight can be used where a fixed loop is desired, either on the end or in the middle of a rope.
Would there be an objection to making two fixed loops By tying a sailor's bowline with a bight?

Slip Knot
104. Tie an overhand knot around the standing part so that the free end lies in the same direction as the standing part.

Since a slip knot is insecure, it is advisable to put an, overhand knot in the free end, especially when it is:" used for heavy bundles as a starting tie.
Avoid the obsolete term "halter knot,'' for it gives knot tiers the false impression that a slip knot is a good hitching tie, and there is also danger of confusing it with another knot called the halter tie.

pg. 452

Running Bowline
105. Tie a sailor's bowline around the standing part.
This knot is decidedly superior to the slip knot for making a running' noose.

Packer's Knot
106. Tie a figure eight knot around the standing part.
This is used by packers in starting to tie large bundles. It is superior to a slip knot because it holds more securely.

Tomfool Knot
107. Grasp rope as illustrated and lay it on a table.
108. Turn both hands toward the left, forming two loops.

pg. 453

109. Reach through the loops, grasp the standing parts, and let the ends drop.
110. To complete, pull the loops through each other,

The tomfool or double-running knot is also called the handcuff' knot. It gets the name "tomfool" because it is used as a trick knot. Try this; tie it quickly in front of a novice and then let him try it.
A tomfool can be used as a jug knot to carry a bottle that has a neck similar to a milk bottle. Slip the neck through the center of the knot, join the ends with a square knot, and the loops will serve as handles.

Chair Knot
111. Adjust the loops of a tomfool knot to the size desired, and secure them with a simple hitch.
The chair knot may be used as a man sling or barrel sling. (See Fig. 103).

pg. 454

112. A trick knot which is a modification of the chair knot can be made by laying down four underhand loops, and pulling the center loops through each other

113.When pulling the bights through the outside loops let the standing parts slip through the fingers.
Wherein does the center of this knot differ from a tomfool knot

Lariat Loop
114. Boys are interested in this knot because it is used by cowboys for forming a round eye in the end of a lariat rope. Tie an overhand knot and loosen it by pushing down on the standing part, pass the free end under, and jam as tightly as possible.

115. B grommet, or endless ring, is used for making rope quoits for the game of ring toss, for rope handles, etc. The making of complete ring toss outfits is excellent rainy day

pg. 455

camp work. Clubs can also make games for hospitals children's homes, etc.
A grommet is made with a single strand of rope five times the circumference of the desired grommet Unravel strands only as they are needed, and be careful to keep all the original kinks in each strand, 116. Form the strand into a loop the size of the grommet.
117. Follow the groove around the loop and make a two stranded ring.

118. Follow the groove a third time completing the ring. Secure the ends by twisting one around the other just as in starting a square knot. To complete, tuck the ends under the nearest strands and then cut the surplus closely. A more satisfactory way for boys and girls to secure a grommet is to bind it with adhesive tape or with electrical tape.

pg. 456

PART VII--Rope Shortening Ties

A shortening tie is used to shorten a rope without cutting it.

Six-Fold Figure Eight Knot 1
119. This it; illustrated loosely formed.
For shortening a rope less than a foot, modifications of a figure eight knot are used. These are called treble, fourfold, five-fold, six-fold figure eight knots, depending upon the number of times: the free end is passed through the end loop.

Sheepshank should be used for temporarily shortening a line under strain.

Sheepshank, Bowline Method
120. This is the best method for shortening a rope while it has a strain upon it, such as a boat towline.
Form a bight with the amount to be shortened, and hold it as illustrated.

pg. 457

121. Throw an overhand loop: over the bight as in a sailor's bouwline, Figs. 87 and 88.
122. Tighten the loop before performing the next operation.
123. Complete the knot by passing another loop over the other end of the bight.
When there is no strain on the
rope it may be shortened with a sheepshank tied by either the underhand loop method or the three loop method below.

pg. 458

Sheepshank, Underhand Loop Method
124. Hold the three parts in the left hand, and pas" an underhand loop over the bight with the right. Pull the loop taut, rotate the rope, and do the same thing on the other end.

Sheepshank, Trick Method
125.Lay three underhand loops on top of each other. Make the center loop of a size depending ,pen the amount the rope is to be shortened

126. Pull the center loop through the end loops.
127.Let the standing parts: slip through the fingers, when pulling the center loop through.

pg. 459

Sheepshank Secured
128. If the line in which a sheepshank is made is liable to be slack at times, it must be secured to prevent it from coming undone.
A. When the ends are accessible pass them through the end loops.
B. When the ends are inaccessible secure with sticks.
C. One of the best ways to secure a sheepshank is to lash the end loops to the standing parts.

Sheepshank for Life Saving
It is not generally known that a sheepshank may be used to make a man sling, just as a bowline on a. bight or a chair knot, by simply jamming the hitches together in the center of the bight.

129.After a sheepshank is tightened, the strand upon which there is no strain may be cut and the knot will still hold. When the strain is released, the knot can be undone by shaking the rope vigorously.

Suppose you were on the fourth floor of a burning building and had a rope long enough to reach only to a window on the second floor; how could you escape ?

pg. 460

130. How could you escape front the above building by the use of this variation of a timber hitch, called a slippery hitch?

131. How could you, solve the same problem with Either a bowline, running bowline, slip knot, or manger tie?

Man-Overboard Knot
132. For rope climbing the man-overboard knot, which is simply a series of equally spaced overhand knots, is very useful. To make it, lay a number of underhand loop's on top of each other and then pull the free end down through the loops.

pg. 461

PART VIII--Rope Coiling
A life line or a lariat must be coiled correctly or it will become entangled when thrown. Ordinarily a line should be coiled into the hand from which it is to be thrown. However, a life buoy line should be coiled into the opposite hand; that is, if it is to be thrown with the right hand, the rope should be coiled into the left.

Right-Rand Coiling
133. Pick up the end with right hand, palm up, and pull the rope through the left band (palm down) until the arms are fully extended.

134. Place the loop into the palm of the right hand without releasing the grip of the right thumb. Continue until all the rope is coiled.

pg. 462