pg. 0


OUTDOORS is a Scout's natural habitat. He is a hardy animal who flourishes best, winter and summer, rain or shine, outdoors. That is why we begin our How Book with the outdoor aspects of Scouting, starting out naturally with


In reading what Scout leaders have to say about hikes we find three general conclusions standing out prominently.

Ideal for Test Passing
1. That hikes--by day or overnight--are the ideal occasions for passing tests. For instance:
Should be Frequent
2. That frequent hikes are the best indeed, practically the only way of holding the interest of the boys in Scouting.
"It is the experience in Troop 14, Council Bluffs, Ia., that the boys who have attended the most hikes are the ones who have advanced furthest in Scouting."--S. P. HANSEN, S. M.

pg. 4

Must be Planned
3. That hikes, to be effective, must be planned and with definite objectives. In as early as a 1914 issue of SCOUTING, we find the following Statement by PROF. VINING. It Still holds good:
'Your hikes should be so arranged that the boy, when he comes back, knows that something has been accomplished. Before we start, have it understood, where are we going? To a certain place. What are we going to do? Certain things. That is good, definite--it means something, it will answer questions and will stand fixed in the boy's nature. What more valuable training can you give a boy for his life work than that every activity has a definite purpose, that every activity must have a definite result!"
and with an Objective
Dillon Wallace says in SCOUTING: "Every hike should have its ultimate objective. When you make it, turn around and go back. Never change your mind about this. And besides the ultimate objective, such as a lookout boulder or a famous pool or a maple sugar camp, have a secondary objective in the form of definite research work along the way. And don't mix research objectives. If you are after tree knowledge, leave bugs alone excepting for something quite out of the ordinary that comes in view"

pg. 6

Basic Principles

ALL TRAINED SCOUTS--like the pioneers of the frontier--should be able to live in the open. Hiking and outdoor camping, if properly conducted, provide this training.
2. Hikes may be classified as Adventure, Good Turn, Compass, Tracking and Trailing, Travel, Night, Exploration, Stunt, Game, Starvation, Father and Son, Camera and other types.
3. Scouts secure permission before entering private-grounds. Scout hikers are alert to conserve, never to destroy property.
4. It is a rule of Scouting, as well as of the woods, that if stacked firewood is burned, an equal or larger supply is stacked in its place

5. Ail evidence of camp shall be removed by proper policing of grounds. Any paper, unused edibles, or refuse shall be burned or buried.
6. A hike or camp shall be so conducted that it provides adventure, experience, excitement, exertion and something of surprise; but it must be planned and carried Out with adequate trained leadership, and ample provision for physical safety and comfort.
7. Patrol hikes are permissible only with the full knowledge and consent of the Scoutmaster.
8. In the Handbook for Scoutmasters, the "Fifty-seven Varieties of Hikes" as worked out by Scout Executive Gray, of :: Montclair, N. J., Scout leaders will find hike suggestions based on the "physically strong, 'mentally awake, morally straight" platform of the Scout Oath.

Hiking Safety

A SCOUTMASTER who conducts a Troop hike must, in fairness to himself as well as for the protection of the Scouts, give careful consideration to all the phases of safety before he takes the trip. An accident which occurs to a Scout while under supervision reacts on the Scoutmaster in charge.
On the Road: Several states have laws which compel a pedestrian on the highway to walk facing the oncoming traffic. As an added precaution when hiking at night, it would be a good thing to wear a light-colored neckerchief around the hat brim, or around the neck with the point hanging down in front.
A dangerous place on the road seems to be at turn-offs, where trucks constantly swing into or Off the side road without

pg. 7

White neckerchief on hat and careful attention to crossroads make for safety on a night hike signaling. This should be kept in mind and Scouts warned of the hazard.
When approaching a cross-road with two-way traffic always look to the LEFT first.
Hiking through the woods or in mountainous country also presents its dangers, particularly for Scouts and Scoutmasters who are unseasoned and new to the game. Trails used by Scouts for such hikes should be known and marked. Such information usually can he obtained from natives of the section or from state or national park rangers. Exploration hikes offer to the Scout a thrill of adventure. However, these are not for the inexperienced Scout or Scoutmaster who is unused to rough going.
Careful study must be given to the question of footwear. Experienced mountaineers are of the opinion that a shoe of medium weight and height, fitted with hob nails, is most practical.
Trail rations should also be given careful attention. The food to be carried must be at once light in weight and nourishing.
Drinking Water: It is a common erroneous idea that springs and mountain streams- are always pure. It is safer to go on the assumption that springs are never pure, except in cases where they are in settled communities and have been tested. Mountain streams, as well, are not always pure, but are more apt to be so than springs, which may bubble up from underground streams running along for a distance back to a settled
community. While in unknown country, it is far better to carry water in canteens, replenishing the supply in settled communities or by boiling and cooling the best water that can be found.

pg. 8

Physical Condition: Health safety must be insured for Scouts who are going on long hikes by having them examined. This is necessary both for their own personal safety and for the safety of other Scouts taking the trip. Watch out that among your hiking group there are no bad hearts, throat conditions which may be contagious, hernia, and skin infections which may be passed on.

First Aid Material: Adequate First Aid equipment must always be carried. The new belt kit is a very complete outfit for the individual Scout. One of these to every two Scouts should take care of nearly any emergency, with the aid of natural material at hand for improvising splints and litters.
Every trip taken is to the Scout an education as well as an I experience. Sound principles taught here produce Safe, practical thinking Scouts.
Scoutmasters should bear in mind that these suggestions are given for their own protection as well as that of the Scouts in their care.

F. C. MILLS, National Camping Department.

General Hiking Rules

Hikers' Courtesy

BECAUSE we necessarily come in contact with the rights of others under conditions that are not familiar to most of us when we start hiking, these suggestions are made, and they have the force of Troop law, to be applied with your best judgment.
Plan to make friends for Scouting and to be welcome over the same trail again. In town walk not more than two abreast, and keep to the light. Pass others "right by file." In this you will be conspicuously more courteous than the average group of boys--enough so as to advertise Scouting "by its works." On cars consider the convenience of other passengers and be as inconspicuous as possible. Of course you won't shove, wrestle, shout or whistle. This doesn't preclude several of you singing chanties in camp style at opportune times on cars. In the country avoid slighting remarks. Don't say "guys," "natives" "inhabitants," or attempt to be funny at the expense of the farmers. You must look to them for hospitality, and it isn't in order to make sport of one's hosts.

pg. 9

Each boy "packs" his own personal equipment, and his pro rata share of the Patrol or Troop equipment unless the duffel is carried by trek cart, truck or other vehicle. No one is allowed to lend, except on permission from the leader. No one ever asks to borrow. Each Scout's pack contains, sewed inside the flap, a cloth check list of articles carried. At camp a duffel line is usually marked and nothing ever laid down except at that line; this guards against losses.

Cooking en route
After parking duffel (the "duffel line") for the noon rest, or overnight stop, establish the "fire line" to the lee of the duffel line, and at right angles to the wind. Each Scout builds his own cooking or friendship fire with his bunkie or Patrol, observing good form and safety. Break fuel away from the cooking area, and get all of it and have all provisions opened before lighting fire. Proficiency will be observed by the Scoutmaster, who watches to see a quick, good job at each meal, with clean-up immediately after it.
Fires must be out, entirely, and a pair of new sticks laid crossways over the ash heap to show to the next comer that a Scout-like job has been done. (This is a matter of pride in our own skill, woodcraft, and the honor of Troop 13.)

Leaving a Clean Trail
Food must not be wasted. If accident contaminates your food don't throw it away to be read by the next party as a sign of wastefulness; bury it. Don't leave a piggy camp site. Clean up the last man's debris rather than leave papers, cans and bottles to disfigure the glory of wilderness which you yourself came to find. Do this before resting. You will rest much better.

pg. 10

Preserving Properly Rights

Fences are expensive and important property. Because a fence is in poor condition do not make it worse-rather, do a Good Turn right there. The farmer works hard and you should not make him an hour's extra work or anxiety. Use gates, or cross at strong points, using both sides of a good post--not the middle of the stretches. Have more pride in what you know of fair play and helping the farmers raise food, than in the exceedingly common ability to climb four feet of wire.
Fields are seed beds, often left planted all winter. Every blade is precious and nothing justifies your crossing a planted field. To do so is to steal a:man's crop.
Animals are part of the food supply. Horses in held are there to rest up for hard work. Cows yield better milk when unworried. Never chase them. Steers are being fattened for food. The bulls you can worry all you care to if you must chase something. But get in the field with them, don't trust a fence. Chickens are property.
Snakes and Birds are part of the farmers' crop insurance. They keep pests in check. Do not kill either. Snakes are curious. They lift their heads to see, just as you do. Protect them for the sake of the crops.
Woodlands are crops. Read a library book entitled "The Farm Woodlot" by Cheney and you will get 100% more out of every hike. Use "downwood" for cooking, in a way that shows your best Scoutcraft. It is often permissible to cut small stuff in thickets, where only part of the growth can possibly mature. But a young tree of desirable variety, even if only six inches high, should be conserved, especially if it is located where it can mature.

pg. 11

Hints to Hikers

When thoroughly tired out or fatigued from walking, try the following : Lie on the back on the ground with the legs vertical against a building, tree or other object. Now move the legs slowly as though pedaling a bicycle for a period of ten to fifteen minutes. On arising the Scout will be surprised at his fresh feeling and ability to go on.

The theory is that the blood gets down into the legs and the heart is taxed to the limit to keep up a good flow. Lying on the back and moving the legs causes this blood to flow back easily, be revitalized in the lungs and thus refresh the fatigued muscles.
The Scout's Pace is the ideal method of forced marching, its principle being to alternately rest two sets of muscles. BY using a third set of muscles the Scout's endurance can be increased.
To accomplish this it is only necessary to run in a slightly different manner from that usually employed. Instead of holding the body erect with head up, the runner leans forward as far as possible, making it necessary to run to keep from falling on his face.-5 W. BENSON.

Easy Going
Three miles an hour is good hiking pace. Have a pacemaker at the front to prevent anyone going in advance of the party, and someone in the rear to look out for stragglers. Frequent short rests of five minutes-each are better than long rests. Keep the Troop well together. "Keep your shirt on" and insist on the Scouts keeping theirs on and their arms covered, particularly when overheated, and do not allow Scouts in that condition to sit or lie on the ground.-DILLON WALLACE.

"Hitch Hiking' Taboo
Hitch-hikes are regrettable things. Catching rides, asking for lifts in automobiles--there is nothing of "Scouting" in such activities. There may be occasions now and then, and far apart, when a Scout or a group need a lift along the way so seriously, that, making their plight frankly known, they will be justified in requesting the courtesy.
But merely to cover ground, make an objective in a given time, save themselves work, or for any reason other than that of real necessity, Scouts should never resort to this practice nor should their leaders countenance it.

pg. 12

Two Hikes Per Month

One Seattle Troop has a definite month-by-month hiking schedule. Each Patrol takes a Patrol hike once a month. For other hike each month the Troop is divided into three group hikes, according to age, rank, and experience. The first group takes hikes to the nearby lakes, Mt. Sit etc. The middle group goes on short exploration hikes and climbs mountains such as Silver Peak. The third group goes on more difficult hikes, requiring skill and endurance, and climbs such peaks as Index or Constance.
Each group is organized on a standard basis and with a definite purpose. In the first group a Patrol Leader is in charge, duties are rotated, campcraft is practiced, and the ethics of the trail are learned. In the middle group the most experienced officer is the leader, parties are small, and the organization is less formal. In the third group the Scoutmaster is usually in charge, specialists are used for cooking, etc., discipline is simple but strict, and mountain-climbing is the chief objective.

Practical Purpose

The Patrol hikes are for the purpose of passing elementary tests, learning to make overnight camps, practicing teamwork in outdoor enterprises, and generally preparing the younger Scouts for more difficult things. 811 the plans are developed by the Patrol Leaders, subject to examination and approval by the Scoutmaster.
Every Scout is expected to go on two hikes per month, just as regularly as he is required to attend Troop meetings. When parents of a new Scout are reluctant, the whole party goes to the house and tells them the trip won't be complete unless he can go along. The sight of all the boys with their eager faces and their packs on their backs just waiting for her boy to, join them will break down any mother's resolution.-LIoNEL CHute, S.M., Seattle, Wash.

pg. 13

Special Kinds of Hike

Troop Advancement Hikes

Use First Class Scout As Assistant Instructor

First Hike: For Second Class Scouts
Signal Practice--First Patrol Leader.
Felling and trimming timber--Scoutmaster.
Advanced Cooking--Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*
Judging--First and second Patrol Leaders.

For Tenderfoot Scouts
Signaling--Second and third Patrol Leaders.
Use of Knife and Hatchet-First Patrol Leader .
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*

Second Hike: For Second Class Scouts
Signal Practice--First Patrol Leader.
Advanced First Aid--Scoutmaster.
Advanced Cooking-First Patrol Leader.
Map Making--Second Patrol Leader.
Nature Study-Scoutmaster.
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*

For Tenderfoot Scouts
Signaling-Second and third Patrol Leaders.
Elementary First Aid--First Patrol Leader.
Use of Knife and Hatchet and Fire Building-Third Patrol Leader.
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*

Third Hike: For Second Class Scouts
Signal Practice-First Patrol Leader.
Felling and Trimming Timber-Scoutmaster
Advanced Cooking--First Patrol Leader.
Nature Study-Scoutmaster
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*

For Tenderfoot Scouts
Signal Practice--Second and third Patrol Leaders.
Fire Building and Elementary Cooking--Second and third Patrol Leaders.
Elementary First Aid--First Patrol Leader.
Practice with Compass--Second Patrol Leader.
Tracking. one-half mile--Scoutmaster.
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*

pg. 14

Fourth Hike: For Second Class Scouts
Signal Practice--First Patrol Leader.
Advanced First Aid-Scoutmaster.
Advanced Cooking-First Patrol Leader.
Map Making--Second Patrol Leader.
Nature Study--Scoutmaster.
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*
Compass directions without aid of compass-First Patrol Leader.

For Tenderfoot Scouts
Signal Practice--Second and third Patrol Leaders.
Elementary First Aid-First Patrol Leader.
Elementary Cooking--Second and third Patrol Leaders.
Practice with Compass-Scoutmaster.
Scout's Pace--One mile--Scoutmaster,
Swimming-Scoutmaster and Patrol Leaders.*

*In teaching swimming, I would disregard the Patrol divisions, and divide up into not less than three divisions, under the leadership of the Scoutmaster and the first and second Patrol Leaders. If there are other available helpers, a further division would be better.-Use "Buddy Plait." See index.

Historical Hikes

HIS popular form of hike, or pilgrimage, can readily be made a part of every Scout's life, particularly on I such occasions as Washington's Birthday, or other patriotic holidays, or as a part of Anniversary Week Programs. The following suggestions for such hikes may be undertaken on an inter-Troop scale, or be modified to suit Troop or Patrol hikes of the same kind.
Scoutmasters in Local Council territory first consult the Scout Executive. Plan individual Troop hikes only when advisable for the Troop.
Scoutmasters not under Local Council get together for an inter-Troop hike, securing full co-operation of Troop Committees; or proceed by individual Troops, as local conditions make necessary.

pg. 15

Organization: Uniforms worn. Simple lunches carried. Provision made for preparing tea or cocoa, and possibly cooking one hot dish by Scouts for entire party. No boys under twelve invited. Starting point and hour most convenient to the largest number. To this point, Scouts march by Troops from their headquarters, with the Flag of the United States and Troop and Patrol flags, and such music as is available, arriving without fail fully ten minutes before the hour of start.
The March: Start on time, with Scouts leading and closing the line of march, and interspersed in between by Patrols or Troops. Boys not Scouts march as units interspersed between units of Scouts; adults as one group, just in front of the rear unit of Scouts. March in alternate periods of marching-step and easy walking-step.
Upon arrival at selected spot, boy guests sit or squat in front of Scouts who Stand at attention; back of the Scouts are the adults. The formation is in straight line, semi-circle, threesided square, as conditions require. If the party merely marches past a memoria1, follow the same formation as on the hike.
At the moment of paying special respect, all salute, Scouts with the Scout Sign, not the Salute.
Program: A capable leader briefly states the reason for the hike, recites the historic facts about the place visited, and calls upon all present to profit by the patriotic example of the life or lives of those commemorated. A Scout song follows or the singing of "America the Beautiful," reaffirmation of the Scout Oath and Law; the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States by all, followed by a closing Scout Song and "Taps" by Scout Buglers, or sung by Scouts.

An invocation may be included, if desired. Also one or more selections by Scout musicians. The ceremony should be brief, dignified, but not too stiff.
Individuals or groups fall out of the line of march at need.

Know Your Government Hikes

HERE is something worth while that can be done by Scout Troops everywhere, regardless of the size of the community. Supplementing the historical hikes or pilgrimages which have become popularized in our Anniversary Week celebrations, another angle to the hike that inculcates patriotism is offered by the National Camping Director, Mr. L. L. McDonald, in the following practical suggestions.

The attendance of most Scouts and leaders can be secured for an all-day hike to the scene of some one of the many activities of the national, state or your municipal government. If the visit is arranged for with the authorities in advance, you are sure of a welcome and of a cordial effort to tell you all about what is going on.

pg. 16

The local Post Office might not yield much of a reward for a visit, though it certainly would in our larger cities. But how about a visit to the headquarters of the Rural Delivery Service in your vicinity to get an insight into how that important arm of the Post-Office Department hands out the mail?

Many Objectives: Other points of observation are: United States Weather Bureau stations; United States District Courts; Revenue Offices; Agricultural Experiment stations; Forestry Service; Reclamation and Conservation projects; Highways and Waterways Improvements; Forts; Navy Yards and Military Supply stations; Fish Hatcheries, Came Preserves and Bird Sanctuaries, United States Mints and Federal Reserve Banks. You can add to this, lists of state and municipal government public service agencies. The operation of these public service works involves the employment of millions of men, and the expenditure of millions of dollars produced by taxation. How many of our boys know much about this fascinating side of "government"? How many have thought of government work as a possible vocation? Increased respect for Government and development of intelligent loyalty and patriotism on the part of boys results from Such educational hikes.

Local Research

THE idea is to encourage boys to discover for themselves stories of their own community, keeping their eyes and ears open for "leads." Every locality is a story book.
Sometimes a boy discovers that he lives either in the house or on the site of the house in which some celebrated American character once lived, or some historic incident occurred. I once lived in an old colonial parish where the people assured me nothing of interest had ever occurred. But I discovered that it Was in that very parish that the British landed when on their way to invade Washington, and had passed along the roads which I used, even passing my church, and the rectory in which I was living had been the residence of a Revolutionary colonel under Israel Putnam.-J. Neilson Barry, Portland, Ore.

pg. 17

Know Your Town: There are not enough week-ends and holidays combined in the year to exhaust hike possibilities that beckon Troops. The smaller the community, the harder you have to look for them, perhaps, but they are there. Milwaukee Scouts inaugurated a "Know Milwaukee" series of hikes through the different industries of the city. Most such institutions will assign a man to guide a group of Scouts whose leader will make arrangements in advance for the visit. List at least a half-dozen points of interest within biking distance of your Troop, and tackle them one by one. Don't be too sure your boys either know all about these points of interest already, or don't care to know. The mere fact that there is a button factory in your locality does not mean that your Troop has been expertly guided through it. Take along note-books. Cameras, too, perhaps. And be prepared to show off a little in return far the courtesy, if the institution you visit happens to want to see what Scouts can do.

City Hikes
If it is a problem to turn up a good week-end hike project within the facilities of the Troop, common-sense will discover many excellent objectives. The following have been suggested for port cities:
Inspection of an ocean liner.
Visit to the aquarium and fish market.
Tour of the Navy Yard. Observation trips on ferries.
Observation in a rowboat on a city park lake.
Systematic study of the different types of boats at the various docks. Other suggestions are:
Nature study trip through city parks.
A day at the zoo for study of the animal world brought from all quarters of the earth.
A. trip through the Natural History Museum to note, for one thing, museum methods.
Visits to one's own city. That is to say, "sight-seeing'' tours via all the carlines, one at a time, of course, to take notes of interesting things observed.

This Is Ahead for You

"Practically every day I am meeting young men about town who have received the benefits of membership in the Boy Scouts, during my term of service there. It is a source of great satisfaction to realize that one has had at least a small part to play in the development of these fellows who will some day be leaders in our community life."--Raymond O. Hansen, Scout Executive, San Francisco District Council.

pg. 18

"Nautical Hikes" for Fun and Education

Commodore Longfellow Gives Suggestions for Rambles in WaterFront Communities

A Dock Hike

Before taking a nautical hike along the shore or by the docks, get a copy of the Yachtsman's Guide, Navy Boat Book, or the Story of the Ship from the public library; and with a blackboard or crayon and paper explain to the Troop the different sorts of sailing vessels and Small boats that are used in this country, especially in the locality in which you are located. The back of some dictionaries gives a considerable collection of different kinds of boats pictured out, and some encyclopedias could be used for this purpose. Have the boys make sketches, and discuss the reason for the passing of the sailing vessel. Then announce for Saturday a trip along the docks and offer a prize for the best list of vessels and small craft observed.

A Skipping Hike

Skippers of square riggers or noble sailing craft of any kind are proud of their vessels, and it is usually quite easy to arrange a visit if one of these is in harbor. The harbor master will corporate by putting you in touch with the skipper--and some I know would take the boys on board with his own launch.

This, then, could be called a "shipping hike," and then could naturally follow a "knot hike"--this is merely a trip to see the various kinds of Scout knots in actual use by steeplejacks, Ship fitters with their bosun's chair, linemen with their useful hand line, and lastly, along the docks where canal boats, launches, and steamers are tied up and different sorts of knots, splices, and hitches will be found in use in great profusion. An observation prize for the greatest number of knots and their use could be offered for this trip. If there is a Naval Station, receiving ship, or Naval Reserve Armory or a branch of the United States Engineers Corps either regulars or National Guards--some expert knot tyers will be found, together with an exhibit of excellent examples of applied rope work.


NOTE:--Take in the Sea Scout section for other suggestions. The more water activities the Troop undertakes, the better the chances are that you will develop Life Guards in the Troop, and that is a good step toward generating Sea Scout interest.

pg. 19

Chart-making Hike

A "chart-making hike" is for Scouts who live near rivers or harbors is an interesting activity and incidentally the trip may be made of permanent value by preserving the records of soundings in docks along beaches and sea walls, and dangerous spots could be indicated on little local maps which may be purchased at souvenir stores for about 10c. To be sure, these soundings can be otherwise provided, but the boys get a better idea of the depth of water and the nature of the bottom by heaving the lead themselves and doing the recording under the directions of the Scoutmaster. At the same time, a record of the location of life buoys and lines with reference to the public landings and the lack of such protection could be made with an idea of future agitation for these little contributions to general water front safety.

Pilot Hike

A land lesson on the Rules of the Road, taken from the United States Pilot Rules, which can be obtained from the Custom House in any water front city, should precede a "pilot hike." With blackboard or pencil and paper, or even little models, the rules for meeting of vessels of all kinds--from the biggest steamers to the smallest motor boats, could be explained beyond a possibility of mistake. The carrying of lights in rowboats and canoes, as well as motor boats, should be taken up, and then a committee of Custom House inspectors could be appointed from the Scouts who showed a good understanding of the rules, and arrangements made for a real water demonstration. If possible, some steamboat captain, or better still, one of the Government Inspectors, should be asked to give this instruction to the boys.
Treasure "Finds": Where a "find" is already known to the Scoutmaster, and not to the boys or at least, not to many of them it can be made the objective of an unusually exciting and worth while treasure hunt. In the treasure hunt full advantage Should always be taken of every opportunity to develop Scouting abilities as indicated in the Handbook for Boys. Always make use of the compass on Such hunts.
Specialists: Secure outside aid, take men along who are specialists in their particular lines and who can open your own eyes and the eyes and minds of your boys.
Discovery hikes are mighty fascinating. They require perseverance. Prior conversations with local authorities, especially "old-timers," will not come amiss.

pg. 20

An Obstacle Hike

The Patrol started at a given time and followed a marked trail. (Editorial Note: Best to use the signs shown in the Handbook for Boys; do not "blaze" a trail-for- a stunt when any other method is possible.) On this trail they came upon various problems, and items for observation and report. The first was a deer bed which I had manufactured under some bushes on the side of a hill. There was one deer track in the middle to give them a clue. The second was where a tragedy had taken place during the night in the animal kingdom. It was a story in the sand made of tracks and red paint, of a cougar killing a rabbit. After making their observation of this the Patrol came to a canyon. (Editorial Note: It is understood that this chasm was not deep enough to be perilous.) They were to get across this canyon with the materials that were furnished, namely, one six-inch log about fifteen feet long, two light ten-foot poles, one twenty-foot half-inch rope, and one ten-foot quarter-inch rope. The trick was to make a scissors of the two light poles and then lower the large~log easily with the large rope. If they let the log down with a bang it was considered broken and it was considered also too heavy to push across. This was a time event, if the Patrol did not make progress inside of five minutes it was disqualified. The next trick was while the Patrol was crossing over a slippery log further up the trail. One Scout is supposed to slip and break his leg. They cannot turn back, so they are required to fix the leg and pack the Scout by any method they see fit. (This was a real job.) Their next obstacle was a code message made up of the Morse and Semaphore codes. This message directed them the rest of the way after it was deciphered. The side of a hill. them a clue.

pg. 21

last station was the thriller; it was titled, "Quicksand." Near our camp in a small valley is quite a bog and at one nice mushy spot I had this station. In the middle of the wettest, spot there were two trees about eight feet apart. Fastened securely between these two was a log about six inches thick and about ten feet off the ground From this log to the opposite side was about ten feet and also the same distance from the boys. Now from the log fastened to the tree to the opposite side was a six-inch log about fifteen. feet long lying loose. On a tree on the boys' side was a twenty-foot quarter-inch rope, with which they were to lasso this log lying loose, pull it across to where they stood and shinny up it to the cross-bar. After getting all their Patrol on the cross-bar they had to invent some way of pulling this heavy log after them and get it across to the other side. Having done this they then shinnied down it to dry land. This also was a time event and called for some good P. L. leadership and inventive genius. The cooking contest was the last event. There was a standard menu of vegetable and meat stew; rice pudding, biscuits and cocoa. This contest was judged on five points: Patrol Organization, Sanitation of Camp and Participants, Patrol Camp, Quality and Quantity of Food (by this it was expected that each Scout was supposed to have a square meal), and last, Time it took to prepare camp and the meal. --GLOVER CLARK.

The Scout Trail

By Arthur Guiterman

Washington blazed it through wilderness snows
Wearing the hunting shirt, bearing the pack,
Braving the winter and treacherous foes,
Out to the Monongahela and back.
Carson and Crockett and Boone and the rest,
Hunter and fighter and bold pioneer,
Carried it southward and carried it west;
Follow their moccasins, treading it clear!

Over the mountains they furthered the way;
Still in the distance new ranges were blue.
Sure with the rifle and hatchet were they,
Deft with the paddle and buoyant canoe,
Guarding the hamlet that rose in the glen,
Guarding the train from the savages' wrath,
Living tree-hearted and dying like men
What must they be who would follow their path?

Cleanly in body and cleanly in mind,
Loyal and resolute, patient and strong,
Fearless and generous, cheerful and kind,
Stalwart in shielding the weaker from wrong.
Whether it lead through the peace of the vale
Whether through cities that bustle and hum
Scouts of America, follow that trail,
Treading it plain for the millions to come!

pg. 22

One-day Hike

On a one-day hike, not for overnight, equipment should be kept to the minimum so as to permit the maximum of enjoyment and profit from the day's outing. Of course, each boy will wear his Scout Uniform or other clothing adapted to vigorous outdoor Scouting. Staves are unnecessary unless mountain climbing or some other special activity requiring their use is to be followed. Unless a long hike through waterless country is to be made, one or two canteens should do for each Patrol. Similarly two or three axes, one First Aid kit, and perhaps One map may be distributed among the various boys. If special activities are planned--special equipment may be carried, such as signal flags, field glasses and bird book, compass and surveying equipment, etc.
As to the matter of eats, this depends on circumstances. With a Patrol of relatively untrained Scouts it is best for each boy to bring his own mess kit and food.

4 lbs. Breadstuffs, in bag or waxed paper.
1 lb Bacon. sliced thin, without rind, in waxed paper.
1 lb. Cheese, in waxed paper.
1 doz. Eggs. in carton.
1 can Evaporated milk, not sweetened. 1/2 lb. Butter, in tin.
1/2 lb. Sugar in bag. 1/2 lb. Dried fruit, in waxed paper; or lemons.
1/4 lb. Ground coffee, in bag. 1 can Jam.
1/6 lb Salt. in joint of bamboo, corked. Pepper, in waxed paper.


Frying pan, large, with folding handle. Stew pan.
Cover to fit both of above.
Coffee pot, small, or covered tin pail Canvas water bucket folding;
4 each knives, forks, spoons, plates.
Large spoon Dish cloths, soap, matches, candle.--KEPHART.


OF course, as everybody knows, hiking and camping overlap more than a little. Most Scouts hike to and from camp and either a "week-end" or "overnight" hike, is, strictly speaking, nothing more nor less than a genuine camping expedition.
The following is an outline for a three-day camping trip or hike as suggested by R. M. Jacobus in Scoutmastership Notes.
Start, say, on a Friday morning or afternoon and return on Sunday after supper. The leader will work out his own plans accordingly, (Do not stay Over Sunday, unless approved by your sponsoring institution, your Scout Council, and the community.)

pg. 23

Each Scout: Blankets, poncho, pup tent (if desired), mess kit, bathing suit, toilet articles (including soap and towel), Scout knife and heavy shoes. Knapsack for food and small articles.

Each boy notified to provide his own and must cook same under the supervision of the leader or assistants. This teaches the boy to rely upon himself and '"Be Prepared" For the future.

Arrival at; Campsite, pitch tents and ditch them while some gather firewood if you arrive before dinner; then prepare the meal, afterwards get camp in good shape during afternoon, arrange for getting water, wood, etc. The Leader makes sure that drinking water is O. K. and that place for swimming (if any) is safe. This is most important. After supper inspect camp and arrange for campfire. Campfire from 8 to 9 or 9:30. During this period outline the program for the next two days and assign details for next day.

Watch drinking water carefully. If there is a good spring on campsite do not permit boys to spoil it by washing dishes or hands in it. Watch your camp fires. Bury all tin cans and refuse before leaving camp. Do not leave any rubbish around. Leave the campsite, if possible, better than you found it. Supervise your swimming. When you have accomplished all this you can rate yourself as Class "A" Hike Leader.

Saturday and Sunday
6:30 A.M.-Reveille-setting up exercises (10 minutes) followed by Flag Raising.
6:45--Morning Dip (not over 5 minutes in water, clean teeth, etc., at this tiny).
8:30--Camp Duties--air blankets, police camp, etc.
9:30-ll:00--Tests and Educational Recreation (Specific objectives of the hike, here.)
11:00--BlanketS in.
12:00 --Camp Inspection.
1:30-2:30 Rest Period.
6:45-8:00--Games for Night.
8:00-900 --Campfire.
9:00-Prepare for night.

pg. 24

Sunday--For Sunday include a short religious service in period from 9:30 to 11:00. Do not overlook this feature, it is part of the boys' education and parents will expect and approve of such action. Evening program depends upon the time of breaking camp for the return home. Do not make the time of arrival home too late.


Breakfast: Fried rice, flapjacks with melted sugar syrup, cocoa or coffee.
Dinner: Hoe cake, fried bacon, hot biscuits, coffee or cocoa.
Supper--Corn meal or boiled rice with milk and sugar, corn batter cakes and syrup, tea.
Prepared cereals may be substituted for cooked ones noted above if desired.
Where meats, vegetables or fruits are on hand a menu to suit the taste of all can be arranged.


First get your bearings by asking yourself, and satisfactorily answering to yourself
Will we get wet if it rains?
Have we permission to use the land and build fires?
Are there mosquitoes?
How about the drinking water?
What camping experience have I had?
Will the food be adequate?
Can any one in the crowd cook for so large a number?
Have I issued a list of articles needed by each Scout?
Has consent of all parents been secured?


Trek cart for the Troop, with cook tent for provisions and extra blankets and supplies. (Taking along ten light blankets of Troop property.) One or two axes to a Patrol.

Each Individual

1 Shelter half, with rope, poles and pins; 2 Army style blankets; 1, poncho or raincoat; 1 plate, cup, fork, knife and spoon.

pg. 25

Grub for Each Patrol
(Patrol Leader will see that each man brings his propertionate share.)
3 lbs. bacon, sliced
1 1/2 lb. butter
1 1/3 doz. eggs
3/4 lb. cocoa
1 1/2 lbs. sugar
4 cans salmon

32 potatoes
3 cans condensed milk
2 small packages self-raising flour
15c. package salt
1 small can of pepper
4 loaves of bread

1 Small griddle
1 large stew pan
2 large spoons
2 large forks
1 box matches
1 bread knife


Griddle Cakes, with Maple Syrup
Fried Bacon and Potatoes

Baked Potatoes
Creamed-Salmon on Toast
Sliced Pineapple

Fried Eggs or Soft Boiled
Hot Biscuits
Cocoa or Chocolate

6:30 Rising--followed by short mimetic exercises--stretching, sawing logs, chopping wood, passing wood to side, swimming, rowing, turning ice cream freezer, breathing exercise. Dip in the lake.
8:00 Air bedding and clean camp.
9:00-Scouting-Treasure Hunt.
10:00--Nature Studies--Trees, birds, rocks and animal tracks; First Aid work in the field (or other major objective).
11:00-Use of axe and knife.
11:30-Games-Inter-Patrol competition.
l:00-Talk by a real woodsman.
2:00-Scaling the high peak--taking notes of all important observations-written report to be turned in.
4:00--Prepare for the evening meal. Water boiling tests. Clean campground
6:00-Depart for home.
leadership will be under the Patrol and Assistant Patrol Leaders with the supervision of the Scoutmaster and his assistant.
Patrol Leaders will supervise the cooking.
Assistant Scoutmaster will look after the sanitation and

camp, with the aid of the Senior Patrol Leader.-Chas G· GELTZ.

pg. 26

A Winter Overnight Hike

THE Scouts of Brooklyn troops 12 and 77 always hike

to the wilds of the Ramapo Mountains in winter. The
-----average distance covered is about 18 miles and the cost is about $2.00 per Scout. In Rover packs or army pack carriers each Scout carries two wool blankets, extra wool shirt and undershirt, wool socks, and six blanket pins; food for three meals; mess kit, small towel, soap and a candle.
The regular uniform minus coat is worn, plus wool bathing suit top and another shirt. As-the hike progresses, clothing is peeled off and hung on the pack. The average weight of the Scout's pack is 15 pounds.
For food fresh meat is carried in the mess kit for supper; two boiled potatoes and any extra space filled with hard tack. Every other Scout carries a small bag of cocoa and coffee. In addition, in an army bacon tin, every other Scout carries oatmeal for two with two eggs buried in it; six slices of bacon and all remaining space filled with cheese. Add a can of peaches. That is breakfast. The other Scout has his bacon tin filled with noodles in which he nests two eggs and covers with bacon and cheese in oiled paper. Sugar is carried in individual bags. The Scoutmaster carries the salt and a can of evaporated milk or the equivalent in milk powder.
Blankets are rolled in a shelter half. Poncho and axe are hung on the outside of the pack. Smaller Scouts take no axe or shelter half.
Arrived at the camping spot, three squads are formed. The largest squad gets wood; the next largest prepares bedding; three Scouts build a lean-to out of the shelter halves, with due regard for the direction of the wind and woodland ethics.

pg. 27

In the Ramapos, bed material in winter is as follows: first, a lot of scrub grey birch boughs packed down; on these are laid big slabs of dead chestnut bark. A foot log and side logs are pegged down to keep the bed from spreading. Then great quantities of dry leaves are piled on over which ponchos are spread. Two Scouts sleep together in four blankets well pinned up. Before getting into the blankets, the extra socks and shirts are put on. If there is snow on the ground, it is melted with a huge fire before the shelter is put up. Plenty of windfalls and blighted chestnut furnish sure defense against Jack Frost.
With wood, bed and shelter ready, the next task is building out of rocks, if possible, a long fireplace with high reflector back. We have been out in weather below zero and kept warm and comfortable. When bedtime comes, every one is tired and sleep comes easily. If it is extremely cold, all hands in turn keep the fire going through the night. Oh, yes; each one wears his wool Cap to bed. It's great sport.--A. Hovey, Scoutmaster.

Treking by Hand-Sled

One of our Patrols got a big kick out of mushing in below zero weather to a camp site in the woods, carting our duffle on a string of five hand-sleds, and sleeping in our own tepee. The trail led up-hill and down, through deep snow, and a half mile on ice. On reaching camp, two men started a fire, two cleared away snow, one cut poles. In an hour, the tepee poles were cut and lashed in place, and beds laid of fragrant cedar branches. We built our fire against a rock that reflected the heat into the shelter, and there prepared and ate our dinner. Then stretched the canvas-two tent flys and a shelter half--over the poles, and banked her around with snow and leaves. Our tepee looked good and served perfectly. After supper, we had a log fire Scout-feast, and then slid into sleeping-bags for the night, first appointing a fire-watch, who got up three times to lay on more logs. Mushing home was great fun, with many adventures; had to bridge one stream with logs to get across. We used regular hand-sleds, carefully packing and roping camp duffle, bedding, cook-kits and food, and we pulled them by hand. What's more, we got a write-up in our local paper, occupying almost the entire first column, on the front page.
Why not try it' Fine practice work in packing duffle, knot tying, and trek cart management. If an overnight hike is out of the question, use the idea for a Patrol Contest on a Saturday afternoon.--Albert E. Coe, S. M., Troop 1, Morzticello, la.

pg. 28

Canoe Trips

WHEN the regular summer camp closes, many camp Leaders and Older Scout organizations launch their canoes for a different kind of camp life. One oldtimer says: "For all 'round use select a sixteen-footer; it will carry three boys and duffel. A one-inch keel is an advantage.
"Before you set off on your canoe trip be sure you can handle your craft and yourself. Don't go if you can't swim. Practise handling the canoe in shallow water. Paddle her against a Strong wind and white caps; take her into deep water and swift Currents. Learn how to lash the paddles and balance her on your shoulder for portage; how to empty her of water and climb in if she gets swamped in midstream. Only when you know how to bring her quickly and safely through every emergency, have you a right to embark on a canoe trip.
"For equipment, a pup tent--allow about fifteen minutes to setting it up, and three for striking it. Sleep out under the stars when the weather permits. But you'll meet up with cold, rainy days and nights. Oh, you little pup tent! And even with a mosquito bar, you will find headnets a help at times Plenty of blankets--bedding is heavy on portages, but nights are cold.
"A cup, two plates, knife, fork and spoon for each camper. Enough pails for cooking. Aluminum is lighter than tin, heats more evenly and wears longer. Don't forget one frying pan large enough for the whole party, one or two large spoons and knives and a coffee pot. A wire grate is a great help.
"For food, take your usual camping supplies, but remember --travel light. When you are bending under a 60-pound canoe over two miles of wood road on a portage, you will regret each unnecessary ounce of weight in your duffel. Flour and baking powder will make biscuits to take the place of bread. Beware of canned foods, unless your trip is short, they are heavy. Dried fruits and vegetables, as every camper knows, are staples because they swell to many times their own bulk when water is added. Catch fish and gather watercress and other things. Bacon will serve as butter and meat. Don't forget salt, and be sure to carry plenty of matches stored in a water-tight container.

"Never take less than one experienced man for each 8 boys, 'or fraction thereof'; and in each canoe there must be one boy or man capable of taking charge. Here is a standard '8man out.' ":

pg. 29

4 Canoes (2 8' by 10' tents-lightweight)
1 Set, Cooking pails, nested.
2 Reflector Baker Ovens.
1 Folding wire grate, 13" by 20".
1 Folding Dip net. Fishing tackle 12 Good candles.
1 Lantern.
6 Handkerchiefs.
1 Sweater or Coat.

1 Large Knife.
1 Large Fork.
1 Large Spoon
1 Cup.
1 Plate.
1 6 inch File.
1 Can Marine Glue or stick pitch.
2 Ponchos.
50' Heavy cord or rope.
Sewing Kit.
First Aid Kit.

pg. 30

The Scoutmaster's Preparation

THERE IS NO MYSTERY about a Boy Scout Camp, and nothing formidable. It is wholly a matter of ap plied common sense. Reasonable time given-to preparation, and adherence to established methods, will assure success. Here is a check-up list by which any Scoutmaster can determine if he is prepared to take his Troop into camp:

1. Troop Committee on the job.
2. Costs arranged for. Scouts signed up with parents' consent.
3. Campsite secured, lay-out of camp decided on and ground prepared, or definite plans laid for preparing site on arrival.
4. Troop equipment arranged for. 5. Scout equipment arranged for.
6. Food supplies and their care in camp arranged for. 7. Cook engaged or volunteered. 8. Dates of camp determined.
9. Methods of transportation determined.
10. Sanitation, health and safety precautions provided for, including doctor's certificate for each boy.
11. Daily camp program agreed to, including: Some form of calisthenics.
Instruction in Scoutcraft, including hikes. Organized games, especially such as increased knowledge of Scoutcraft. Swimming, and water sports. Camp fires and other entertainment. Patriotic ceremonies. Regular hours for meals. Personal and tent inspection.
Regular and sufficient hours for rest and sleep Religious observance.
12. Scoutmaster well posted on all points, by study of the Handbook for Scoutmasters, and knows What he is going to do at every point, including how he will handle each part of the program; that is, whether personally or by assignment to Assistant Scoutmaster or other competent volunteer helper.

When the Troop is to be part of the Local Council Camp, I much of the above will be automatically taken care of.

pg. 31

pg. 32

Commissary Problems

Feeding Scouts at Camp for Two Weeks

Fresh green vegetables are to be added to all menus when obtainable.
Monday: Breakfast--Coffee or cocoa, oatmeal, wheat pan cakes, stewed prunes.
Dinner--Boiled kidney beans with pork, brown bread, boiled rice with raisins or pie.
Supper-Cocoa or lemonade, corn bread, jam.
Tuesday: Breakfast--Coffee or cocoa, hominy, French toast, stewed apricots.
Dinner--Mutton stew with potatoes, onions, carrots, turnips, bread, tapioca pudding.
Supper--Cocoa or iced tea, biscuits, jam.
Wednesday: Breakfast-Coffee or cocoa, corn meal mush, French eggs, bread, oranges.
Dinner--Noodles baked with ham and cheese, bread, apricot pudding or pie.
Suppe~--Lemonade or iced tea, cold noodles, bread, jam.
Thursday: Breakfast--Coffee or cocoa, corn pan cakes, bananas.
Dinner--Beef pot roast, boiled potatoes, boiled turnips, rice pudding.
Supper--Milk, corn bread.
Friday: Breakfest--Coffee or cocoa, hominy, French toast or pan cakes, stewed prunes.
Dinner--~Macaroni baked with cheese and tomatoes, bread, boiled rice and raisins or pie.
Supper-Cocoa or iced tea, crackers, cheese, bread, jam.
Saturday: Breakfast-Coffee or cocoa, oatmeal, corn pan cakes, oranges.
Dinner--Baked beans, pork, brown bread, custard. Supper--Cocoa or lemonade, hot biscuits, jam.
Sunday: Breakfest-Coffee or cocoa, French eggs, stewed prunes.
Dinner--Boiled chicken with white sauce, potatoes, stewed prunes, bread, ice cream or pie.
Supper-Lemonade or iced tea, bread, cheese, jam.

pg. 33

Monday: Breakfast-Coffee or cocoa, wheat pan cakes. stewed apricots.
Dinner-Beef stew, potatoes, onions, carrots, turnips, bread, tapioca pudding or pie.
Supper-Cocoa or lemonade, hot biscuits, jam.

Tuesday: Breakfast--coffee or cocoa, French toast, bananas.
Dinner--Roast mutton, potatoes, stewed tomatoes, bread, pudding or pie.
supper--'Milk, corn bread, jam.

Wednesday: .Breakfast-Coffee or cocoa, hominy, corn pan cakes, stewed prunes.
Dinner--Pot roast, potatoes, carrot stew, bread, rice pudding. SuPPer--Cocoa, cold beans, bread, jam.

Thursday: Breakfast--Coffee or cocoa, oatmeal, bacon, scrambled eggs, oranges.
Dinner-Chile con came, kidney beans, beef, bread, peach custard.
supper--Milk, cold meat, corn bread, stewed prunes.

Friday: Breakfast-Coffee or cocoa, corn meal mush, wheat pan cakes, apricots.
Dinner--Cod fish balls, potatoes, boiled turnips, bread, tapioca pudding with fruit.
supper--Lemonade, cold boiled eggs, bread, jam.

Saturday: Breakfast-Coffee or cocoa, hominy, corn pan cakes, stewed prunes.
Dinner--Baked beans, pork, brown bread, apricot pudding or pie.
supper--Cocoa, cold beans, hot biscuits, jam.

Sunday: Breakfast--Coffee or cocoa, oatmeal, French toast,

bananas. Dinner-Chicken pot pie, potatoes, rice, boiled onions, ice cream.
Slipper--Lemonade, crackers, cheese, bread, jam.

pg. 34

Another (and Heartier) 2weeks'


First Day: Breakfast--Stewed prunes, oatmeal and milk, ham and eggs, bread and butter, coffee.
Dinner-Macaroni and cheese, stewed tomatoes, bread and jam, lemonade.
Supper-Bean soup, lettuce salad, mashed potatoes, lima beans, roast beef.
Second Day: Breakfast--Apple or orange, corn mush and milk, hot cakes and syrup, coffee.
Dinner (Cooked by Scouts)-Cold roast beef, bread and jam, cocoa.
Supper-Noodle soup, pickles and onions, boiled potatoes, mashed turnips, beef stew (smothered in onions and gravy, rice pudding, tea.

Third Day: Breakfast--Sliced canned pineapple, cream of wheat and milk, beef hash, hot biscuits and butter.
Dinner--Pork and beans, green onions, lemonade, bread and jam.
Supper--Rice and tomato soup, beet salad, boiled potatoes, scalloped cabbage, pot roast of beef, ice cream and cake, tea.
Fourth Day: Breakfast--Stewed peaches, rice and milk, hot cakes and syrup, coffee.
Dinner--Spaghetti and tomato, bread and jam, cocoa.
Supper-Beef soup, baked short ribs, baked browned potatoes, carrots, pineapple pie, tea or coffee.

Fifth Day: 'Breakfast--Fresh fruit, oatmeal and milk, codfish cakes, cream gravy, biscuits and jam, coffee.
Dinner--Salmon salad, German fried potatoes; bread and jam. cocoa.
Slipper--Pea soup, cabbage salad, mashed potatoes, baked fish, peas, lemon meringue pie, tea.

Sixth Day: Breakfast-Stewed figs, cream of wheat, hominy and milk, fried ham and potato cakes, hot muffins, coffee. Dinner--Steak and gravy, boiled potatoes, bread, cocoa.
Suppe: Vegetable soup, string-bean salad, macaroni and cheese, creamed onions, radishes, bread and butter, peach shortcake, tea.

Seventh Day: Breakfast-Sliced bananas and milk, cream of wheat, baked potatoes, lamb chops, corn-bread, coffee.
Dinner--Chicken soup, stewed chicken and dumplings, parsnips, boiled potatoes, fruit salad, apple pie a la mode, tea, cheese.
Supper-Creamed chicken, fried potatoes, hot buns, tea and cake.

pg. 35

Eighth Day: Breakfast--Stewed prunes, oatmeal and milk, French toast or hot cakes and syrup, coffee.
Dinner--Spaghetti and tomatoes, bread and jam, cocoa.
SuPPer--Beef soup, roast beef, browned potatoes, radishes and onions, boiled onions, tapioca pudding, tea.
Ninth Day: Breakfast--Fresh fruit, cream of wheat. beef hash, biscuits, coffee.
Dinner--Rice and tomato soup, roast mutton and jelly, baked potatoes, string-bean salad, creamed caulflower, ice cream and cake, tea Supper -Cold lamb, fried potatoes, slaw, cake, cocoa.

Tenth Day: Breakfast-Stewed figs, corn cakes and syrup, ham, coffee.
Dinner--Pork and beans, stewed tomatoes, lemonade.
Supper- Pea,, soup, macaroni and cheese, lettuce and tomato salad, parsnips, bread, lemon cream pie, tea.

Eleventh Day: Breakfast Fresh fruit, oatmeal and milk, bacon and eggs, coffee. cocoa. Dinner--Lamb chops, fried potatoes, bread and jam, Supper--Vegetable soup, New England dinner, radishes and onions, apple pie, tea.
Twelfth Day: Breakfast--Stewed peaches, hominy and syrup, codfish cakes, biscuits and jam, coffee.
Dinner--Salmon salad, mashed potatoes, cocoa, bread and jam.
Supper--Vegetable soup, fried halibut and sauce, lyonnaise potatoes, creamed carrots and peas, slaw, rice pudding, tea.
Thirteenth Day: Breakfast-Fresh fruit, cream of wheat, boiled potatoes, mutton stew, bread, coffee.
Dinnier--Spaghetti and tomatoes, bread and jam, cocoa.
Supper--Bailey and tomato soup, pickles and onions, boiled potatoes, beefsteak and onions, kidney beans, peach pie, tea.
Fourteenth Day: Breakfast-Canned pineapple, oatmeal and milk, ham, hot cakes and coffee.
Dinner--Lettuce and tomato salad, roast pork, mashed potatoes, apple sauce, parsnips, ice cream and cake, lemonade Supper--Cold pork, apple sauce, stewed kidney beans, hot slaw, hot buns, tea.

pg. 36

Camp Rations and Recipes

EXPERIENCED campers find it worth while to use a ration table, which gives exact amounts for feeding a given number of people, thereby preventing the embarrassment of having to make the helpings too small on one dish in order to have enough to go around, or of wasting food where too much has been prepared. Don't trust your memory on recipes. Make a book of your own and with a little experimentation you will find that you can judge very closely as to what you will need under given conditions. It is an unhappy camp, which is always announcing "no more of such an item" before all the boys are served.
What you want is a general cook, not a pastry specialist or sandwich man, a man who does general cooking and knows how to make allowance for emergencies which are sure to arise in the course of the season. A good disposition and wholesome manly character are important requisites. Often the cook holds a more telling influence for the good or bad morals in the camp than any other one person except the camp director himself.
Give the cook a chance by providing proper cooking utensils and stoves. Give character to your outdoor cooking and to your camp bill of fare by introducing novelties peculiar to Scouting. Here are suggestions:
Dillon Wallace's "Darngoods." (See recipe.)
Boy Scout style barbecue pig or venison (sheep or goat.
Pine Tree Jim Wilder's kabob.
Beefsteak broiled on hardwood coals.
A La Camp Department baked banana sandwiches. recipe.)
Potatoes on the half shell (baked).
Dan Beard's rattlesnake stew.
Twist on a stick and beans baked in a hole.
Southern style Johnny cake.
Kephart corn pone.
Hot Rock corn dodgers.
"Over the Top" flapjacks.
Raked Ham, cooked underground. (See recipe.)

pg. 37

Commissary enemies to be considered are rust, bugs and flies, mould, ptomaine, weevil, dust, sand, tot and fermentation from poor refrigeration, garbage can (waste), bad water, adulterated food and substitutes.

"Darngoods" by Dillon Wallace
1 Quart Flour.
1 Rounded Tablespoon Good Bating Powder.
2 Teaspoons Salt.
Mix stiff dough with water.
Fill frying pan half full of hot grease.
Pull dough size of pan and thin as Possible; fry in deep hot fat until brown on edges; turn; Serve hot

Baked Banana Sandwiches
Roast banana with skin on, over live coals until skin is thoroughly brown (about ten minutes). Peel, slice lengthwise and serve between slices of toast. adding a slight sprinkling of salt and lemon juice, jam or fruit jelly. This has very high food value.

Ham Cooked Underground: Here is a meal that may be cooked in a bed of hot coals under the ground while the entire camp is out for an interesting game or hike. Not a soul is required to stay behind, even to watch for vandals, for all the food is completely covered-with earth. Place sliced raw ham in a covered baking dish and then fill the dish with raw potatoes sliced very thin. Sprinkle generously with hour and season with pepper. (Do not salt, there will be sufficient in the ham to. season the potatoes.) Pour in enough milk to just cover the

potatoes and dot with butter on the top. Will take from 11/2 hours to 2 hours to cook. YUM--YUM.--Long Beach, California District "Patrol Bulletin."

pg. 38

Selection of Sites

AFTER a long hike, when boys are very tired, practical necessity may leave little choice in the selection of a campsite for the night, nevertheless the requirements of sanitation should be given every consideration It is better, where possible, to know beforehand precisely where camp is to be pitched. This may be scouted for in advance.
In general, the following principles govern campsite selection: The site should be convenient to an ample supply of pure water. Good roads or trails should lead to the camp. Interior communication throughout the camp should be easy. A camp near a main road is undesirable on account of dust and noise. Wood for fuel and grass for field beds and thatching should be at hand or easily obtainable. The ground should be large enough to accommodate the Troop without crowding. It should be sufficiently high and rolling to drain off storm water readily, and if the season be hot, to catch the breeze.
In cold weather it should preferably have a southern exposure with woods to the north to break the winds. In warm weather an eastern exposure with the site moderately shaded by trees is desirable.
The site should be dry. For this reason, porous soil, covered with stout turf and underlaid by a sandy or gravelly sub-soil, is best; A site on clay soil, or where the ground water approaches the surface, is damp, cold and unhealthy, Alluvial soils, marshy ground, and ground near the base of hills; or near thick woods or dense vegetation, are undesirable as camp sites on account of dampness. Ravines and depressions are likely to be unduly warm and to have insufficient or undesirable air currents.
Proximity to marshes, stagnant water, or cemeteries is undesirable on account of dampness, mosquitoes, and the diseases the latter transmit. The high banks of lakes or large streams often make desirable campsites.

Camp Hazards

Fire Dangers
Least expected and most terrifying in its danger is fire. The orders in camp must be clear, and enforced with no exceptions. Fire danger stalks in the forest itself; it lurks in the tents while your boys are asleep. Another principle of precaution is at the root of Scouting and no Scoutmaster should fail to impress his boys with the reasonableness and worthwhileness of fire safety in camp.

pg. 39

Glass, Cans, Nails

Broken glass is probably more to be dreaded than the more romantic rattler and copper-head about which the campfire yarns wind themselves. In some camps the realization of this danger leads to the unfailing rule that the glass is picked up and brought to the tin can grave yard for burial. The more obvious rule is that nothing that may become dangerous shall ever be thrown away.
This applies equally to the cans which are always dirty or rusty. Also every container which may hold a little bit of rain water is an effective mosquito incubator. The rusty nail is to be dreaded for its relation to lockjaw. Turn every upstanding: spike in a safe direction, if you cannot put it entirely out of business.

Infection from trivial wounds can be prevented by carefully following First Aid instruction. An excellent occupation for one evening about the campfire is to have each boy recite the circumstances of the most severe experience calling for First Aid treatment which he has actually seen since the last time he was in camp with a statement of the treatment used. Duty demands that every wound, no matter how slight, shall be respected and dealt with properly.

Obviously, the camp demands the First Aid kit. In this, beside the disinfectants, there should be provision for sunburn. However much sportmanship is involved in the willingness of a lad to scorch his shoulders, it is nevertheless true that there is danger of infection from deep blistering and carron oil or unguentine should be available in sufficient quantities to safeguard against such infection. Make your boys wear shirts the first week in camp.

pg. 40

Tree Dangers
It is hardly enough that the camp be surveyed with a view to the avoidance of trees which may be struck by lightning, of trees which are dead and may be blown upon the tents, of trees growing upon rocks which may be upended, but it is necessary that the live trees be looked over for dead branches and these cut out before the site is safe.

Roughneck Initiations
One of the most dramatic and inviting sports ever invented for the camp is blanket tossing. This should be absolutely tabooed! It has been forbidden at the U. S. Army and Navy schools, it;s a thing of the past wherever intelligence governs men's actions. No camp Director under any circumstances is qualified for his job if he is not strong enough to protect every mother's son in his outfit from the needless hazards of roughneck initiations.

The construction of camp furniture, signal towers, spring boards and diving towers calls for supervision by a safety committee. It may be well to appoint Scouts in the camp to act as: continual building inspectors to see that such devices are not constructed as to invite accident and injury.
The risk of broken arms or legs in climbing about cliffs, of broken ankles in climbing piles of loose rock, of hopeless disappearance into the leaf covered air holes of abandoned mines, must be convincingly presented to the boys.

Guard Duty and Other Precautions
Guard duty is fascinating. Rarely does a camp have any occasion to guard against outsiders, but it is a soul developing experience for a boy to walk a lonely beat at night. A real function of the guard is to prevent harm from coming to any occasional sleepwalker. A leave from the camp should be granted to boys in pairs only. Night lights should be placed on the path to the latrine and at boat landings.

pg. 41

Camp Fire Prevention

FIRE-DRILL in camp may take the place of the morning stretch, with everybody in pajamas passing the "buck." A rubbish fire burning in some safe place, with the clouds of smoke visible to the boys, adds reality to the event. Leaders pass the pails around the corner-where they are emptied into tubs for the "K. P."
A bucket brigade usually consists of two lines stationed between the water supply and the fire. One line passes the full buckets to the fire while the other returns the "empties" to be filled at the source. This line requires fewer Scouts since the buckets can be thrown from one member to another.
Where camps are subject to the danger of forest fires, a fire line should be constructed from which to "backfire." The fire line may be a foot path or a cleared area of six feet in width encircling the camp. It is not always necessary to remove trees along this line, the principal concern is to clear away brush and debris. When a safe first line of protection is established about the camp, it is advisable to plan another circle of a greater radius, by connecting roads, trails, brooks and natural boundaries.

Fire Regulation

I. In case of fire notify an official at once.
II. Fire Call on the bugle is that appearing in the Scout Diary, or three short blasts on the whistle repeated at intervals.
III. At First Call, all Scouts take posts designated at the fire drill, with all speed. Each tent leader is responsible for bringing the pail from his tent and returning it afterwards.
IV. Officials will take charge at the ends of bucket lines, and operate extinguishers, pumps and hose. Junior officers fetch extinguishers.

Good Health in Camp

IT is essential that every Scout be given a thorough medical examination immediately upon his departure for camp or upon the first day of his arrival. This is a Minimum Standard Requirement and is a practice adopted by all good camps. It will assure the Camp Director and the parents that as far as is humanly possible, every safeguard has been taken to prevent anyone from entering camp who might have an incipient case of some contagious disease.
These medical inspections also reveal any physical defects, such as weak heart, hernia, curvature of the spine, poor posture,

pg. 42

and the like, which might be remedied through corrective exercises, the physician giving special advice for the treatment or precautions to be taken in each case.
From time to time we find boys getting into camp whose hearts are bad and who cannot stand up under a very strenuous program. Drowning in some cases is due to heart failure rather than bad swimming. If the director is aware of such ailments, he may permit the boy to go bathing but not to do strenuous swimming.

Tooth Hygiene

Every Scout who expects to go to camp should have his teeth looked after, hair and nails cut short and be able to pass the medical examination which, preferably, Should be given immediate upon his arrival.
In camp, as elsewhere, the program calls for a daily practice in personal hygiene. It is a good investment of time to show the entire group the proper use of a tooth brush, the make-up of a cot, and to explain the regulations concerning washing, bathing and the proper use of the latrine.

Daily Inspection

A daily inspection is made to check up on orderliness and sanitary conditions. At this time each camper is questioned whether the teeth are brushed, hands and neck are washed and "spirits" are moving. Morning "sick call" should reveal any ailments to the Camp Director.

Simple Health Rules

1. Breathe fresh air and breathe through the nose.
2. Make a habit of going to the latrine at least twice a day, morning and night.
3. Sleep at least nine hours every night with tent flaps rolled up, rain or dry.
4. Beep your body and mind clean. Take at least one warm bath a week.
5. Eat slowly and chew thoroughly. Get up from the meal feeling that more could be eaten with relish.

pg. 43

Orderliness In Camp

START your housekeeping right. Have it understood that
there will be daily inspection of tents with awe inspiring penalties for anything one-eighth of an inch out of plumb, and hair-trigger inspections when Troop Committee-men and others visit the camp. Orderliness in the tent is fundamental to camp discipline, and the success of the camp is in proportion to the discipline maintained from start to finish. Here is the standard camp inspection:
1. The grounds about tents raked thoroughly; grass kept Short.
2. Each Division (2 tents of 4 boys each) responsible for a pail, kept by the first tent under a definite corner of the platform, bottom side up.
3. Each Division responsible for one broom and rake, kept by the second tent under a definite cooler of the platform, handles to point outward.
4. Tents and tent flaps properly rolled up during good weather, ropes kept tight and whipped at all times.
5. Cots kept in perfect alignment, mosquito netting uniform in each tent, on all cots, or folded and placed at the feet.
6. Hats placed on pillow, shoes under foot of bed, with shoe strings tucked in.
7. Suit cases neatly packed and placed under head of bed.
8. Clothing, etc., hung on lines in back of tent for airing and drying
9. Beds to be made with blankets folded under end and sides
10. Totem pole. to be attached to upright of guy supports.
11. When the Inspection Officer calls: "Ready for Inspection," the tent occupants line up in front of tent. The tent Leader salutes and reports: "All accounted for, sir," or explains the absence of those missing.
12. Officer questions each boy concerning teeth and health, and inspects condition of tent, utensils and grounds.

pg. 44

Camp Water Supply

MANY camps secure their water for drinking and cooking from a spring or a well and their water for washing from a lake or a river. It should be remembered that water brown with suspended matter and apparently undrinkable may be actually free from harmful bacteria and that such water may often be easily made potable through the removal of the suspended matter by settling or filtering. On the other hand, in apparently innocuous crystal clear water may lurk the germs of typhoid.


The only sure test of the purity of water is a laboratory analysis.
The bacteria of several dangerous diseases, notably typhoid and dysentery, are usually transmitted through water. It is essential, therefore, that the drinking water of a Scout camp be given a laboratory analysis to make sure that, from that angle at least, the health of the boys will be safe while at camp.
Not only must the drinking water be safe to begin with, but it must also be guarded against infection so that it will remain safe. Disease bacteria in water come chiefly from filth, from the excreta of man or animals, Therefore, the first and most important way to protect the water supply is to make sure that none of the latrines, urinals, garbage incinerators or wash houses of the camp can possibly drain into the water supply and that no barnyard or privy can threaten it by surface or underground drainage.


If for any reason the safety of the water is not absolutely certain, then the water must be sterilized, either by boiling or by chemical means. Boiling destroys practically all of the disease-

pg. 45

producing organisms that are found in water. Prolonged boiling, say twenty minutes, makes assurance doubly sure, but if fuel or time is precious, making certain that the water comes to the boiling point once may suffice, as that will destroy the organisms of typhoid and dysentery.
The simplest, safest and most commonly used chemical sterilizing agent is bleaching powder, also known as chloride of lime and chlorinated lime. The following method is suggested by William B. Kerms:
"I have found it satisfactory to prepare a stock solution (to be kept tightly stoppered and away from the light) as follows: 75 grains of chloride of lime in a pint of water (bottle No. 1) and 40 grains of hyposulphate of soda in a pint of water (bottle No. 2), using one-fifth of each bottle per 50-gallon barrel of water to he treated. Add, while stirring the bulk, the required quantity from bottle No. 1, which produces a safe drinking water in about fifteen minutes, then add the required quantity of No. 2, which neutralizes the chloride of lime taste. If necessary, add more of the latter. No evil effects will be produced by drinking water so treated."

Further Protection
Wells, barrels, tanks or other receptacles containing drinking water should be protected against wind-blown filth and should be carefully and thoroughly cleansed from time to time. A nice new easy pump may be deceiving. Old-timers used to say that running water purifies itself. Scientists tell us that it does not. Germs of typhoid may lurk in crystal clear water, therefore, apparent purity is no indication of safety. Springs may also be contaminated by careless campers. So beware!

On hikes, carry water in canteens which you know are safe, and thus guard against any possible contraction of disease germs. For additional information see chapter on Water Supply in the Camp Health, Safety and Sanitation (sold by Supply Dept.: Catalog No. 3464, 20 cents).

pg. 46

Water Wisdom for Camp

Safety in the Water

CRAMPS are not deadly unless you give in to the fear of them. In most cases they can be broken as described. However, in cases where this cannot be done, it is quite possible to swim a long distance in this cramped position providing that you do not become excited.
To avoid stomach cramps, never swim until at least two hours after meals. Swimming immediately after a meal is responsible for cramps which are the cause of many a bather's becoming helpless in the water.
Muscle cramps sometimes attack swimmers; but, aside from fright, do not commonly affect them So seriously as to make them helpless. If the cramp is in the calf of the leg, submerge and seize the cramped muscle with thumbs and fingers of both hands. Pinch muscle with both hands quickly, as though trying to force thumb and finger of one hand through to meet those of the other. This usually relieves the cramp at once and it rarely returns. Go ashore as quickly as possible and massage muscle well.
For toe cramp, pressure on a nerve which lies in the arch of the foot on the inside edge about a third of the way from heel to toe will relieve the cramp. Find this spot so that if you ever need to do so you can locate it. Submerge and press the place with your thumbs, sliding them towards the great toe.
Long-Distance Swimming: No swimmer should swim far out unless accompanied by a boat. The boat should be manned by two people, one to row, and the other to observe the swimmer, and be ready to assist him if necessary.
Diving: It is dangerous to dive into unknown waters. Enter the water feet first, and determine the depth, also the condition at the place where you intend diving. Be on your guard for sunken trees, wreckage, etc.
Where a number of people are diving, one should not enter the water until the one who dived before him has come up and is out of the way.

The Buddy Plan

Here's a word of advice you should pass on to all unwary land birds when they hang their clothes on the hickory limb. Tell 'em not to go in, even dip, unless they are with a Buddy who will act as a helper--the American Red Cross safety program called the Buddy plan. Briefly, it is as follows:

pg. 47

Bathers are placed in pairs according to ability, and made responsible for each other's safety during their stay in the water.
Two non-swimmers enter the water (which should be enclosed by life lines and never be above the arm-pits for beginners) together, and during their lesson always keep each other in sight. If one should suddenly become ill, have a cramp or faint and go under, his "Buddy" would know about it and give and call for assistance. (The same holds true with swimmers who are permitted to swim to the bathing limit.) When one bather goes ashore the other must also come ashore or the "Buddy" is to notify the Life Saver.
By using this plan the possibility of accidents is materially decreased. A sense of responsibility is given to each bather which is to be desired. While not relieving the Life Saver and life saving crew of any responsibility, it gives them an added sense of security through knowing that each bather has two people looking after his individual safety, namely, himself and his "Buddy."
Swimming dangers lie in cold water, overconfidence, out-oft-training, too much spirit, lack of organization and supervision Remember always that even the best of expert swimmers have been drowned when taking Chances.
* See Swimming and Water Safety, by Captain Fred C. Mills, issued by National Camping Department.

How, to "Float"

One of the most valuable lessons that may be learned by a Scout is the knowledge of Floating; A swimmer who knows how to float should be able to live in most any kind of rough sea or conserve his strength when a long distance from shore. Seventy per cent. of all men can float, but only 10 per cent. know that they can.
The erroneous opinion prevails that a man must lie flat in the water in order to keep afloat. This is unnatural and impossible for most men. The natural floating position for a man is a standing position with the head thrown back and only the nose and mouth out of the water.
If a swimmer wishes to find out whether he has buoyancy or not, he should enter the water about shoulder depth, take a deep breath, draw both knees up to the chest and grasp them with both hands and slowly lower the face into the water. If any part of the head ,,, back remains above water, the swimmer knows that he has buoyancy enough to float with the nose and mouth out. If, however, he goes to bottom, he will know that

pg. 48

he lacks the necessary buoyancy. This can ofttimes be acquired by deep breathing, thus increasing the chest capacity.
For those who find that they have no buoyancy, it is quite possible to learn to rest by lying on the back and resting the arms while the feet are kicked gently, thus resting the legs while the: hands are moved slowly.
When Clothes are in the way: If it should ever happen that a person were thrown suddenly into the water and in order to save his life must swim ashore, he should remove all clothing immediately. If, however, he can only be saved by floating and remaining quietly in the water, it would be better for him to leave all clothing on except his shoes, as his clothing is not only buoyant for a certain length of time, but contains a certain amount of warmth even though wet.
If possible, always hold on to something which will keep you afloat.--FRED C. MILLS, Department of Camping.

Troop Life Guard
Every Scout Troop should accept as one of its objectives, the qualification of two Scouts as Scout Life Guards as required by the American Red Cross.
Scouts who already hold the Junior Life Saving Certificate of the American Red Cross are eligible to take this test or they may arrange to take it in conjunction with the rest of the Scout Life Guard requirements, which include boat handling, buoy throwing, one-quarter-mile swim, a knowledge of methods of protecting Scout swimmers, being able to demonstrate and use a method of swimming teaching and instructing three Scouts in rowing, Or two in canoeing, or two in swimming, or two in life saving.
The function of such Scout Life Guards is, primarily, to assist the Scoutmaster with instruction and in protecting the Troop when they have Troop swims, either indoors or outdoors. They cannot in any way, however, take the responsibility of the safety of the Troop away from the Scoutmaster.

pg. 49

Winter Camping

EVEN WITHOUT SNOW a winter camp can be made a rousing success. Teach your Scouts that trees have as much personality in winter as in summer, and have a tree hike. Mark trails for use next year through the leafless woods; you will be surprised to find how much easier it is when the foliage does not obscure your view. Install feeding stations and shelters for birds at spots that can be replenished frequently by patrols. Set your huskies to work with axe and saw to pile firewood that can be hauled later to make comfortable fires for some one who needs the Troop's help. Stalking, Pioneering Hiking, Photography, Signaling and Archery will help your Merit Badge Scouts along the road to the Eagle Badger Don't overlook the stars above you; they are especially brilliant at this season, and a good Scout knows constellations: in winter as well as in summer. Various Patrol contests will liven the time. Stage obstacle races, sawing and chopping contests, whittling, water boiling contests and as many others as your ingenuity discovers.

Personal Equipment
The following is a check list of personal equipment generally required for winter camping. A personal inspection should be made of all boys to make sure that they are physically fit and adequately dressed for the kind of trip to be undertaken. Provide for the worst possible weather conditions which may befall.

pg. 50

A. Required

Storm cap with ear laps
Mackinaw or overcoat
Extra wool shirt
Extra mittens
Extra heavy underwear
2 pairs extra wool stockings
Extra pair shoes or slippers
Vial of shoe grease (castor oil, neatsfoot oil or mutton tallow)
Extra handkerchiefs
Poncho or rain coat
4 woolen blankets or comforters (equivalent to 14 lbs.)
First Aid Kit
1 heavy suit of pajamas
8 two-inch safety pins
Bath towel
Tooth brush
Tooth paste
Razor, etc.
Cook kit
Sewing kit
Scout Handbook
Pencil and note book
Pocket knife

B. Desirable Additional Articles:-Camera, signal flags, skiis, sled, snowshoes, skates, extra strap, musical instrument, a good book to read.


Beds made of boughs will hold longer and are more comfortable if boxed in by logs. The woolen helmets used by soldiers are just the thing with which to keep warm about the head and shoulders. The toque may be worn under this headpiece. One of your two pairs of heavy woolen socks, kept dry and worn in bed, is as good as an extra blanket over your feet when there are no extra blankets. Instead of rebreathing foul air when the head is tucked under the blanket, draw a coat or sweater over the head in such a way as to leave unobstructed a breathing hole.

A flat-faced rock or ledge reflects the heat of your fire. When the snow is deep, a bed or "raft" of stout green branches under your fire will prevent it from melting down and drowning your fire. Even on wet, frozen ground a raft is useful under a slow fire. A great comfort is a pile of dry wood which can be started by reaching out of bed just before emerging from a cozy nook into the crisp morning air.

Warwick S. Carpenter in his book on "Winter Camping" recommends this toothsome winter food. "Make a stew of rice, dehydrated onion, and small cubes of salt pork. Let it simmer until thick and substantial. You might also add some


pg. 51

dehydrated potatoes. This stew is one of the most satisfying and easiest made dishes of all the winter menu." Use fresh vegetables on short trips.
Frozen eggs can be peeled and placed in a pan where they will thaw and fry to a turn. Frozen potatoes placed in cold water will boil to a tee. Spoilage results only from thawing out and being allowed to lie exposed to the air before cooking.
Snow, for some reason or other-according to Horace Kephart--has the same effect on bread as eggs have; two tablespoonsful of snow equaling one egg. Corn bread may be made by stirring together 1 quart of corn meal, 1/2 teaspoonful soda, 1 teaspoonful salt, 1 teaspoonful lard. Then, in a cool place where snow will not melt, stir into above one quart light snow. Place immediately in a hot oven or baker.


Frostbites are best handled according to the Eskimo method of applying body heat to the frozen place until it is thawed out. Kerosene oil is effective in soothing chilblain, if unbroken; otherwise, paint with iodine. The American Red Cross reports good results with a five per cent. solution of carbolic acid for bathing the parts, which relieves the itching, and painting the parts each night for three nights with a solution of equal parts of tincture of iodine and tincture of Gelladonna.

Use friction on the affected parts; first rubbing with snow and then with: cold water until the frost is removed, which will be indicated by the dead-white frozen flesh resuming its pink tint and by returning sensation. As soon: as this occurs, administer stimulant and water in small quantities and keep patient in motion, exercising the parts which have been frozen.

pg. 52

Building the Brush or Bough Bed

THE OUTDOORSMAN must know how to lay a comfortable brush or bough bed in order to sleep warm and I dry in all kinds of weather. Such a bed can be made of any kind of small thornless undergrowth in half an hour's time acid without destroying young spruce or other trees. When branches are used, however, cut only the bottom branches from Small trees, or clear out a thicket, leaving some to grow.

The Way It Is Done

Slender branches of gray birch interwoven with rigid oak branches give springiness. Cut necessary supply of small branches two and three feet long, placing the softer in one pile the stiffer in another. Having your logs in place, as per diagram, lay a succession of large branches of the stiffer variety across the head of the bed from left to right, to start a pillow, as in figure 1, all stick ends pointing one way and thrust slightly into the ground. Next take soft branches and lay with ends overlapping the pillow (see figure 2) until you complete your pillow; this also begins your mattress and springs, which are made of successive alternate stiff and soft branches.
Figure 3 shows how logs are placed. Lay your ground cloth over all and on that lay your sleeping bag and blankets. Figure 4 shows bough bed snugly covered by pup tent, with reflector fire right where it will give warmth all night.

pg. 53

Your First Winter Camp
By Bill Weasel


SPECIAL consideration should be given to footwear. Cotton socks and low shoes are taboo. Woolen stockings are most desirable. Shoes should be large enough to permit the wearing of an extra pair of stockings. If the weather is wet underfoot, rubbers should be added, unless the shoes are absolutely waterproof. Any boy who does not come to the start-off prepared, must necessarily be sent home, as exposure will reflect on your foresight and ability to take care of boys. Make sure to avoid disappointment by issuing an announcement and conditions of the hike in written form in advance, so that the boys may use this as a check list when getting ready.

Cave Camping
Improvised shelter in a cave dug out or under a cliff with open fire and wind break of branches, logs, or slabs may be made comfortable. The thatched shelters ordinarily pictured are very difficult to make water tight and as a rule are not dependable. They are also an awful waste of live young trees. Whatever type of shelter is used there is in winter the hazard of fire, especially where an open campfire is used. The greatest care must be observed that bedding and clothing are not set afire from camp fire, lanterns or matches. There are numerous instances that might be mentioned, where campers have felt themselves comfortably stowed away for the night to wake barely in time to see their carefully selected winter camp equipment go up in smoke and themselves lucky to escape in their night shirts without being seriously singed.

The Indian teepee or wigwam is the best ventilated tent and will stand more severe weather than any other type, although it is often difficult to get the proper poles for it and it is cumbersome to move. An ordinary wall tent 12 x 14 or larger with an extra fly and walls properly staked down, can be made very comfortable by the use of a small sheet iron stove.

Do not attempt an overnight hike until you have made several day hikes with your boys. A splendid shelter can be improvised with a number of tarpaulins, or shelter-halves, pitched to the lee of the wind in a semi-circle, with a fire built in the center.

pg. 54

Leaves may be gathered and kept in place, covered with ground sheets, held down by foot logs. This is probably as warm a way to sleep on the ground as is possible. Experienced campers prefer this to a cot in a drafty cabin. It is advisable to sleep as close to the floor ground as possible with proper insulation, as cots allow for too much ventilation from below. When sleeping on a cot use as much covering below as above.

Sleeping Warm

After selecting the sheltered place to sleep, such as alongside a fallen tree or big rock, look for two logs and place them parallel the width you wish your bed to be. Put the leaves between these logs and cover them with your ground cloth. The logs will keep your bed from creeping and will keep off winds. Tie up the lower end of the blankets with a string or large safety pins and tuck: that end into your pack for added protection. If very cold, wear dry wool socks to bed. ~ It is customary to throw a few Sticks of wood on the fire while in the process of turning in, for added warmth and light; Most important is a fire ready to start in the morning when shoes are stiff and fingers get cold. This tinder and wood should be protected against sleet or snow with a piece of canvas or a pouch. Don't forget matches and flash lights.


Make it a point to teach boys the proper use of the axe. At least one long-handled axe should be in the party for heavier wood. Use dead timber and squaw wood as matter of thrift and conservation. When there is snow on the ground, the wood may be placed on a sleigh and yarded for chopping into firewood.

Health Hints

A good First Aid kit is especially important. Be sure that you know how to treat frost-bitten ears, fingers and toes. Colds are the result of poor ventilation, bad food and lack of exercise more than from extreme cold or exposure. The boys must have plenty of fresh air, nourishing food, sufficient laxative and should not be allowed to loaf or lounge about with feet wet. Be careful about your water for drinking. While there is apparently less risk on this score in winter, the danger is just as serious as in any other time of the year. If you are not sure of your water, boil it. Even snow water is likely to be contaminated if not boiled.

pg. 55

In bright sunshine, guard against snow blindness when crossing snowy fields. This is a painful affliction which comes from an undue amount of eyestrain in intense light.
You will want to make sure that no boy goes on this trip suffering from a bad cold. Other than that nothing else may be necessary except bandages, antiseptics such as Mercurochrome, Iodine and the like to take care of abrasions due to falls on frozen ground or ice. Approved First Aid kits will be carried.
It is also possible for boys to keep clean in camp. Don't leave soap out of your pack, and see that it is used liberally with plenty of water. Chapped hands and face, sore feet and inability to keep warm are often due to failure to observe this regulation.

Ice Rescue

Ice accidents may happen in winter. In attempting to rescue anyone who has fallen through the ice, if possible proceed in this manner-YELL!!! FOR HELP! Make a slip noose in the end of Scout guard rope and holding one end, throw the other to person in water and yell--"Quick, put you' hands through that loop!" PULLUP and you have him. He cannot go down and with such help as you can give him by pulling should enable him to break the thin ice and Climb out. If you have help, form a human chain and drag him out.
Do not venture to the edge of the hole unless there is a rope around you and in the hands of rescuers. In that case, lie down and spread your weight by stretching out as much as possible.
A board, ladder, or pole may often serve as a means of rescue when pushed out, but get that rope around his wrist first of all if you can.

pg. 56

When the Ice Breaks

HAZARDS ON ICE are seldom marked, so careful Scouts will warn beginners of the weak spots, spring holes, and Other dangers. At the beginning and toward the close of the skating season, ice thickness is all important. One-inch ice is a good kind to stay off; ice two inches thick and still forming will support one skater, but in melting weather is dangerous. Threeinch ice made at very low temperature may be trusted by very small groups, but not crowds. Good, clear, black ice made in ;very cold weather and at least four inches thick is O.K., but when the ice has been on for a long time, with thaws and cold spells alternating, it becomes brittle and will hold but a small load. Salt water ice is always treacherous.
When spring melting sets in, quit the, ice at the first sign of weakening. Place no dependence upon the good luck of rocks thrown from the shore

To Be Prepared

Careful Scouts, when they go skating, will for their own safety and the safety of others, look about them to see what would be available if someone breaks through the ice. Locate loose fence rails, a ladder, planks or a boat hauled out for the winter, or think where you saw a clothesline in a backyard. All these may be useful.
The thing to remember when a person gets in is that the weight of the rescuer must be distributed over as much of the ice as possible, hence planks and ladders. If the rescuer must push out from shore, a life-line wrapped around his body, under the arms, should be payed out by others on the shore. A hockey stick, or something equally strong, fastened to a lifeline can be thrown out to the person in the water.

When the Rescue Has Been Made
The first thing to do with the person rescued from icy water, if he is conscious is to get him into motion to keep him from freezing. Take him at once to shelter and apply first-aid for frost bite and to prevent pneumonia. If unconscious, treat as in any other case of suffocation, and start artificial breathing by the prone and pressure method, which the Red Cross recommends for all kinds of smothering, whether through gas, smoke, electric shock, or drowning. Always get a doctor promptly, but do not wait for him. Delay in starting to work on the rescued person robs him of any chance he may have of recovery.-Commodore W. E. LONGFELLOW.

pg. 57

Miscellaneous Camp Suggestions

Reading in Camp

BOOKS in camp are life savers on rainy days and parts of days too warm to carry on energetic activities. The books boys like best to have, have to do with stories of the West, Scouts and Pioneers and Indians; historical stories of all times and countries; stories of chivalry; stories of the sea and big out-of-door adventure; stories of Boy Scouts, camping, wild animals, sports, and school life; humorous Stories, and mystery and detective stories. Among the authors who best meet such needs are Altscheler, Tomlinson, Barbour, Heyliger, Burgess (Scout stories), Savin, Ames, Schultz, Grinnell, Fitzhugh, Holland, Burton, Crump, Eaten, Seton, Pier, Quirk, Munroe, Wallace and Rolt-Wheeler.
In selecting books on nature subjects, try to select those that specifically mention the natural history of the community in which the camp is set up. Lists of such books may be secured usually by writing to the State University or- State Librarian, or by consulting the local librarian or superintendent of schools. Among the books that will be found generally serviceable for this purpose are: Beacroft's "Who's Who Among the Wild Flowers and Ferns"; Beard's "American Boy's Book of Bugs, Butterflies and Beetles" Chapman's "Bird Life"; Collin's "The Book of Stars"; Cragins "Our Insect Friends and Foes: How to Collect and Study Them"; Holland's "The Butterfly Guide"; Keeler's "Our Native Trees, and How to Identify Them"; Mathews' "Field Book of American Wild Flowers" and "Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs"; Miller's "The First Hook of Birds"; Reed's "Land Birds," "Water and Game Birds" and "Flower Guide"; Rogers' "The Tree Guide."

pg. 58

Palmetto and Moss Lean-to

Scouts in some parts of Texas have difficulty in securing suitable material for thatching. Large areas of wasteland are covered with palmetto plants, which have little or no commercial value, and Spanish moss is abundant. Some members of my Troop combined the two with the necessary uprights and crosspieces for lean-to-construction.
When twisted very tightly the moss makes an excellent substitute for rope or nails in fastening the cross-pieces, and the palmetto makes a rain-proof thatch. No tools except axe and knife are necessary, and if dead timber is used for the uprights, no valuable trees are defaced or destroyed.
There is one necessary precaution to be taken in securing the palmetto leaves, and that is to trim off the knife-like edges on each side of the stem before cutting. The Spanish moss may be fashioned into the best kind of a camp bed and is so used by members of the Troop.--H. P. Jirou, S. M., Troop 6, Beaumont, Texas.

"Punk" Idea

A triple thickness of gauze bandage, any desired size. Light with a match and allow it to burn until it looks charred on the upper surface. Extinguish by stepping upon it, being sure that your shoes are dry, and you have your punk for fire lighting by flint and steel.
This allows you to demonstrate firelighting quickly, in an emergency, as the bandage from your First Aid kit can be utilized on the spot. It is good to remember that this punk is only to catch and hold the spark. The flame is obtained by the use of tinder of the nature of dry cedar bark, such as can be obtained through the Supply Department, National Headquarters.-Scout Executive C. E. MCINTYRE.

Any New Hike Ideas?

For still other suggestions study the new Handbook for Boys and the Merit Badge pamphlets in Hiking and Camping.
If you have fresh, original ideas about hikes, camps, outdoor Scoutcraft of any kind, please send them in to SCOUTING, so these can be given 1ut for the benefit of other Scouts and Scoutmasters over our "Council Fire," and used in the later editions of the How Book.

pg. 59

Zoos and Museums
Don't fail to provide in advance for lively attention to the creation of a camp zoo and a camp museum. All live things that can be released at the end of camp or taken home for exhibition at Troop Quarters or in school or local library, should be collected in the zoo. Of course you will need expert advice on handling and housing and feeding these things. Aim at as complete a collection of each species as possible. Try to provide for a daily hour of instruction for all Scouts. Your museum offers limitless possibilities for collecting the best specimens of plant life, properly mounted specimens of butterflies and other small things, mosses, stones and so on. If you have never attempted it, you Will be amazed at the results. If you have tried it and it fizzled, try again in a different way and with more application.

Home·made Waterproof Sleeping-bag

MUCH of the pleasure and all of the comfort of camping depends on a good outfit and a knowledge of how to use it. A good outfit for Boy Scouts need not be expensive, but it must be both light and strong, and at least the tent, sleeping bag and haversack should be thoroughly waterproof A waterproof camp sleeping bag that will weigh two pounds and cost little for materials may be made as follows: Get two and one-half yards of unbleached sheeting, two yards wide, at thirty cents a yard, one package Of seal-brown diamond dye for cotton cloth for ten cents, and a pound of Parowax for tell cents, and two quarts of gasoline for fifteen cents.

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Dye the cloth according to directions in the package of dye and let it thoroughly dry. Melt the Parowax in a frying pan on the stove until it is liquid. Pour the gasoline into a tin pail in the back yard and be sure that no fire or light is near, and that no matches are lighted near it, as the gas from it is very explosive. Pour the liquid Parowax into the gasoline and stir with a stick for a moment. Then immerse the cloth and squeeze it down and turn it over until thoroughly and evenly saturated with the solution. Squeeze out just enough so it will not drip and hang the cloth on a line or on the fence, or spread it on the ground and leave it all day or all night until the gasoline mostly evaporates and leaves the wax evenly distributed through the cloth. There is generally enough of the liquid left over to waterproof a haversack and pair of leggings.
The smell of gasoline gradually leaves the cloth and need not delay the next step, which is thoroughly ironing the cloth with a hot flat-iron until the parafin is forced into every fibre.
The cloth should then be evenly folded the long way and sewed over and over with strong thread across one end and up two-thirds of the open side, making a bag with One end and the upper part of one side open. A light, soft cotton comforter should be sewed into a bag in the same way and secured to the inside of the waterproof bag. This, with boughs, leaves or hay underneath for softness will make a good summer bed. but an additional light woolen blanket sewed into a bag and put inside of the others will be needed for winter weather. The whole bed need not weigh over six or seven pounds.--VERNON BAILEY, S.M., Washington, D. C.

The Small Troop in Camp

"The most likely place to catch 'Scout fever' is in camp."

WE have never had more than six Scouts in our weekend camps, and it is quite easy to have two opposing armies of three a side, tracking each other, signaling to the men on their own side, finding their way by the Sun, throwing a bridge across a two-foot stream, making a sketch map of the ground over which they pass.
Novel Good Turn: Last August at a camp one whole morning was set apart for each Patrol to go out into the village seeking Special Good Turns. The Patrol Leaders handed in a detailed report of the Patrol efforts, to the Scoutmaster, and the whole scheme was very successful, although some exciting and even amusing incidents resulted from this camp exercise.

pg. 61

Competitive Inspection: One little stunt always works wonders in my camp. I draw a plan of the site, show P. L.'s where tents 1, 2, 3, 4, store, officers, etc., will be situated and let them draw lots for position. That is all settled at home before we setout for camp. Next, I offer prizes for: (1) Best kept tent in camp for whole week; (2) best Scouting spirit; (3)neatness of person; (4) best Scout stunt for camping purposes; (5) most efficient camp kit in smallest compass. This involves a lot of clerical work for the S. M., but I can assure you it is worthwhile. Try it and test it for yourselves.

Picking the Site: Personally I should never dream of taking my TOOP to camp without having first inspected the ground myself. It is not difficult at the same time to get in touch with some persons living in the neighborhood where it is proposed to camp, who will be willing to give full information. Nearly every one is willing to help Scouts. But do get all possible information beforehand, as to water, wood, milk, and general supplies. I came on one Troop three years ago who had evidently not done this, as they had brought large stores of tinned milk with them although they were camping on a big dairy farm where they could have got all the fresh milk they wanted.

Patrols as Chefs: The Patrol System in camp by all means, even in cooking--I might almost say, especially in cooking. After five years' experience of central cooking; and two

years of patrol cooking, I have no hesitation in preferring the latter. I do not find the cost any more, and a greater variety of dishes is possible. In my own Troop each Patrol is credited with a fixed sum per day, and each P. L. caters for himself after being informed of the prices of provisions. He makes out his list the day before and hands it to the Quartermaster, who orders in any supplies not in stock and debits the Patrol with the amount, carrying forward any balance to next day's credit. The Scouts thus learn to cater as well as to cook. --From Sam Harrison's "Scouting," Published i Birmingham, England.

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When Other Things Pall

DID this ever happen to you! If not, get ready. It will. Camp site ideal. Good water, good grub, good weather; everything favorable.
All of a sudden the routine loses its grip. The boys gather somewhere, loll around, do nothing. Discontent and insurrection threaten.
Coaxing moves only the fellow who is so goody-goody that anything he takes up is unpopular with the rest. Scolding makes matters worse. You thought you knew the bunch, but all of a sudden they are strangers:
Cheer up-all they need is a stunt. Here are some sample stunts.

Fish Day:-- Rules formulated the night before. Every boy on the stream with his rod bright and early. Largest fish counts ten; longest fish ten; largest number of fish ten; most handsome fish ten; best eating fish ten; largest number of species ten, and so on.

Path Building :- Underbrush is only useful for camp fire. Pebbles on the beach are pretty, but hard on the feet. Whisper to some constructive genius the idea of building a path from tent to swimming place, and a nice little sand pit wherein to bask while drying.
One successful effort starts an epidemic. It usually lasts until highways lined with whitewashed stones cut the camp ground in every direction. If you like the prize system, here is a good place to use it. Such work puts real value into the camp site.

Rafts:-- No matter what the camp navy may contain, it is incomplete without a raft. Let the boys make it, from tree to lashings. If lumber is plenty, permit them to select their own timber. The comedy when the carefully trimmed and laboriously transported oak log goes to the bottom is as good .as a circus. Tree study, then, assumes a practical aspect. Raft building is a step toward the Camping Merit Badge.

Camp Director Against the Bunch: --"I'11 catch more fish in an hour than the rest of the camp put together," is a director's challenge which is always received with whoops of joy. If you have studied fish, you may be able to win. If you can't, buy the gang a peck of peanuts.

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Thrills After Dark: Dark night. Take blankets. Form line with single lantern at the head and march to deepest, darkest part of the woods:.
Assemble around tree. Leader reads from thrilling book, such as "The Hound of the Baskervilles," by A. Conan Doyle; "Treasure Island," by Robert Louis Stevenson, or a short story like "The Gold Bug," by Edgar Allan Poe. After an hour or so, put out the light and find out who's afraid.

Observation Work: --The average boy's contact with any single wild thing is a momentary glimpse, followed by a wild chase.
Suggest that every boy find, at a given time, some bird or beast or fish, shadow him for an hour, and make a complete report of his doings. If the Scout can take photographs, so much the better.
One hour of such work and the boy will never thereafter lack for entertainment. Even a turtle writing his autobiography in the mud is more fun than a whole picture show.
Observation Hikes and Treasure Hunts also are always good when things need "pepping up."

Extra Eats: -"The way to a man's heart" is wide open, down hill and greased during the adolescent period. No matter what else may fail, a corn or marshmallow roast in the early evening makes a perfect end for any old day. This should not be an every day performance, but rather an occasional indulgence.

Other Happiness Ideas: --The circus and minstrel show are unfailing in popularity. The country fair, the toy shop, the take-off of the staff, the take-off of a day in camp, are just a shade more popular than dramatization of Indian tales. Bible stories dramatized on Sunday night are also popular.
Some specific subjects which Scout leaders may want to try at camp or on the hike to liven things up and bring the day to a happy close are:

pg. 64

Try charades illustrating First Aid, Rescues, Scout Laws and the like. They are usually popular
Radio: A camper inside a mammoth radio box acts the loud speaker, static, and so forth.
Moving Picture Tryout: Actors are selected by vote for best acting.
Pantomime: The discovery of America: (1) Columbus aboard ship sights land; (2) Landing party sets out for shore. (3) Indian greets party, offering the Peace Pipe; exchange of gifts.
Sight-Seeing Bus: Attention is called to all points of interest around camp.
Happy Dreams: The camper comes on stage very slowly, yawns, and drops to sleep under a tree. Several campers then appear and act out the dream of the sleeper.
Pirates: An invasion by pirates repulsed by natives is not altogether without excitement. Some of the huskier Mother Goose rhymes can be dramatized, the spectators to guess what it is all about.
See Index for list of good Scout games.

Games and Stunts for Camp Rainy Days and Indoor Troop Meetings

A RAINY DAY ill camp is the final test of the eighth
Scout Law: "A Scout is cheerful." The psychology of being a sunshine spreader lies in keeping busy. Songs and organized games fill the primary needs of the program and give opportunity to discover latent talents for leadership. A fine chance for inter-Patrol competition, new songs, stunts and games. Reward winners with a plate of ice-cream at supper. Offer some recognition for the Scout who originates the best group game, using only what he finds at hand.
An impromptu simple pageant dramatizing some local event of the camp or town, can be gotten up quickly. Acting the role of a strange character helps a boy get rid of self-consciousness. The advantage of a minstrel show lies in the fact that everyone can take part and any particular kind of talent may be utilized. A cork, charred in the fire or candle flame, makes good blacking. The' orchestra consists of a large pot for bass drum, a tin pan as snare-drum, and tissue paper spread over the teeth

pg. 65

of combs and hummed upon for all the other instruments. The leader directs the symphony (?), playing himself upon the camp bugle into which he may stick a kazoo in place of the mouthpiece.
But rainy days should not be given over entirely to play. A rainy day gives a boy an opportunity for concentration. Here, then, is a good chance for work in preparation for Merit Badge tests. Break up the day's program with possibly an hour in the morning and an hour in the afternoon given over to this special individual work.
To the more adventurous, the storm hike will make its appeal. Such an expedition, of course, requires special opportunity and necessitates careful preparation. Learning to travel under adverse conditions happily and safely is the important feature.

"Know, Your Nations" Stunt
It was recently put up to Bill Wessel to suggest how a rainy day can be made to further the cause of world brotherhood, What he suggested will work even though it is not raining (and it is not a bad idea at all to introduce into the Troop meeting now and then the subject of world-wide Scouting as an aid to world brotherhood).

These might be impromptu Patrol stunts, or stunts prepared in advance at Patrol meetings, to be "sprung" when needed. He suggests depicting by manner, speech and in other ways. different nationalities, letting the Scout audience guess the nation. Contests in free-hand drawing of the outlines of other countries, placing their capitals and rivers; estimate of distances between countries and between capitals; estimates of population--similar information. Folk, dancing. Singing of national songs. Displays of stamps, coins, curies and other objects which Scouts have from other countries. Repeating the Scout Oath in foreign languages. Reading letters that any Scouts may have received in their correspondence as members of the Boys' Life Brotherhood of Boys.

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UTILTZE every outdoor opportunity to tune up on Troop and Patrol yells, and Patrol "calls". Good and well rendered yells create cohesion and enthusiasm. Boys like to let off steam that way, and the camp is the ideal place for practice work.
Every Troop should have its own private cheers, and plenty of practice should be given to this subject in order that the Troop may always be able to show its enthusiasm at meetings, rallies and, in fact, at all large get-togethers.
The following list of yells from several countries may help to create interest in this special phase of Scouting:

Boy Scouts! Boy Scouts!

Adidgi, Adidgi, ah ou ah!
Adidgi, Adidgi, zim, bom, bah!
Ah ou ah, zim bom bah!
Ah! Ah! A-a-h!!

Ric-tic! Ric-a-tic-a-tic!
Hopsa, hopsa, hie!!!
(Repeated three times)

Teh rikkeh, teh gikkeh, teh geffen!
Viola, vo-ola, effen!
Leve Spejderchcfen!
(Last line pronounced: "Lehvay Spider-chef-ain!" meaning "Long live the Chief Scout!")

B-R-A-V-O! Brave! Brave! Brave!
(Pronounced short and sharp, like: Brow! Brow! Brow!)

(In Norwegian disguise)
I, gee itta keeh!
I, ee, jip!
Spejdere, Spejdere! Rip, Rip, Rip!

Kanta Teta Vah vah!
Kanta Teta Tar!
Fremad Spejdere! Fremad Spejdere!
Rah! Rah! Rah!
(Fremad means Forward Spejdae Boy Scouts, pronounced Spider.)

Leader:--Who are we?
Chorus-We are the boys who make no noise!
Hoo-ha! Hoo-ha-ha!
Hoo-ha! Hoo-ha! Hoo-ha-ha!
F - I - V - E! F i v e ! ! (Or other Troop number).

Be prepared! Be prepared!
Shout! Shout! Shout !
Tenderfoot! Second class!
First Class Scout!

Rah! Rah! Rah! Rah!
Boy Scouts! Boy Scouts (Repeat three times, imitating a locomotive with increasing speed. Arm-movements like the piston.)
Ray! Ray! Ray! Ray! Ray! Ray! (Rays without arm movements and gradually diminishing to finish)

A Cheerful Suggestion

When the Troop or Patrol, or even an individual Scout or officer does something worth while, let us give a cheer, and let us not lessen the desired effect by always using the same old cheer, yell or method. Create new ones. Have a Patrol contest for the best original method brought in each month. You can not only use your voice, but your hands, feet, expressions, actions.

pg. 67

Here are some suggestions which any Troop can try out and add too:
Scout's Name: X= Clap Hands in Unison:
5X-5X--5X--X-X-X add Scout's name or whatnot three times.

Locomotive Clap: Follow a Leader who times the strokes of his arm to represent a heavily loaded train, from a dead stop until it is going at full speed ahead--then suddenly stop and yell three times, the Scout's name, or whatnot.

Indian Methods: Now if you have something real serious or solemn to give a cheer for, it would be appropriate to use one of the many Indian methods, as follows: Stand at attention, your face set with a serious expression on it, chest out, head up, heels together, left hand in back of you, make a fist with right hand and place it over the heart. Tap on your left side of chest (over heart) to the same count as in the first hand clap. For example:
O=Tap in Unison. Tap (hit hard, it won't hurt you), and ejaculate. 00000--00000--00000--0--0--0--then if desired, add three cheers for whatnot.
Sit on ground with legs crossed Indian fashion, and with the palm of the hands hit on ground to the same time: (12345-12345--12345--1--2--3) as Used in previous method.
In the same sitting position, beat time with palms, while you yell fairly loud in steady time. HOW, HOW, HOW, HOW, HOW, HOW, HOW, HOW, HOW, and so on, getting softer each time until it gradually fades away after about 20 HOWS.
A Patrol Yell: HE, HE, HE (show Scout smile, and hold stomach with both hands). Who are we? (point to self). 1,. 2, 3 (flap your arms to count).

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Fire Ceremony at Camp

By W. C. Wessel, Department of Camping

THIS type of ceremony presents different ways of making fire. The story is as follows: An Indian enters the council ring and walks over to a small altar fire which dies down just as he is about to warm himself. This effect may be produced with an alcohol cube. The Indian appears cold and sets about to make his own fire by friction. As the tinder bursts into flame, he places it upon the pillar. When the fire begins to blaze, he first warms himself, and then passes along his trail. The Indian is followed by a Buckskin man, who also appears to be cold. He sees the fire of the Indian, but finds himself disappointed...the fire is dead. He proceeds to open a buckskin pouch and produces a flint and steel, with which he strikes fire. He then places his tinder upon the pillar, warms himself and then travels on.
Mephistopheles then appears. Again the fire has burned out. He touches a clump of tinder with his wand, when suddenly it ignites. (This is pre-arranged by mixing a tablespoonful of potassium perchloride with an equal amount of sugar in a small box, below the tinder. On the edge of this box is set a small glass dish containing a teaspoonful of sulphuric acid; the acid coming in contact with the mixture in the box, causes a bright flame, which is sufficient to ignite the inflammable material. Possibly some red fire powder might be on the pedestal at this time to add mystery to the occasion.) Mephistopheles departs.
A mysterious character enters cloaked in black. He gestures to the North, the East, the South, the West, and then makes magic movements over some tinder which is previously laid ready. Suddenly, smoke pours forth without his touching the tinder. (The materials necessary are a hot shot or wet battery, some copper wire and some small resistance

pg. 70

coil, made of a strand of picture wire. Tacks serve as terminals and connections. At the proper time, the connection is made at the battery, and the resistance coil is made to ignite the tinder, which will produce smoke and which will, in turn, ignite the fire.) He then lifts the fire with the magic wand upon the pedestal which supported the previous fire. (Possibly some green powder might be placed on the pedestal to produce another effect.) The magician exits.

A dapper youth appears on the scene with a modern lighter, or lights matches with a hip of his thumb, lights the tinder to renew the firre of the previous character and departs.

A ghost appears when the fire has died down again. Peculiar noises are made in the offing. He makes his approach stealthily. Suddenly, from the sky there appears a ball of fire which follows him and lands into a previously set fire, which is properly soaked so as to burst into flames. (Here also, the effect of blue flare powder adds to the mystery. The mechanics for this set-up require a thin wire which is led from a tree or some pole directly into the fire which is to be lighted. A ball of cotton waste, soaked in alcohol, Is lit as the ghost appears, and released. It slides down the wire or string on a pulley and ignites the fire when it reaches the pedestal.)

Finally, a clown enters the scene with huge cans marked "Gasoline" and "Dynamite." He sets off a salute with fire cracker or flash powder. When this excitement is over, the real council fire begins to burn and the campers settle down for the regular program. It might be desirable to have as many different pedestals as there are characters in the ceremony, to support the different fires. It will be necessary, of course, to set up all mechanics in advance. One or two Scouts may be assigned as stage managers to prepare the pedestal for each succeeding fire or else each pedestal might contain sufficient fuel to keep on burning during the entire performance.

pg. 71

Sunday in Camp

NOTHING is permissible on Sunday in a Boy Scout Camp that in any way conflicts with the religious convictions and standards of the boys or their parents and church authorities. Fortunately, there is little in the Scout program that cannot be a part of the Sunday activities on this basis.
Boys' own reviews on books they like best.
Regular Sunday School lesson for Protestant boys.
Mass in camp for Catholic boys where conditions justify.
Trip to Church in town under adult leadership.
Old Testament Bible stories. Nature study hikes.
Home talent art exhibit. Table decorating contest.
Collecting and identifying flowers for flower book.
Visit homes of old settlers and get stories of pioneer days.
Contests between Patrols of neighborhood history research to report at camp fire.
Story telling by Troop leaders. Letter Writing
Patriotic and religious singing. Twelfth Scout Law program
Exhibition drilling and specially prepared flag ceremony.
Inspirational address by the best speaker available on patriotic or religious topic. special "eats"

A Sunday Program A. M.
7:00 Reveille
7:05 Flag raising. setting-up exercises.
7:20 Morning dip
7:45 Breakfast
8:15 Clean camp
8:45 Inspection
9:00 Church call
1:00 Dinner

P. M.
1:45 Quiet hour, letter writing
2:35 Hikes
5:00 Swimming
6:30 Supper
7:00 Flag ceremony
8:30 Campfire
9:30 Tattoo
9:45 Taps, all lights out

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Camp Vesper Service

There may be occasions when Scout leaders may desire to hold a Vesper Service in camp. Here is a suggested program:
Opening Hymn--"America."
Violin or Comet Solo.
Hymn--"Let the Whole Creation Cry." See Boy Scout Song Book.
Brief address by most suitable person present.
Solo (Note: Joyce Kilmer's "Trees" has been set to music and is particularly appropriate for such an outdoor service.) Or hymn, "God of the Earth." See Boy Scout Song Book.
Recitation of Scout Oath and Law with such ceremony as is desired, followed by the Pledge to the Flag.
Vesper Hymn-"Day is Dying in the West." Boy Scout Song Book.

The Boy We Seek to Produce

From Address by Bolton Smith,
Executive Board, Boy Scouts of America

CHARACTER is a process of soul development; of the individual becoming gradually conscious of himself, of the world in which he lives, of what it is he really wants to do with the faculties that have been given to him; not from any outside order, because the desire of the boy to be a Scout is the urge of the Divine in him, working its way out, longing for expression, expression in physical activity, expression in the mind and the desire to know; expression to serve, in the longing to serve; expression in the longing to do the thing that he dimly feels within him. It is necessary, that he may have self-respect and the respect of his fellows. Sir Baden-Powell hit upon a wonderful system of pedagogy, and whether the last word in it has been said or not, I do not know, but up to.this given moment, it is the most effective way of putting the boy in contact with opportunities and influences, which by some strange alchemy of the soul gradually work within, until at last the boy, the boy-man I may say, standing in the presence of his Maker, with heart high as he of old, says: "Here am I, send me~-that is the consummation of character.
And the bog, when he once takes that position, is safe, whether you consider him from the standpoint of an individual or of part of the community. He has found his place. Safe is a nation whose boys have gotten that conception of life, and safe is the world in which boys of that kind dominate.


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Water Shows and Sports

By Commodore Longfellow

PLANNING water exhibitions is no small task. The suggested costumes and properties for the following galas are I simple, and some are usable in more than one event. This is true of the Neptune costume and those of his attendants.
For the circus, imitations of circus costumes may be made of cheese cloth, cambric and: enamel cloth, or auto top cloth.

The ring master may have a straw hat covered with oil cloth (black), a red cambric coat, long white drawers or duck pants and black enamel cloth top boots, with bare feet. The circus band mar be stationed on a boat or float or on the dock.

Water Circus
1. Twin mermaids, regular swimming, using arms only.
2. Dives. Divisky-Splashky- serious and comic diving.
3. Under water act by Hero and Shero who sew, read, write, eat and drink under water. (This can be done by two boys.)
4. The submarine boudoir in which the swimmer undresses and dresses under water, using another swimmer for valet.
5. The sea snail race, introducing the slowest swimmers in captivity.
6. Floating specialty.
7. Trained crabs, introducing three styles of crab swimming-backward, sidewise, and with legs alone, flipping the fingers on the surface.
8. The under water singer, introducing a singer who performs, holding a bucket of water over the head, standing on land.
9. Winding up with the chariot race as all circuses do. The chariots are pieces of board, or life buoys if available, drawn by three swimmers, towing a fourth. In order not to interfere with each other the race is in the form of a pursuit race, chariots starting at opposite ends and then swimming around and around until one laps the other.

pg. 74

Bird and Animal Show

1. Grand opening by the sea serpent, six or eight swimmers under a long green and yellow cloth, imitating a sea serpent.
2. The duck race. A relay in which a decoy duck is carried back and forth by each team.
3. The crocodile race in which two lengths are covered by teams of two swimmers, doing double oar--the front swimmer's legs around the second swimmer's waist and carefully keeping in time.
4. The centipede race for one length doing triple oar.
5. Game of pigeon. All the swimmers line upon the same side of the dock, and clasp both hands around ankles and put chin on knees. At the word "pigeon" all make dire into the water, then climb out on the other side. The last one to get in pigeon position is eliminated each time.

Rescue Races

THE boats are drawn up on the beach in a row, the oars are placed ready for service and the bows of the boats faced landward. The crews should be of equal size and be numbered and assigned stations in the boats. The subjects or "drowning men" should be off shore in another boat or motorboat, and at the word of command they jump in and keep on a line between two buoys within reach of the aid of their boat in case of need. At a second signal, whistle or pistol or flag, the rescue boats are started and must pick up their own man, take him over side without any help from the subject, and lay him on the beach. Resuscitation should be commenced and the time should be taken on the third respiration, made in proper time.
Swimming rescue races could also be undertaken with two-man teams. The time of every contestant for a given distance should be recorded. The head, underarm, cross-shoulder, and breast-stroke carry should be used when called for--and the weak points of the Scout's swimming would thus be disclosed. A two-man rescue race is run by having one swimmer carry his partner for 25 yards, and on the turn the other carries the first rescuer back again, each using a specified carry.
A "fetching or retrieving race" is another interesting one: numbered stones or sandbags are placed on the bottom, in from six to eight feet depth, and the swimmers are required to swim out the specified number of, yards, dire from the surface for the weight and carry it back to shore. The weight of the proper number must be secured or the participant is ruled out.

pg. 75

Using Water Glasses
In the work of recovering articles from deep water, if the water is at all clear, the expedient used by spongers and pearlers in Southern waters is a good one, namely, the water glass. There are several forms of water glasses-the spongers having buckets with a water-tight bottom of clear glass With the face filling the top of the bucket to keep out the sunlight, one can see beneath the ripples on the surface, and distinguish objects many feet under water. Probably the simplest form of this glass is a box built of boards 6 or 8 inches or even a foot wide. The joints are made watertight with caulking cotton and white lead and a sheet of window glass is set in the bottom.
In the U. S. Coast Guard and at seacoast places, a "heaving stick," a 2-foot piece of bamboo or light wood, with one end loaded with lead is used to attach to light lines which are to be thrown for any distance from or to small boats--or from one ship to another. The use of these sticks (it's a good Patrol project to make these) for throwing lines for unusual distances is a fine Scout accomplishment. If there is no water to throw across, practice throwing up the side of a building or tower, from different distances. Once the light line is secured to an objective point, a heavier line is "bent on" or attached. With practice, a line can be thrown up three or four stories with a fair degree of accuracy.

pg. 76

The Scout Law in Camp
By Stuart P. Walsh--A Scout Leader Since 1911

HOW WOULD YOU PUNISH a Patrol of Scouts who were assigned to the wood-cutting detail at camp and: failed to get in a proper supply of wood for the day's need?"
A Scoutmaster asked this question recently at the annual camping conference of American and Canadian leaders which has become a happy and useful occasion on this frontier. The answers seemed to be worth sharing with Scoutmasters everywhere.
"First, I'd ask the Patrol Leader why he fell down on the job," said a man who had just been developing Charlie Smith's Pow Wow system,
Suppose he told you he just couldn't seem to get the kids to work; a couple went off to pass a test, another had a lame arm, and so on.
"If it happened in one of my camps," said the District Commissioner from New Westminster, B. C., "the Patrol Leaders' Council would take care of it. With simple justice in mind they would probably figure that the delinquent Patrol should have the same job again the next day, so that they'd have a chance to make good and redeem their lost prestige."
"Another way would be to put it up to the whole camp at the next assembly,"said a Scoutmaster from Seattle, "and ask for some Patrol to volunteer, in the emergency, to take the first Patrol's place."
"Wait a minute," said the original questioner--"you still haven't punished that Patrol for falling down, have you? "

Putting It Up to the Boys

"Our boys are asked to make a choice," said a man from Portland, "of the kind of camp they will have. The first night, around the camp fire, we put it up to them something like this:
"We're pretty much cut off from civilization out here, fellows, and we have to be guided by certain rules for the safety and welfare of everyone in camp. You've already been told what those rules are, and you probably realize that they're all very important.
"'If a party of men were starting off on an exploring trip, they would have somewhat similar rules, which every member

pg. 77

of the party would agree to observe. If a man should be careless enough to break one of the rules, the leader of the party would probably have a very serious talk with him, and it wouldn't happen again.

"'In a camp of ordinary boys the leader would probably expect some of the members of the party to break the rules, and so he would threaten severe punishments to discourage them. A few of the kids would deliberately break the rules just to see if they could get by with it, and discipline in that camp would be an unpleasant thing, hard to keep up.

Doing Things Man-style

"'We think that a Scout camp like this probably could be run like a camp of men, depending on the team work and loyalty of all hands to see that the rules are observed, but we're going to leave the choice up to you. We can run this camp either way, and right now, this first night, we're asking you to vote which way you'd rather have it ! . '

"Of course all the Scouts vote for the man's way, declaring that for the two weeks of the camp at least, they can act like men who have chosen to go on an expedition into the wilderness and who need no threats or punishments to insure their proper conduct. I've seen Scout camps run both ways, and I know that discipline is better when penalties are eliminated.

"It certainly is a temptation when a tent is noisy after Taps, to lift the flap and growl into the interior of darkness, 'If you fellows don't shut up there'll be a lot of wood cut tomorrow !' But that's how a lot of boys have been brought up; they're used to it; and they'll take their chances of undergoing such occasional punishment as you may see fit to hand out. It's harder at first,' but a thousand per cent more effective, to deal with them as Scouts!"

pg. 78

Galling Them "On the Carpet"

All present allowed this to sink in a moment, and then the chap who started it all said, insistently, "But how would you deal with that noisy tent if you didn't scare them enough to make them shut up?" Another man then diagrammed the whole answer, thus:
"When this happens, as it is bound to do in the best of camps, the officer who quiets the: racket does it something like this 'Jim, will you bring Lour Patrol in to see me a minute at Headquarters just before breakfast?' A loud silence, punctuated by a few speculative whispers, ensues until everybody falls into a slightly troubled sleep.
"In the morning the Patrol appears at Headquarters, looking like patients waiting in a dentist's reception room. The Scoutmaster or the Camp Director reminds them of the agreement made at the camp fire the first night; Scouts to act like men, and to be treated like men by the officers. The incident of the preceding night seems to take this Patrol out of the men's class. They knew the rule; they knew the wisdom of it, and they didn't take it seriously. What to do! Since no punishments can be meted out, the Patrol must find its Own way back into official esteem,-and quickly, for poor discipline might spread and embarrass everyone. Already the other campers may wonder about this. No simple promise of We-won't-do-it-again will be sufficient. The Patrol must have a real plan for preventing a recurrence.

Getting Results

"After half an hour of violent and mutually accusing discussion, the Patrol leader usually reports progress. 'We've decided that Bill started it, with a couple of wise cracks. He won't make any more--there's no reason why we can't punish him plenty if he does, is there?--and the whole bunch say they'll pipe down when I say so; they've given me their Scout honor that they will. You can tell the whole camp they won't hear any more noise from our tent after Taps.'
"This is a fairly good example. In a good many years we've never had any trouble making this system work." "I think I begin to see," said the original questioner. "All you do is just to put into practice in camp the Scout Low. It does seem funny, when you think of it, to make a boy memorize things about being Trustworthy, Loyal, Helpful, and so on, and then turn right around and try to govern him as if he had never heard of those things and couldn't understand them."

pg. 79

THESE PROJECT IDEAS, one of the most fascinating and at the same time practical enterprises a Troop can tackle, are from the Camping Department's new book "Camp Site Development Plans," which contains a great many working plans for constructing various kinds of shelters, cabins, and camp necessities For Scoutmasters working under conditions that enable the Troop to have a regular summer and winter camp, and to erect a cabin, or the less ambitious "shelter," and other camp features, this book will be found to be, not alone of great help, but of equally great general informational interest. It can be procured from the Supply Department (order No· 3679) for $1.50, a price much below its intrinsic value. (See also pages 237-238.)

pg. 80


SEVENTEEN YEARS of Scouting proves the value of three essential factors in teaching he tests. Scout Leaders agree that it is best to-

Teach Tests Outdoors

1. "Scout tests are best taught outdoors whenever conditions warrant. Keep the 'Out' in Scouting."

Dramatiaze Instruction

2. The more use that can be made of games and effective dramatization of features of Scoutcraft instruction the better. Keep the Romance and Adventure in Scouting.

Use Patrol Method
3. The more highly developed and in good working order your Patrol System is, the easier it will be to train your Scouts and keep them interested in advancing from rank to rank. Let your leaders lead. Baden-Powell says the Patrol Method is "not one way to run Scouting; it's the only way." See sections on Patrol Leadership and Projects for further aid in this line.
We had our regular Patrol Leaders meeting and it was agreed that first of all the tests needed were Signaling, First Aid, Tracking, Judging and Nature Study.
Each Patrol Leader will get his Patrol out for the Signaling before our meeting next Saturday and then we will have a contest between Patrols.
During the instruction period, 8:20 to 8:40, all emphasis will be given to First Aid, the instruction by some of the Scouts who have passed this, and we may have a doctor or our Executive.
The third Saturday is our regular hike and a couple of Scouts have been instructed to start for a certain place marking their trail by the usual stone and stick signs and different Scouts will lead the party in trying to follow the markers. Judging will be practiced as usual and on our return trip we rill study the trees by seeing how many different kinds of

pg. 81

nuts or fruits or leaves we can find. One of my older Scouts is very good at this and my book will help if there is any dispute.

Preparing the "Candidate''

Caution Against Speeders
This is the age of speed. There are speeders in Scouting, and they undoubtedly "get there." But how long do they stay Staying qualities are more in keeping with Scouting principles than speed. It is rare, but not impossible, to find both qualities in many Scouts, but rarer still and almost impossible to find both qualities in the entire Troop.

Purpose of the Tests
The passing of tests has little virtue in itself. These tests are largely to hold the Scout's interest over a sufficiently extended period in order that opportunity shall be afforded to get the ideals of Scouting and a training in character and Citizenship well grounded in his life. We should stress not speed but thoroughness. A Second Class Troop, strong in civic service, and in the development of the basic things in Scouting, is much to be preferred to merely record-breaking, so-called "First Class Troop." A boy who has fifty Merit Badges isn't necessarily the best Scout. Every test should bear a close relation to the Scout Oath and Law.


Do They Rationally Find Full Expression in the Daily Lives of Your Scouts, or Should This Basic Part of Scoutcraft be Taught as Definitely as First Aid or Signaling, and If So, How' By STUART P. WALSH

ONCE A CANDIDATE has learned the full text of the
Law, what further reference is made to the matter in the weekly and yearly program of your Troop Do you think a Scout translates the Law unto daily practice in a sort of automatic and unconscious way?
Or must the practice of moral principles be taught as well as "caught"?

pg. 82

I asked that question of a group of young people at a church gathering. Among them were Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and members of other organizations having stated codes of ethics and conduct. In substance, here is what they all agreed:

Theory and Practice

"Boys learn the Scout Law to pass the Tenderfoot test. They approve of it, they like the fine manly sound of it, but often they don't stop to think much of what it means. The Law should be taught, discussed, frequently illustrated by stated examples, and made a prominent subject of conversation on the trail and around the camp fire."
"I have had boys before me who have been Scouts," said Judge Cabot of the Boston Juvenile Court, recently, "and they dropped out because they were tired of the routine-of repeating the Oath and Law, of drill, of the 'same old things' at every meeting. Many boys never really get the meaning of the words in the Oath and Law. You must talk with them about it." Whenever a Scoutmaster gets up in a Troop meeting and says: "I want to tell you two Good Turns that came to my notice last week ...Which do you think was the best?" --he's sure of an interested audience and a lively discussion.

Patrol Discussions of Points of Late,

If a Scoutmaster assigns each Patrol a subject for a ten-minute discussion like this: "Which points of the Scout Law do you use in your cooking test?"-or First Aid, Mapping, Signaling, etc.-he is sure of some mighty interesting reports. When I hand such an assignment to Patrols in a Scoutmasters' If raining Course, they all come back with evidence that every Scout test involves all twelve points of the Scout Law.

If you will say to your boys, "I think our Troop ought to make a reputation for courtesy and friendliness; if you agree

pg. 83

with me, how shall we go at it?"--you. may be equally sure of putting over something distinctly practical and worth-while With a little guidance, your boys will probably draw up a list of devices including such as these.
Make sure that a hearty welcome is given every visitor at a Troop meeting, whether a patent, committeeman, Scout or officer.
Make sure that a hearty good-bye is given also; let every fellow speak to the visitor and thank him for coming.
Have a joint meeting with some new or weak Troop, emphasizing real fellowship, encouragement
Send letters of appreciation to the church officers or school principal for the use of the meeting place; to headquarters for some service rendered to the Troop; to the Scoutmaster of another Troop for some worth-while thing his Troop has done.
Trustworthiness can be strengthened by bearing heavily upon the importance of keeping dates on time; bringing just what's specified on hikes; passing along messages accurately; setting one's own advancement goals.

A Project in Trustworthiness
In announcing a hike, for instance, why not say, "I'm going to find out just how many of you fellows are Trustworthy; how many can keep the very first point of the Scout Law. Those who are real Scouts will be on hand exactly on the dot of eight o'clock, or if something happens to prevent their coming they will call me up right away and tell me." A Scoutmaster who is habitually uncertain of the turn-out for his hikes or Troop meetings needs to preach the Scout Law as well as to practice it He needs to preach the first, second and fifth paints, and to practice the third and tenth. If he really wants to be Helpful to his boys, he ought to be Brave enough to insist on Trustworthiness, Loyalty and Courtesy.
Now, while the great mass of my intelligent readers are on their feet wildly cheering the sentiments above set forth, I see three discouraged faces framing these gentle words, "We have tried, but it hasn't worked."

Playing Square
Well, unless you've tried long enough to earn your Veteran Badge, don't give up hope. The young rascals will come through some day yet. 'Way back in the early days of Scouting in Chicago, I remember Scoutmaster Ralph Hazlett, who is now a captain of industry, astonishing me with this statement

pg. 84

--"I think I'11 try having chairs in the room at my next meeting."
"Do you mean to say that you've been holding Troop meetings in that settlement house nearly a year without any chairs?' I asked him.
"Yes, but I believe we're ready to risk it now. The boys would have been able to raise a terrible rough-house with chairs, you know, but they're taming fast!"
It was Ralph Hazlett, too, who first suggested to me, about 1913, the novel idea that boys often join the Scouts because they are attracted by the Scout Oath and Law. I have long since been satisfied that it's true. How many of us who are Scoutmasters play square with them and make the Law a practical and prominent part of the Scout Program?
Oh, we must do it skillfully! How quickly an active boy tires of lecturing of the wrong sort! But we have at least six effective devices-for teaching this basic part of Scoutcraft. The discussion method has been mentioned already, and so has the project method. Our first chance with the new Tenderfoot is the best of all--the quiet intimate talk with the single recruit, or two chums together, about the high challenge the Scout Law makes to every boy--which of the points will be hardest-which ones need to be better understood.

The Coaching Method

Every veteran knows that an extra half hour spent thus with the recruit will save many hours of worry and disappointment later on, and the basis of a firm friendship will have been formed. How happily interesting, too, the informal tests thus given ! You'll note how many mumbled recitations of the ninth Law will go like this:
"A Scout is Thrifty. He does not want only to destroy property.. ." The authors of the Law used great care, but they seemed to have slipped in trying to crowd "wantonly destroy" into the average boy-size vocabulary.
Not only is this personal coaching method effective, but besides the discussion and project methods there's another which might be called the laboratory method of teaching the Scout Law.
For a dozen years the writer has conducted camps where no penalties or punishments were provided for any infractions of the Scout Law or-the supplementary camp regulations. And further, no Scout has ever been kept out of swimming, sent home. or otherwise embarrassed for any sort of misconduct. It

pg. 85

has been assumed that the statement of the Scout Law in positive rather than negative terms called for a correspondingly positive policy of law-enforcement, which has worked equally well with all types of boys.

Camp-ideal Laboratory

I believe that the reason it has worked is that a camp or hike is an almost ideal laboratory for the practice of the positive Scout Law virtues, and every boy likes a laboratory. In a Scout camp each boy is testing himself, testing the officers, and testing his fellows. There's a contagious desire for all hands to make good.
"I think the most amazing thing about this camp, said a Troop Committee-man last summer, "is that I've lived here two weeks with a hundred kids without hearing a profane ward or a dirty story."
He missed a couple, however, that younger officers of the camp heard, and the offenders had it put to them very straight, something like this, in the presence of the whole camp staff:
"We thought you understood that this is a Scout camp. We thought you discovered how much fun you can have keeping the Scout Law. Your tent-mates don't like your line of talk; it would queer you with the right crowd anywhere. You'll never have a better-chance to ditch it than you have here; furthermore, you've taken the Scout Oath. We'll trust you to speak clean, and we'll ask you to come back tomorrow and tell us how you've made out. We're all your friends, and we're all keen to see you make good as a Scout!" Around the evening camp-fire the fifth device comes in--the story method of teaching the Scout Law. The value of the story is well known; it-need not have further attention here.

The Demonstration Method

A Scoutmaster's success with the devices already suggested will depend on his consistent use of the sixth and last-the demonstration method. It's probably unnecessary to say it, but here it is--your example is more powerful than your precept. Familiar and unquestioned logic, amounting to just such things as these:
Be Trustworthy for Scout engagements yourself, Loyal to your Council, Helpful to the awkward Scout, Friendly to fellow Scoutmasters, Courteous to the boy who tries your patience most, and so on. Thus will you and your Scouts obtain from Scouting its richest values.

pg. 86

The First Six Months

EVERYTHINIG DEPENDS on getting Off on the right foot, when starting a Troop. Remember what that great Scout, Davie Crockett, said: "Be sure you are right, then go ahead."
We have heard of men trying to start and "run" a Troop who had never read the HANDBOOK FOR BOYS nor the HANDBOOK FOR SCOUTMASTERS. It simply can't be done! These books give you the mechanics as well as the spiritual purpose of Troop meetings, the hike, the camp and all the rest. Excellent books for Sunday reading. A liberal education in Boyology and Outdoorism.
There are a few Dent's for the new Scoutmaster that equally apply to the Veteran. Don't try to get them on too fast. Don't begin on the hard things in Scouting. You will note that the tests are skillfully graded to the boys' growing years and growing interest.

Boys First--Boy Scouts Next

Do not expect boys to pay great attention to any one subject for very long, until you have educated them to do so. You must meet them halfway, and not give them too long a dose of one drink.... Gradually lengthen the sips until they become steady draughts.
In these formative months of the Troop life, the Scout must have the Oath and Law constantly in mind, getting habituated to regulating his conduct by it. But he must also begin to sense the power of knowing how to do things for himself and others.
Baden-Powell says: "The first essential is to put yourself in the boy's place, look at Scouting from his point of view, present your subject to him as he would like to have it, and so get him to teach himself without your having to hammer it into him. Remember that your own character soon reflects itself in your boys. If you are impatient, they too become impatient, and all goes awry. But as you come to teach these things you will very soon find (unless you are a ready-made angel) that you are absorbing them yourself all the time."

pg. 87

The Flag

Teaching the Flag Test

HE NEW HANDBOOK FOR BOYS has a full chapter on I 'Flag Facts" and the forms of respect due to The Flag.
The Patrol Leader or older Scout usually coaches the candidates. The test is given by the Scoutmaster or by a Troop

Committee-man, with the Scoutmaster present. The Quiz Book for Boy Scouts, published by the B. S. A. will be a help in teaching this and other tests.
1. Invent Flag Games. All sorts of variations are possible on the "Spell-Down" idea. Patrols may challenge each other to Flag Fact Contests and the like.
2. Have Tenderfoot Scout- or other Scouts, for that matter, make Flags for themselves out of paper, or paint them or make them with colored crayons. This is-the best way of impressing all the features of the composition of The Flag on the boy's own mind.
3.Have Such Flags made by Tenderfoot Scouts on meeting-room walls, showing various stages of development of history of our present Flag.
4. scoutmaster, Troop Committee-man or Older Scout give talk on history of Flag. This may be done as a "Chalk Talk."
5. Knowing how and when to salute The Flag is essential in Scout training. See that your new Scouts learn to do the thing right from the start.

A "Flag Test" Contest
We give each Patrol a small American Flag and tell them to fly it correctly. A great scramble ensues and in a short time Flags are flying. The Patrol which shows the most despatch and system in their manner of going about the process of flying the Flag naturally is awarded the first place.--W. W. Smith, Pouglzkeepsie, N.Y.

pg. 88

Knot Tying

Practical Uses for Knots

THERE ARE TEN NEW KNOTS listed in the Tenderfoot Scout Requirements. The adding of these new knots, aids materially in putting emphasis upon the practical side of rope work, which, after all, is the ultimate aim of the rope work requirements.

Encourage Scouts to find for themselves as many different useful applications of each knot as possible. As an illustration, take the barrel hitch. This knot may not only be used for the lifting of barrels and kegs, but also for making fast for hoisting all cylindrical, rectangular or square bodies, such as hogsheads, pianos, safes, refrigerators and boilers. The best approach to finding out wider uses for knots, is that of first understanding the different main classes of rope work, according to function. For example, hitches, bends, loops, splices and crowns, define the respective knots as to uses. One would never expect to tie two ends of a rope together with a loop or crown.

Knot Definitions
A knot proper is a knob formed in a piece of cordage by interweaving its strands, serving as a stopper, button, e.g., wall knot.
A bend is a method of fastening one rope to another or to a ring, loop, etc., by passing the rope through a loop and fastening back around itself, as a skeet bend.
A hitch is a temporary knot or noose by which one rope Is fastened around another rope, spar or post so as to be readily undone; as a Blackwall hitch.
These distinctions, however, are very loose in application. Many ties called "knots" in a general way have no characteristics of the knot proper, nor are they properly bends or hitches, as a reef knot, a bowline knot, etc. The same tie is called a sheet bend, weaver's hitch and weaver's knot.
A bight is the double part of a rope when bent; that is, a round or loop not including the ends
The standing part of a rope is that part which is made fast to any point or object; the remainder is the running part.

Note: Right at the start knot tying starts the Scout right, if he learns the thing thoroughly and practically.

pg. 89

Knot Exhibits

It will be helpful, too, to have Scouts make Exhibits of all rope activities and to give public Demonstrations in Scout Booths at Fairs and Expositions on "The Practical Side of Knot Tying," showing how many ways each of the knots, bends or ties may be used.
The Miller's Knot, for instance, for exhibition purposes, could be shown as applied to all kinds of sacks, regardless of materials or content. The Pipe hitch may be shown as applied to plumbing pipes, to wooden rods, to wagon reaches, spokes, flag poles, telephone poles, posts, trees, in fact any cylindrical thing that needs to be either held or hoisted.

Materials: Attention should always be called to the fact that his training in rope work of all kinds is of importance chiefly because of its practical and economic relation to life.

The Scout must know in case of the absence of a rope that he can always use wire, cord, twine, rags, clothing or any material that can be rolled, twisted and formed into a unit cord of sufficient strength, to do the job awaiting action on his part.
The uses of grasses, twigs, branches, straw, hay and green stalks are all important and the proper use of them in case of accident, when no rope, wire or twine is available, may often save life and great loss of property.

Use of Stunts for Teaching Knots
As Suggested by Providence, R. I·, Scout Officials

A VERY GOOD WAY to teach knot tying is as follows : Furnish each boy with a rope about 18 inches in length.
Start with a simple knot, such as a "square knot." Have each boy tie the knot and let the Patrol Leaders inspect it. Any Scout who cannot tie the knot correctly should be taken aside and instructed by a Patrol Leader until he becomes proficient.
After he has done a little practicing have the boy tie the knot for speed. See how many boys can tie it in five seconds. Then reduce the time until you find a few who can tie it in one or two seconds. Have them tie the knot behind them, instructing them that it may be necessary to wear an apron some time when dishwashing at camp, and if tied in a square knot the strings will not pull out easily.
The knot should then be tied with the boys blindfolded or with their eyes closed. Tie the knot in this way for speed also. Explain that the Scout may have to tie it in the dark sometime ,

pg. 90

perhaps repair a broken tent rope. Try this for speed also. Then have each Patrol Leader stand ten or fifteen feet in front of his Patrol and tell the boys to imagine that he is in the water drowning and that it is up to them to save him. At a given signal have the Scouts in each Patrol join their ropes together, by the square knot, coil the line and throw it to the "drowning" Patrol Leader and pull him "ashore." See which Patrol can save their leader first. The knots must be tied tight, or they will pull out and the Patrol Leader will be left to "drown."

A Speed Teaser

1. Carry a Scout hat filled with pine cones or other clean objects.
2. Fasten together four (dead) electric bulbs, without paper or other wrapping, no two sockets touching.
3. One Scout lies prone, keeps legs in erratic motion, up and down, sidewise and in circles. Another Scout ties One end of a two-foot string to one leg and then to the other. (Good training for capturing wild elephants and other dangerous game.) 4. Place ordinary china cup, filled with water, on sheet of paper. 'Fasten String as a handle to carry same, without spilling while tying or while lifting clear.


The contest method in Knot Tying, as in all Scout instruction, is of high value in training and has a great appeal to the boys.
New, Knots Contest ·
Run a contest for all individual Scouts, to see who can tie, name and untie the largest number of the new rope ties, hitches, and bends in the shortest time with the greatest skill and accuracy.
Or run a contest based upon showing the largest number of applications of any one knot, bend, tie or hitch as in the case of the Lariat Loop. Contestants must show different ways

pg. 91

of using the Lariat Loop. Speed, skill and correct method of tying for all particular uses must be shown.

Knot Relay Race

The boys of the Patrols are given numbers. No. 1 is given a piece of rope and told: "Timber Hitch." No. 2 is given a piece and told: "Square Knot." No. 3 gets his piece with the order: "Fisherman's Knot." No. 4, only the order: "Bowline." No. 5, a piece of rope and: "Sheet Bend." No. 6, a small piece of stick and the words "Clove Hitch," and No. 7, only the order: "Slip Knot."
The Patrols are situated in one end of the room. On the word "Go" the No. I's run to the other end of the room and fasten their piece of rope to a chair with a "Timber Hitch." As soon as that is done the boys return to their Patrols and the No. 2.s run up and tie their rope to the first with a "Square Knot." The No. 3's use a "Fisherman's Knot," and the race is ended when the last boy has put a "Slip Knot" on the free end of the compound rope.--"V. E-ET.))
Note use of Patrol as unit and in instruction in this and other "stunts." The Patrol Leader should be responsible for the knot-tying experience of his Patrol. Use your Leaders. Develop Patrol Spirit.

A Knot Game
All right, boys, let's have a big circle here. You're "it," John. Here's a rope. Run around this circle. Square knot is safety. Drop the rope behind anyone you choose. That Scout must tie a square knot before you get around to him again. If you succeed in getting to him before he ties the knot, he is "it." He then drops it behind some other Scout, and so on.
The knot which is safety may be changed from time to time, thus using practically every knot in the Tenderfoot requirements.

Another Patrol Contest
Two Patrols face to face. Each man has a piece of rope, laid out on the floor. At a given signal the pieces are joined with square knots in the shortest possible time. Then the two full length pieces are joined for a tug of war between Patrols. As soon as a strain is put on the rope, false reef and granny knots show up.
Patrols line up in single file and each man is given a piece of rope about four feet long. At a signal the men tie the ropes around their waists, using the square knot. Each man catches hold of the rope in front, and the Patrol Leader runs to the opposite side of the room with his men following and holding on

pg. 92

to the rope, turns to the left and comes Sack to the start. The · Patrol accomplishing this in the shortest time, with no knots having slipped, wins.
The Patrols are kept in the same formation for the next game except that the ropes are tied around the knees, the square knot again being used. Each man catches hold of the rope in front, as in the other game, but instead of running across the room, his legs being tied up, it is necessary to hop, the men yelling "hep" at each jump.
In the third game, at a given signal, the first man in each Patrol runs to the other side of the room, tying the rope around his waist as he runs with a square knot. Reaching the other side, he turns, facing his Patrol on the opposite side of the room and signals the letter "C" using the general service code. The next man comes across and repeats the process. Many men who knew how to tie a square knot tied the false reef or granny knot in the excitement.
In the last game, the same process is repeated except that a word is sent "jackass" method. This is accomplished by the man standing like an animal, raising his right foot for a dot and his left foot for a dash, kicking both feet in the air like a mule to denote the end of a word.
In all of the above games it must be made sure that the knots are pulled tight.

Circle Knot Contest

Out of an ordinary good-sized tin can take: (1) 5 pieces of rope whipped on the ends, two 5 feet in length and two 3 feet. (2) 2 sections of broom handle or similar stick 1/2 inch in diameter, each 3 inches long. (3) 1 metal, bone, or wooden ring 21/2 inches in diameter.
With these objects a Scout must within a period of 5 minutes tie the knots shown in the accompanying sketch, though not necessarily in the same order shown, so that they make a completed unbroken circle when finished. The first and last knots must be attached to the ring as the joining link.
To make a game of this, each Patrol can have its own can of knots, the sticks and ring painted the Patrol colors. The

pg. 93

members of the individual Patrols compete for Patrol honors. and the winners of the respective Patrols compete for Troop honors in tying this circle of knots.
Scoutmasters can devise other knots, and the game is best played under: directions of a leader who calls out what is-to be done, as, for example:
One. Take long piece, tie fisherman's bend into the ring. In middle of long piece tie timber-hitch around one of the sticks. Tie halter knot in long end.
Two. Take short piece and tie bowline into the halter.
Three. Take short rope, splice to second with weavers. In middle of piece 3, tie stick with a clove-hitch.
Four. Take long rope and tie to third by square knot. Make a sheep-shank in the middle and tie into ring with two halfhitches.-Rev John D. Clinton, S. M., of Waverly, la.

A Sermon in Knots

HERE is a new use for knots suggested by C. Dean Ward, Assistant Scout Executive, Norfolk, Va., to be used at Troop meetings with demonstration:
What is a square knot? A square knot is a knot used for tying two rope ends together. It is one of the best knots one can know for all practical uses. Will it slip? No, it will not slip. Real Scouts are like a square knot. They are taking the loose ends of their natures and tying them up tight into the program of Scouting. If they are real Scouts, like a real Square knot--they will not slip, no matter what the circumstances.
Now there is another knot which looks just exactly like the square knot, but it will slip. Although it looks like a square knot, a person can soon tell the difference when he gets a close look. It isn't a granny, but here it is. (Make knot and hand it to one of the bays). Some boys in Scouting are very much like this knot. They come in, get a uniform, parade around in it and hardly give the Scout Oath and Law a thought. They are slipping just the same-as this knot. (Pull out knot, which you have received back from boy). This knot is known by three names and all three fit. It is either a robber, a burglar or a thief. The name might be applied to the boy who slips into Scouting and slips out again. Although he looks like a Scout, when a person gets a good look at him one can soon tell just the same as looking at the robber knot, that he isn't on the square. As I stated, the name fits this kind of a chap, but he isn't stealing from the Scouts or he isn't putting one over on his Scoutmaster when he doesn't live up to his Scout obligations, it is just himself he is hurting and just himself from whom he is stealing. The only difference between a square knot and a robber knot is that in a robber knot he ends come out on different sides of the standing part, in this manner, while in a square knot the ends are on the same side of the standing part, like this. (Demonstrate both knots).

pg. 94

The Tenderfoot

Something to Read to the Troop

The following uppercuts are taken from an article by Stephen M. Major, entitled "Talk to Tenderfoot Scouts," published in "Scoutcraft," the Chicago Council Bulletin.

SUPPOSE you think because you are a Tenderfoot that you don't amount to very much in the Scout organization.
Well you are wrong.
In the first place there are more Tenderfoot Scouts than anything else in it. Our organization is consequently judged largely by how you carry yourselves.
In the next place every Scout has some time been a Tenderfoot, and what kind of a Scout he is now depends altogether on what kind of a Tenderfoot he made of himself then.
There are no short cuts in Scoutcraft. If you just skim through your Second Class work you may fool your Scoutmaster, you may even fool the Court of Honor and get a pin, but you cannot fool yourself.
Sometime and somewhere you are going to be put in a position which will show whether you know and can do it, and if you cannot, your wearing the pin which says you can will only deepen your shame.

You think perhaps that it is a small thing this becoming a Tenderfoot Scout. It is a very long step that you took, much harder than any other that you will ever take in Scoutcraft. Why? Because in doing so you took upon yourself an Oath, a holy promise to live a certain kind of life. The Second and First Class Scouts do not have to take any different Oath, because it is hard enough for any man or boy to keep this one. You see there are so many ways in which it can be broken, and so many people trying to get you to break it. They don't mean it that way, I know, but they do try and you have to watch out all the time, for your honor which you pledged is the dearest thing you will ever possess.

pg. 96

First Aid

MY COURSE OF INSTRUCTION to new Scoutmasters in First Aid has been this: First I ask them to read over the chapter on Prevention of Accidents, First Aid and Life Saving in the Scoutmaster's Handbook very carefully.
Unless these men are physicians or have had training in First Aid work they should secure the services of one or two physicians in their neighborhood to help them train Scouts. Have the prospective teacher also read over the chapter on First Aid and the requirements for First and Second class tests and Merit Badges, so that he will know what he is expected to teach. The main thing is-to impress them that we are not making embryo physicians out of Boy Scouts but training them to be able to meet everyday emergencies and to give First Aid assistance until a physician arrives.

First Aid at Troop Meetings
I also suggest that they give the boys at meetings at least once a month a regular course in First Aid, and along With this personal talks on hygiene. Besides this it is well to have a dentist give a talk on dental hygiene. I find that the boys take more stock in the lecture if it is given by a man who is a professiona1 in his line of work.
In Life Saving I advise taking the boys into shallow water, in the summer time, and let them carry the patient out of the water and do their resuscitation on the bank. This is one of the hardest things to do, trying to Carry a wet person out of two feet of water and lay him on the bank.

Testing the Work
After the Troop has progressed for some time, I should hold a contest among the boys along emergency lines, by labeling so many patients with a supposed accident or illness and calling

pg. 97

upon the boys here and there to treat them immediately, grading them on their method of operation, promptness and skill.
Do not try to make all of your meetings First Aid. Make First Aid supplement all of the other work in Scouting, showing that in signaling the boy is doing First Aid because he can call help quickly and that in learning to cook he can take care of the family in case of sickness at home.--J· H· SOWERBY, M. D., Scout Executive, Kansas City, Mo.


During a public meeting a loud crash was heard oh-stage, caused by dropping a packing-case filled with tin cans and broken glass, and in the hush that followed, a "badly injured" boy came stumbling through the wings and fell on the stage. Scouts from the audience quickly climbed over the footlights and by careful examination discovered that the boy had a fractured leg and a severed artery, which facts they made known to the audience by pantomime and dialogue. An old chair which had been previously taken apart and then set together again in readiness for the purpose, was broken up and the pieces used as splints and for the tourniquet. One boy pulled off his shirt (worn for the purpose) and tore it into strips for bandages and padding. Two other Scouts made a coat-stretcher; using a handy flag pole and a window pole previously left on the platform, and the injured boy was properly removed from the scene.
While it is generally agreed that it is advisable to have the First Aid tests given by a physician, it is not always practicable. Some Scoutmasters and Assistants are obliged to handle this subject themselves and methods vary.
Assistant Scoutmaster Gee. E. Keneipp, of Fallen, Nev., says:
"I ask the questions on First Aid required in this test, and this consists of 14 questions. I count first aid as 20 per cent. I think every Scoutmaster should make up his own list of questions on this requirement."

pg. 98

Drill in Bandaging
One of the most thorough examinations is given in Troop 1, Bakersfield, Gal., by Scoutmaster Arthur H. Myer. He requires correct demonstration of two systems of resuscitation and a list of materials for a Scout First Aid kit. And the Scout must have a kit.
Then he puts the Scout through this practical bandaging test.
Triangular Bandages--For head, eye, jaw, neck, shoulder, elbow, arm, hand, palm, chest, groin, hip, thigh, knee, foot, heel, buttock, sling, chin, tourniquet.
Roller Bandages--For head, chin, jaw, eye, chest, finger, thumb, elbow, forearm, arm, leg, knee, foot, ankle, hand.
Treatment for Fractures of--Nose, jaw, arm, forearm, elbow, hand, finger, shoulder, ribs, thigh, lower leg, knee, foot, ankle, toe, back.
Treatment for Bleeding-Three kinds--(Aterial, venous, capillary), scalp, ear, nose, jaw; internal; (lungs, stomach, mouth) ; neck, arm, biceps (elbow, arm-pit); palm, fingers, chest; leg thigh, knee; foot, toes.
Oral examination on bruises, sprains, strains, burns, scalds, shock, fainting, carries (5), drag, stretcher, circulation, bleeding, fractures, dressings, wounds, compress, tourniquet.

"Snake-Bite Race"

THIS IS A PATROL COMPETITION using several Scout activities, as Signaling, Orienting, First Aid, etc.
It will prove valuable for a day in camp.
The Patrols are taken to the starting point, and the only order which is given them is: "Use your eyes! !" On looking around they discover a Scout on the other side of the lake (or at some distance) sending a Morse message, repeating the same words time after time: "S. O. S. Come immediately!" As soon as the Patrols have received the message they start to the point.
Here they find the Scout and a person (as many persons as there as Patrols) bitten by a rattlesnake (two small dots made with red ink indicate where the fangs have struck). The Scout gives the Patrols the following orders: "Send two Scouts for permanganate of potassium at ..........., send two Scouts to .........., have them phone for Doctor .............., and bring the doctor's message back here. His telephone number is ................. ."

pg. 99

While the rest of the Patrol treat the patient, the two Scouts bring the permanganate, and the other two return with the doctor's message: "Bring the patient back to the camp immediately on a stretcher. I will be at the camp when you arrive." As will be seen, time is the only thing which counts in this competition. If the Patrols have good signalers, they will receive the Morse message immediately; if they have observed their surroundings carefully during the preceding days in camp, they will know the quickest way to get to the signaler:, if the Patrol Leader has leadership abilities he will send his boys for help without hesitation as soon as he gets the order; a bog who can give a good telephone message will have advantage over the boy who stumbles over his words. (The "doctor" is ,, Assistant Scoutmaster or other Scout Offcial at the other end of the wire.) If the Patrol Leader uses his brains, he will have his boys make a stretcher ready while waiting for the doctor's answer. If a blunder is made in the treatment of the snake-bite the Patrol will be disqualified, the patient being considered dead.--"V-E er."

"Sealed Orders"
All Scoutmasters have times when they must draw on their resources to make meetings at the same time lively, interesting and instructive It was on such an occasion that I bought 100 drug envelopes at ten cents, cut some pasteboards about the size of a milk ticket, and wrote on them as follows: "My ribs are broken"; "I drank carbolic acid"; "I cut my wrist on a broken window. See how dark the blood is· Stop it from welling out"; "I am fainting"; ('I broke my jaw "I am having an epileptic fit"; "I am overcome with gas"; "I am crazy and you must bind my hands and feet when I am not looking"; "My left big toe is frozen"; "I have lost my memory completely, and don't know who I am or where I live. Identify me"; "My clothes are on fire," etc., etc.
These cards I sealed in the envelopes. "Victims" were lined up and to each was given an envelope with the card enclosed. "Operators" were picked, and at a given signal they took the envelopes from the "victims," tore them open, and proceeded on instructions. They were allowed a given time, and if they failed to Operate correctly in that time they paid a forfeit. After all had enjoyed their turn the forfeits were redeemed, the best Scout "operator" being judged. Of course essential materials were at hand.
There are some things one has to guard against. For example, after several "operators" had used my overcoat (the only one available) to roll a "victim" in, on the dusty floor,

pg. 100

to "smother the fire," I had to withdraw that stunt to save my overcoat. But another victim's shoes and stockings were jerked off with spirit and resistance and snow plentifully rubbed on his "frozen toe." The "maniac" was chased around in great style and eventually lassoed, but another "maniac" much larger than his reluctant "operator" overpowered his would-be captor. When the "carbolic acid" card came to light I confess that I hoped the "operator" would do what any red-blooded boy would do--break an egg on his victim's face. Alas, no. He daintily chipped :he ends and let the "victim" suck the egg, and a perfectly good egg was wasted simply to save soiling a boy's shirt.--Howard B. Zigler, Scoutmaster, Calumet, Mich.

Elementary Signaling

Getting Fun Out of It

THE justification of Signaling in a recreational program, such as Scouting, depends largely upon how it is taught and how it is used. Unfortunately it is often handled as a purely abstract subject, so that boys are only interested in passing a Signaling test. Naturally, they are not enthusiastic about the latent value of Signaling in great emergencies or in time of war, nor are they interested in any mental training that they may obtain from practicing it. They are most concerned about the fun that they may derive from using it.

Those in whom the constructive interest is so strong will enjoy making mechanical sending and receiving devices, signal towers, signal flags or even ingenious code cards if they are given sufficient guidance. Since Scouts are required to pass their tests with flags, Leaders sometimes forget that Scouts are also interested in using more novel methods of their own invention.

pg. 101

They should be encouraged to practice sending by flash lights, lanterns, butters, tapping, whistling, gestures, writing secret codes, etc. It may be well to advise the Leader who has a
choice of systems that the International Morse Code lends itself to novel methods and general service more readily than semaphore.
My own Scouts have enjoyed inventing their own secret systems of communicating with each other, similar to the one following: Suppose the secret Patrol code number is plus 312, and a Scout wanted to ask a fellow member: "Will you go?" He would prepare the message for transmission as follows·

Then he would send or write the secret message to his chum: "Zjno zqx hq. Notice that he obtained this message by adding to each letter of the real message the number of letters indicated by the figures above. They designed the following simpler system for the use of the entire Troop. The secret code number is plus 1 minus 1. The above message would then be prepared as follows:

Emphasis on Receiving
Since a Scout is required simply to know the code to pass the Second Class test, the tendency of instructors is to do the apparently easiest thing, namely: first teach Scouts to send the code and then to receive it. The instructor lines up the class and has the members follow him in sending a series of four or five letters. Then the class sends alone, and in this fashion they go through the entire alphabet, delaying receiving until the entire alphabet is learned.
However, most experts are decidedly of the opinion that the emphasis should be placed on receiving from the very start.
I have found, in my experience in teaching both children and adults, that by placing emphasis upon recreational receiving methods at the outset, the learners become so interested that they practice both sending and receiving outside of class. ]

pg. 102

prefer to teach the use of the flags after the majority are familiar with the entire code, assuming that anyone can acquire correct form more readily when he can give his undivided attention to the correct formation of the letters.

Morse Instruction Made Simple

HAVING been in the British Government service, which uses exclusively the International Code (which is really universal except in the United States), I would like to draw the attention of Scoutmasters to a system which I have found effective in helping the Scouts to a quick understanding of the principles upon which the code is built. These principles are easily memorized.
The code being made up of dots and dashes, without spacing or breaking of letters, the whole alphabet is easily acquired in a short time, thus:
What is one dot? It is "E," the most used vowel in the English language. What is two dots? It is "I." Three? "S." Four? "H."
Thus in the matter of the dots, it is easy to memorize "E-I-S-H" as one, two, three, four dots.

The Dashes

Now we take dashes. One dash--"T." Two dashes--"M." Three dashes--"O." Thus we make another phrase easy to memorize-"T-M-O."
There is no letter with four dashes, and this may be used, in consequence, as a private signal.
We come now to the amalgamation of dots and dashes, and here, again, is where the Scout student's difficulties begin. Simplicity is the rule and the rule simplicity. Thus--memorize as before in phrases:
A-dot-dash, reversed, is N. A-N.
B-dash and three dots, reversed, is V. B-V.
C- dash-dot-dash-dot-has no partner. You must acquire C.
D- dash-dot-dot, reversed, is U. D·U.
E--Well, how about that dot rule? E-I-S-H. And it may help you if you recall that its opposite in dashes is one dash T. E-T.
F-dot-dot-dash-dot, reversed, is L. F-L.
G--dash-dash-dot, reversed, is W. G-W.
H-Remember that dot rule, E-I-S-H. One, two, three, four --dots.

pg. 103

J-one dot and three dashes. A bachelor letter like C; never married.
K--dash-dot-dash. Turn it inside out and it becomes dotdash-dot-R. K-R. There are several letters to be turned inside out. Watch them.
L-See F and reverse it. L-F.
M--two dashes. Remember the rule about dashes--T-M-O One, two, three-dashes. Two dots? I M-I. N--dash-dot. The reverse of A. N-A.
O--Just remember the dash rule again. It's like falling off a telegraph pole. Three dots? S. O-S.
P--dot-dash-dash-dot Turn outside in and it becomes X dash-dot-dot-dash In the same way turn X inside out and it becomes P. So easy it's a shame to mention it. P-X.
Q-dash-dash-dot-dash. Reverse it and it becomes Y--dashdot-dash-dash. Q-Y.
R--dot-dash-dot. Look back and see what I said about K. It's an inside-out letter. Collect'em all for yourself. R-K.
S--three dots. How about that dot rule, E-I-S-H!
T-dash. See dash rule. You ought to be catching on by now!
U-dot-dot-dash. What's the reverse! D. Of course! Told you before. V-three dots and a dash. Reverse' Look back at B. works both ways. V-B.
W-dot and two dashes. Reverse? Why G, of course. W-G. Write out all the combinations and you'll be surprised at how long it takes you to be a ready signaler.
X-dash-dot-dot-dash . Another inside-out letter that works with P. Look back and see for yourself. Just change the dashes to dots and the dots to dashes. X-P.
Y-dash-dot-dash-dash. Reverse of Q. Y-Q. Boys, I hate to do it. It's so easy.
Z-dash-dash- dot-dot--a real old bachelor letter, like C and J.


Now, as I have hinted, the best way to memorize these combinations or rules, is to write them all down, each in its separate class. Write down your letters composed of one, two, three and four dots. Then your letters composed of one, two and three dashes, keeping in mind that there is no letter of four dashes, which you might use, say, as a signal meaning personal, or private, or "for the Scoutmaster only." Then put down your inside-out and outside-in letters, after which you

pg. 104

will find you have but two or three letters that are "bachelors" and are therefore easily remembered, just because of their singularity.

About numerals. If you have a lot of figures to send, which you don't often have, you can send the signal NN, meaning "numbers" and cut down your numeral signals to the first figure of each. Thus:-instead of one dot and four dashes for one--one dot is the numeral one, the receiver understanding that you are sending NN until you send "period NN" and resume text. Thus you will send one, two, three, four and five dots for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and for 6, 7, 8, 9, O-one dash, two, three, four and five dashes. Period NN. Resume text.

About punctuation and code signals--all that you have in your Scout Handbook are good. You will observe that your interrogation is U-D run together. This is considered short for "understand" or "Do you get me, Steve?" If the sender cracks a joke on you, or somebody else, and you really feel like laughing, send M's very rapidly. M-M-M-M-M-M-M. Sounds as if somebody was am-m-m-mused, doesn't it' And when you meet a Scout, even if he is a mile away on the top of another lone hill, don't forget to be polite. If before noon, say, GM-good morning; or GA--good afternoon. Or if in the evening, ON-good night.
RD-finished. Stephen Chalmers, Saranac, N. Y.

Teaching the Semaphore Code

THE semaphore code is three times as fast as International Morse for and signaling, it is far more spectacular, and it is favored as the first of the two codes for a Tenderfoot to study because of its usefulness on hikes.
It should be learned in three twenty-minute periods at Troop meetings, and can be taught by Patrol Leaders or other Scouts who may talk along the lines suggested below.

Teach It By the Clock
The alphabet is expressed by twenty-six different angles made with the arm. These angles can be designated by the universally understood divisions on the face of the clock.
Hold right hand straight up, left hand straight down. We are pointing to 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock,

pg. 105

Hold arms horizontally. Our right, assuming that we face the clock, is at 9 and our left at 3· The other points which our arms will indicate in making. the twenty-six letters, are: l:30:made with the left hand, 4:30 made with the left; 7:30 and 10:30 with the right.
Now point left hand at 6 o'clock (straight down between feet) and right hand at 7:30. This angle forms the letter A, and is the first of seven letters made with one hand or flag pointing straight downward at 6 o'clock, motionless. Bring the right hand to 9 o'clock, forming the angle for B, one of eight right angles used in the semaphore code. Practice these two letters, calling upon the Patrol to repeat each letter aloud as it is made.
C is made with the right hand at 10:30, D at 12; then the right hand is dropped to 6 o'clock and the left brought to 1:30 to make E, to 3 for F, and to 4:30 for G. Practice this cycle two or three times and then reverse it, starting at G and going back to A. Then practice opposite letters, G and A, F and B, E and C.
The next six letters would, if the system was not interrupted by three exceptions, J, V, and Y, start with the left hand at 7:30 and the right hand at 9, and follow the course of the clock hands as in the first cycle. It does this very thing but skips the letter J. I-I is 7:30 and 9; I, 7:30 and 10:30; K, 7:30 and 12 changing hands; L is 7:30 and 1:30; M, 7:30 and 3, N, a symmetrical 7:30-4:30.
The next cycle begins with the left hand at 9 o'clock, and the right at 10:30, making the letter O. P is 9 and 12. (Again the hands change sides and the right is placed at 9 o'clock.) Move the left to 1:30 for the letter Q; drop to 3 for R, and to 4:30 for S. T is made with the right hand at 10:30 and the left at 12, U at 10:30 and 1:30.
V is another of the three exceptions. These will have to be learned arbitrarily. J is 12 and 3. V is 12 and 4:30. Y is 10:30 and 3.
Now returning to the series, W is 1.30 and 3. X is 1:30 and 4:30. Z is 3 and 4:30.

pg. 106

Take the word "city" as an instance. If the right hand is placed accurately at the 10:30 point in the dial, it may be left entirely motionless for any letter of which that position is one part. Leaving the right absolutely motionless at 10.30, signal the letter C by placing the left at 6, move it to 7:30 for I, to 12 for T, to 3 for Y, and drop both hands to 6 for end of word. Repeat six times.
If a blackboard is available the instructor can draw lines representing the placing of the hour and minute hands on the angles that make various letters, showing how the simple expression of the angle unadorned by any picture of the flags or of the rest of the clock face will, so long as the top of the page is indicated by an arrow, be equivalent to-a flag signal and a splendid means of writing code between Scouts. It may be suggested that the boys write out during the week their names and addresses, Scout Oath, and the alphabetical sentence, "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog," in semaphore "shorthand." Another interesting word is "milkman," another "manilla." The boys' popular explosive "wow," is an easy way of memorizing that pair of letters. The abbreviation for manuscrips, MSS., fixes two others.

Essential Semaphore Signals

Failure to understand these is the reason many semaphore signalers have trouble.
Attention--I have a message for you.
R-Go ahead. 0. K. or all right. Also made by receiver at end of message, to mean "I understand," and sender must never leave his post until he has received this sign.
A (fluttered or waved)-- Error; meaning "I am erasing last word and starting it over again."
O--(Over). Send last word over. Repeat last word.
OO- Repeat last sentence.
OOO--Repeat whole message.
OA, and then a certain word--(Over after---). Repeat all of message following word mentioned.
MR-Move right.
ML-Move left.
MU-Move up:
MD--Move down.
QRS-Send slower.
QRQ--Send faster.
QRZ--Send more distinctly; your positions are fuzzy.
QRT--Quit sending. Wait a minute.
Note that all QR signs have something to do with SENDING.-"Be Prepared."

pg. 107

What Is a "Signaler"?
Sometimes a Scoutmaster stands ten feet from the Scout whom he is examining, calling off letter by letter, nodding or shaking his head as the Scout responds correctly or incorrectly; issuing verbal instructions and at last slapping the Scout on the ~" when the poor little ninny back with a "Good work, old man doesn't precisely know his left hand from his right. Then the boy goes out with his Second Class Badge, proclaims loudly throughout the community that he has passed the Scout test in Signaling and the whole Scout business becomes a joke.
If the Scout cannot set .p his own station, call another station and put his message through, he is no signaler.
The ability to send signals is not enough--he must make the receiver receive them. He must also receive the replies which come from the station to which he sends his message.
The Second Class Test imposes no time limit, but it does require that the Scout know the alphabet. A signaling "alphabet" includes not only twenty-six letters but also numerals, and conventional signs. No Scout knows the alphabet unless he can send the letters without looking at his book or signal card and receive them the same way--at a distance too great to permit of his seeing the expression on the face of the examiner.
Most Scout Officials agree to this. Troop 1 of Bakersfield, Gal., issues instructions which read: "Be able to send or receive letters sent slowly, know conventional signs, numerals, and correct position of flag in either code."

Knowledge of Background

The candidate for the test in Troop 1 of Franklin, La., is told: "The written part of the Signaling calls for the knowledge of background, code and whistle signals (which must be known perfectly)." The background is important. No use to send Signals if flags are invisible, or but dimly visible to the receiving station.
It is no injustice to the boy to make the test an actual test under conditions as he finds them in the woods or open country

Alphabet Sending Contest
Each contestant sends with signal flag the alphabet calling letters and putting a front between each, and three fronts at the end. For each second consumed less than two minutes one point is added to 100, for each second more than two minutes one point is subtracted from 100. For form from one to 10 points are scored. One is deducted for each twist of the flag, and five are deducted for each letter sent incorrectly. Four judges are required, namely: a timer, a judge to count the points are scored.

pg. 108

twists of the flag, a judge of errors and one of form. To get practice in receiving, all the boys should watch the sender, and before announcing his decision the judge of errors should allow the boys to tell what errors they detected, C. F. SMI~H.

Choose the Top of the Hill

Our favorite location for the game is a long, sloping hill. The Troop, with the exception of one or two Tenderfoot Scouts for messengers, are lined up on the brow of the hill as far away from the Scoutmaster as possible and yet in signaling range. Between the Troop and myself are placed four or five Patrol or Troop flags at an equal distance apart, these flags being "stations." Some person, as "umpire," is stationed near the Troop and has a copy of the messages to be received by the Troop. To begin, the Scoutmaster signals a sentence of some four or five words. This message is taken down independently by each Scout on a slip of paper which is then signed and handed to the umpire. All correct messages are returned "O.K.'d" and the successful Scouts allowed to move on to the next station. The messages are gradually lengthened. The first Scout to reach the Scoutmaster will be the official signaler for another game. This plan has been a wonderful means far Increasing the signaling ability of my Scouts. The boys are enthusiastic over it and work hard to be the "first" Scout down the hill."--Philip~ Le Boutillier, Scoutmaster, N. Y.

The Indian Sign Alternative

THE INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE CODE, now offered as an alternative in Signaling Requirements, both for First and Second Class Scouts, is given in the new Hand Book for Boys, also in the 1928 Diary. It is too new in the Program at this point to have any "How We Do It In Our Troop" information sent in from the field. Please bear this in mind, Scoutmaster: Send in to SCOUTING accounts of every successful idea you have used in this and other Scouting activities; These will be gratefully received by the editors and will be credited to the senders when used in SCOUTING.

pg. 109

These Things Are Scouting

A DASH of romance, some spice of adventure, a bit of mysticism, a coloring of boyish pride, the sweetening of human appreciation--they are all in Scouting. Keep them there. When Romance dies out of the heart, youth is gone. When life holds nothing more of Adventure, it holds nothing more. If there were no Mystery in the things around us, there would be no interest in them. And when what we do and what we are mean nothing to anyone but ourselves, we are nothing; Unless Scouting keeps these things alive in the Scout and for the Scout while he lives, it fails. But these things are in Scouting. Are they in you? Give them to your boys and your own life will have more of romance and adventure and satisfaction.

By Edgar A. Guest

A possible man of affairs,
A possible leader of men,
Back of the grin that he wears
There may be the courage of ten;
Lawyer or merchant or priest.
Artist or singer of joy,
This, when his strength is increased,
Is what may become of the boy.

Heedless and mischievous now, S
pending his boyhood in play,
Yet glory may rest on his brow.
And fame may exalt him some day;
A skill that the world shall admire,
Strength that the world shall employ
And faith that shall burn as a fire,
Are what may be found in the boy.

He with the freckles and tan,
He with that fun-loving grin,
May rise to great heights as a man
And many a battle may win;
Back of the slang of the streets
And back of the love of a toy,
It maybe a Great Spirit beats,
Lincoln once played as a boy.

Trace them all back to their youth,
All the great heroes we sing,
Seeking and serving the Truth,
President, poet and king,
Washington, Caesar and Paul,
Homer who sang about Troy,
Jesus, the Greatest of all,
Each in his time was a boy.
(Reprinted by permission.)

pg. 110

Carry On to a Finish

TELL the Boy Scouts of America that their own motto, "Be Prepared,"
is the greatest factor for success in life. The Boy Scouts of today will be the men of action in the future.
Preparation must include a mastery of all the details connected with one's work. When one knows, he should go ahead and do. The Scouts must learn to carry on until the task is finished. I am with them --Colonel Charles A. Lindbe7gh, i Boy's Life.

A Four-Square Code of Success

RELIGIOIN is most important to youth. I speak of religion as distinct from creeds.
After that came loyalty and devotion to duty. They are related but dissimilar, Loyalty takes in patriotism, while devotion to duty means observance of basic principles and ethics, Third, I would place friendship, a willingness to sacrifice for a friend.
Health also belongs in my category of ideals. A healthy body is most important for a healthy outlook.--Gene Tunney, in the New York World.

pg. 111

Tracking and Trailing

I Know of nothing which is more calculated to develop-the senses than the study and practice of tracking.
Observation develops to a remarkable degree the alertness and efficacy of the senses; by continual practice the eyesight becomes quickened and strengthened, so also the hearing and sense of smell and touch.
Deduction promotes in a still more wonderful way the alertness of the mind through development of reasoning power, imagination, patient research, common sense and memory.

One Way of Putting Over the Test

As described by a Scout

I WANT TO MAKE a suggestion which may help some Scoutmasters in putting their Scouts through the Second Class Test No 4, that is, track half a mile in twenty-five minutes. Our Scoutmaster, Judson Wiley, is a great lover of the woods. He is the originator of this plan as far as we know. He cuts twenty-six slips of white paper about two inches long and three-quarter inches wide. On each slip of paper he draws an arrow, the name of a bird or animal and a number. He then cuts twenty-six sticks about ten inches long and one-quarter inch wide; With his knife he sharpens the ends and slits the tops. He places the stick in the ground and puts the slip of paper in the split pointing the arrow in a certain direction. He paces off hundred paces in that direction and sets another stick; and so on until he has them all set. He sets them behind trees, logs, and even up on the sides of the trees. He crosses the trails in such a way that sometimes there are two, close together. Then if you have not judged your distance correctly

pg. 112

or kept the right course, you have a hard time choosing the right one. The Scoutmaster gives us the direction for the first one, but the rest we have to find for ourselves.

Method and Values of This Plan

The Scouts start off one at a time with pencil and paper, marking down the name and number of each slip they find, and in the order in which they were found. The Scoutmaster has them written down in the order he placed them and when the time is up, the bugle is blown and the Scouts come in and compare their lists with that of the Scoutmaster. If any have been omitted, those missing do not count. You have to have at least twenty-one in correct order to pass.
He gives us only one trial a day and lays a new trail each time. It is exceptionally hard when patches of snow are on the ground.
The advantage of this system is that it teaches you to judge your distance correctly and to pick your course and hold it. It also trains the eye to be quick. We now use it for a game as well as a test.

Developing Observation

Excerpts front an Article by Edward F. Bigelow

IF, FOR EXAMPLE, you have a good brook easily accessible, mark off a length of one rod along that brook and from four to five feet from each bank. Then make a thorough study of the brook and of that part of the bank.
If you have available any kind of tree, set this requirement for the boys: walk around that tree four times every week for four weeks, and make four observations near the tree, say north, south, east and west, and four other observations about two rods in four directions from the tree. You know, if you will stop for a: moment and think about it, that you and your boys have never really seen that tree. Did you ever try to estimate the number of leaves on that tree, and how many and what kinds of insects get their living from it, and the kinds of birds that visit it!

pg. 113

Challenge the Boys' Knowledge of Familiar Things

Recently I tried with boys in the woods to have each boy, in a prize contest, walk around a tree as a cat walks there and as a dog walks, and nearly every boy wanted to go home and to see the cat and the dog do it.
In your tramps have you ever passed a farm where there is a goose or a turkey? The next time you go by, casually refer to the goose or the turkey, but manifest no special interest. When you get further in the country and sit down for a little rest in a shady place, ask the Scouts to describe that goose or turkey. Nearly every boy will want to go back and take another look. He will realize that he saw, yet did not see.

Observation Contest Hike

Pounding along for two miles you are pretty sure to come within sight of many objects that will test and train a boy's accuracy of observation. The Scout Leader--the official bulletin of the Canadian Boy Scouts' Association--reports an interesting Patrol competition of this sort. You work your rules out in advance--day and hour named, but starting point to be communicated to each Scout by telephone on the morning of the selected day. Each Scout carries three Sheets of unruled white paper, 6" x 10", with cardboard or other backing, one medium black and one colored pencil. Each contestant is to note down objects of interest observed en route, and is to make sketches of two objects, to be named before starting. One sheet of paper is used for listing objects, the other for the sketches. Patrols are to move under their leaders at fiveminute intervals. Scouts hating uniforms must be in uniform. Over the route named in the final instructions, Scouts are required to sketch buildings or contour of country, ravines, railways, water-sheds, and the like, and to make notes an whatever of interest they observed on the highway or adjacent thereto.

"To read the signs of the trail, to know from bent reeds, a broken spider's web, a floating wisp of blue feather, a track in the sand, a bit of fur in a bramble, what story lies behind, is a real delight and adventure. Nothing just happens in Nature. There is a reason for everything."

pg. 114

Reading the Story of the Tracks

After the Scout has learned to follow a trail he should learn how to read it. A good way to begin is to have all the members of the Patrol walk across some soft ground and then try to find out who made each track. Each track differs from the others in some way. When following footprints you should notice the size of the foot, the arrangement of the nails, heel or toe plates in the shoe and the length of the stride. When a man is walking he puts the whole flat of the foot on the ground. When running, the toes are dug into the ground. .4 man carrying a heavy weight digs his heels into the earth. The tracks of women and children can be told from those of men because they are generally smaller and the stride is shorter. The heel of a woman is also dug in deeper because the heels of women's shoes are generally small.
If the Scout will practice and keep his eyes open he will soon find out that there is almost no end of the things to be learned from trails.

Make Tracking an Adventure

Scoutmasters say: "Kim's Game and Shop Window Test are good observation stunts, but no live boy will choose them in preference to a real tracking project, outdoors." "Use tracking irons, whiffle poof, corn or paper trails as an interesting outdoor proposition, but there's nothing that's better Scouting or more fascinating and instructive to the Scout than following genuine wild animal tracks." "In any case, don't make the mistake of having your Scouts follow a trail too plainly marked by trail signs. Make the test an adventure."

The Store Window Test
When it is absolutely necessary to fall back on the store window test, the Scoutmaster is to show the four windows and then designate the one to be described. The description should not be a mere catalogue list of the articles, but should give a picture of the window, using proper subordination and proper placing of the details. In this particularly, as in all tests, considerable practice is essential to develop proper judgment.-From Buffalo Scout Regulations.

All Kinds of Signs

The Cincinnati Scoutmasters Association also asks its Scouts to qualify in at least four ways:
1. A Scout must know four signs of the trail, each made with five different materials, viz.: blazes, stones, twigs, grass knots and chalk marks.

pg. 115

2. He must have followed a trail made in this manner, or with tracking irons, or have followed the footprints of a wild animal for a distance of a half a mile in twenty-five minutes.
3. He must take the shop window test, describing satisfactorily the contents of one store window out of four observed for one minute each.
4. He must pass a test on Kim's Game, using thirty articles, uncovering them for one minute and then writing the names of at least twenty-three of the thirty articles within ten minutes' time after they have been covered.

Laying the Trail

THROUGH woods, fields or along a stream; my Scouts must know how to use every kind of sign imaginable. Arrows in the ground, arrows made of sticks, chalk
marks; corn, torn paper, broken twigs, blazes, twisted grass and tracking irons. I believe that this can be made a real test or only a form and prefer to make it a real test. It takes lots of time, but is worth while. In measuring the distance he steps off 800 paces. Some of my Scouts have had to try for this test four or five times, but I have never resorted to the store window alternative.--Geo. W. Kelly,: S.M., Salnze, Kansas.

Avoid Blazing
The Toledo (Ohio) regulations warn against blazed trails or paper, as the first means Serious injury to trees and the latter is unsightly. Tracking irons, corn and the Indian trail signs are recommended

Have One Patrol Trail Another

Some Troops will begin by laying a paper trail a mile or two long, and after following it for some distance, will become tired or lose the trail, says Scoutmaster J· H; Salomon, an Eagle Scout, speaking of Scout trailing expeditions.
One of the best ways to begin is to learn to follow short trails made by tying some small pieces of colored rag or yarn

pg. 116

to trees about 50 to 75 feet apart. While this will take a longer time to follow, it will give much better practice than a-paper trail.
Better than the yarn, the regular Scout signs may be used. They are found illustrated in the Handbook. The trail is marked by a small stone placed upon a large one or by a small bundle of grass. A change of direction is shown by placing a small stone to the right or left of the pile, by bending the top of the grass bundle in the proper direction, by breaking over the top of a bush or putting a forked stick in a cleft of a tree, by making an angle of sticks or pebbles or by leaving other woodcraft marks on trees or rocks.
After you are able to follow these trails you may use tracking-irons. Baseball shoes with foot-plates or spiked running shoes are good track makers. The irons should be used on soft ground at first, and different Scouts given a chance to lay the trail. Later on the track-layer can go on harder ground and try various dodges to lose the trackers.

Dramatization the Trail

As nearly as possible (with regard to the piece of ground), I try to approximate natural conditions and call for actual observations. Before starting, I believe a short talk at a meeting is worth while, with a review of signs. Sometimes one party lays a trail with an imaginary story of surprise and distress and the pursuers must read the story correctly as well as follow.--C. D. Kent, Canton, Ohio.


Endeavoring to interpret the many signs and trails in the snow will give many an hour of keen enjoyment to a Scout hike in the winter time.
Once the writer found where a crow had alighted and walked a short distance before again taking wing. The imprint of his wing feathers was plainly visible at the point where he came to earth, showing that the tips of his wings must have struck the snow lightly as he lit. From there his tracks led up a short incline for a distance of ten or twelve yards to the foot of a small tree, where they abruptly disappeared. Whether the crow had hopped upon one of the lower branches of the tree or taken flight directly from the ground, and what his object was in alighting at all, were then interesting questions to determine.
The winter woods are full of fascinating stories printed in the snow, for him who has eyes to read them.

pg. 117

The Lore of Tracks and Tracking


KNOWLEDGE OF THE WAYS of wild nature is a priceless possession, giving zest to life. In search of it we are lured into the great out-doors where our powers of observation are brought into play and developed.
To become proficient in the science of tracking, it is necessary to bear in mind a few fundamental points as well as to make an exhaustive study of the form of each animal's foot and the creature's actions under varying circumstances.

Look into the Eye of the Sun
When tracking always remember to look into "the eye of the sun," otherwise you will not get the true value of the shadows. On going down to a stretch of sand or mud and looking towards the sun, you will see a mass of tracks which would not be obvious from another angle. This advice, therefore, to always "look into the eye of the sun" cannot be too greatly stressed.
When a certain track has been discovered, proceed by putting your mind, as it were, into the head of the animal you are tracking. For example, following the tracks of an otter, ask yourself where the otter lives. "In the water" comes the reply. Let us suppose the tracks were first seen near the farmyard 300 yards from water, and then they disappeared. Where would you expect to pick them up again? You would naturally look for them down by the-river.

Or, suppose we take the case of a cotton-tail rabbit or the long-eared jack rabbit. The cotton-tail lives in a burrow and when he ventures out he is always ready to dart into a nearby copse and is seldom seen in the open field. But the jack-rabbit, on the contrary; will race across the country and may make a "form" right out in the open.

pg. 118

It is never safe to guess or assume when tracking an animal to his lair. Until there is a logical reason for moving, the tracker should remain still. Taking nothing for granted, he must work only on the evidence as shown by the trail, keeping his eyes open and being very stealthy in his movements.
When the connection is lost, be careful not to walk over the tracks. Mark the spot of the last track seen; stand still, and cast your eyes around in circles from this spot, because a track that is "fouled" is useless.

Tell-tale Signs

Grass is a great track-recorder and a trail in the grass will also show the direction in which an animal has been traveling. For instance, if on looking at a field of grass, you observe a streak across it that appears lighter in color than the surrounding grass, it is safe to conclude that whatever made the track has gone away from you. If. on the other hand the track in the grass appears as a shadow, darker than the rest, the animal must have come towards you. This is a very safe and sure sign and is based on the fact that, when grass or bushes are bent down at an angle, the light is reflected on their surface.

Identifying Trails

Nearly all animals and birds have some characteristics or habits which make their tracks distinguishable from those of others. The otter's trail for instance, will not be far from water. The badger lives in burrows, so Nature has endowed him with powerful claws, which he uses to dig out his home. The clearly defined claw marks are the most distinguishing feature in his track and the ball of his foot, being oblong, leaves an impression quite different from that of any other animal.
Tracks of rabbits are easily distinguished. The creature's hind legs are powerful and long, and as he hops along he lands on his feet so disposed that the hind paws are in front and the smaller fore paws behind. The marks of the hind feet are side by side in front. Those of the fore feet are in a line one behind the other. Squirrel tracks though somewhat smaller are similar except that the fore feet like the hind feet are in pairs side by side. This would seem to indicate the ability of the squirrel to climb. Its tracks begin and end at the foot of a tree.
Muskrat tracks when seen in soft mud or sand can be easily recognized by the central groove made by the tail and by the webbed footprints. The hind feet are much larger than the fore feet. The beaver's tail makes a groove on the outside of

pg. 119

his foot prints. A beaten track from a tree stump (with chips of wood lying around) to the water's edge is a rather sure indication of the presence of a beaver.
When the trail is indistinct it is very difficult to distinguish between the track of a dog, fox, and cat. A large cat may make a track as big as a small dog or fox.
The fox depends for his food upon his careful stalking, and often upon his cunning, to save his life. His tracks show how alert he is to every scent and sound. When on the prowl he never trots but walks and leaves a trail in a straight line. The dog, on the contrary, rarely walks, but trots and is generally careless about where he goes. His tracks seldom register.
None of the cat tribe show claw marks in their tracks, while in the trail of the wolf, dog and fox it is a conspicuous feature.
The trail of the bear is often marked by bits of hair caught on bramble bushes from which he may have been making a meal, being very fond of small fruits. His track is very similar to a porcupine's but of course, larger. Both animals walk on the soles of their feet like humans.

Ducks and other water birds have webs on their feet which serve the same purpose and also act as paddles while swimming. Land birds such as pheasants and partridges have small compact feet best adapted to walking on firm soil.
Success in tracking, as in everything else, comes only with patient practice, but brings its own reward in the intimate knowledge thus obtained of the haunts and habits of the wood folk; for surely there is no one so happy--

"As he who sets his willing feet
In Nature's footprints, light and fleet,
And follows fearless where she leads."


NOTE: One of the best "Hows" we can offer Scout Leaders is the suggestion that they get well acquainted with the pamphlets and handbooks of the Movement. For example, in direct relation to the above general subject, there are several helpful Merit Badge Pamphlets, including those on Bird Study, Insect Life, Botany, Forestry, Stalking, Mining (which includes the study of rocks and ores), Reptile Study and Weather, all of which give interesting information on how to observe things outdoors. Taking photographs of wild life is one of the best ways of crystallizing observation. Encourage your boys to "bag" good films; The Merit Badge Pamphlet on Photography will help them.

Satisfactions of a Scoutmaster

E. M. STOUWELL, Scout Executive, Ames, Iowa.

THE OTHER EVENING I dropped into the store of a scoutmaster. In answer to my inquiry as to what he was getting out of his experiences he answered:
"Well, you know that I am a: busy man, with my store to tend. Last night I held my meeting, and all went well until after rollcall and inspection. Then one of my Patrol Leaders asked to be excused, together with one of his buddies. Said they had planned to see a basketball game. That made me sore. I fold him to wait. Then I read the riot act, told them that if there was nothing to interest them there at Troop meeting they had better not come at all, as it was wasting my time as well as theirs. I told them I wasn't getting anything by coming down there to meet with them--that I came there with the intention of giving them the benefit of my experience--to help them, not myself ..."

Need I point out the moral of that Scoutmaster's experience? Unfortunate indeed is that Scoutmaster who does not "get anything by coming down to Troop meeting." He has a perverted view of Scouting. Such Scoutmasters may have their eyes opened to their real opportunities by this reply made by another Scoutmaster to my inquiry: What do you get out of it?
"Well, I will tell you what I get out of it. I get the satisfaction of knowing that thirty lads who otherwise might be roaming the streets of the city are roaming the green hills, breathing the God-given air of the countryside.

"I have the grateful knowledge that my thirty boys are interested in clean, virile phases of Scouting in place of the morbid subjects which too often occupy the idle thoughts of a growing lad.
"I get the satisfaction of knowing that the parents of these thirty Scouts have a warm spot in their hearts for some one who is faking an interest in their boys.
"I get the satisfaction of knowing that I am a small part of great movement which grasps a growing lad at just the time ten he is 'on the fence'--wavering between right and wrong-a engrosses him in a multitude of activities which help him to leap to the right side of the fence, and stay there."

pg. 120

Scout Pace

PERTINENT AND PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS for training in the Scout's Pace are made by Mr. George W· Ehler.

Correct Measurements
In military walking and running, the running step is 1/5 longer than the marching step, and three running steps are taken to two marching steps. In the distance covered by a Scout in 50 running and 50 walking steps he will
Walk 5/11 of the total distance in 3/5 of the total time and Run 6/11 of the total distance in 2/5 of the total time.
Have each Scout secure the measurement of his walking step. Have him lay off a course on the road or track equal to 110 times the length of his walking step.
Divide 5,280 feet (one mile) by the length of this course-the quotient will be the ratio of the course to the mile. Divide 12 minutes or 720 seconds by this quotient. The result will be the number of seconds in which the Scout must cover the course he has laid out for 50 walking and 50 running steps. 6/11 of this will be his walking time and 5/11 the running time.
The Scout should practice walking and running over this course until he can walk 50 and run 50 steps in the exact required time at every trial. This will not take long.
When he can do this have him double the distance and practice similarly at that and so gradually multiply the original course until he reaches a full mile.

Developing Endurance
Never cover more distance than can be done in the time determined as above for each 50 walking and 50 running steps and never change the pace. The pace will soon become habitual and the distance can be extended gradually until five miles can be "paced" with not more than 30 seconds variation for the whole distance.

pg. 122

When training at first hold the practice strictly to small doses. Cover the distance once, then rest awhile and then repeat. Do this several times each day, working up to an aggregate distance 1/4 of a mile at the end of one week. Follow this consistently and the average Scout should be able to pace the mile with not over ten seconds variation by the end of six weeks.
The secret of acquiring endurance is steady practice at the habitual pace. Do not vary the pace. Keep at the short distances until the Scout can tell instantly any variation of the pace.
Do not let any one persuade you to try to develop "wind" by going a longer distance at a slower pace. Power and skill to perform any given stunt come most easily by doing it over and over again in small doses gradually increased.

Six Weeks of Progress

Seven hundred and twenty divided by 23 plus, equals 31-1/5 seconds.
Run equals 5/11 of 31-1/ seconds equals 14-1/5.
Walk equals 6/11 of 31-1/5 seconds equals 17.
Lay out a course of 229 feet and practice walking and running that distance until the pace is accurately done every time--50 steps walking in 17 seconds, 50 steps running in 14-1/5 seconds. By the end of the first week be doing the distance six times with only a few seconds rest after each trial.
Second week double the course to 458 feet--1st day 2 times -2nd day 3 times--3rd day 4 times--4th day 5 times--5th day 6 times. Total equals 1/2 mile.
Fourth week--increase course to 1,354 feet--1st day 1 time-2nd day 1-1/2 times--3rd day 2 times--·4th day 3-1/2 times-5th day 4 times.
Fifth week--increase course to 2,748 feet--1st day 1 time-2nd day i-1/2 times--3rd day 1-3/4 times--4th day 2 times5th day 2-1/2 times.
Sixth week-increase course to one mile--1st day 1,300 steps -2nd day 1,600 steps-3rd day 11900 steps-4th day 2,100 steps -5th day 2,300 steps or 1 mile.

pg. 123

Methods Employed at Gillwell Park

ZULU RUNNERS, when covering long distances, would break into a run when they tired of walking. This system brings into play a different set of muscles from those used in walking, and gives one a rest. Scoutmasters at Gillwell are given the following method of teaching this Second Class Test No. 5--Scout's Pace.

1. To cover ground quickly with as little fatigue as possible.
2. To act as a measure of time when the Scout knows the distance.
3. To act as a measure of distance when the Scout has a watch.


1. In running Scout's Pace (over the Troop course of a measured mile), the run should be of a jog-trot nature and the walk quite normal and unhurried.
2. If an appropriate tune be hummed, to oneself, the finishing point of a certain passage of music will mark the time when the walk is to be changed to a run, and contrary-wise. This is a better check than ordinary counting.
3. Another method is by the "metronome method." That is to say by counting the first number only in given groups, and the remaining numbers subconsciously. This can best be illustrated by the figures--

1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 3, 4. 4, 2, 3, 4, 5, 2, 3, 4. The big figures are counted while the small ones become subconsious. In this instance by the time figure 5 is completed, 20 paces will have been taken.

Send Patrols off at intervals over the measured mile, and check their time with a stop-watch The Scouts must not look at watches, of course, while doing this.
The Scoutmaster of Troop 21, Brooklyn, reports the following as helpful:
If the first practice period is taken over a 1/2-mile course, your correct time is 3 minutes for the course, and Scouts can be corrected in their speed and gait.

pg. 124

Gillwell Park cautions the Scoutmaster:

Watch Out Against--
1. Tendency to hurry.
2. Running badly on flat of foot instead of toes.
We also would add--watch the breathing, and at times change the style of country over which you run Scout's Pace. For a special contest have Scouts carry haversack, staff and other equipment.
A Scout's Pace contest can be conducted between Patrols by having all the Patrols send off their members in relay formation over a course of uncertain distance (but known to the Scoutmaster), and seeing which Patrol finishes their last man nearest to the correct time for the distance.

Scout Pace Window Race

This game combines training in Scout's Pace and the store window test It is similar to Morgan's Game described in the Handbook. The first Patrol or side runs at Scout's Pace to a store at a known distance from headquarters, where the umpire is already stationed. When the last runner reaches the store window all of the group are allowed to observe the contents for one minute. Then they return at Scout's Pace to headquarters, and each one writes the names of the things he remembers. The second team follows the first in five minutes. The time of each team is that of the last member to return. The team that covers the ground in time nearest the rate of a mile in twelve minutes receives 25 points. Each boy receives one point for each article named. The team having the greatest number of points wins.

Practical Pacing
Farm boys will be particularly interested in the new alternative for Scout's Pace, Requirement No. 5 "lay out, measure by the stride method and stake a four-acre tract of land." Please write to the Editors of SCOUTING, you rural Scoutmasters. Tell us how you teach your boys to do it.

pg. 125

Using the Knife and Axe

ONE OF THE MOST DIFFICULT PROBLEMS of the Scoutmaster in connection with this test is to get the boy not to use his knife and hatchet-on trees and shrubbery in public parks or anywhere. Conditions demand that the Scoutmaster shall make it clear to every Scout that these aricles of equipment are to be used only whnm needed and then in a proper way.
Weehawken, N· J· requires that the Scout shall not only know the various cautions and directions as given in the Handbook for Boys, but should habitually practice them.

Backyard and Cellar Practice
I Scoutmaster George W. Kelly, of Salina, Kans., says: usually give this test in the woods but keep a few limbs in the basement to be prepared to give the test there winter evenings." It might be well for Scoutmasters to insist upon a sufficient amount of backyard and down cellar practice to insure the regular filling of the family wood box.

Common Sense Additions to Stated Rules

Knife :-l. Give 3 general common sense rules for the care of knife.
2. Blade must be presented in good condition with an edge capable of doing good, clean, rapid work.
3. Cut in two pieces a stick' at least two inches in diameter. Hatchet:-Rules 1 and 2, as for knife. 3. See that hatchet is held right.
4. Make a clean V-shape cut, cutting several lengths of a tree at least 5 inches in diameter.
5. Nothing but fallen or dead timber should be used for test, and any Scout wantonly chopping a live tree will be subject to suspension.
6. Show by diagram how to fell a tree in a given direction.

--Milzoauker Local Council.

pg. 126

Axe Policy and Wisdom

Ownership of Axe Does Not Imply Right to Use It

EVERY SCOUT should own an axe. That goes without saying. He should own a knife and, as far as possible, all the equipment that he needs for hikes and camp.
And he should learn to use his equipment with skill and safety. That, too, should go without saying. The established policy on the axe is given in the Handbook for Scoutmasters, as follows:
"Hatchets and Axes: Axes will be used only with the express permission of the Scoutmaster. It is recommended that no boy be allowed to carry a hatchet or axe on "hike'' until he has passed his Second Class test. Living trees or shrubs should be spared even if the express consent of the owner of the property has been given."--(It is sometimes easy to be deceived as to whether a tree or shrub is alive in the winter; when in doubt, don't cut into them.)
Get hold of an expert woodsman to show boys the way to handle the axe and keep it in condition. Why not have at least one axemanship hike under the guidance of such a woodsman, to pass the Second and First Class tests in the care and use of the axe and knife!

What Constitutes Right to Use the Axe

Many Troops have found it advisable to restrict the carrying of axes to boys who have passed at least the Second Class tests. This insures against new recruits thoughtlessly misbehaving themselves. If a Scout who ought to know better imitates the youthful George Washington, why not have him brought up on charges before the Council of the Patrol leaders?
Trees should never be attacked merely to pass the axe and knife requirements. There should first be a legitimate reason for felling the tree. And even before that is attempted the Scout should have fully demonstrated upon dead fallen timber, his ability to handle his axe correctly, both for felling and trimming a tree. Never forget that in all cases it is imperative that proper permission and authority for cutting trees must be obtained before a Scout is allowed to use his axe upon them.

The Three Main Points
In teaching the use of the knife and axe to boys, it is a good practice to point out that these various rules may all be boiled down to three: (1) take care of the knife or axe; (2) take care of yourself;

pg. 127

(3) take care of others and their property. The first covers the matter of keeping the knife clean and sharp and of not using it in ways apt to injure it. The second includes everything necessary to prevent injury to oneself. The third relates to safety first and to first aid. Moreover, by demanding respect to green trees and other private property, it ties up with the Scout principles of thrift and conservation

Who May Carry and Use Axes

In a pamphlet containing the Buffalo regulations of Scout Requirements, the test is discussed as follows:
"The Scoutmaster should give a practical test in both of these subjects. Scouts should be informed as to the PROPER use of the axe. The axe has caused the Buffalo Council more trouble than any other implement used by the organization. It has lost many of our friends due to careless use made of it by some of our Scouts. The Council has made a ruling recently that but ONE AXE SHALL BE ALLOWED TO EACH PATROL AND THAT THE PATROL LEADER SHALL BE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS USE."

pg. 128

Fire Building

THE MOST IMPORTANT PART of the test in fire malting is to be sure that the Scout will never. under any conditions, build a fire which could by any possibility get beyond his control, or fail to extinguish the fire to the last spark before leaving it.
The natural tendency of a boy is to overlook precautions in his excitement over the building and use of the fire. These precautions must be repeated and emphasized by precept and example. He-can be taught to use the necessary safeguards until this becomes a habit.

Here, to Do it Wrong

A Scout Official stated not long ago that upon taking charge of a Troop he asked how the preceding Scoutmaster had given the tests. The reply was: "He sat down at a table with the list of the tests before him and asked, 'Do you know how to use the knife and axe?' 'Do you know how to make a fire?' 'Do you Know how to cook?' etc." If the answer was in the affirmative, he checked the test and gave the Scout credit for it. Naturally most of the answers were in the affirmative.

A Practical Need Best Test of a Test
This inefficient and fraud-inviting method is rare. Scout Officials everywhere realize that it is the worst sort of unkindness to give a Scout credit for the fire making test or any other test in practical Scoutcraft unless he is sure that the Scout could, in case of necessity, make his fire without assistance and would, without a reminder, safeguard it in a way which would prevent any harm coming from it.

The Materials
The question of materials for the fire is one which has troubled some Scoutmasters. Should the boy be allowed to use paper or dry kindling carried in the haversack, or oil or any other material which he would not ordinarily find in the

pg. 129

woods or on the plains! In most cases, Scoutmasters require the Scout to build the fire without any of the products of civilization except matches. Some have reported that they even required the fire to be built without matches, but of course the test, as given in the Handbook, expressly permits matches to be used.

To pass the fire lighting test the Scout should know where to look for dry wood and what to use for his fires. He should know how to get dry wood in rainy weather. He should know how to prepare the wood for starting the fire. In the arrangement of the material for his fire he should be able to give a satisfactory reason for any questions put to him by the examiner. He should actually have made a fire, a number of times, using only two matches, and never using paper or oil. He should know types of fires for cooking and camp fires.

1. Hardwoods produce better coals than softwoods.
2. Split wood burns faster than round branches.
3. Fire burns upward; use long sticks.
4. Fire needs air; leave plenty of space for it.
5. Lay the fire and have a supply of wood before lighting.
6. Conserve heat; hang the kettle before lighting the fire.

"First a curl of birch bark dry as it can be.
Then some twigs of softwood, dead, but on the tree.
Last of all some pine-knot to make the kettle foam,
And there's a fire to make you think you're sitting right at home."--From Seton Thompson's "Two Little Savages."

There are two main types of fires, camp and cooking. The camp fire is for heat and light and is a big fire. The cooking fire is for cooking only and must be a small one. For quick fire kindling:

Grape vine bark makes good tinder.
Dry cottonwood or soft maple are excellent.
Use no green wood.
Lasting fire coals to cook over: Use hard woods. Soft woods

pg. 130

form dead coals or coals covered with ashes and give off no heat. Hickory is best. Other good hard woods are:

Chestnut, White oak, Black oak Post oak, Ironwood, Apple, Ash is good, when dry., Locust
Woods that are no good when green, little better dry, are:
Basswood, Box Elder, and White Elm.

Experiment with woods and see how they work. Maybe you can find some better than these. See how much tree study can he gotten from this.

Only One Match to a Fire

"During the past season in visiting many groups of Scouts I started over 50 fires in the field and generally when the wood was wet; and never used more than one match to a fire. The ordinary practice is to build the fire before lighting it, The proper practice is to light your fire before building it. That is, cut your dry shavings or gather your tinder and start the blaze with one match, laying on small wood a little at a time and then more and larger wood as the fire gains headway. By this method you will find that you can take care of green and wet wood without difficulty.)t-DILLON WALLACE.

The Trapper's Fire

Best for camp in cold weather. If there is no big boulder or ledge of rocks on the camp site, build a low Wall of rocks about six feet in front of the lean-to, with two stone "andirons" at right angles to them or, drive two big stakes-in the ground slanting backward against them; pile on these, one on top of the other, three logs at least a foot thick, and place two thick, short hand-junks in front of them to support the fore stick. Select for this purpose green wood that is hard to burn. Plaster mud in the crevices between the logs, around the bottom of the stakes and around the rear end of the hand-junks, for other-

pg. 131

wise the fire will quickly attack these places. Such a fireplace is meant to reflect the heat forward, conduct the smoke upward and serve as a wind break in front of camp. Build the fire in front of the hand-junks and cut up plenty of fallen logs into good lengths for night wood. Have a separate cooking-fire off to one side.

The Indian's Fire
Best where fuel is scarce, or when one has only a small hatchet to cut night wood. Use fallen hardwood, sapling size. Lay three or four such pieces on the ground, butts on top of each other, tips radiating from this center like the spokes of a wheel. On and around this center build a small, hot fire. Place butts of other saplings on this radiating like the others. As the wood burns away shove the sticks in toward the center, butts on top of each other as before. This saves much chopping and economizes fuel. Build a little wind break behind you and lie close to the fire. Doubtless you have heard the Indian's dictum: "White man heap fool; make um big fire can't get near; Injun make um little fire--get close. Ugh good !"

Putting the Fire Out:
The only SAFE way to put out a campfire is to put water on it--and plenty at that. So that not a single spark is left. That's the way to leave a safe campfire. A safe fire is a DEAD fire.
Earth, half leaves and needles, rotten wood and trash, won't put out a fire; in fact, when this debris dries out, as it will over coals, it makes a very fine fire starter.
Stamping out a fire doesn't hurt the fire very much, and may hurt the soles of your shoes a lot. WATER, and plenty of it, is what will kill a smoldering campfire-dead. Pour on lots of water, stir the embers with a stick, pour on more water, and then run your fingers through the dead coals, and then, maybe, you'll decide to pour on some more water.-Forest Supervisor, W. G. WEIGLE, Minneapolis.

pg. 132

Crossed Sticks
This test is not complete until the fire is extinguished and the spot marked with crossed sticks.
"Traveler, please before you go,
Douse your fire with H2O;
Pour on more if you're in doubt-
Campfires are the best things OUT!"

This tells the world, in Indian fashion, that your fire was out when you left it.

THE BOY WHO LEARNS fire building thoroughly is a safe inhabitant of the forest. The boy who goes abroad with two matches and a new axe as his sole equipment is a menace to himself, the good name of Scouting, and the safety of the woods into which he ventures. Accordingly the ability to build a fire in the open, using not more than two matches, is a Second Class Scout requirement, and in actual practice it is one of the first things a boy should study upon entering the great brotherhood

Learning at Troop Meeting

Many leaders of fine Troops arrange with different Patrol Leaders to bring materials to Troop meeting and: lay unlighted, various types of fires, explaining their functions and construction. One Patrol Leader will bring a damp piece of wood two inches in diameter, split it a few times and show the Tenderfoot that the inside is still dry and that when it is made into shavings twice the size of a toothpick there is fine material for the starting of a fire, even on the worst of all days when a winter's rain has soaked into the wood for hours and hours and

pg. 133

the whole is frozen into an ice sheet. Another Leader will build a log cabin fire showing the value of air spaces. Another may pile up books and boxes as if they were stones, and show how the oven can be built providing for a draught. Others will bring various kinds of wood with the bark on and tell which is good to make coals, which burns quickly, leaving little heat; which is safe for a night fire, and how squaw wood untouched by an axe can be used by a camper late at night without a disturbing sound and burnt into the right lengths as the night goes by.

pg. 134

The Proof of the Training

From an Address by National Scout Commissioner

TENTY CENTURIES ago a great leader spoke most enthusiastically about youth, but did not bother much with men. We are past; we are what we are; but the youth are the things of which we can make anything. The youth of today are living in a fairyland, a fairyland beyond the dreams of our boyhood. They are doing all the things that we dreamed about when we were boys. All our modern things are the wonderful inheritance of these boys and the boys are taking a living part and an active part in it all.
I act as Chairman of the National Court of Honor, and as such bestow the medals on these boys for their acts of heroism, and sometimes we send the medals to the parents, because the boys sacrifice their lives in the performance of duty; but I want to tell you, for the comfort of the parents and all concerned, that the fatalities are growing fewer and fewer because we are not teaching the boys to keep away from danger, but we are telling them how to behave, and teaching them how to behave in the presence of danger.
There is not anything on God's earth as great as this true training for the boys, and as for we men here we don't amount to shucks, although we pretend we do, but we act as engineers on the train, that is all--engineers and brakemen--and carry this train of boys on toward their future, which is going to be greater and grander than any future we have ever dreamed of.

pg. 135

The Cooking Tests

TO MANY A BOY the first experience in cooking comes through his preparation for the Second Class Scout I cooking test. He may have roasted corn on a stick, or steamed a few clams in a bucket, or burned a few spuds in an open fire, but the Scout cooking test, if properly emphasized, will broaden his outlook and help him to see that cooking is a big subject. He will learn that it is vitally related to human life and essential to human happiness and effciency.

A Real Test of a Scout
A Scout who cannot cook a meal in the open isn't much of a Scout. The Scout is taken on a hike and is asked to prove his ability to build a fire in the open, using not more than two matches and no paper. The cooking test naturally follows. This is surely the right way, the Scouting way. Many a professional cook fails utterly when asked to prepare a meal in the open without the kitchen equipment to which he has become accustomed.: The Scout must be ready to meet emergencies, and emergencies usually deprive us of the conveniences and comforts which ordinarily we have. Questions testing out a Scout's knowledge of fire burning and cooking in the open may be asked by the examiner. But under no conditions should the Scout be given credit for the cooking test on a verbal examination alone.

The Proof of the Cooking
Troop 1 of Franklin, La., requires a cooking demonstration, and in addition the Scout must explain how, he knows when the food is done. This is left to the Tenderfoot to learn for himself. This requirement is a good One. Unless the Scout has his methods so clearly in mind that he can explain and teach them, his usefulness will be greatly decreased.
Among the Bakersfield, Gal., troops, no bacon, sausage, smoked or cured meats allowed. Beef is preferred. The idea is that Partly prepared meats make the test too easy.

pg. 136

WHEN the Scoutmaster's cheery "He," halts the Troop and he says, "Leave your packs on this line; build your fires at least fifteen feet to leeward; do not take your packs to the fires, and do not step over anyone else's duffel; Patrol Leaders take charge of their Patrols and have each Tenderfoot build a fire in a well cleared space so that it cannot spread"-when that time comes the Tenderfoot is ready to begin.
Let him rake away the leaves, get down to real mineral earth, gather stones Or satisfactory side logs, patiently whittle up what seems to be ten or twelve times as much fine kindling as he will really need, strike his match and hold it pointing into the wind so that the flame is blown up the stick instead of off the end of the stick, meanwhile shielding it as a smoker does.

Making and Using the Cooking Fire

The first and main thing is to get as dry wood as possible from the top side of fallen timber, or at the heart of the sticks. Shave up a really ample amount of this into fine kindling before a match is struck. The next point for a Tenderfoot to learn Is that he should accumulate all the wood which he will need to cook his meal before he thinks of striking a match, and that' he should also have at hand his food stuff so that he will not need, on any account, to leave his fire after the match is struck until he is ready to go for dish water.

The Use of Coals or Embers

There is charm in lacing a bit of steak onto a forked stick and supporting it by one or two skewers running crosswise. Perhaps the minimum achievement in Boy Scout cooking Is the threading of the ever-present weenie onto a single stick, worm fashion, so that it can be toasted. But far more interesting is the use of a bed of real coals as big as hens' eggs, glowing hot and live red, as the cooking surface for one's steak.
At the first suggestion the Tenderfoot will think you are kidding him. If you prevail upon him to try it and he finds that

pg. 137

one side is quickly seared, that the meat is easily flopped and that when it is done it is cooked through most thoroughly, is juicy, and is not burned at all, you may be sure that his family will hear many a story of a certain wonderful Scoutmaster within the next week.

Hot Stone Cookery and Experimenting

A flat, clean stone so thoroughly heated as to be sterilized, is an almost equally good cooking surface, although most kinds of stone need considerable suet because they absorb so much. This kind of cooking is, however, not the best to use in test passing, though it makes a good camp stunt.

It may be useful to let some inattentive Tenderfoot struggle on with his solid mass of round wood and waste a dozen or twenty matches. The lesson has its value as an example of what not to do; but most boys look to the Scoutmaster for instruction, and appreciate what he tells them of the necessity of oxygen to combine with the fuel in order to make combustion. Most of them will show real genius in providing the right amount of draught for their fires. Many of them will go far in the acquirement of knowledge of the various woods available at their hiking places,

No Other "Utensil" Than a Stick or Stone

It is easy to broil a piece of steak by spearing it with a green stick and holding it over a bed of coals (;not in the flame). It is not so easy to roast potatoes properly. Throwing them into a blazing fire Or even into a bed of coals will simply reduce them to cinders. The trick is to bury them in hot sand or ashes under the fire. Another method is to wrap them in dampened green leaves.

Scoutmaster Gee. W. Kelly, of Salina, Kans., says that in his Troop the meat is usually cooked an the end of a forked stick. The potatoes are rolled in a ball of wet mud. The principal cause of failure when this method is not employed is the laying of the · potatoes on the ground and building a fire over them. This burns them on one side, while they are raw on the other. He teaches his Scouts that a good bed of coals will cook the potatoes well and not burn them.

pg. 138

Disposal of Waste Part of the Test

Weehawken, N. J., requires that the meat and. potatoes shall be really cooked well, and not merely be such as the boy can swallow. Neatness of procedure and knowledge of the principles involved in making a good cooking fire, etc., must be carefully taken into account in deciding on a boy's qualifications to pass the test. Scouts must also destroy all waste food matter, tin cans, papers, etc., in an improvised incinerator.

The Scoutmaster's Opportunity

WHEN the fire is made and the cooking is done (although the cooking is another lesson), when the dishes are cleaned and the packs are made up (although that may not occur on the first or the second hike as promptly as it will later), there is a receptive hour. The camp, a place where a boy and a man have had a fire, and a place in which there is a wonderful sense of comradeship and ownership, lures them to meditation on somewhat serious things. This hour is the Scoutmaster's opportunity to tell of the forest fire and the prairie fire; to recount the fact that a neglected fire, supposedly out, has sometimes spread under ground through peat bogs, burning for weeks, and appeared on the other side of a marsh to spread and do damage weeks after it was left by an outing party. This is the time for him to build into the heart of each of his boys the ideals of an "out" fire and a clean trail.

Five and Cleanliness

It is wonderful with what spirit a group of Boy Scouts will clean an entire woodland of the picnic debris left by others, when the thought is presented. Taught with these interpretations the fire building test becomes more than a matter of kindling and two matches. It becomes a matter of service to the community and of living the Scout life of helpfulness and thriftiness and preparedness.
"Spirit of fire, spirit of fire,
Purify my heart's desire,
Burn the dress and leave the gold,
Warm our hearts, keep out the cold."

pg. 139

The Thrift Test

Earning Money by Trail Making
Denver Scouts were offered by Theodore Shoemaker, Supervisor for the Pike National Forest, an opportunity to build two and a half mile trail three feet wide from South Boulder Creek to Middle Boulder Creek, about 45 miles from Denver. An

appropriation of $200 was made, this being the usual allowance of $80 per mile. The work was carried on under the direction of Waiter C. Jay, Scout Commissioner, and the trail was pronounced an A-1 piece of work.

Turning Tin Into Silver

At the suggestion of wide-awake Scoutmasters, Scouts are beginning to annex every scrap of tin and lead foil they can legitimately lay their hands on. Men in the business claim that thousands of tons of such scrap are wasted annually, and that the total value must ran up to nearly a half million dollars in a year.
Two boxes, one for tin and the other for lead foil, labeled and installed at Troop headquarters, are good reminders. Scouts even place boxes in stores, labeled, for the collection of this sort of scrap. Other methods are adopted according to the opportunities afforded. This form of metal wrapping of cheese. tobacco, teas, candies, drugs; emptied containers of tooth paste, shaving creams and soaps, automobile greases, artists' paints, mucilage, library paste, soaps, and other articles; all such material can be marketed. This is real practical thrift, and possible wherever there is a Boy Scout Troop.

Let Our Troop Do That Boy Job

The Troop's Job Bureau gives two or three of the older fellows a great chance to show their business ability. There are no end of opportunities for Scouts to put in an hour or a day on tasks that a Scout should be able to handle well, from whitewashing a chicken house to constructing and putting up a weather-vane- The stunt is to connect up with those jobs for the boys in the Troop so that they can earn their Scouting expenses and something beside. When gone at in a determined and systematic way, the Troop's Job Bureau not only Solves the financial problem for many boys, but also gives those same boys some practical Merit Badge work, and, which perhaps is the best feature of the whole business, the Job Bureau gives the Troop a standing in the community as a self-supporting practical service organization.

pg. 140

The Compass Test

Principle of the Compass

TAKE a needle, rub it from the middle toward one end with a magnet, making the stroke in one direction only, for a few minutes, then set the needle afloat on a cork in a glass or china bowl of water. See it swing around! Turn the cork around a bit; the needle swings it back to the same position. So, then, a magnetized bar or needle of iron or steel will, if freely suspended, point in one direction at all times; and we call that direction North. It is not the real true North, but a point somewhat to one side, which we call magnetic North. But as long as men have figured out how much this difference is in various parts of the world, and can correct their compasses by it, there is no need of getting into "deep stuff" just now.

Boxing the Compass
Of course, all Scouts can box the compass by whole points. Well, in good weather, With a nice breeze, a helmsman can steer a sailing vessel closer to her course than a full point, so the compass points are divided into quarter points, also; and if you're going to be a real, sure-enough son of :Neptune you must learn to box the compass by quarter points. These quarter points are always named toward East or West except when next to the principal points; they are then reckoned toward the nearest cardinal point. Let's see how that works out. We will box the compass "with the sun" (from North toward East) for eight points. Standby! NORTH:


Now, if the compass is boxed that way from North to East, it will be named on exactly the same system from East to South, or from West to North, or any way you want to work it, because we have just named the quarter-points in a "quadrant," (ninety degrees of it).

Town Use of Compass

Scoutmaster Alfred H. Loeb, of Troop 76, Philadelphia, has developed the following scheme in conjunction with the compass test. He states that in his Troop-"Scouts are required, when

pg. 142

they pass the compass test, to locate fifteen buildings by compass directions. They can choose any fifteen buildings they want but they must state whether it stands on the Southeast corner or the West side of the street, etc."
He points out that very few boys know the location or can direct people to our many buildings of interest and by such a scheme of test passing they will become more familiar with the buildings while at the same time the test becomes a much more practical one.

Compass Games
Blind Man's Compass :--Here is a game which the Shanghai Scouts play. Competing Scouts start from a base line, each with a different compass-bearing given him, to a flag some distance away--not necessarily straight in front of the Scout.
Each competitor has a basket over his head, or a broadbrimmed hat with paper or linen hanging down all around, so that he can see only the ground at his feet and the compass in his hand, but cannot look around.
By walking exactly on the given bearing; he will reach the allotted point-it may be flagpole, or a mark or stone, or a coin on the ground.-Camp and Outing Activities.
Troop Quarter Compass:-- The four sides of the Troop meeting room are given the names of the four principal points of the compass, North, West, South and East.
The boys are scattered at random throughout the room, with enough space between them to permit them to move freely.
The Scoutmaster stands in the center. He calls out: "The wind is blowing from SouthSouthWest, from NorthEast, etc." Every time a compass point is named the boys are supposed to turn around with their faces in that direction. Boys who face the wrong way, or do not move fast enough, go out of the game. The play is continued until only one Scout is left. He is appointed winner, and after the sides of the room have been given new names, the game can start all over again.

NOTE: Just as the knot-tying test can be made more stimulating by calling attention to the fact that eventually Scouts will want to be skillful at the art of tent-guying and other practical camping, interest in the compass test is stimulated by showing the coming use the Scouts will make of the compass on their hikes. Consult the chapters on Games-and Programs for oth~er possible compass teaching games.

pg. 143

Demonstrate Practice of Safety

TO PASS this requirement the Scout will present reports or other forms of evidence that he has shown ingenuity and enterprise in such ways as these:
At Home: Repair, or persuade his parents to have repaired, danger spots on doorsteps or porch or stairs, cellar steps, garden paths, floors of garage and barn, and such articles as stepladders, chairs, utensils which, being out of repair, might lead to accidents.
Make safety containers for matches, kerosene and gasoline cans, oily rags, and inflammable rubbish.
Make and install, or persuade his parents to have this done, safety devices for exposed gas jets, for carrying candles, lamps, etc.
Design and put up suitable safety signs in kitchen, cellar, stairways, on porches, in garage and barn, and wherever anything of the kind might serve a useful purpose.
Instruct the younger members of the family, and keep before the attention of all the family, in a quiet but effective way, the need of observing safety first rules.

In School: Bring to the attention of his principal or teacher danger spots on stairways, in the playground, about the desks (such as splinters or broken parts), unprotected electric wires, and matters of that kind in general.
Observe scrupulous care in crossing streets to and from school, always setting an example in this respect to others, regardless of temptations to do otherwise.

On the Street: Always observing the same safety first precautions in crossing streets, respecting "danger signs" where construction work is under way, avoiding the temptation to pass through a danger zone created by the hoisting of building material, piano, safe, signs, and in other ways habitating himself to the practice of "Safety First."
On the Farm: Listing of fire or accident dangers in garage, barns, chicken houses, machinery and in and about the house. This would include conditions which might result in injuries to animals, such as nails protruding in stalls, misplaced or loose planks in barn floors, runways, fences; bad spots in roadways and many similar everyday hazards that are often neglected until someone or something is hurt.
Chimney hazards, absence of lightning rods, or proper installation of electric wires, oil soaked floors, and similar dangers; also afford the Scout opportunities to practice the Rules of Safety on the farm and in his home.

pg. 144

The Oath and Law in Daily Use

The Sign of the Scout

JUST WHAT IS the sign of a Boy Scout' What is there about a boy that tells us he's a Scout!
Is it his appearance--his uniform, or the way he dresses') Or do you know him by the knots he ties, the fires he builds, the flapjacks he cooks, the way he swims, or his clear-headed effectiveness in accident cases'
Perhaps, all these might tell you a boy is a Scout. But none of these are sure signs. A boy might answer to all of these things and still not BE a Scout. Also a Scout may answer to all of these qualifications and still not carry the sign of a Scout or be recognized as a Scout, because he lacks this sign.
The thing that really tells us a boy IS a Scout is the happy look on his face resulting from the inner satisfaction of a "Good Turn." When a boy thinks of others, he finds himself. When he forgets happiness, he finds it.
A Scout's Good Turn, like beauty, "cometh from within." And when the good act has followed the thought and the good turn is complete--the Scout fairly radiates that spirit which prompted his deed--no wonder he finds it easy to smile.
That Daily Good Turn is the sign of a real Scout. It proves his trustworthiness, loyalty, helpfulness, friendliness, courtesy, kindliness, obedience, cheerfulness, thriftiness, bravery, cleanliness, and reverence--whether he is a technical expert or the various greenhorn in the various fields of Scouting endeavor.
Dist Commissioner C· E GOLDBRANSON.

Getting the Habit

The Oath and Law is the backbone of the Movement. It is the backbone of the Scout. It is the backbone of the Troop. And if the Scoutmaster only knows it, it is his backbone too. Keep it before the Scout (admittedly an incorrect position for the backbone), keep it before him as a guide, not as an overseer. Encourage him to have the Oath and Law well memorized, and to train himself to call the different points to mind at the right moments, as for example, when a hateful task comes around, that a Scout is cheerful; when he is out of sight of everybody, that a Scout is obedient; when he is off with the gang, that a Scout is clean; when he meets other people, that a Scout is courteous; and always that a Scout is loyal and trustworthy and reverent, and all the rest.

pg. 146

Day In and Day Out

A Boston paper offered a prize for the paragraph that had given the greatest inspiration and help. Lines from Tennyson and others were sent in by the hundred. The letter that gained the prize was as follows:
"I am only a boy, and boys' opinions are not respected by most grown-ups; but we have them, just the same.
"The paragraph which helps me the most is the Boy Scout Oath, as follows:
"On my honor, I will do my best:
"1. To do my duty to God and my country, and to obey the Scout Law.
"2. To help other people at all times.
"3. To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake and morally straight."

Dramatizing the Law

TH ERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS of teaching the Scout Law:--handing a boy a Handbook from which to memorize; directing a Patrol Leader to see that the recruit is instructed, by himself or another Scout; instructing of the new boy by the Scoutmaster; or a combination of methods.
Proably he combination of methods is best--the recruit memorizing, the Patrol Leader explaining the meaning of the several laws from the boy's point of view, then the Scoutmaster making sure that each item of the Law is understood.
Whatever instructional routine is used, the Scoutmaster personally should make sure that the recruit understands the full significance of the Scout Oath.
The only way to keep the Law fresh in the boy's mind is to include it in some way in each meeting's program. This can be done interestingly, and without preaching, through games. CHARADES provide one of the best methods, and a method always enjoyed by the boys.

Scout Law Charades

(a) Scoutmaster requests one of his Patrol Leaders to have his Patrol stage a ten-minute charade dramatizing a certain Law at the next Troop meeting. Patrol competition points given for the merit of the plot and acting. The following week another Patrol puts on another Law, etc.
(b) A Scout Law is named by the Scoutmaster and each patrol is given five minutes in which to work out a plot, and five minutes in which to act it.

pg. 147

(c) Without warning, Scoutmaster names a Scout Law, and each Patrol as quickly as possible begins acting it. Points for quickest and best work.
(d) Plot acted by Scoutmaster and Assistant Scoutmasters, Patrols to interpret.
(e) Any of above methods in pantomime, points being marked against a Patrol if words are Spoken. This method will provide much amusement.

Scout Lore, Stories

(a) Scoutmaster tells a story. Patrol Leaders, after five minutes' discussion with their Patrol, hand in a list of the Scout Laws touched upon in the story. Points for greatest number correct.
(b) Without warning, Scoutmaster calls upon any Scout in a Patrol to tell a five-minute story on a certain Law. Points for ability to tell a story adequately covering the Law; not for style or merit of story itself. Similar problem to Scout in each Patrol in turn.
(c) Visitor tells story at close of Troop meeting. At next meeting each Patrol given five minutes to write down the points of the Law covered by the story,

Dig right in and do your bit;
Take your dose of work and gain
Put your soul right into it;
That's the only way to win.
Don't sit down and loudly wail,
Just because your job is tough;
That's the surest way to fail:
Tackle it and show your stuff.
Each man living meets his test,
Hard jobs come to one and all;
Dig right in and do your best;
Shirk it, and you're sure to fall.
When you're up against a job
Thats distasteful dig right in;
Don't take time to sigh or sob
Do it, and you're bound to win.
-Detroit Free Press.

pg. 148

The Swimming Test

TWO GOOD POINTS, one made by Mr. George H. Cowan, on before-the-swim preparedness. The shower before the swim, he says, should be at the temperature of warm rain, tepid, neither hot nor cold. The cold shower causes unnecessary work for the heart, as the reaction is simply increased heart activity. Equally important is the gradual wetting of the body where showers are not available. This avoids shock.

Now, for the Togs
Except for racing, I always advise the all-wool bathing suits. Cotton bathing suits, where the swimmer is in the shade or exposed to a breeze, are very uncomfortable. They remain damp, whereas water quickly runs out of the wool and leaves the body dry. Men cannot enjoy swimming while their muscles are shaking and their teeth chattering; neither can they learn much.

Get Your Breath
The boy who doesn't know how to swim is very likely afraid of the water. Overcoming this fear is the first step in the making of a swimmer, and this is accomplished as soon as the pupil knows how to breathe properly.
W. E. Longfellow, formerly of the Life Saving Corps, American Red Cross, now National Field Scout Commissioner, says:
"In my experience, the chief difficulty in the way of passing the fifty-yard swimming test by a beginner is his inability to breathe properly. The beginner keeps up as long as he can hold his breath and then has to quit. The main difference between a good swimmer and a poor one is: in the breathing."

pg. 150

Trained Swimmers Breathe Through Mouth

The best swimmers take their air through the mouth, inhaling in a big gulp when the arms are pulled back or on the roll of the body and exhaling through the nostrils on the drive of the leg kick. It can be understood that on the pull of the arms the head is highest and the air can be taken then. When the kick is taken the head is lower and should the face be in the water, the air may be exhaled through the nostrils.
Some swimmers use the nostrils for both inhalation and exhalation, believing that the air should be warmed in the nose before beings taken into the lungs. But in either case, remember that exhalation can be done with the face under water and inhalation can not. So it is most important to practice rhythmic breathing as well as stroke before attempting to swim any distance whatever.

Breathing Exercise to Increase "Cruising Radius"

Take a gulp of air while standing chest deep in water, then put the face under and let the air out slowly against the water pressure (or practice first in a basin of water, if preferred). You will find it Gill take much longer to expel it than it takes to gulp it in. In this way the swimmer can proceed in the rough or choppy water when necessary. Repeat this exercise until 10 or 12 breaths can be taken without difficulty, then attach the stroke to it and you will find your "cruising radius" greatly enlarged.

Get Every Ounce of Power from Each Stroke

Now as to stroke, whatever one you learn, "get your money's worth." If you spend effort, get the proper return for the energy used. Ride between strokes, don't kill the effect of your pull, with a second and third, as so many do, but pull and glide as you would in a rowboat or canoe. Develop swimming efficiency. Test your progress by endeavoring to cut down the number of strokes required to go the fifty yards. You can

pg. 151

measure your efficiency that way, and be sure you can pass before you come up for examination.
In conclusion-just remember the speed sprinter is not always the best type of swimmer. Efficiency and endurance are more along the lines of good Scouting. The Scout who can go the distance in the fewest strokes is often a better swimmer than the fellow who dashes off the distance in the shortest time, and has no energy left for the return trip.

Methods of Teaching

IN his book, "Swimming Scientifically Taught," Mr. Frank Eugene Dalton says:
There are a number of very good reasons why learners should begin by first swimming on the back. More especially is this true of nervous or timid pupils.
In the first place, the body floats more naturally and more easily on the back. In the breast stroke, which is the first one taught by most instructors, the head has to be kept out of the water and must be supported as dead weight by the rest of the body. On the contrary, in the back stroke, or swimming on the back, the head rests on the water and needs no support from any other member of the body.

Gaining Confidence

Then, again, while on the back, as the face is turned upward, the beginner gains confidence from the very fact that he is not constantly looking into the water. And also, in contradistinction to all other strokes in swimming, the arms and legs move together-both arms and legs performing practically the same movements at the same time.
Thus the pupil, realizing the comparative easiness and the absence of any difficulty in having mastered this stroke, is imbued with such confidence that it becomes simply a matter of time and practice to acquire all other forms of swimming that he may wish to learn.

Land Practice First
Teach the arm and leg motions before the students get into the water. For teaching the back stroke, the first thing I do with a beginner, before entering the water, is to get the pupil to lie on the back, at full length, with the heels together, the toes out, the hands at the side of the body. Placing myself back of the pupil's head, the hands are drawn, with the fingers

pg. 152

bent, up along the body until they touch the shoulders, the elbows being well turned out. Then the arms are straightened out horizontally from the shoulder, the palms of the hands down. The arms, being rigid, are brought down sharply to the side of the body. These movements should be repeated several times until the pupil gets accustomed to them.
Next the leg movements are shown. The heels are drawn up toward the body as far as possible, with the knees well turned out; the pupil then kicks the legs apart as far as possible, the toes being pointed out straight. Next the pupil brings the legs sharply together until the heels touch, the toes being turned out. After these movements have been repeated several times the pupil can try the arm and leg movements together.

Now Into the Water

When the arm and leg movements have been mastered by the pupil, Mr. Dalton takes him into the water, waist deep, putting one hand under the back, the other under the chin, forcing the pupil backward until the ears are under the water, then bringing the pupil's hands to the sides, and slowly starting the movements.
To accustom pupils to the water I teach them to open the eyes and mouth under water. This is much simpler than nonswimmers imagine. Care is taken not to open the eyes too wide. At the first few attempts the pupil will fee! amazed, on opening the eyes the first time, at the distance of the vision under water. This is a very good thing to know and helps beginners to overcome fear of water.

Land Swimming

Confidence + Breathing+ Balance +Movement = Swimming

A SCOUT cannot gain confidence or acquire balance except in the water; but he can learn correct breathing and the movements of swimming ashore.
"Bob" Kiphuth, coach of the famous Yale Swimming team, works his men for three months in the gymnasium each fall before they even begin their water work.
The following drill should be of value to your Troop; it has been, to the Yale squad: Breathing
Breathing while swimming differs from land breathing, it is in through the mouth and out through the nose. Line

pg. 153

Troop up in double rank, hands on knees, head up, inhale with deep, loud intake, lower head and blow out through the nose. When the idea has registered, have them inhale by simply rolling head up to side and exhale with face down.
Induce them to try this in wash basin at home.

Leg Kick for the Crawl

Troop on ground, face down resting on ground, hands under thighs, raise feet alternately with knees straight and toes turned in. The heel of the foot will only come up about ten inches, which is about right. After a little practice your Scouts will be able to do this rapidly with head raised off ground and back arched. Increase slowly number of kicks as they become hardened to the work; Advise practice at home.

Arm Movements, Crawl Stroke

Line Troop up double rank with plenty of room for each Scout to use arms without interfering.
Start with right arm only. Right-hand fingers together fully extended in front of right shoulder. This is the position of the start of the catch. Press and pull hand straight down and back to hip. This completes the drive. Then turn the thumb away from body, raise hand upward and forward and extend slowly straight front to first position.
Be careful that 'they do not raise the hand in the recovery above the shoulder, which will be water level.
Practice with right until acquired, then left and then both, as follows: Right hand extended front, left hand at left hip, right hand pulls back to hip as left hand recovers to position of catch, then left pulls as right recovers, etc.--Timing "R-i-g-h-t--L-e-f-t-R-i-g-h-t-L-e-f-t-" slowly.
Fred C. Mills, Director, Swimming and Water Safety, Department of Campbg, Boy Scouts of America.

pg. 154

The 14 Mile Hike Test

TO test Scout's ability to care for himself, follow directions, make observations, record essential facts and use common sense.

Compass, pencil and pad, First Aid kit, Scout knife, matches, knapsack and provisions for two meals should be carried,

Directions and Preparation for Hike
Examiner or Scoutmaster should provide Scout with directions to be followed and destination to be reached. CAUTION: Trespassing on private property must be avoided, and accepting "lifts" in automobiles and wagons is not permitted.

Report or Account of Trip
The account should include (1) date and time starting and returning; (2) course or trail followed going and returning (including compass bearings); (3) incidents or happenings on hike; (4) things observed-character of country, condition of trail, possible campsites, trees, birds and animals seen; (5) and any "Good Turn" opportunities met, or difficulties encountered.

Manner of Making Report
Due care shall be given to neatness, spelling, composition and penmanship in the report. Map making test should not be combined with the hike test, but a rough sketch showing the course of trail, bearings and indicating location of features noted in report, should be included.
Consult chapter on Tracking for methods of developing the Power of Observation.

pg. 155

Map Making


THE Scout should understand how to orient the map,
i. e., turn it when working on it, so that the northside of the map is north, and so that every line on the map is exactly parallel to its corresponding line on the ground. He should be able to do this either by use of the compass or by objects shown on the map. He should know how to use the scale correctly. He should understand how to estimate the rate of grade from the spacing of the contour lines, and should be able to recognize summits, ridge lines, valley lines, etc, from the shape of the contours.

The Topographic Map
In making a topographic map, the sheet is taken into the field and, fastened to a plane table. If the positions of any two points are placed on the map at the correct distance apart, then the positions of other points may be found from these. Before this can be done, the map must be taken to the first point and oriented, i. e., turned So that the north side of the map is to the north. Lines may then be drawn from this point in the direction of any hills or other points it is desired to locate. The map is next taken to the second point, and the same process repeated. The intersection of a pair of corresponding lines from the two instrument stations gives the location of the hill or other point to be located.

Putting in the Highways, Etc.
The highways are usually put in by the use of a small plane table having a compass attached to it. The plane table is "oriented" by the compass at each position, and the distances are taken by counting the revolutions of a carriage wheel. In this way "traverses" are run along all the roads. This little map is then transferred to the larger plane-table sheet. The heights of the hills and of the lakes are often determined by the aneroid barometer; often by other more accurate methods. After all this information is on the map, the contours are sketched so as to represent the shape of the ground and so as to be consistent with the known elevations, the streams and the ponds.--GEORGE L· HDLMER, Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

pg. 156

Rough Method of Traversing

My interpretation of the requirement leads me to instruct the boys in a rough method of traversing, which is about the simplest. The first step is to orient the map by hand compass or other means, and locate the starting point on the paper. The Scout then traverses along the road or elsewhere, taking the direction at each turn, and the direction of intersecting roads, etc. Distances are estimated from the gait at which the boy travels. Topography is located by right-angle offsets from the traverse lines, important points being located by pacing, others estimated. Contour lines are not used, but the elevation of the starting point is given, and the boy is required to estimate elevations of hills along the way. I instruct the boys in the use of contours, however, in order that the) may be able to read the government topographic maps.
Where a map of considerable area is to be made, some simple modification of the plane-table method may be used. In New York City the boys are expected to make a map of their 7-mile hike.-SamzLel J. Bla2lt, S.M.

NOTE: Because of the technical character of this requirement, Scout Leaders should familiarize themselves with the HANDBOOK FOR BOYS, the SCOUTMASTER)S HANDBOOK, and, in particular, the Surveying Merit Badge pamphlet.

pg. 157

Judgment Training

Tools for Judging
(Useful because they are always with you.)
1. Hand:
My span is.......The last joint on my......finger is......inch.
Two hands high (width of hands side by side..........·-···)
Arms outstretched....... .Arm pit to middle finer tip........
Nose to middle finger tip.........:.. Reach in height........·.·
2. Legs:
My pace is................· · · My stride is
My foot measurement is
My height is

Distances Commonly Known
(Try these on your boys.)

1. Baseball field--home plate to first base, 90 feet.
2. Baseketball--foul line to below basket, 15 feet
3. Circle around basketball foul line, 6-foot radius.
4. Basket is 10 feet above floor.
5. A tennis court i. 36 feet by 78 feet.
6. A football field is 160 by 300 feet.
7. The average American brick is 21/2 x 4 x 8 inches.
8. A cord of wood is 4 feet x 4 feet x 8 feet.
9. A desk is 30 inches high.
10. .A chair is 18 inches high.
11.Auto tracks are about 4 feet 4 inches apart.
12. Lath is 48 inches long.
13. The quart milk bottle, 40-quart milk can, quart berry basket, and bushel box may be kept in mind as units of measure.
14 One acre is approximately 200 feet square.
15 How far do you walk to school or business
16. What is distance in time?

Other Familiar Objects
Birds-Standard Sizes: Show some stuffed birds, as purple grackles, quickly or point to pictures on bird chart. Good practice for field reports later. Scouts should recognize at once that it is larger than robin and shorter than crow. Correct answer is 13 inches. Can take individual or Patrol average, 10 birds.

Warblers, 5 inches.
Sparrows, 6 inches.
Robin, 10 inches.
Crow, 19 inches.

pg. 158

Heights of Common Plants: Give a list of plants commonest to the locality and have Scouts arrange in order of height or estimate heights. This method not important as heights vary. Portulaca, 6 inches; hyacinth, 1 foot; salvia, 2 feet: poppy, 3 feet; cosmos, 4 feet; hollyhock, 5 feet; rhododendron, 9 feet; quince, under 15 feet; peach, under 20 feet; gray bitch, under 35 feet; apple, under 50 feet; sugar maple, under 90 feet; Carolina poplar, under 100 feet; American elm, under 125 feet.
To Estimate Tree Heights: (a) Put piece of paper on tree at height you can reach. Walk away some distance and estimate how many times this, the tree is tall. (b) Measure off height of paper by sighting on a pencil (arm should be outstretched with your own Shadow). For example: If you are 6 feet high and your shadow is 4 feet, and the shadow of the tree is 20 feet, what is the height of the tree? 6:4 as X: 20, 4X equals 120. X equals 30 feet, the height of tree. (c) Hold pencil vertically at arm's length. Sight on tree marking height with thumb. Turn pencil horizontal making off an equal distance from base of tree to right or left. Pace off the distance. (d) Take a right-angled isosceles triangle and walk away from tree until when you sight along the hypotenuse, with one leg of triangle parallel to tree and other to ground, you just barely see the top of the tree. The height of your eye plus the distance to the tree should be the height of the tree. This would have to be used on levelground.
City Distances: Estimate in stages to the different outstanding points--say Central Square--to Stadium--to Monument-to University, etc WILLIAM G. VINAL.

"What Can I Do to Improve My Scouts in Judging?"

We have found the following indoor method especially good for winter months and when outdoor work may not be popular. Judging is too much neglected, and even in giving the tests the boys' estimate of weight, or distance, or height, is often accepted upon our own estimate, rather than taking the trouble of weighing the object itself, and so forth. This method can be adapted to distance, size, height and weight. We will use as an illustration the requirement to judge "number."
The S.M., A.S.M. or S.P.L., lays a trail of things to be judged, spacing them five feet or more apart, as follows: Pile of beans or corn, say 25; 25 pages in Scout Handbook, clipped together; box of matches; lines on sheet of paper; pints in a large bottle, a pint measure placed beside the bottle: and similar problems.

pg. 159

Scouts are provided with pencil and paper, names of the objects in order against which to set down the estimates, and proceed by Patrols, one Scout at a time. P. L's usually utilize the waiting time to brush up the Patrol on judging. The boys rotate at the blow of a whistle, which is sounded every 30 seconds. It takes 15 to 18 minutes to run the whole Troop through, and the boys enjoy it immensely.
Grading the Paper: Afterward the Troop sits around informally and each boy passes his paper to another for grading, the correct number for each unit being announced. A margin of something less than 25~0 is allowed over or under the correct number, and when the Scout has judged correctly, he is allowed two points. If he comes within the allowance under or over, he is allowed one point. After the-papers are totaled and returned to owners, each Patrol gathers them up and figures the average points won by his Patrol, dividing the total points won by the number of Scouts participating. The climax of the fun comes when the credits are put on the blackboard. The winning Patrol is allowed ten points in the inter-Patrol contest, and, as a surprise, a booby prize is awarded the Scout making the least number of points. We find it best not to hold the Judging Contest two weeks in succession.
Make It Personal: Unexpected objects to be judged can readily be thought up, for example, in sizes, a boy's hat, collar, waist, shoes, length of sleeve, weight, height, etc. The Troop Committee members furnish good material to work on for such features. This idea proves a real challenge for the older Scouts, and a thorough demonstration for the new.
You always need to have the P. L., ready to keep his Patrol interested in some short-time instruction after they have finished judging and while waiting for the others to finish.--E. C. DeLauney, S. M., Troop 25, Roanoke, Virginia.

A Troop Meeting Judging Game
Distances: Judging games can be made one of the most interesting parts of a Troop program. Prepare in advance a list of articles, weighed, measured and counted. Certain distances in Troop headquarters' room are measured in advance-and all these items entered up for ready reference. The Senior Patrol Leader would no doubt be glad to accept this assignment.
Be sure to give practice in estimating distances up and down, across corners, over obstacles and fences, as well as down a straight unobstructed liner as the eye is apt to-be deceived when viewing unusual situations.

pg. 160

Heights: Some heights and distances worth investigating are-Height of a chair, table, door; distances of 10, 25, 50 feet, etc., as mentioned on camera scales; width of street, distance to fire hydrant, town hall, etc.
Weights: In judging weights, begin with a one-pound article (perhaps a combination of books will do it) and little by little add to weight; and vary the form of the things weighed. Shut your eyes and do not depend on them to assist. Frequent practice helps. A versatile Scoutmaster can make this very interesting by fixing up a store and having packages of rice, coffee, sugar, etc. (Perhaps this could be made the preliminary of a Patrol Leaders' Monday night supper, as formerly practiced in Troop 211 Brooklyn.)
Personal Measurements: This subject is very closely related to Scout's Pace and brings up the question of personal measures, which in itself can furnish the "meat" for an evening's program. For instance, how does your height compare with the stretch of your arms? What Is the length of your hand span How many paces do you take to 100 feet? What are the usual proportions of the human body--is the head one-eighth, one-ninth or one-sixth? The whole subject could be referred to a Patrol Leader and his Patrol to develop and handle as his share of a program.--MERRITT L. OXENHAM.

pg. 161

All-Year-Round Nature Study

ARMED with notepaper and pencil, and with cameras and any other paraphernalia needed and possible, sally forth at the first opportunity on a hike to observe and record the phenomena of Spring. Dates, weather conditions, and loalities covered by the expedition, should be noted. Secure a competent naturalist, if possible, to take charge of your Nature Study hikes.
Which trees are showing their leaves, and how far advanced is the display? What is the condition of the bark' What bushes are putting out leaves, and how far advanced are their 8ower buds! What is observed as to the mosses, the condition of the soil; the banks of streams DON'T gather the early spring wild flowers, but photograph them first, placing a white handkerchief or a sheet of white paper behind them. Preserve these photographs, properly labeled with date, and other particulars, etc. These will make a valuable and most interesting book for your Troop museum, and preparing them Will teach a boy more than days of book study.

Useful Weeds
Every Scout knows his friends' real names and nicknames, and this should include his friends, the trees. Learn by inquiry what the wood is used for commercially or in woodcraft and Scout work. By experiments learn which woods make hottest fires, fastest fires, slowest fires; which send out too many sparks. etc. It's a good idea to visit the same trees periodically sparks, etc, it's a good idea to visit the same trees periodically and take notes of the changing phenomena of their life.

pg. 162

A Definite Project

The Cornell Rural School Leaflet has listed thirty-two weeds or field plants, which are commonly found, annual, biennial or perennial, mentioning among the twenty-two characteristics of these plants, the insects found on them. Now there is a job for any Scout to undertake, namely, trying to list thirtytwo different wild plants--including grasses and ferns--and twenty-two different facts about each.

Reptile Friends

If you are going to study the life history of the frog or the turtle, the salamander or the snake, or the field mouse, or any of these small animals, you must start when they start, and they start early in the spring--with the possible exception of the snake, who will begin to stir himself not much before June. And there are the frogs, eight varieties, and don't forget to note their voices, and when and where the frogs disappear for the winter. There are the salamanders-which are a reminder that some attention should be paid in Nature Study to the phenomena of the night. The seven salamanders are active chiefly at night. They have different methods of propelling themselves, and they are beginning to put in their appearance now. From January to April, the seven turtles, who went into retirement late in the fall, are beginning to take the air. Why not challenge your Scouts to see which can be the first to make a complete list and notes of when and where seen, comprising the snapping turtle, musk turtle, painted turtle, spotted turtle, wood turtle, box turtle and soft-shelled turtle, with a fairly good description of where they ark found, their distinctive characteristics, and their habits in general?
Remember that Reptile Study is one of the most fascinating of the Merit Badge subjects. See the Pamphlet on the subject

pg. 163

Do Your Scouts Know Their Fishes?
Some fish know more about water-bugs than most boys do, and some water-bugs know more about fish than most boys do. That doesn't seem right. In this program of Nature Study, certainly give a thought to fish. Referring again to the Cornell Rural School Leaflet, we find nineteen varieties of fish in New York State alone. How does your State measure up to that, in fish population? Perhaps it is a little too much to suggest that any Troop undertake to make a museum exhibit of a big aquarium of live fishes comprising specimens of all the fish found within the State, each specimen caught alive by some member of the Troop. What do you think'

A distinct phenomenon in relation to fishes, with which Scouts should be fairly familiar, is made up of the game laws of the different States.

The Economics of It

Strangely enough, the insect-devouring habit of birds suggests the eternal combat going on throughout all forms of life. We used to put a bounty on crows because of their destructiveness -until we learned that they destroy far more destructive insect pests. So the economics of Nature Study will come into the picture. Which insects and birds and small animals, and which weeds, are destructive pests? (Malaria is destructive.) Which of these help to preserve our forests and our crops or are otherwise useful? And which are merely ornamental, or quite useless? A wide field of research, but important.

Use General Scout Skill

Some knowledge of Tracking, Stalking, Photography and Woodcraft is absolutely necessary to the pupil in field nature study. The use of the camera as a field tool, should be encouraged. Also encourage a boy's skill at sketching and drawing. Troop meeting quarters, school-rooms and libraries can be enriched by good amateur pictures, covering the whole range of Nature Study. Don't forget the Boys' Life photographic contests in this connection.

pg. 164

"Nature" In Your Own Yard

By no means overlook the opportunities for Nature Study close at hand. Encourage Scouts to open their eyes to the phenomena of nature right where they live. Probably Scouts in rural districts will need to learn this lesson quite as much as will boys in towns. Many a Scout can invite the whole Troop to make the farm he lives on, their rendezvous for an off-day or week-end Nature Study hike, and both they and he will discover marvels on that farm they never before suspected were there. Many a village Scout could spend a Saturday afternoon with his Patrol in his own yard, nature studying. Don't let's despise this last idea. A boy whose home includes a lawn, shrubbery, flowers, a vegetable garden, small fruits, some trees, or any One of these, can make his start right where he lives, and then expand his knowledge in greater fields. One of the definite objectives of the work should be the collecting of museum material, to be mounted and labeled and made available to the local library and to the schools, for display.

Knowing the Birds
By W. H. and M. B. Cart

ONE OF THE BEST TIMES of year to make one's first acquaintance with birds is in the winter. The majority of these then observed, may be seen all through the year. In the springtime, when birds from the South arrive in large numbers, the man or boy who has become familiar with the winter birds will not have as much difficulty identifying the new visitors.
There are many aids to knowing the birds; a visit to a museum to study mounted specimens; good colored pictures of birds; an authoritative bird book. The best way in which to identify birds is to go into the field with someone who already know them: the smaller the party, the better. Despite the fact that the observation of Nature is becoming more and more wide-

pg. 165

spread and popular, the Scout will often have to begin his knowledge of birds unaided. The following outline has been made to suggest what to look for when a bird is seen for the first time. There are certain definite things to be observed as a direct help to identification. It is very important to have a pocket notebook in which to record the various things seen.

What to Observe
Movements : See whether the flier hops or walks when it

is on the ground. Does it hang upside down, move slowly or quickly, swim or creep? Remember that the same bird may have a different appearance a: various times.
Disposition : Did you ever think of a bird in connection with its having a disposition? Notice whether it is unsuspicious, wary, social, solitary, etc.
Flight : Does the bird that flies over your head travel rapidly-or slowly? Does it flap along or does it sail and soar? Maybe it undulates (flies up and then down in half-moon curves) as the Goldfinch does.
Song : There are many times when you may hear a bird but not see it. Thus you should listen for songs very carefully. Notice whether the song is Continuous, short, loud, low, pleasing, unattractive, and whether it comes from the ground, from a higher perch, or from the air.
Call Notes : Nearly all birds have a call note that is different from the regular song. These notes may be of various sorts, such as scolding, warning, alarm, signaling, as well as a number of others.
Size : In the field, you cannot run up to a wild bird and measure him with a ruler, but what you can do is to compare him in size to some other bird that you do know. Compare the unknown bird to an English Sparrow which is about 6 inches long, a Robin which is about 10 inches, and a Crow, 19 inches long. Remember, 6, 10 and 19.
Form : Note the shape of the Sill, length of the tail, shape of wings, and general size of one section of the body as compared with another.
Markings and Color: See just where the markings are. Remember that if a bird were seen without any feathers, it would look quite a bit like any other animal. The next time you have a chicken to eat, look at it closely. The wings look like arms, and, as a matter of fact, they have three "fingers," which may be easily seen. The bird has a crown on its head; he has "cheeks," a breast, a throat, a belly, and a rump as

pg. 166

well as other external or outside parts. Do not say that you saw a bird that was-"black and white and brown all over." No one could tell you what sort of a bird that was. See just what you are looking at.
Appearance : The bird may be alert, wide-awake, or pensive, as though it has just lost a friend. Its tail may be drooped; its crest erect or its feathers ruffled.
Haunts : Where did you see the bird? Was it near the seashore, beside the river, in the woods, the fields, a place where the land was low and swampy or high and rocky or was it down near the side of the lake?

Season : The time of year that the bird is seen is a very important thing to notice and to take into consideration. Look for the times when birds first arrive and when they leave. Did you see them in the winter, spring, summer or fall? Are they permanent residents!

Food : When you walked through the pasture or through the park and saw a bird eating something, did you stop and try to discover what that food was? Was the bird eating berries, insects, seeds? How was this food secured?
Mating : Every bird has certain courtship habits. Note these antics.
Nesting : Observe the choice of nesting site, the materials used in the nests, such as mud, grass, leaves, and so on. Notice the construction, the number and the color of the eggs; and the incubation period, or the length of time the eggs take to hatch. And, above all things, do not in any way disturb any bird's nest.

The Young: Watch and learn what food the young ones are given by the parents; how they are cared for; the time they remain in the nest; their cries, actions, first flights, and so on.

How, to Find Birds

b. Where: The best times of day are early morning and late afternoon. Why is this true!
a. When: a watered meadow with trees here and there Learn this from observation.
c. Now: Use common sense as to dress and general actions. Sit and let the birds come to you.

pg. 167

The Best Time to Study Trees
It is often said that one who knows his trees in winter is far ahead of one who knows them only in summer. The Scout Trail, monthly bulletin of Fenimore Cooper Troop (541), New York City, prints a "Tree Check List" of twenty local trees which is so suggestive of what all Scoutmasters can do to jack up Scout interest in and knowledge of trees, that we pass along headings of the columns, and one or two examples of descriptions underneath:

The first Troop in each community that will compile a reliable list like this, of the trees common-to its locality, will get some wholesome publicity in the local press--to say nothing of the good that such a stunt will do to each boy participating, and it is a genuine outdoor activity in the bargain.

Tree Spot--A Game
A wit-sharpening and instructive nature game for the spring camp is (1) for the Scoutmaster or Troop tree expert to pace a circle with a radius of say 200 feet around the cabin or tent-site and (2) carefully identify and (3) list all trees contained therein.
(4) At a given signal the Troop is turned loose with the information that there are say twenty-five' species of trees within the circle decided upon.
(5) The first Scout to give the entire list of trees correctly wins individual honors, and (6) the Patrol with the highest average at the end of a given time, wins Patrol honors.

pg. 168

Here, Fast Do Trees Grow?

The writer of a chapter in Pennsylvania Trees, issued to all Scout Leaders free by the Pennsylvania Department of Forestry, asked himself that question and decided to answer it for himself.
With the help of a group of boys, he selected 100 trees representing twenty different kinds. Each tree was tagged and given a-number to aid in making the records of daily measurements easier
At 7 :30 each morning and again at 7:30 in the evening, the growth of each tree was measured and recorded, taking two hours' time each day.
They proved that trees grow twice as much at night as they do in the day.--The Qauaker City Scout.
This is a nice stunt for Scouts to try. It will test their resourcefulness to find out exactly how the measurements must be taken, and then their perseverance and carefulness in taking the measurements. Scouts might also inquire if trees grow in winter.

Nature Games

Bird Description. Have cards on which are written the descriptions of birds. Read slowly. The one guessing the name first is given the card. Anyone making a wrong guess has to give back a card.
Bird Logomachy. Use cardboard letters printed on one side. Place face down on the table. Players take turns drawing letters and placing face up-on the table. When a player can make a bird name from these letters he takes the letters and spells the word in front of him. The person getting ten words first wins.
Twig Matching .Obtain several kinds of twigs, 8 to 12 inches long. Cut into two parts. Mount the lower half on a board. Scatter the other halves on a table. At a given signal the players observe closely one of the twigs and then run to the unmounted group to get the other half. If the wrong half is brought back he tries again. This game requires close observation. Leaves may be used in the same way.
Getting a Clew. Have a sheet of paper or cloth with a hole in the middle. Show the edge of a leaf first, then a little more gradually. Whoever gives the name correctly first is given the leaf. The one who gets the largest collection wins. Pictures of birds may be shown the same way, the beak being the first thing shown the contestants.

pg. 169

Contests in Nature Study

Here's how it works: Th, S. M. and Assistant or S. P. L., make a trip to the woods to get specimens of things they think every boy should know, such as a puff ball, milkweed pod, cat-tail, pine cone, wasp nest, leaves, insects, etc. About fifteen of these are attached to cardboards, which are numbered consecutively. While the Patrols are having their meetings on Troop meeting night, these cards are placed around the assembly room. When the Patrols come in, each boy is given a sheet of paper on which he writes his name, and opposite each number, the name of the specimen bearing that number. No coaching or talking is allowed, as the test is individual.
After making the rounds, the boys are seated, and each fellow passes his paper down the line for some other Scout to check up. As an example of scoring, one point is allowed where the boy states "fern," and another point if he mentions the kind of fern. This is not possible with every specimen. Each paper comes back to its owner, who checks it up and hands it to his P. L. The P. L. adds the total points won by his Patrol and divides by the number of Scouts in the Patrol participating, to get the average per Scout for his Patrol. Scores are placed on the blackboard, and Patrol yells are in order. This consumes fifteen or twenty minutes Each time this idea is used, which should not be more than twice a month, the Scoutmaster can run in several hard ones, which affords him opportunity to make a short and interesting talk on that particular specimen. It is better to start off with simple, common specimens and work up gradually to harder ones. So far as I know, this originated with S. M· Frank Craig', of Troop 15; Roanoke, Va.-E. C. DeLauney, S· M., Troop 25, Roanoke, Va.

A Nature Study Goal
Nature Study has always been popular in Troop 4. Full advantage has been taken of opportunities for guidance and instruction by experts from Cornell University.
In a contest in the identification of trees under winter conditions, 50 trees in open country were lagged and numbered, and the boys given a month to identify them. The winner named 46 trees.
The Troop spent a month and a half watching for birds, with ,average of 25 birds per boy; altogether they reported 101 different species. To wind up the contest, the six leading boys were asked to identify 50 birds in a Ideal collection, which includes a number of rare specimens. The winner identified 44 of the 50.--Troop 4, Ithaca, N. Y.

pg. 170

What "Uncle Dan" Thinks About Nature Study

THE BOY does not live who is not interested in an ant-hill. He will sit for hours watching these creatures work and fight, particularly when they fight. Every boy is interested in a hornets' nest, in wasps and bumble bees. I had in my camp one boy who could pluck a big hornets' nest from a branch and run away with it without being stung, but, all those who were attracted by his war whoops suddenly learned that the trail behind a hornets' nest is an exceedingly hot one. This boy had discovered what very few people know, that if you run with an old-fashioned bee-hive, or with a hornets' nest, with its opening back of you, the insects will string out behind and make no attempt to go ahead of their moving home. This means that this particular boy had made a practicable study and discovery of hornets of which no one else, scientists or otherwise whom I have met, was cognizant A boy twelve years of age can see more in the woods than the best trained scientist of thirty, and if you add to this the boy's natural aptitude and ability to discover things, and training in the study of nature you will have an intelligent enthusiast, who will be of great help to you on any excursion you make afield.
Personally I would advise every man connected with Scout work to take off his coat, roll up his sleeves and go into nature work with a bunch of boys at his heels. He: will be repaid by all the thrills of a hunter, all the thrills that Shackleton, Peary, and Audubon experienced, and which made their work fascinating.

pg. 171

Test Passing in General
In Winter
SOUTS ARE EXPECTED to be able to pass their tests at any time of the year, and in all kinds of weather. Care must be taken to call attention to the special requirements of extremely co1d weather, of windy days, and in rainstorm, for doing effective work. Scouts must not be unduly exposed to bad weather conditions, but they should learn to handle themselves in all emergencies and show skill in the requirements of the tests when in winter togs and when handicapped by extreme cold and bad weather conditions. For example, it is much more important to get an injured person quickly under shelter in the winter than in the summer, and this suggests a little different mode of giving First Aid in some kinds of accidents.

Keep the Full In It

Tenderfoot Test No. 5. Have each Patrol hold an outdoor meeting to tie knots with and without mittens or gloves on.
Second Class Tests
No. 2. At an outdoor Troop meeting or Patrol meetings (the latter so supervised that the work can be reported to the Scoutmaster) demonstrate treatment for bruises received in sledding or ice accident, including the use of the triangular bandage, and how to Carry the injured, placing especial emphasis on the added element of cold weather.
No. 3. Put on a snowball battle with two Patrols on each side, the captain on each side stationed with the opposite team all orders to be given to the respective forces by flag signaling.
No. 4. On a good tracking day, after school, or on a Saturday, take Troop into the country and try hare and hounds, having two hares whose tracks cross and recross.
No. 5. Do the Scout's Pace over a snow and ice course.
No. 6. After a "model" shelter-building contest for knife and hatchet work in the cold, hold another using same wood to build a fire in the open, using not more than two matches, and demonstrate care for it and putting it out. Do it again on a windy day, and carefully instruct in prevention of spread Of fire or embers.

pg. 172

No. 8. Follow the knife and hatchet, and fire tests with Second Class test No. 8. For all three tests, choose as wintry a day as possible, preferably a windy day, and Select a very snowy site in the woods, or exposed, so as to train Scouts to safely meet the necessities of such weather.
No. 10. In connection with any of the tests given above practice compass work in the open, or mark out the principal points of a mammoth compass on a snowy field, and play the Compass Game.

Tackling New Obstacles

Taking up the tests for First Class Scout, and beginning with No. 2, select a day when there is plenty of snow on the ground and demonstrate swimming methods in the snow. Or hold Patrol contest-races, each Scout "bellywhopper" on sled, to propel same over a given course, using any swimming strokes he chooses, and absolutely confining all methods of locomotion to the swimming motions, taking no unfair handhold or foothold upon the snow or ice.
No. 4. Conduct outdoor windy-day signaling practice, Scouts wearing mittens or gloves.
No. 6. Demonstrate advanced First Aid under severe wintry conditions, either on the ice or in snowy country. For example, rescue a boy supposedly fallen through the ice and on the point of expiring, give him necessary first aid treatment, build fire or extemporize a shelter, or make use of nearby building for shelter, observe proper time for results of treatment, and demonstrate how, when he is able, he would be transported to his home. Assume such an accident or another to have occurred at a distance from home, on an ordinary sledding or skating party not supplied with any technical firstaid materials. Do the same sort of thing also, with first aid equipment at hand.
No. 7. This is a test that every First Class Scout should be able to pass under severe wintry conditions,
It Is All Practical Work
No. 9. Under severe wintry conditions, hold Patrol contest in erecting a simple two-man shelter in the woods for protection against storm. This could well be done in connection with No. 7.

Each Scout Sets His Own Goal for the Year
The reason it's difficult to secure advancement is that in most Troops there are so many stages of advancement represented

pg. 173

at any one time--so many different tests on which coaching and examination are being called for. Here's a way for a Scoutmaster to manage without going crazy:
Tenderfoot Tests can be handled by the Scouts who bring in the recruits, under the supervision of the A.S.M. or a Troop Committee-man, with the exception of the personal interview on the Scout Law which is best given by the Scoutmaster himself.
Second Class Tests , except for First Aid, can be handled by the P.L.'s with the assistance of any junior officers who are assigned as experts on certain tests. First Aid should be assigned to a thoroughly responsible instructor, possibly a committeeman.
First Class Tests , except for First Aid, mapping, signaling, and nature study, can be handled by P.L.'s. The exceptions can be handled by older officers who are experts on the respective subjects.
Old Boys: Each First Class Scout should have a little guidance on his Merit Badge program-from an Eagle Scout, a Committeeman, or possibly from the Scoutmaster himself. Otherwise his progress will be jerky at best, and may come to a complete halt without anyone noticing the fact for some time.
Checking Up: With each member of Troop setting his own advancement goal for the year, there must be a periodical public check-up to see how things are coming, followed by private interviews when necessary. Patient and vigorous coaching, rather than threatened dismissal, will enable most of the Scouts to reach their personal objective. Patrol spirit and personal pride in skill will be powerful aids.--Cedar Chips.

Selecting "Locations"
An interesting plan is that of Scoutmaster Geoffrey F. Morgan, Superintendent of Schools, Athenst O. He says:
For the Second Class, we keep the outdoor and indoor work as separate as possible. At a regular Troop meeting, I ask how many boys wish to take outdoor tests for the second degree. When the exact number is determined, I set a date for the meeting, and only candidates for that work are allowed to attend. Then we set out together, trying to make our plan Systematic. For example, we walk toward the hills, but stop at the race track, which has a measured mile laid out, long enough to test them in the Scout's Pace. For a First Class group we may stop at the river long enough for everyone-to take the swimming test. When we reach the hills, or the woods, the fire building and cooking tests may be utilized, in the business of getting a picnic supper, semaphore practice will

pg. 174

entertain the crowd afterward, and tracking may be practiced on the return trip. Then at another time I have an indoor meeting, when bandaging, First Aid, judging, and reports on bank accounts are the order of the day.

Speed vs. Thoroughness

In Hungary a boy must make good for three months before he becomes a Tenderfoot and wear the badge and uniform. He must carry on satisfactorily for six months to become Second Class, and a minimum of one year before he can become a First Class Scout. So a boy who begins at 12 is at least 14 years old before he becomes a First Class Scout; then he must serve another year as an A. P. L. before he can qualify as a Patrol Leader. Yet we find Eagle Scouts and Patrol Leaders in this country of only 13 years of age.
This comparison is well worth considering by Scoutmasters who somehow still make the mistake of speeding up their boys. The whole emphasis of national leadership in Scouting is on THOROUGHNESS VS. SPEED in passing the tests and taking the Merit Badges.

Field Test Hike

The Scout Scribe published by the Alameda County Scout Organization, reports a big field test hike at which cooking, first aid, signaling, knife, hatchet and fire building tests were given.
The Scouts were divided into three divisions, called the Reds, the Whites and the Blues. Each was given a bit of ribbon to identify him and was permitted to take his tests only at the hour appointed for his division. Record cards were issued corresponding to the ribbons and examiners signed their names after each test successfully passed. At the end of the examination the number of successes was computed for each division. The color squad passing the most tests was declared the winner

pg. 175

Practicing the Laws While Practicing the Tests

SCOUTS MAY PUT the laws into practice in connection with their practice on the tests for advancement, thus making simultaneous progress along two parallel lines of Scout development. This works out differently with the different Laws. For example, the first Law, "A Scout is Trustworthy," is tested in practically every advancement test. At the same time, the stipulation that a Scout will do "exactly a given task" may be applied definitely to the Second Class (No. 4) and the First Class (No. 4 and No. 10) observation tests. Exactness is essential to good observation. By checking the boy's work in these tests, you will find if he has been careless in noting objects that should not have escaped his observation, and if he has, you can bring him face to face with this part of the First Scout Law. That will help him realize the place of the Scout Laws in all of his doings. If you will study the twelve Laws in this way you will see their following applications to the tests:

A Late, That is Part of a Test
The Second Law naturally works into the Tenderfoot test on the Flag. The Third Law, requiring that a Scout must be prepared at any time to save life, etc., has practical expression in the First Aid test and, to some extent, in those for the use of the knife and axe, as, for example, in relation to emergency handicraft work at home and elsewhere.
The Fourth Law, of friendliness, operates in the First Class test requiring a Scout to have trained another boy in the requirements of a Tenderfoot. Situations can easily be imagined when the fulfilling of the Fifth Law, courtesy and helpfulness, may depend upon correct knowledge about the Scout's city and environs, and compass knowledge, for which he is prepared by the compass and mapping tests.

pg. 176

Inter-acting Scout Laws

The Sixth Law almost requires Scout knowledge of First Bid to Animals; it also suggests practical use of knife and axe knowledge in the construction and erection of bird houses, feeding stations and similar humanitarian handicraft work. The Eleventh First Class test may also bring the Sixth Law into action.
Some Scoutmasters may be able to suggest how the Seventh Law, "A Scout is Obedient," can be cultivated in connection with some of the tests.
The Eighth Law, "A Scout is Cheerful," may sometimes have rough sledding when a Scout is working on his Knot Tying test, his fire in the open, using not more than two matches test, his cooking without utensils test, and, in short, several others.

"Thrift" in Practicing the Tests

That a "Scout is Thrifty" will be demonstrated in the tests that require economical use of materials, whether in Handicraft work, First Aid, Firemaking, or Cooking, and in the wise use of his time, as in the: Observation tests. Some Scoutmaster may be able to supply an example of the application of the Tenth Law to an advancement test. Possibly the First Class test, No. 4, calls for bravery, perhaps rendering First Aid to animals may sometimes require courage.
The Eleventh Law of Cleanliness, of course, will show up in the Scout's methods of cooking, doing First Aid work, and in his orderliness when doing handicraft work. Possibly some will be able to bring the Twelfth Law into Close relation with the Eleventh First Class test and with the Second Tenderfoot test. Obviously, the Daily Good Turn can call into action practically all of the forms of skill and qualities which are developed in successfully passing any and all of the advancement tests.

pg. 177

III The Patrol at Work

Baden-Powell says that--

the dividing of the boys into permanent groups, or Patrols, of from six to eight and treating them as separate units, each under its own responsible leader, is the key to success with a Troop
The patrol is the unit of Scouting whether for work or for play, for discipline or for duty.
An invaluable step in character-training is to put responsibility on to the- individual This is immediately gained in appointing Patrol Leader to responsible command of his Patrol.

The Confession of a Scoutmaster:
AN Actual Incident

I Elect Myself it"

I TOOK charge of the Troop in September, 1924. We reorganized with only a very few Scouts present. After several meetings Patrols were formed, and Patrol Leaders were elected by the members of each Patrol. New Patrols were formed as needed in the same manner. No special system was used in arranging the Patrols. They were formed as the boys wanted them to be. New Scouts were put into the Patrol that happened not to be full.
We met once each week as a whole Troop. Each Patrol sat in a particular place and the P. L. collected the dues and kept the record of attendance. We had an S. P. L. who did nothing so far as leadership Was concerned. In fact, this was the extent of the boys' part in the management of the Troop. I, as Scoutmaster, did all the rest. I conducted each meeting. I taught all Scout work to the boys, planned all hikes, and in general managed all the affairs of the Troop. There was no objection raised, but the same thing seemed to happen week after week. and gradually the interest began to lag.

pg. 178

I Grade the Scouts by Their She

Someone had told me that the best way to keep the boys interested was to have them form Patrols according to size. I seized upon the idea, broke up the Patrols and reorganized them according to size, and as nearly as possible according to Scout rank. This plan was a dismal failure. In the first place, all the best Scouts were in one or two patrols, and the others were helpless if a contest was proposed. Then the new Scout lost so much of the advice and companionship that the advanced Scout can give. The Patrols were so unequal in size that no Patrol games could be played. In fact, Patrols existed only in name.

I Discover That I Am Indeed "It"

This spring, at the suggestion of Prof. Charles F. Smith, I decided to experiment with the real Patrol system. I was a bit doubtful at the beginning because I realized that these were ''Eastside" boys and that the problem of discipline might be a big one. However, I took the matter up with the Troop and it immediately gained great favor with them. My previous experience had taught me that boys very often fail to choose the best men for Patrol leaders, So I managed it so that the Troop agreed that I should appoint the. leaders and their assistants. They also voted that I should divide the Troop into four Patrols that were as nearly equal in size and ability as possible. My next step was to call a meeting of the officers of the Troop. This was a brand new idea in this Troop and it appealed to the boys a lot. In this meeting I tried to impress upon their minds the importance of their jobs and to fill them with enthusiasm about the Patrol system. They voted that we should hale an officers' meeting once each month, and that each officer should consider it his duty to propose things-to his fellow officers that he thinks will be of benefit to his Patrol or the Troop as a whole.

I Get "Tagged" and the Troop Becomes "It"

The Patrol Leaders drew lots for the choice of corners for their Patrol. It was decided that the Troop should meet as a combined Troop once each month and that the Patrols meet ,separately in their chosen corner the other three weeks, and

pg. 179

that the Patrol Leader was to have complete charge. This plan has been in operation for two months and the results speak for themselves.
Each Patrol has appropriately decorated its corner, so that now the room is beginning to resemble a Scout room. One Patrol has taken charge of the library and has developed an effective method of taking care of the books. The problem of discipline has been greatly reduced and the leaders have handled it almost entirely The leaders have planned the work for each meeting, and I find a great deal more genuine interest in Scouting. The work in Scout stunts and dramatics has been greatly increased and some very interesting programs have been given by the different Patrols. More actual advancement in Scouting has been made than during any previous four months' work.

Patrol Hospitality

Scout Troop is a brotherhood. A Scout Patrol is a very close brotherhood. Into the Patrol comes a new boy. The Scouts look him over and decide that he may not be the first prize among the candidates but that they will try to help him to become a good Scout

Give him a real welcome, because if he is going to become much of a brother in the Patrol he needs the encouragement of a real welcome at this stage.
Show him the Scout grip at once. Introduce him manfashion to all the boys, even if an hour before you were playing with him and calling him by a well-established nickname, outside the Troop. Find out right away who is to train him for Tenderfoot, and let that trainer feel the responsibility of making a success with this candidate.
At first he will be eager but uncertain. You must down his fears and keep him busy. As Soon as you can, include him on ,hike, for there is nothing like a long walk outdoors and a campfire, and a meal together to express true hospitality.-Cedar Chips.

pg. 180

Patrol Leaders Resolve ...
Patrol Leaders of Philadelphia in formal conference passed these resolutions:

That every effort be made to encourage the use of the Patrol Leader system by Troops.
That we believe a Scout in uniform gets more fun in Scouting, and that the wearing of the Scout Uniform helps a Troop.
We believe each Patrol, as well as each Troop, should perform annually at least one Good Turn for the community.
That we will do everything in our power to have everyone show the proper respect due the Flag of the United States.
We endorse the slogan, "Every Scout in Every Troop in Camp this Summer."

What is Best Time for P. L. Meetings?
The P. L.'s of Troop 4, Glen Ellyn, Ill., are High School boys, active in the St. Andrew Junior Brotherhood, and consequently, with that and Scouting, their evenings are filled. "But we have found," says Scoutmaster H. G; Wilson, "that the weekly Patrol Leader meeting is essential to the success of the Troop. We tried out the after-Troop meeting, but it did not work satisfactorily. So we arranged the following successful scheme: At 6:30, Troop Meeting Night, we meet in the kitchen of the Guild Hall, cook our supper as practice work in preparing meals for hikes, eat it, wash the dishes, and while doing ail this have ample time to go into all Troop matters of importance. This works so well that we now plan to have the A. P.L.'s meet with us, for preparation to fill vacancies when they occur."
This Troop, by the way, has a waiting list, and the Scout who is absent from three consecutive Scout meetings, without sufficient excuse,-is transferred to the waiting list, and the boy on that list who shows most promise for maintaining the ideals of the Troop, is given the suspended Scout's place in the Troop.

pg. 182

Patrol Meetings of First Importance?
"In our Troop we consider Patrol Meetings more important than the Troop Meetings," the quiet little man, whose Troop had been forging so steadily to the front, told us. "Repeat that, please," we told him.
He repeated it, and we gasped again. We were quiet for a moment.
"Why, that's funny. Our Patrol Meetings don't amount to shucks. How do you explain that?" one of our number asked.
The quiet little man asked just two questions: "How much time and thought do you give to your weekly Troop Meeting?" and "How much time and thought do you give to helping your Patrol Leaders put across their Patrol Meetings?" We sat quiet and didn't answer him. But we swallowed hard !--Scoutmasters' Tool Box.

A Troop Is Known by Its Patrols

At least that is a slogan of the San Bernardino County (Calif.) Council, whose officials bear down hard on Patrol efficiency contests to achieve individual Scout advancement and Troop mortality. Here are some San Bernardino ideas:
In order that all Patrols may participate on an equal basis, the minimum number in any Patrol entering the contest is-four Scouts. If there are more in the Patrol, points are pro-rated on the basis of the minimum Patrol of four.
The projects map be worked up between Troop meetings or at the Troop meeting, as decided by Scoutmaster and P. L.'s.
Awards: Awards consist of a rear's subscription to BOYS' LIFE, to each member of the winning Patrol; hospital First Aid kit, No. 1101; 2 bugles, Nos. 1537 and 1538; 2, army shelter halves, No. 1422; any other article in the Supply Department catalog of equal value; or an out-of-town sightseeing trip. Contest projects include the following:

pg. 183

Fire Prevention Diagram: Patrol to fill in the diagrams.
Patrol Scout Pace: The whole Patrol as a unit covering a measured mile course to establish its Scout Pace record.
Patrol Hike: At least six hours duration, at least five miles long, or overnight, the Patrol to report on--place visited; birds and other wild life observed; natural phenomena observed; animal tracks; trees observed. If trees are in leaf, the Patrol brings in leaf specimens of all trees observed and mounts same, properly labelled, on cardboard.
Making a Patrol Totem: Of 2" by 2" white pine, or other wood, 6 feet long. Must carve Patrol emblem on one end, and depict by carving, drawing or painting, two events in the Patrol's history, or two things the Patrol stands for.
Patrol Good Turn: Provide some worthy family or person with Christmas basket, securing the name from city welfare agency or other source, and preferably providing everything through Patrol's own efforts.
Wood Specimens: Gather specimens of various kinds of wood, cut from dead timbers or branches only; specimens at least two inches, no more than three inches in diameter. Cut with saw, cross grain or quarter grain; bark on or removed. Polish one side with sand paper and oil; on reverse side write, or burn, or label both technical and common names of the wood. Only one specimen of each kind of tree permitted.
Be Seasonable: Use the natural divisions of the year for your contest: School opening to Thanksgiving; Thanksgiving to Scout Anniversary; Anniversary to April 1; April 1 to Memorial Day.
No man ever acquired a boy's respect by giving him an easy task.
Boys cannot see or feel, or visualize things ahead. Make all your contests of 1 or 2 months' duration.


A Troop "Governed" By Its P. L.'s

The Patrol system is used to the fullest extent. Patrol leadership is made a great honor and responsibility, and only older boys of high rank are given a chance for the appointments. We aim to have the Troop run itself as far as possible through the S.P.L.'s and the P,L.'s. Each P.L. is held responsible for the discipline, advancement and morale of his patrol. The Patrol Leader's Council is the governing body of the Troop. The Troop Committee, composed of 17 fathers. takes an active part in all activities. Nine awards are given each year by the committee ;for various Scouting achievements. Special parent night meetings are held regularly, and an annual banquet on the Troops birthday.-Gerald B. Leighbody, A.S.M. Troop 12, Buffalo, N. y.

P. L.'s Responsible for Patrol Conduct

Patrol Leaders in Waseca, Minn., assume the leadership of part of each Troop meeting, and do it successfully Our meetings go something like this:
"The bugle blows first call, and two minutes later assembly. Scouts stand at salute while colors are brought forward and bugler blows 'To the Colors,' if he thinks be can make it. S. P. L. receives attendance report of Patrols, then turns meeting over to the S. M. Follows 15 minutes pep-fest, then 15 minutes of announcements; then 20 or 25 minutes for a Patrol stunt, either educational or entertaining. The boys are their own critics. This leaves half an hour for some feature to be supplied by the officials, usually an informational talk restricted to the point, sometimes by a visiting Scout. No tests are passed at meetings and no dues collected. Men, expert in their line, such as the city engineer, city health officer, a qualified woodsman, pass all tests, certifying same to the A. S.M. This establishes contacts between business and professional men and Scouts, who might not otherwise become acquainted."

pg. 184

Having Leaders Plan Activities
Scoutmaster Raymond Weaver, Troop 1, Saranac, Mich., has his Patrol Leaders hand in plans for each month's activities. At the end of the month, he checks these up with the Patrol Leaders to see how they came out. Here are examples of these advance reports:

Pay up all back dues.
Do one Patrol Good Turn.
Try to win the Troop Efficiency Pennant.
pass at least four tests.
Increase attendance at Troop Meetings.
Have at least one Patrol Meeting.
Have at least three Scouts in uniform at each Scout meeting.

Earn at least one Merit Badge.
Pass at least one test each this month.
Better attendance at Scout meetings
Do at least one Patrol Good Turn.
Get Patrol Staff decorated.
Have at least one Patrol Meeting.

This Troop, which was organized on the Patrol basis, has in a short time accumulated by its own efforts 16 pup tents, a 9 x 12 tent, two 5 x 7 tents, flags, bugles, drums, a very complete camping outfit with oil stove, dishes and tableware, besides much other material valued at about $500 in all. "We do not have to try to get boys to join, they come to us faster than we can take care of them," says Mr. Weaver. The Troop recently entertained a visiting Troop from another town, and First Aid, the use of the knife and axe, and other Scout activities were dramatized by the Patrols.

P. L.'s Carrs on in S. M.'s Absence
There is a Troop in San Diego, Calif., Troop 33, which annually publishes its Report. For two years the Scoutmaster was unable to take charge, and the Scouts successfully conducted the Troops themselves, as shown by the winning of field and swimming meets, advancement in rank, attendance at meetings and in other ways. The situation brought out the leadership ability of the boys. The P· L.'s: without outside aid, developed four good Patrols. Every Scout was given .chance to take charge of the Troop meeting and run things a, he saw fit. This training proved invaluable to both the boy and the Troop, and brought to the surface much new leadership material.

pg. 186

Use of Patrol Corners

In your meeting place you may be able to use a corner of the room for your Patrol den in which to hold Patrol meetings during the Troop meetings. If it is impossible to make this a permanent feature you can at least make a screen which can be set up and taken down each meeting and stored away in the meantime. This gives you a place shut off from the rest of the animals to meet with your Patrol. Make a Patrol box or chest in which to keep your Patrol equipment, it may be used for a seat during the meeting. On the screen you may pin maps, ribbon awards, trophies, photos of the gang, charts, Patrol signs, Patrol totems, etc. Trophies for inter-Patrol competitions may be made of wood, copper wire, raffia, rope, etc. Get your Patrol busy making some of these things and it will be a big help towards keeping them on their toes.-The Blazed Trail, Spokaoze, Washington, Council.

Patrol Meeting Reports

Patrol Leaders who really lead their Patrols, by having Patrol meetings, will find that Patrol Meeting Reports are a very Necessary feature of the Patrol System.
The scheme is as follows: Each Patrol Leader, right after Iris Patrol meeting, fills in a blank containing the following information :
1. The location of the meeting.
2. Number of Scouts there, number absent.
3. A short outline of the meeting.
4. Did your A. P. L. help you plan the meeting?
5. The date of the next meeting.
The above is to give you an idea of what a Patrol Meeting Report is, and the nice thing about them is they can be filled by Patrols and there can be no question as to the efficiency of your Patrol.--Duffle Bag.

pg. 187

The State of the Patrol

To your Troop Council regularly have your P.L.s report on the "state of the Patrol," with particular reference to boys whose interest is beginning to lag. Let the P.L.s give their opinion as to why the interest is lagging and offer suggestions, if they can, as to what should be done. The Troop Council then will be in position to take action. This may take the form of more and better managed hikes; a drastic change in Troop meeting procedure; finding opportunity for responsible tasks for individual Scouts; providing better aids to the Scout in his efforts to make the grade to Second Class, First Class, and so on.
By this method, the Scoutmaster will be kept closely informed on the general state of the Troop, and will be put on his guard in the matter of a lessening Of interest here and there, so that he may gird his loins and pitch in to save the Troop from losing even one boy.

Teaching BY Use of Patrol "Problems"

Each Patrol Leader is handed a card containing a Patrol problem, and a time limit in which to complete the work. At the end of the time limit, each Patrol presents the answer to the problem or demonstrates the required work and the instructor may then suggest improvements or other methods. For example, the card assigned to one Patrol may read "be prepared to demonstrate a rescue of a person who has broken through thin ice. Time limit, two minutes." This would require that the Patrol must secure a line, ladder or board, if possible, and at their demonstration would probably have all belts, ties, neckerchiefs and possibly sweaters tied together for a line and one or more boys would lie flat and crawl out with the board and line to the victim.
Here the interest is aroused, the attention is fixed and it is the ideal time to point out mistakes and suggest improvements. Knots should be examined to see that-they are tied properly and that the lightest boys, instead of the heaviest, go out with the line, etc.
Cards of different colors are used for the different ratings. For example, Tenderfoot questions may appear on yellow cards; second class, on blue; first class, on red, and merit badge questions on white. This simplifies the distribution of the questions and prevents giving wrong card to the contestants This is outdoor work chiefly, but can be done indoors when necessary.-C· E Sanford, Chester, Pa.

pg. 188

Patrol Projects That Help the Troop

Troop 2, Asbury Park, N. J., Stanley E. Manchee, S. M., secured a high percentage of Scout advancement by means of Patrol and Scout contests, and a Concentrated Advancement month, when every activity of the Troop was centered on advancement
One feature that greatly interested the Scouts, was a series of contests involving the making of charts and models. The first week model bridges were submitted, then at intervals of two weeks signal towers, knot-boards, trail charts, signaling charts, fire-boards, wood boards, leaf collections, fern collections, and Merit Badge ensembles were called for. Enthusiastic participation in all of the contests Was noted, and quite a bit of interest in test passing was revived.

Patrol Museum

A museum maintained by a Patrol is a project which will help to hold the boys' interest, because each has contributed something toward making it. You can have a variety of objects. Handicraft articles, such as basketry, small bird houses, models of cabins, signal towers and tents. Drawings and photographs are instructive and interesting. Indian relies, coin and stamp collections, as well as collections of wood samples, bark and freak wood growths, and insects are absorbing branches, but coins and stamps are liable to incur too much expense, unless someone who already has them is willing to exhibit them. These are but a few suggestions, but anything that is of practical worth in Scouting can be brought into the museum.--Patroleum, St. Louis, Mo.

pg. 189

Practice in Journalism
Scouts interested in journalism will find it a good preparation for the Merit Badge in that subject to run and edit a Patrol paper. Out of a mimeographed Patrol paper may grow a printed Troop publication, which will entitle its editors to membership in the Boy Scout Amateur Press Association. This is not only good experience in literary work, but also good business training.

Patrol Charters
Charters are issued monthly to the Patrols of Troop 1, Prairie Post No. 150, The American Legion, Paxton, Ill., when they have good attendance records; otherwise the charter already held is taken away until the Patrol makes good. Patrols must keep their membership up to the full number in order to be considered a Patrol. The charter, a small reproduction of which is shown here, is printed in black and gold on excellent white stock. It was designed, the type set, and the charter printed by a First Class Scout (Ernest Russell) as Bart of his test for the Merit Badge in Printing. Russell also printed several hundred Safety First leaflets which were distributed during Safety First Week put on by the Paxton Scouts, and he edits and prints a daily camp newspaper at the summer camps, meanwhile keeping up all his regular Scout activities.-

pg. 190

Bulletins for Patrol Leaders

A pioneer in this field of Scouting journalism, perhaps the First publication of its kind, Patroleum, has appeared in St. Joseph, Mo. The issues consist of ten or more letter-size sheets, cleanly mimeographed on one side only, and stapled together. They contain line drawings, practical Patrol material, plus a spattering of jokes. Mr. H. Roe Bartle, Scout Executive at St. Joseph, says: "This publication is by, for and of the Patrol Leaders of the St. Joseph Council, and it is surprising the amount of time and energy spent by them to make it really worth while.
Troop 7, Vallejo, Calif., has a Troop paper, published weekly. The boys edit these papers themselves and they are eagerly looked forward to. In fact, the papers were indirectly responsible for some renewed activity that changed us from a Troop nearly broken up, to one of 26 registered members and four or five breaking in.--Clinton B. Courele, S. M.
EDITORIAL Note:--The papers mentioned are small, usually mimeographed. Short newsy paragraphs and a little fun in each. Here is an idea from one issue of the Troop paper: "Percy Symonds is getting to be a first-class bugler, You can hear his mistakes a mile, so he is trying not to make any." YOu might suggest that your bugler play that on his bugle; and that your signalers try it out with their flags, for you can see a signaler's mistake as far as you can hear a bugler's; you might be able to see a mistake made in First Aid work, for the rest of somebody's life.

Using Patrol Stamps

The Patrol stamp is made from pieces of battleship linoleum. The waste pieces may be obtained from places where workmen are laying new linoleum or replacing old. There are always scraps left over and are easily secured if you make your wants known early enough. Get in touch with managers of "carpet departments" in the larger stores' of the city.
After securing the material, clean its surface with sandpaper until quite smooth. Then with a thin piece of tracing paper the Patrol animal head is traced from the Handbook for Boys. : Larger tracing can be secured from other Scout publications, or you may be skilled enough to make a freehand drawing of the Patrol totem.
The tracing is in turn traced onto the smoothed linoleum with the aid of carbon paper. We are then ready to cut out the design which is then fastened to a small wooden block with several brads, making the stamp ready for use.

pg. 191

The stamp is used by each member of the Patrol as a means of identification, and instead of signing his name the writer puts his Patrol number beside the design and the number of his Troop.

The stamp may also be used in keeping records of of interPatrol contests. The Scoutmaster instead of writing the name of the Patrol at the top of the record sheet, affixes the Patrol stamp.--los AltSeles Scout.

Working Up Competition

After completing certain requirements of attendance, activity, etc., within one calendar month, a Patrol is rated Proficient. If during any period of two months the Patrol has been Proficient twice in succession and also has met certain other requirements, it is rated Distinguished. Similarly after having been Distinguished two months in succession and performing a few more stunts the Patrol is rated an Honor Patrol. Small ribbons bearing these words on them are sewed on the Patrol flags. Each ribbon is held as long as it takes to win it, that is, one, two, and four months.

This method was very successful but after a while the need of some means for holding small competitions was felt. So we decided to give ribbons to be tacked to the staffs of the Patrol flags. The red ribbon is the lowest and is given for almost anything that the S. M. wants to inject the competitive spirit into, winning an inspection, passing the most tests in a given period, etc. It is a veiw informal award; it may or may not be given at any time. The blue ribbon, on the other hand, is very hard to win. Only one has been awarded in the last three months, for turning in a very good knotboard. The standard for awarding it is that of winning an inter-Patrol rally.
A certain number of months was assigned as Par for Second Class and for First Class. Every Scout who had passed tests enough according to this standard was rated as a P,, Scout. If not he was "Below Par." This has proved a powerful means of keeping the Scouts working all the time on their tests, not i, fits and starts. The standard set for Second Class was three tests a month, while for Tenderfoot and First Class, three tests the first month and two every succeeding month. These three links all join together to form what we like to call the Troop Ten System, which has been very successful in keeping the Troop from the rocks.--Scoutmaster E. T. Miller, Cambridge, Mass.

pg. 192

Parents' Nights As Patrol Projects

There are chances for fine Patrol projects in the preparation for a Troop parents' night. This fact has been so well demonstrated by a couple of Troops that the scheme is worth passing along.
Each Patrol gets credit in the Troop inter-Patrol contest for the percentage of its members' parents that turn out, with additional points for uncles, cousins and friends if so announced. This assures a pretty good attendance, especially if Patrol spirit runs high.
Each Patrol selects, in addition to this general job, one of the following:
Greeting: This means meeting all guests at the door, showing them the Troop exhibits, if any, escorting them to seats, and making them acquainted with other parents who are present.
Arrangements: This includes placing of necessary chairs, special decorations, screen for pictures, heating, lighting, etc.
Demonstration: The preparation of some interesting feature of Scouting, to be staged either on the platform as part of the regular program, or in a corner of the Troop room as the parents arrive.
Refreshments: If you're going to feed anything to your Scouts, this can be taken care of as a Patrol responsibility: securing, serving, cleaning up.
Games: It is well to have the grown-ups play some simple Scout game, like "Take the Hat," "Patrols Alert," etc. They may be divided into Patrols, or the men may be lined up against the women. A Patrol of Scouts should plan and manage this feature, or even the arrangement of the entire program may be the project of one Patrol.
If there aren't Patrols enough to go around, two of the projects may be combined and assigned to the same Patrol.

pg. 193

Natural Senses Projects
The projects are suggested by a reading of The Six Senses of Scouts, an English publication by Major J. T. German, with a foreword by Sir Robert Baden-Powell.
A "Seeing" Project: "No Scout is worth calling a Scout at all unless he is observant; that is, unless he sees with his mind as well as with his eyes," says Major German. Have each member of each Patrol devote five minutes of the Patrol meeting period at the Troop meeting to writing a description of any ordinary thing he observed during that day, at home, on the street or at school. He must not previously have talked or written about what he is going to describe.
Have ~ one or more Troop Committeemen present to judge these papers during the rest of the meeting, and select the best one from each Patrol, these four papers to be read at the closing period and awarded first, second, third and fourth places in excellence by Troop vote. The papers should be judged upon the vividness of description and extent of accurate information given.
A "Hearing" Test: During the week, each member of each Patrol is to pause once during the day, and in the space of one minute only note different sounds that reach his ears, write them down and explain them. At the Patrol meeting period of the Troop meeting, each Patrol will adopt one of these papers as its entry in the hearing contest. These four papers will be read during the closing period of the meeting, and the Troop will vote which is the best, that is to say, which describes the largest variety of interesting sounds heard in one minute and gives the best description of their individual meeting. A Jr. A. S. M., or a S. P. L. can enter a faked account, in order to test the powers of the Troop to discern the impossibility of the sounds recorded being actually heard simultaneously by anybody.

pg. 194

What the Nose Knows: Collect a number of different things which are more or less strongly scented--a scrap of cheese, pinch of ground coffee, piece of onion, clove, bit of soap, scrap of leather, and so forth, enough so that no boy can recognize them at all. Any time during the Troop meeting or out on a hike, blindfold each boy in turn, allow him to smell of these objects and then afterwards write down the names, and give an adjective sensibly--not flippantly-describing the character of the odor. As in the other cases, the best paper from each Patrol will be read before the Troop to be judged.

Impromptu Handicraft Contest

In a Cleveland, Ohio, Troop, Patrols are given 30 minutes to make original things out of sticks of wood, with knives and hatchets, one hatchet to each Patrol. The results are judged by workmanship, usefulness, originality, split three ways. fifteen per cent is deducted for each misuse of the knife or hatchet.
The same Troop specializes in Patrol efficiency contests of a weeks' duration. Small emblems, called "scalps," are awarded the winning Patrols for first, second, or third place. Each Patrol makes a rack upon which to display these emblems. The Patrols make these emblems in sets, each Patrol taking its turn. The emblems are marked to indicate if they are first, second or third, and show the Patrol sign. They are made of wood, paper, leather, rope, clay, tape, brass, tin, copper, raffia, wire, and so forth, and must be of different material each week. Photos, bird feathers, small rocks, shells, can be used, Points are based on inspection, attendance, Good Turns, payment of dues, and so on.

Impromptu Patrol Stunt

We held an inter-Patrol contest which proved a good stimulant and caught the interest of the boys very well. Each Patrol put forward a man, in some contests two men, to represent it. The usual contests were run, with a Patrol stunt added. The Patrol stunts were worked out by each Patrol from its own ideas. One Patrol demonstrated the Good Turn, by helping an old man to a doctor-the old man made up in his father's old clothes. Another showed how the Scouts clean up a boy, by permitting a dirty ragamuffin to join the Patrol, then washed his face, shined his shoes, etc. A third showed a Scout saving a man from an escaped lunatic, giving First Aid to his wounds, and returning the lunatic to his asylum. The fourth stunt was a Portrayal of the camp at the end of a hike, when fires were laid, food cooked, birds and trees observed, etc. This stunt won first place.--P. Havison Pollock, S.M., Troop 1, Grafton, Ni D.

pg. 195

Mimetics As a Patrol Contest
Each Patrol is given a week's advance notice to work up some story that can be told in four minutes by its members, entirely by action, no spoken words being: permitted. The Troop is required to interpret the pantomimes and tell what they think it is meant to convey. After all have been presented, let the Troop vote which of the others is best, and the Patrol getting the highest vote wins.

Have You Tried the "Patrol Challenge" Idea?

This idea is worked in different ways. Marc B. Merriman, S.M., Fort Collins, Cole., allows each Patrol to challenge a member of the other Patrols once each month, the challenger to furnish any materials required by the challenge. Patrol member No. 1 of the first Patrol challenges the number ones of each of the others. Then Patrol No. 2 of the second Patrol, challenges the number twos, and so on. A Patrol which does not challenge in its turn, and a Patrol which does not accept a challenge, loses ten points for the month. All contests are held within the seven days following the day the challenge is made. The challenges run something like this:
"I challenge you to write out an interpretation on Scout Laws 1,2and3." 20points.
"I challenge you to tie a clove hitch, double carrick bend, and two half hitches, neatness and quickness." 12 points. Tying the wrong knot to eliminate contestant.
"I challenge you to demonstrate your knowledge of the Semaphore Code." 6 points.

pg. 196

"I challenge you to demonstrate your knowledge of the 16 points of the compass in such manner as the Scoutmaster shall propose at the time of the test." 4 points.
"I challenge you to make an under-water approach to a drowning boy, turn him, get him by the chin, carry and tow him twenty feet to safety." To be judged on technique and time. And so on. There is practically no limit to the character and number of challenges that can be used.


The Patrol holding the top peg on the "King Patrol" board is champion of the Troop, but only as long as that Patrol can hold it against the challenges of the Patrol who has the right to challenge. The plan is to see who can hold the "King Patrol" place against all comers. To begin this sort of a tournament proceed as follows:

1. Make a board (card board,wall board or wood). Draw a triangle as illustrated. Put pins in places;1 2, 3 and as shown. The board may be painted in colon to make it good-looking.
2. Make 4 discs for the pins or hooks and draw the Patrol emblem on them.
3. Select the "King Patrol" the first night by contesting on points.
(a) 1 point for every member present. If this doesn't select the Patrol add these until it is done:
(b) 1 point for every member and class or above.
(c) 1 point for every member Ist class or above.
(d) 1 point for every member Merit Badge Scout.
By this time one should stand out above the others. Hang the cards in place. Before going further there are two rules necessary to carry On.
(a) A Patrol must be a champion in its own lines before it can challenge a Patrol in the line above.
(b) A Patrol may reject a challenge if they can prove to the referee or Scoutmaster that they have a right to, i. e., A Patrol of Tenderfoot Scouts have a right to refuse a challenge to First-Class semaphore signaling.

This makes the First Class Scouts renew their Tenderfoot work in order to win in a contest. Challenges to Tenderfoot Scouts need not be confined to Tenderfoot work, but must be in Second class or along lines that they can make a good fight. The referee should use his judgment in this matter.

The First Contest: Now that the "King Patrol" has been chosen, proceed to draw lots between 2, 3, and 4, and decide which two Patrols shall meet for. contest next week. Decide on a contest. This leaves one Patrol idle and the "King Patrol" idle for the first week.
The contest is run off the following week, and the winner has the right to challenge the "King Patrol" to combat, and they decide on a contest. The loser also challenges the Patrol that was idle during the week, and arranges a contest.

pg. 197

From this point on, there is a champion every week to challenge the "King Patrol" while the other two Patrols play off for champion the following week. This idea is limitless as to contests to run. A few are given here. Others will suggest themselves. You can build up attendance, Troop spirit, tests, in 'fact anything. It is Patrol activity, and that is the big thing. Here are some suggested contests.

1. Point system contest:
Patrol Attendance--
1 point each Scout present.
1 point each Scout passing.
1 point for being on time.
Tests taken-
1 point each test.
Others suggest themselves.
11. Best:
(a) Patrol Good Turn.
(b) Individual Good Turn in Patrol
(c)7 best individuals for week, 1 each day.
3. Hikes:
(a) Attendance.
(b) Activity.
4. Collecting Natural History Specimens:
(a) Leaves.
(b) Twigs,
(c) Flowers.
1. In summer the flowers.
2. In winter stalks and seed pods.
(d) Stones.
(e) Miscellaneous.
5. Games:
(a) Personal.
(b) Patrol
6. Story told by Scout (readings permitted).
7. First Aid.
8. Signaling.

-W. A. ROBE, S.E., McKeesport, Pa.

Making the Peg Board and Patrol Disks for use in the "King Patrol" challenge idea. Should prove a good project for younger boys, on a contest basis.

A "Good Turn" Patrol
Another slant on the Patrol idea comes from Troop 3, Brewer, Me., which has a Good Turn Patrol which reports each week to the city department heads to learn of any special civic service the Troop can render, then reports back to the Troop and commandeers enough helpers to put over the Good Turn. This Patrol has already given leadership in various emergencies, including the putting out of several threatening grass fires and helping to handle street crowds at the time of a fire near a vaudeville theater.
The Patrol in Troop 281 Elmira, N. Y., that makes the best record in Good Turns for a year will be "entertained" by the Patrol making the poorest record.

pg. 198

Grading the Points in Patrol Contests

This excellent list of points has been submitted be Scoutmaster F. R. Guy of Troop 6, Mt. Vernon, N. Y.

Points For
1 Each Scout present at regular meeting.
1 Each Scout in uniform at regular meeting.
10 Each Scout who gets a place on his school base ball, basket ball, foot ball or track team.
5 Each Tenderfoot brought in and trained.
10 Each Scout passing 2nd-Class test,
25 Each Scout passing 1st-Class test.
5 Each Scout who puts First Aid into actual use,
2 Each new safety first idea for Scouts.
10 Names and drawings from observation of 10 different kinds of trees.
10 Winning first place in any event in any advertised athletic meet
10 Earning and putting in savings bank $5.00.
10 Signaling 25 words and an answer of not less than 5 words in 25 minutes at a distance of at least 200 yards.
2 Qualifying for each point in Athletic Merit Badge.
10 Finding, naming and describing 10 native wild birds
10 Seeing, naming and describing 10 wild animals (may be seen in Parks or wild).
10 Original map drawn from observation of 10 adjoining blocks containing at least 3 public buildings (stores not considered public buildings).
10 Patrol making best time in 4 man halt-mile relay race before January 1st.
10 Patrol having most men on Troop base ball team in any
10 Making a serviceable bow and arrow (must shoot straight and carry at least 100 yards).
10 Making a fire drill and demonstrating same at a regular meeting,
10 Collection with names of 10 wild plants.
10 Collection with names of 20 different leaves.
10 Taking 10 original pictures of Scout activities.
10 Performing 10 Good Turns illustrating 10 different points of Scout law,
10 Swimming 75 yards, using 3 different strokes.
10 Making a ride score of 75 at 60 feet on standard gallery target-5 shots standing and 5 lying down or kneeling.
10 Making any article of furniture or of equipment used in Scout work.
10 Each Scout who passes his grade in school, or if in High School passes all but one subject.
20 Each Scout who passes his grade 90% or better, or if in High School passes all of his subjects.
10 Patrol giving best exhibit of pyramid building to be judged by form and stability.
10 Patrol giving best exhibition of tent raising.
10 Patrol of which 3 or more go on hike of 10 miles, building fire and cooking meat and potatoes on way.

No Scout con win points or help to win points more than once for the same thing.

pg. 199

Patrol Camping Contest
Instructions: Each Troop represented by 8 Scouts and

Patrol Leader (Total 9).
Furnish equipment to set up their own independent Camp, including tent or tents, cooking and eating equipment, food, blankets, light, axe, shovel, pick, two copies of menus, so as to turn one over to Judges, and signal flags. Water outside horse barn near gate.
Wood, in woods on hill back of track. Cut no green timber.

As many in uniform as possible--all present, anyway.
Point: Site, tent pitching, equipment, kitchen, latrine, sanitation, menu, cooking, discipline, and policing. All points for 24 hours will be totaled up at 6:00 P.M. Saturday. The Patrol credited with the largest number of points will take home the Silver Cup.
100 points will be credited to each Patrol in line on track in front of grand stand at 6:00 P.M. Friday.
Saturday Afternoon Program to include general Contest. Events to be announced at the time of Contest.
Prepare a Patrol stunt for Council Fire Friday night and Patrol demonstration for Saturday A.M. Each for not more than five minutes.
The Patrol will be in charge of Patrol Leader at all times.

Friday P.M.

6:00 Assembly on Race Track in front of Judges' stand. (b)Orders
6:15Patrol Leader orders.
6:3O-Make Camp.
7:45--Camp Inspection
8:l5-Camp Fire and Patrol Stunt.
9:35--Inspection of Tents for proper ventilation and clothes worn in bed

Saturday A.M.

6:00--First Call.
6:05--Reveille. Flag Raising.
6:10-- Pep" Drill by Patrol Leaders in own Camp.
6:20--Prepare Breakfast (Inspection at this time).
7:00--Police Camp Area.
7:15--Inspection of Policed Area.
9:10--Patrol Demonstration.
10:30--Personal and Tent Inspection.
11:00--Start preparing for noon meal
12:00--Dinner (Inspection at this time.)

Saturday P.M.

12:45--Police Camp Area.
1:00-Inspection of Camp Area.
1:10--Patrol Contests.
4:30-Prepare Supper (Inspection at this time.)
5:30--Break Camp and Police Area
6:00-Inspeetion of Camp.
6:15--Assembly on track in front of Judges' stand.
6:25--Announcements of results of entire Contest Awarding of Cup.
Judging will continue for the entire 24 hours

Interest Troop Committees and Parents in Attending.

pg. 200

A Troop Revolution
By Scoutmaster William Hillcourt

In the Matter of Visitors, Be Prepared

I VISITED your Troop meeting the other night and used my eyes and my ears. I mingled with the boys, joined them in repeating the Scout Oath, took part in the games, listened with them to the instruction. But my eyes did not follow the Scoutmaster. They were wandering from boy to boy, from face to face, seeking to read the thoughts that were hidden behind the different expressions.
If you wish I will try to tell you what were the impressions I received.
First of all, you have been the center of the universe you call your Troop. You have been the point, around which every one of the boys has had to rotate. Your decisions have been law for your Scouts. Instead of developing their individuality you have-tried to stamp them with your own.
You have not as yet realized that your duty is to build boycharacter, not to give some boys a "swell time" and train a Troop in technique, to enable you to show the results of your work.

Mistaken Ideas About Patrol Management
You say you believe in the Patrol system. You think you are using it. But you are not. You think you trust your Patrol Leaders. But you don't.
I know what you were going to say. You would tell me about the twenty minutes of the meeting which were devoted to Patrol work. Now, you have been a boy yourself, and you have probably often spent some jolly hours with friends of your own age. You have been talking and laughing, when suddenly a door was opened and an adult entered. What happened? Silence and an awkward feeling stopped the joy. And still you believe that a group honored with the name of "Patrol" put up in a corner with the splendid title of "Patrol-den" will always behave naturally. You believe that they feel comfortable then with your eyes resting upon them. You have not read what their eyes say. If you could read thoughts you would probably be surprised, because in four cases out of five you would read: "We have to do something! Or, we will have to make believe that we are doing Something"

pg. 202

A Patrol Is Trustworthy

Patrol meetings may be held without the Scoutmaster's supervision. You must train your Patrol Leaders to lead. You must train them in the tests in order always to .keep them a: head in front of their boys. And then you must give them opportunity to use their knowledge. You must know that a boy will do more if you trust him than if he feels that you are supervising him all the time.

Wasted Hours

You had an instruction period with a review of First Aid for the Second Class Badge. You believe that all of the boys were interested. You showed them how to apply the gauze bandage and your eyes were occupied in following its windings. But I looked around, and I read the expressions. You have many boys who are easy to interest and who are able to keep their interest in a thing for quite a while. You kept their interest, but you forgot about the more difficult cases. An instruction must be made interesting enough to catch everybody. But how are you able to catch every one of your boys with a review of a part of the Second Class tests! The first Class Scouts will be bored with it, the Second Class Scouts know about it, and the Tenderfoot Scouts will hardly be able to follow you. And anyway the Troop meeting has to be more than a class in a school. Again you spoil your chances of building boy-leadership and character. The work Of instructing the boys in the tests belong to the Patrol Leaders in the Patrols.

"Pass the Buck" to Your P. L.'s

But you have taken all the duties on your shoulders. And that is your one big fault. Every bit of the work in your Troop depends on you. You want to train all the boys, you want to be the leader all the time, you take every piece of work on yourself because then you know that it will be done exactly in the way you want it The day you leave, the Troop will be broken up because you have not given it the right foundation.
Lift your duties and responsibilities away from your own shoulders and put them on the shoulders of your Patrol Leaders. Depend entirely upon them to bring the Troop forward, and you will find that your Troop will flourish as never before. But how are you to start the building of a new foundation! y,, will have to start with a revolution.

pg. 203

Starting All Over Again

And I mean a revolution, with dethroning of the king (in this case you),abolition of the existing parties, making of a republic and a referendum of the people in order to find out which leaders they want to follow. I believe in a periodical reorganization in the average Troop. I have seen wonderful results from it.
How is it to be done' First you tell the Patrol Leaders that you want to build the Troop on a l00% Patrol method basis and that you want them to accomplish this. At the next Troop meeting the reorganization takes place. The boys are asked to tell on pieces of paper which Patrol Leader they want to follow and which of the other boys they would like to see in their Patrol. The voting papers are collected, and you build the Patrols up in accordance with the wish of the boys. It is impossible to do it in a way that will entirely prevent disappointment, but you will be able to form Patrols which will satisfy the boys.
You need not be afraid of; the Patrol Leaders. If they are good, the boys will certainly re-elect them, while the bad ones will have to give up their places for new leaders.

Coming into Your Real Job

And now your work will be to train these boys in leadership. Through them you will be able to build the ideal Troop; with them you will be able to catch the real spirit of our wonderful Movement.
You are now the president of the new republic and these boys form your senate. The most important function you have is the meetings of that senate. Your duty is to teach these boys every part of the tests in such a way that they are able to pass it on to the members of their Patrols. You will discuss every bit of the Troop's work with these boys, ask them for their advice, let them tell about problems they are up against. They will relate the work they are doing in their Patrols, and you will soon find that the responsibilities you have put on them are building leadership in them. You will find that they will do their utmost to justify the trust you have placed in them.
Instead of building on the Troop, from now on you are going to build on the Patrols. The Patrols are the all-important part of Scouting, while the Troop and the Scoutmaster are inventions made for the purpose of cutting a way for the smaller units.

pg. 204

If me go forward we die.
If we go backward we die.
Better go forward end die.

To all Scooters in America--

THE FIRST POINT for the Scoutmaster to realize is what the aim is of the training he is carrying out. And this aim he must bear in mind in all his plans and actions with the Troop.
Our aim has been summed up as the making of happy, healthy, helpful citizens. Therefore, to test the value and success of his work a Scoutmaster must not be content with the fact that his Troop is Smart in appearance, is the proud possessor of a good clubroom, can show a full harvest of Merit Badges, or excels in camping efficiency; he can only be satisfied when he can conscientiously declare that his boys have really imbibed and do actually carry into practice the spirit of the Scout Law and are undoubtedly the better citizens for the training he has given them.


THE PATROL SYSTEM I look upon as practically the outstanding means for giving practical training to the individual boy in leadership, responsibility, selfdiscipline, sense of duty and team work.
It is through competition between Patrols that we are able to raise the standard of the whole troop in efficiency. The use of the Patrol System largely reduces the work of the Scoutmaster.

pg. 206

Neglect to wear uniform by numbers of boys cannot but convey to the public an impression of slackness, of a want of pride in their Troop, and of self-respect to themselves.
The uniform tends to bring the boys more closely together in a sense of brotherhood, and covers any difference in appearance between the poorer boy and his more well-to-do comrade.

Outdoor Activities

PARLOR SCOUTING" can never achieve the results in character training which Woodcraft Scouting is capable of bringing about.
Nor is "community camping"--that is, the mere herding of numbers of boys in canvas villages--much more effective to this end. The Camp is the Scoutmaster's opportunity.
It is only then, when he has his boys with him under his hand uninterruptedly for days on end that he really gets to know them and to influence them individually.
Small Troops, of not more than-thirty boys, are the best medium for instruction, whereby the Scoutmaster is enabled to study each boy individually.
And it is only through such study that the Scoutmaster can possibly develop the individual character of his lads.


IT IS THE SCOUTMASTERS who form the backbone of the Movement.
Their work is done not through instruction of the boys in a variety of accomplishments, but through supplying their own personal example and character for their guidance,
Their position is that of leaders or elder brothers rather than of commanders and pedagogues. Theirs it is to encourage in the boys the ambition to develop themselves, theirs to give personally the practical exhibition of straight, clean living and of-sacrifice of self in the service of others.

pg. 207

That's all. But again it requires self-examination on the part of the Scoutmaster to make sure that he is actually doing this. If he is not he need not hope too highly for success.
He will see the result of his example in minor hems of discipline and dress. If he wears his uniform and takes pride in it his boys will follow suit. If he abjures unnecessary frills and decoration it will discourage badge hunting among his boys.
The Scoutmaster must feel that he is responsible and has a free hand to run his Troop training in accordance with the special circumstances under which he is working, such as local conditions, nature of his boys and his own character, as well as his own knowledge of the ideals and methods of Scouting. He should not have to lean on the knowledge of others and for this reason the training courses should be of greatest help to the Scoutmasters and of highest value to the Movement.

The Spiritual Aim

OUR PRESENT DAY education and environment tend to make us look too intently for material results, to the neglect of spiritual uplift. We are apt to urge the boy on to make a successful career for himself and to confine his patriotic outlook to make his country successful in strength and prosperity. But there is a higher mission open to the boy and to us who guide him, namely the development in the individual of his sense of service to others, the spirit of good-will and helpfulness.
Such spirit should form the mainspring of his actions rather than the desire for self-advancement. And this same spirit, if more generally expanded among the different peoples, as it can be through our widereaching brotherhood, can eventually supply the foundation of that international good-will and understanding which will ensure peace in the world through the triumph of Love over Distrust.
Here then lies a glorious field of achievement for every Scoutmaster.

pg. 208

1. Games

Stalking the Scoutmaster

THE SCOUTMASTER takes up a central spot in a small clearing amongst well-wooded country, with a pair of field glasses. The Scouts are dispersed whilst the Scoutmaster hides his eyes for a given period. When the game is to start he sounds a whistle or gives the Troop call. The Scouts try to approach him without being spotted, each of them having a number fixed in the front and back of his hat, The Scoutmaster tries to spot the numbers with his field glasses and when he does so calls that number out, pointing in the direction. The Scout hearing it immediately stands up if he is sure the Scoutmaster has spotted him, and returning to his starting point starts stalking again. If the Scoutmaster calls out a wrong number the Scout whose number that is remains still, the Scoutmaster knowing thereby that he has made a mistake.
After the definite period pre-arranged, the Scoutmaster again sounds the Troop call and Scouts all stand up wherever they happen to be. The Scout nearest the Scoutmaster wins the game.
Scouts are not allowed to change hats and must wear the number allotted to them the whole time. They can, however, change such parts of their clothing as might deceive the Scoutmaster.
The Scoutmaster may move in a small circle inside the clearing but must not go to the edge of same or wander out of it.

Stalking and Reporting

The conditions for this game are very similar to the above except that the Scoutmaster makes all sorts of movements in addition, such as blowing his nose; chewing a piece of grass, kicking a stone, etc., which the Scouts have to observe and note down. The conditions otherwise are the same. The Scout who gets the most information of the Scoutmaster's movements wins the game.

pg. 210

Deer Stalking

The Scoutmaster in this game acts the part of the deer moving about, just as a deer would when grazing. Instead of calling out numbers as soon as he spots a boy he bolts off to another part of the wood a short distance away, in the manner startled deer would if suddenly frightened by the presence of human beings. This ensures good stalking, the bar stalker incurring the odium of his chums if through carelessness on his part they have to start their stalking all over again.
If, however, the Scoutmaster passes within 20 feet of a Scout without spotting him, that Scout stands up and pointing in the direction of Scoutmaster yells out "dead." The Scoutmaster then measures the distance from the spot. where he is standing-to that of the Scout and if the Scout's judgment of the distance is right, that Scout has won and the "deer" is dead.

Observation Game

The Scouts stand about fifty yards away from a group of tents and are given a half minute in which to observe everything closely. They are then turned about whilst someone alters the position of things, making false noises so as to make Scouts think he has moved some things to another place when he really has not. Thus he would tinkle a frying-pan and some smart boy will immediately report that the frying pan has been moved--this checks guessing.
The Scout observing the maximum number of things shifted wins the game.
NOTE: The above Stalking games we used at the Scout Leaders' Training School, Gillwell Park, England.


THE LOGICAL TIME for beginning a Treasure Hunt is just after the rest hour following the midday meal.
It should end at some friendly cove about supper time.
"In the regular morning swim some tanned camper will find a mysterious-looking cask in the rocks along the shore. Curious to know what it contains, he will call the attention of the others to it. The discovery will be reported to the camp director, who will examine the contents at the noonday meal and find therein a carefully prepared ancient document with the story of a wrecked pirate ship, written in it strange language. If the document is covered with gruesome pictures of pirate days, no harm done.

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With this find as a start, the treasure hunt is organized. The seal at the bottom of the mysterious document is broken, revealing a map of a familiar part of the camp grounds, and successive directions leading up to tile treasure. The more mysteriously these directions are prepared, the more fun. An arrow indicating a certain spot where, after considerable search and digging, a second document call be unearthed, directing the way to another clue, and so on until fifteen or twenty clues spread over a course of five miles or more, will provide a thrilling (and grilling) afternoon. A swim toward the end of the hunt can be worked into the scheme, and nobody will object. Then the last clue is followed, the treasure located, a fire built on the shore, supper served, and an adventure story told around the embers, then a return to camp.

Bean Pot Treasure
First you start with a few bean pots, earthen pots, beans, toothsome with molasses and bacon.
Then a hole is dug handy to the location of the wind-up of the coming treasure hunt, near a space suitable for a small feast. Two conspirators, careful to avoid discovery or suspicion, disappear early in the morning, equipped with spades and picks and carrying the-pots of beans. Arriving at the location, they heat a number of fair-sized stones in a fire; dig a hole, dump in the white hot stone, place the bean pots on them, pack wet leaves all about, cover with dirt and grass, and remove all evidence of the deed. They then return to camp and join in the hunt. The beans stay put--and hot--until the treasure hunters have followed the trails to the spot and made their "find." Coincidentally, if you want, the camp chef arrives accompanied by a retinue of bearers loaded with equipment for a spread, dishes, spoons, cornbread and whatever else is wanted. If the beans are found toward the end of the day, a campfire and a pirate story finish off the event to the queen's taste."--This, and the item above, printed in SCOUTING, are adapted front "Summer Camps," by HENRY WELLINGTON MACK, in Red Book Magazine.

"Tie Rovering Knights"
Like the Knights of old the Scout Patrols are sent out to do kind deeds. They are given a certain route, and it is up to the boys to use their eyes and see where their help is needed.
It is a splendid opportunity to test the boys and give them an insight into the ideals for which Scouting stands.
After the route- is covered the Patrols gather together, and the leaders give a short report of the experiences they have had.-"V. E-er."

pg. 212

Hunting for Diamonds

One of our Troops explains that about one thousand two-inch tickets are used in this game. These are-marked with a blue pencil in the shape of a diamond, and numbers ranging from one to thirty are marked inside the diamonds. These are supposed to be diamonds worth so many dollars-if a diamond has a figure nine in it, it is worth $9.00.
Another lot is marked with the diamond only, without the figures; these are smaller "diamonds" and are worth only $1.00 each. The third lot are left entirely blank, and are supposed to be diamond quartz, being worth only 25 cents each.
The "diamonds" are scattered all over the woods, in the branches of trees, among prickly bushes, in pools of water, and other hiding places. The game commences at a whistle signal, the Troop starting from different ends of the woods and working every inch of the ground hunting for the "diamonds." The Patrol finding "diamonds" of the greatest total value. is declared the winner.

Obstacle Race

As conducted at the Jamboree, this game was played as a Patrol Contest. Length of race about 3 miles; detailed instructions given in writing before the race takes place. It is not important if the competitors are good runners or not. During the run, various coincidences will happen, giving competitors opportunity to show Scoutmanship in everything having to do with Scout Law, signaling, pathfinding, stalking, etc. Each Patrol to Carry a rope 60 feet long; at least one of the Scouts to wear a bathing suit under his clothes. No specifications of the different obstacles to be given in advance.
Some of the obstacles in the Jamboree contest were: (1) A boy who had supposedly been bitten by a snake to whom proper first aid must be applied. (2) A boy who had been riding on a bicycle and collided with a tree, and could not fix his wheel. Both boy and-wheel were to be patched up. (3) A small stream where a boy informed the Scouts that the bridge they had been looking for did not exist and that they must cross without it. On the opposite shore was an old boat of ancient period with only one oar. The stunt was for one boy in the Patrol to swim across, return with the boat, and ferry the rest over. (4) An unfinished bridge which had to be completed in order to cross an imaginary impassable marsh. Only two beams intended to support the roadbed, and the crosspiece that went between them were within reach. Other obstacles called for correct use of the compass, accurate observation, and so forth.

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Verbal Reports
WITH THE PUBLIC educated more than ever to the aims and methods of the Movement, it is only natural that they should look to a Scout in an emergency, in the absence of the proper People whose duty it is to deal with same. It is therefore up to us to see that our boys do not fail when the time comes to justify this confidence.'' In this way they introduce the subject at the Gillwell Park Scout Training Center, in England. The leaders are trained in the following way for message carrying:
"A common form of duty for a Scout to perform in an emergency is that of taking messages. 'For example: an accident happens and a Scout is despatched to the nearest doctor with a message telling him the nature of the injuries involved, so that he may know what apparatus to bring. If that Scout cannot remember the substance of a hastily-given message, and after sprinting to his destination delivers same incoherently and inaccurately, the mistakes and delays which may occur owing to his inefficiency may prove fatal.
"It is therefore a good plan to have frequent practice in passing on messages by playing the following 'Message Game':
"'Extend Patrols parallel with each other over the same route, a distance of at least fifty paces between Scouts of the same Patrol. Go to the "dispatching" end of the route and call together the first Scout from each Patrol. Repeat clearly and slowly, twice, a message similar to the one given below. On the word "go" these Scouts double off to the next Scout of their own Patrol and repeat the message to him, adding instructions for him to pass it on to the next Scout in turn. Having started the game, proceed to the "receiving" end of the route and as the last Scout of each Patrol doubles in, make him commit the message, as he received it, to paper. Then rendezvous the Troop and read over the message given by each Patrol and compare it with the original. Criticize and point out how the mistakes possibly occurred. The Patrol

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giving the most correct version of the message (within a given time limit) wins.'

The Message

"As given 'From Laughing Cheese to Sitting Bull. The Palefaces are coming out of the West. Their robes show up on the prairies. They bring shining rods of iron which spit fire. Come quickly, bring many braves. Laughing Cheese awaits.'
"As we have seen from the game we have just planned, only the man with the exceptional memory can remember, word perfect, the contents of a message repeated only once or twice. It is therefore unfair to expect a boy, with his untrained memory, to be able to do this.
"The object of any normal message is to convey the thoughts of the Sender to the Receiver. Providing, therefore, this is accomplished, it would not appear to matter very much whether the words used by the Sender, other, of course, than the prin· cipal ones were used or not in giving the message to the Receiver.
"Since the capacity of a boy's memory is limited, it is wise to train him to pick up the points in the message which DO matter and not to worry about the words which don't.
"In committing any message to memory the secret of success is to imprint on one's mind the names of people, places, etc., given in same, besides remembering what might be called the "keyword" of any important phrase, using it as a reminder of the whole phrase when giving the message. In the foregoing message, the Words to remember are 'Laughing Cheese' -'Sitting Bull'-'Palefaces'-'West'-'rods'-'spit fire'-'quickly'--(many braves'--'awaits.'
"It is a good plan to jump this practice on your Scouts a! the least expected moment to get as near the real condition as possible.
"N.B.--Always insist on a Scout repeating the message to you before he goes off. It may take a little longer, but it is worth the extra delay."
NOTE: These message-carrying games or exercises will give you a good line on individual characteristics of your boys and enable you to select the most dependable and resourceful for leadership and other responsibilities. There also is an incentive here to the practice of observation, as a thorough knowledge of local terrain is half the trick of winning the game.

pg. 215

The Written Message

In an issue of the to official organ, The Bonrbay Parsi Scouts (Scouting) a very readable magazine, published entirely in English, Major W. P. Pakenham-Walsh, R. E., Deputy Camp Chief, told about an interesting bit of Scouting that might be tried out occasionally here, namely, despatch carrying. The object is to develop a boy's resourcefulness in emergencies and sharpen his wits to compete with others.
In the Major's troop there was a boy named Joyce, who wore a glass eye. Joyce was a crack despatch-bearer, until, one day, he broke his glass eye, and it was then discovered that he had always carried his despatches inside that eye, which, of course, he could take out and put in at will.

The "Sides"
"Despatch carrying," says Major Walsh, "has always proved one of the most popular events at all Scout camps I have been to. The usual conditions are, that a certain number of boys try to get a despatch through to a given point in a given time without being caught. The sides should be, roughly, one carrier to six catchers, but it is best, for marking purposes, to let one Patrol take the despatches against the rest, changing round the Patrols each day till all have had a turn.

The "Play"
"The despatch is very small, about the size of a postage stamp, and may be concealed in any way, so long as it is produced in a legible condition at the end. Disguises of all sorts may be used, except female. The whistle is blown when time is up, when the catchers must not be within a fixed distance of the goal, this distance depending on the numbers taking part, but usually about 100 yards. The catchers bring in their prisoners to the rendezvous, and are not allowed to start searching for the despatch till the order is given, and this must be done in the presence of the Scoutmaster. Ten minutes are allowed for the search.

pg. 216

The "Points"

"The carriers have one despatch each, but may also conceal any number of false ones to mislead the searchers. At the end of the ten minutes the captives are released, and allowed, if they can, to produce the despatch. Points are given to Patrols as follows: Carriers, who get to the goal before time without being caught, 5 points. If caught, and despatch not found, 3 points. Those who are not caught may volunteer to be searched, and if their despatches are Rot found, they score an extra 3 points. Catchers score 5 points for each carrier Caught, and 3 for each genuine despatch found.
"The Chief Mistakes made are, (1) on the part of the carriers, concealing the real despatch in too obvious places, and (2) on the part of the searchers, lack of organization, by which several boys successively search the same place while others are quite overlooked. This is good practice for Patrol Leaders in telling off duties to individuals.

Fooling the Enemy

"The boys acquire expertness in the carrying of despatches and eluding the catchers. One Scout always pasted the genuine despatch on the sole of his bare foot, so that when his stockings were removed, he stood up, and it never occurred to the searcher to make him lift his feet. Another placed the despatch inside a piece of oiled silk in his water bottle, Another in a piece of candy, which he dropped on the ground when they started searching, and picked up again when they had finished. Another gummed the despatch on his forehead, and gummed a wisp of hair-over it very lightly."

APache Relay Race
One band is pitted against another, to see who can carry a message and bring a reply in the shortest time, by means of relays of runners. One mile is far enough for an ordinary race. This divides up even 220 yards to each of eight runners. The band is taken out by the chief, who drops Scouts at convenient -distances, where they await the arrival of the other runner, and at once take the letter on to the next, and there await the return letter.
A good Patrol of eight can carry a letter a mile and bring the answer in about nine: minutes.-Omaha Bugle.
NOTE: Skilful use can be made of signaling by various methods and devices in the above type of sport, as part of the Scout's training.

pg. 217

"Sealed Orders"
Give out details sparingly at the meeting before the hike. Tell the boys whether the hike will take two hours or be an overnight affair. Specify the equipment and minimum amount of money each Scout should carry.
Then give the officer in charge of the hike--Junior Assistant Scoutmaster, Senior Patrol Leader or Patrol Leader--a series of numbered envelopes each containing specific instructions covering definite stages of the hike. The first may say to proceed to the central square of a neighboring town by a certain route. The second, which is to be opened only when the hikers reach the end of the first stage of the journey, gives the second leg of the route, and the third, the third stage, etc. Instructions for each leg should mention specific opportunities for observation and test passing--for example, the five walking and cooking tests at the luncheon hour, signaling, etc.
This method of giving out instructions keeps the interest and anticipation at a high pitch and allows the boys' imagination to run riot--as the final destination is not disclosed until the last sealed-envelope is opened.
It has been found to be very effective for the Scoutmaster to go with the boys over early stages of the hike, and then to proceed to the final destination ahead of them, welcoming the boys as they arrive, much to their surprise.

"The Man Who Lost His Memory"

AT the Troop meeting the boys are told the following story:
"This afternoon a fairly well-dressed man fainted when he was mounting a trolley car at the corner of Head Avenue and Main Street. A policeman was called and the man was taken to the nearest police station. He was treated by a doctor, and soon recovered. But then it was found that the shock of falling to the ground had caused the loss of the man's memory. He was taken to the hospital, and the contents of his pockets were taken over by the police, in order that they might find out something

about the person.
"The police did not succeed and therefore they have given the contents over to us and have asked us to help them.
"You will find the material on that table. I will give the Patrols 5 minutes to study the things. You can take notes and after 5 minutes return to your corners and discuss the question. After 10 minutes more I want to get your opinion." When the time is up, the different Patrols bring their reports to the Scoutmaster. The Patrol who has found the most likely Solution is appointed the winner.

pg. 218

Example: On the table is found-
Tape measure.
Piece of tailor's crayon.
Return ticket to Tuxedo.
Three packets of chewing gum. Bill from restaurant.
Ingersoll dollar watch.
Purse containing a few coins.
Pocketbook (empty).
Theatre program.
Newspaper, folded to Horse Race page, the name of a racehorse underlined. Handkerchief.
Probable solution:

"The man lives in Tuxedo (the return ticket) and is likely to be a tailor (tape measure and tailor's crayon). He is not rich (the dollar watch), but he is economical (by buying 3 packages of one blend of chewing gum you usually get a discount). He has got hold of or saved some money and has come to town to spend a couple of merry days (bill from restaurant, theatre program). He attended the races, put the rest of his money on a horse, and lost. His money gone he faints after having been without food for quite some time."

In a competition like this first decide the man's profession and his story, and when that is determined find material which Will correctly tell the different details of the story.-"V.-Eer,"

A "Cross Country Fight"

This game is played by the Patrols on a Troop hike. The best terrain is a forest, but open country can be used.
Before the game starts, the Patrol are given their instructions in closed envelopes. On an appointed hour the envelopes are opened and the game is started as soon as the leaders have read the instructions.
Instructions: Your Patrol Leader is the son of a man who died ten years ago. His four sons believed that he was leaving a big sum of money, and after the funeral was over they searched the house. But in vain. No money was ever found.
Yesterday was the tenth anniversary of the man's death, and each son received a letter from his father's lawyer, telling that his father's brother, living in Waygood Forest, has news for him about his inheritance.
The brothers have been rivals, and each will try to get the money. They gather their friends and at 10:00 o'clock start

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for their uncle's. They will do anything in order to get the money.
As the clock strikes we leave this place to find the man in the woods and get information about the money. If we meet any of the other groups we will fight them.
We can kill the men by tearing a bandage from the upper part of their right arm. We carry a piece of bandage tied around our right arm, and will do all we can to prevent our enemies from tearing it off, because its loss will mean our death and Our inability to continue the job.

Procedure: The Patrols start out to find the man. His position is shown on a small sketch accompanying the instructions. The man is the Assistant Scoutmaster. He gives to the Patrols who are able to find him a paper with the following words:
"Look at your map. 1:'4 miles in north-northwest direction from the point where you are now standing you will find a crossroad. (Give whatever specific directions fit your set-up.) Inside a circle with the centre on that road and a radius of 100 feet you will find what you are seeking. If you do find the inheritance then hurry up and bring it back to the place from which you started. Not before it has been brought back does it belong to you.''
The game ends at 1:00, and the Patrols all return to the starting point. The Patrol in possession of the inheritance (a haversack filled with dry leaves and stones) gets 25 points. Every man killed gives 3 points to the party that killed him.
The Patrol Leaders give a short report of what happened during the game, and the Scoutmaster makes a short criticism and appoints the winner.

pg. 220

Capture the Signaler

After choosing equal sides, two goals are taken at a distance of say, thirty paces. Each side plants a (signal) flag one-third of the distance from its own goal to that of the other side. Each side tries to carry to its own goal the flag of the other side, while protecting its own. The players are not permitted to touch their own flag while it remains in place. The rules for tagging are those of "Prisoner's Base," a player when tagged by an opponent who left goal later than he did must surrender promptly any flag he has and must return to his own goal before he can again take any part whatever in the game.
When one side carries to goal the flag of the other, its own remaining safe, it scores one point, and the play stops until the flag has been returned to place. If both flags are taken to the opposing goal neither side scores, but the play stops until both flags have been returned to goal before resuming the game. Five points out of eight, or thereafter an advantage of two points, constitutes a game.--Scout Executive Sproule, of Berkeley, Gal.


Boys are apt to get slack in answering the "falling in" whistle or call, but the following game helps to get over this slackness. The Scoutmaster announces that whenever the whistle blows during the evening, Scouts must stop absolutely dead still in the attitude in which they happen to be when the call goes. There will then be a pause whilst the Scoutmaster watches for the boy who is going to let the Troop down by moving. Any boy moving loses a mark for his Patrol towards the Patrol competition. After a sufficiently long pause--long enough to make the boys seriously control themselves--the whistle or call sounds again and normal life goes on. This creates a great deal of amusement in that the humorous members of the Troop try to be in most extraordinary positions when the whistle goes. This practice will eventually cause. the boys to form the habit of freezing immediately the whistle or call goes, wherever they may be, with all the advantages that go with it.-Gillwell Park.

pg. 221

The Elephant Roll

Scouts-about 20.
Type--stunt or competitive game.
Line up as many Scouts as desire to play, about twenty, the best number, count off in twos. Have the number one players face one way, number twos the opposite way.
All players then get down on their hands and knees. One player is chosen to be the "rider" of the elephant, and the fun commences when the leader gives the command "move." The players sway backward and forward, which causes each player to be moving in the opposite direction to his neighbor's.
The rider now mounts on his hands and knees and begins the wiggly ride to the end of the line and it is a good acrobat who can crawl along that line of wiggling backs without falling off.
This makes a good stunt for a comedy initiation, indoor or outdoor game period, or a special stunt by a group on campfire programs.--Cerro Gordo Cozmcil Bulletin.

" What-is- Wrong- With- This-Picture?"
One Patrol is sent outside the room, the remaining Patrols make different changes in the room and in their own appearance. Every Patrol is allowed to make six changes.

Suggested changes are:
Changes of the room: Changing of the pictures on the walls, of the position of the furniture, etc.
Changes of the Scouts: Changing of shoes, so that two boys will have one black and one brown shoe on, moving the shoulder knot from the left to the right shoulder, putting the emblems

on back of the hats, etc.
When the changes are made the Patrol outside the door is called in and given three minutes to find out "What is wrong with the picture.''
The other Patrols are tried out in the same way.

pg. 222

"Elephant" or Up and Down

This is not a new game, but where it came from would be hard to tell. It is played by two teams of not less than five or more than eight. Decide by any of the well-known ordeals which side is to be "up" and which side is to be "down." The side that is down now lines up against a tree, if the game is being played outside, or against a pillar or post, if inside. The boys arrange themselves in the following manner: the first boy bending over puts his right shoulder against the tree, which brings his left to the left side of it. The rest of his side line up behind him, each fellow resting his right shoulder on the buttocks of the fellow in front, with his head close against that boy's left side and his arms encircling his waist. All set their legs well apart to brace themselves.
The other side now goes back about 15 or 20 feet. When the umpire signals that the "down" side is ready, each fellow in turn: runs up and leap-frogging on the back of the last man in the line lands on the backs of the boys in the line, and clings as firmly as possible. The rest of his side follow him and pile on. When all are on, the umpire counts ten and if the side that is "down" holds the side that is on top, then they are the "ups" and the others the "downs." And the game goes on.
However, if at any time while the "ups" are jumping on or after they are on and before the umpire counts ten the "down" team collapses or gives way, they are compelled to go "down" again.
On the other hand, if in jumping on, any boy from the other side falls off or his hand, foot or any part of his clothing touches the ground, his side goes "down" immediately. The game continues until everyone has had "enough."-B. H. Rekheimer, Scout Exicutive, Dayton, Oltio.

A Variation on Poison

The Scoutmaster and his Assistant cut about two dozen reeds, two feet or more in length, and planted one of them about an inch deep in the center of the tract of ground where-

pg. 223

the game was to be played. Around this, in rough circles, and each about three feet from all others, they stuck the rest of the reeds, pushing them only far enough into the ground to keep them standing upright, but yet so that the slightest touch would knock- them down.
Two Patrols were then chosen to compete. The boys formed in the center, as closely around the middle reed as possible, and grasped hands, the members of the two Patrols alternating, so that each Scout had both right hand and left hand held by an enemy.
At the sound of the whistle, the struggle began. There was a great pushing and shoving until the whistle again sounded, when all the competitors immediately froze and waited for orders.
"Smith is out," called the Scoutmaster and Smith retired, first straightening up his reed that he had knocked down. This left two Scouts of the same Patrol holding each other's hand and several times, in the excitement that followed, they forgot that they were on the same side and tried their best to shove each other onto the stakes.
Once more the whistle sounded, and again the fight began, and became so strenuous that two Scouts broke their grips. The whistle at once called all to a halt, they went to the center of the ring again and relapsed hands for a renewal of the conflict.
One by one the boys were called out as the game progressed, until three were left, one of one Patrol and two of the other. Then ensued a pretty struggle, in which the lone warrior put up a game fight, and finally succeeded in putting one of his opponents out, leaving the final struggle between himself and the best man of the rival Patrol.
Troops play the same game indoors by placing Indian clubs about the floor instead of reeds.

A "Burglar" Game
A game called "The Burglars" is described by the English Boy Scout Headquarters Gazette as follows:
The Patrol, standing outside the village inn, see a suspicious person, and two Scouts are told off to shadow him. They find that he meets another man at the end of the lane which leads from the green to the common, and that both then retire into a gravel pit to talk, after looking around to see if they are observed. The Scouts creep up and listen to their conversation They overhear plans for the removal of the proceeds of a burglary, from a temporary hiding-place to a more secure one, the places being described in the course of the conversation.

pg. 224

One Scout goes back to fetch up the Patrol, the other remains to keep a further watch upon the burglars and to leave tracks to guide the Patrol when the burglars move off. The Scouts must follow the burglars till they find the booty and then capture them.
The part of the burglars should be taken by the older Troop officers, as some skill will be needed in giving clues in the course of the conversation, so that the game may be made neither too hard nor too easy for the Scouts. The "plunder" must be hidden beforehand by one of the burglars while the other gives the necessary instructions to the Patrol Leader. This simplifies the meeting of the burglars.

Jack Staves or Giant Jack Straws

This will work better if you limit it to one Patrol at a time. Begin by drawing a toe mark on the ground (or floor) at least six feet from any wall, and then about fifteen feet from the toe mark draw a small circle, about three inches in diameter. The boys toe the mark and slide their staves along the ground attempting to have the tip rest on the circle. When all have done this each boy takes his position in line corresponding to the nearness of his staff to the circle. If a full Patrol participates they will be numbered from one to eight.
Scout Number One takes the eight staves or more if you have them, and drops them on the ground in as complicated a pile as possible.
Then beginning with Scout Number Two and thereafter in order, Number One following after Number Eight, the boys attempt to take a staff off of the pile without moving or joggling any other staff. If a boy succeeds in getting one he can continue to draw others until he fails.

"Ask Me Another"

While the Quiz mania is with us why not use it for the benefit of our Scout work?
Make a list of thirty questions dealing with Scouting activities--the Law, Tests, Etc.
Write the questions on big pieces of paper, give them numbers and arrange them on the walls of the troop meeting room.
The boys are given 15 minutes to walk around and write the answers down on a piece of paper. After the 15 minutes the papers are given to the Assistant Scoutmasters, who check up and find the winning patrol (sum of the members' correct answers), while the Scoutmaster continues the meeting program;; Before the: end of the evening the winner is announced. -"V. E-er."

pg. 225

Welcome, Stranger!

Try a little observation and cross examination in the Troop.
During the evening a "stranger" went around to each Patrol for two minutes, and was questioned by the members. The winning Patrol was the one who found out the most about the stranger within the given time, and in this the Wolves were successful. Sounds easy, doesn't it? Try it, and you will be surprised at the simple things which are sometimes left out. One Patrol even forgot to ask the visitor's name.-Cincinnati "Scout Pep."

Blind Man's Journey

(Sense-training game; Patrol competition.) Chairs or benches are placed as obstructions, leaving a central winding pathway. A chair is placed four or five feet from the "in" opening. A Scout stands behind the chair, is allowed to study the windings and distances of the pathway, then is blindfolded, and endeavors to go through without touching an obstruction. If he succeeds, he scores a point.--Scout Leader.


As many groups of threes as there are can play it at a time. One wears a skull cap and stands between the other two, each of whom puts the hand which is farthest from the skull-cap-boy across his eyes as shown. The other hands are held at the side until the Buzzer, everlastingly saying BUZZZ-ZZZ-ZZ-Z, strikes the palm of one of the two, who is then entitled to strike off the skull cap--if he can do it. Playing fair and keeping his eyes covered, of course, he has his troubles because the Buzzer, instantly he strikes a palm, stoops or dodges to escape, but must not leave his place. This is a great game for learning to be cheerful under all conditions.

pg. 226

Stir Up Things With Giant Voicecrackers

When things get too quiet, divide the Troop by three. Assign to one group the exclamation "Hishi" To another; "Hashi" To the third, "Hoshi." These are the components of the "Giant Sneeze." The groups do their stuff in succession three or four times, and on signal sneeze in unison without any particular regard for their lungs.

Or give one group the word "This ·way, that way." Another, 'Uggle-uggle-uggle" And the third, "Where is she" We are now ready for the "mob scene from Julius Cazsar'." Each group In turn repeats its line under the leadership of the mob leader. He begins with his hands to the ground, at which point the voices are very low, and as he gradually raises his arms to full length over his head, the voices rise proportionately. The finale is done the same way, with all three groups repeating their line in unison until it becomes a roar that will shake the stars off their hooks.


Boys in pairs, as they sit, are named animals or fowls of the barnyard, horses, goats, geese, watch dogs, etc, The Scoutmaster then begins telling a story in which from time to time the names are used. Thereupon the boys representing the bird or animal mentioned immediately make its noise. Whenever "barnyard" is mentioned, the entire circle make the noises of their birds and animals.--The Scout Leader.

Some Rousing Winter Sports

Dog Team Race
One Patrol of eight, one of whom acts as driver; the other seven are huskies. Each team equips itself with one sled and seven pieces of rope four feet long. At start, huskies

pg. 227

and driver line up in front of sled with the driver in the rear and next to the sled. At the starting signal huskies tie their ropes together (knots used optional) and the driver fastens it to the sled. Huskies pull sled with driver seated on it to finish line. If the driver falls from the sled or ropes come untied before finish line is reached, the team is disqualified.

Snowball Throwing
Teams of four for distance. Each member allowed throw. Greatest aggregate distance wins. Teams of four throw at target. Each hit to count one point.

Ice Rescuce Race
By Patrols. One patient and seven rescuers to each.
Equipment--seven pieces of rope, each 4 feet long.
Patient lies on ice 24 feet from an imaginary shore-line drawn on the ice. Team lines up 25 yards from this line. At the start they run to the shore-line tying- ropes together there or while on their way. Team captain throws rope to patient who is not allowed to move except to catch the rope. He is then dragged to the shore-line. When across the line, patient rises and runs to the starting line. First to arrive wins. Overstepping "shore-line" disqualifies.

Skate and Sled Race (50 Yards)
Teams of two from each Patrol, both on skates. Equipment --one sled with pulling rope. No 1 on skates pulls No. 2 on sled to turning point; Here they change places, No. 2 pulling No. 1 to the finish.

Snowball Rolling Contest

Any number of entries from each Patrol. Snowball one foot in diameter will be allowed each contestant at the start. From the start balls may be rolled for five minutes. At the end of that time, action must cease. Balls will be measured through for the greatest diameter. The largest ball wins the contest. --Robert Bbldwin, S.M., Nyack, N. Y.

pg. 228

The Greatest Treasure Hunt of All

IN YOUR GETTING, get understanding wrote one of the inspired writers of the Bible. This is a downright good motto to tack onto the Troop schedule of activities, particularly for the out-of-doors.
Some of us, perhaps, because of a streak of laziness, are inclined to do one thing at a time as though it were complete in itself. A week-end hike to study tree toads, perhaps, is a week-end hike to study tree toads, and nothing morel In not having a large plan with a great ultimate objective in view, we forget that after all if we followed far enough in the direction the tree toads lead us, we would get into the heavens where we imagine God is sitting on His throne.
Why not have definitely in our minds throughout all our Scout activities that the biggest discovery every boy can make is that in God we live and move and have our being? He not only "sitteth on his throne" in Heaven, but also is He down among the trees, observing with contentment the way that the tree toads and all the other little creatures of the woods obey the useful instincts which He has put within them.
Why not get that idea across to Scouts? Somehow find a way, without recourse to didactics, to get Scouts to See Him and His handiwork in the plants and the birds and the trees that they study?
For after all, unless with all our getting we get understanding of the place that He has in our lives and that we have in His life, we do not get Very far. And in all our seeking after the treasures of skill and health and knowledge and happiness, if we do not find Rim, we lose out.
Isn't it part of our job as Scout Leaders to help Scouts find the Greatest Treasure of all?

pg. 229


Scoutmasters Listen!

When a Hike Stubs Its Toe
You are off on a hike. Your objective is observation of trees. You think every Scout should be on tiptoes to locate as many different species as possible. You have tried to quicken their interest by some remarks about trees in general. You have rather run out of "dope," and are suddenly conscious that your Scouts are having a hot debate over the respective merits of two prize-fighters. Trees, Scouting, Laws Four, Five and Eight--all forgotten. It is lime for you, you decide to adjourn the debate. Listen, Mr. Scoutmaster-and listen hard. Keep your mouth shut. By the time the debate ends satisfactorily to all concerned, you will have learned more about a few individual boys than you Can possibly learn in any other way.

Getting His Real Point of View
You are having a Troop discussion. Your Assistant Scoutmaster, who is in charge, has lost control. Everybody wants to speak at once. You rise to demand order. But instead of exercising your authority," listen, Scoutmaster, and keep listening. In the heat of the moment more than one boy insists that he is right in his view of things, and his view of things, of course is a self-revelation of his ideas about what his Scout membership involves for him.

Getting a Line on Yourself
You have called on the parents of one of your Scouts. You are primed with information. You hope to get them interested in the whole Troop through your talk to them about their boy; And you have the right idea-but listen, Mr. Scoutmaster. Give these parents a chance to express themselves. You may be amazed and either pleased or displeased by what you learn of their attitude toward Scouting. If you listen closely enough you may discover why you have failed to impress some parents with the possibilities of the Scouting program to develop character in their boys and train them for citizenship. And you doubtless will also get some encouraging reactions that will justify to you some of the things upon which you have been placing emphasis in your work.

pg. 230


IF you do not have a camp, nevertheless you can have a totem pole for Troop headquarters. Some Troops make their camp totems of the right size to carry' back to headquarters when camp closes. About the only hard and fast totem pole laws are that they should be of wood and hand-decorated, with carvings and paintings. They can be serious or grotesque; useful as well as ornamental; little or big. But they must be wood, and Scouts should do most of the work on them.

Troop and Patrol Totems: One totem pole to a camp gets lonesome. One to each Troop is better. If each Patrol wants its own totem pole, what's to prevent it? Not so long ago the camps in the Ohio Council Camp moved. Each Troop had a totem pole. The Troops did not feel at home in the new camp site until their totem poles, which had been carried along, had been erected. And why not! The totem pole is the creation of the Scouts themselves. It is part of their Troop life. Have them carve into it or paint on it not merely designs, but reminders of their Scout life.
As in all handicraft projects, incite the boys to go at the thing again and again, with ambition to better their previous efforts. Totem making opens nice opportunities for originality in creating ideas that will tell the story the totem is intended to tell; which may be anything from "This is the Penguin Patrol of Troop 8, Hastings, Iowa," to the story-of some big Patrol event and so on, up to the history of the Patrol or Troop. 'A series of small, decorative totems can be designed to tell such histories step by step, for use about Troop quarters,

pg. 231

Tools and Material: Most any kind of a pole ranging from four inches to one foot or more in diameter is suitable for a totem. It may run as high as twelve feet, if you like, or higher. When selecting a pole, allow for an extra two or three feet, which is to be sunk into the ground if it is intended that the pole remain out of doors. Soft pine, tulip, spruce, and basswood are probably the best woods for carving. Chestnut and oak will also lend themselves to carving.
The tools required in carving out the relief designs are chisel, hammer, saw, mallet, and hatchet. Some of the finer details may be carved with a hunting knife. In working on a totem, it is best to have it in a horizontal position, resting on a horse or sawbuck at a convenient working height which should be about two and a half feet.
Process: The design is first chalked on the wood and then chiselled or chopped out roughly. This is finished with greater care by using a hand chisel or knife. When all of the carving is completed, the totem is then ready for painting. Red, blue, and yellow are primary colors and will give splendid contrast. White and black also play an important part in the color scheme. The butt end of the totem which is to be placed in the ground should be charred, oiled, or creosoted to preserve it against rot.
Natural Aids: Sometimes a log is chosen with peculiar branching or abnormal growth, such as burls, commonly known as tree warts, which will lend themselves to the carving of noses and any other desirable distinguished features. Wings and the like are made from boards two or three inches in thickness. These are sawn out with a fret saw. They are easily attached by toe-nailing, or better still, with wooden pegs.

Totem Material
Novelties: Totems are improvised from bits of feathers. cloth, knotty branches, hay, wire and anything else which may

pg. 232

lend itself to the creating of some animal or grotesque object. In one camp, the boys used fox fire (phosphorescent wood) to produce a glimmering effect for eyes on animal totems, the outlines of which were roughly sketched on pieces of boxwood and then carved out with a knife and saw. At council fire time, each Patrol brings its totem to the council ring, where the significance of the emblem is explained to the Troop by the Patrol Leader with due ceremony.

A Four-sided Totem Pole

The "pole" was built of white pine boards 2 inches by 10 inches by 8 feet long. Pine is rather hard to carve, due to its grain, but with a little experience in wood-cutting, the boy can overcome that easily. We used pine chiefly for its lightness. The totem was planned as a record of the troop by the Zodiac signs for each month, starting with the sign of the Ram in the month of March, and reading down one panel. To add to the interest, I placed a secret pocket in the wood directly under the eagle which surmounted the pole. The eagle hidden secret pocket. These records of each Scout are just as they are given at the time of mounting the eagle. The four Stages of the Moon are shown on the four sides of the head of the pole. A vine on one side of the pole represents our Troop, each leaf representing Scout who worked on the pole. As the Scout advanced in carving, he had a chance at the pole, which was considered an honor. Each Scout who worked acceptably on the pole had his picture set in it.p Thomas S. Tolan, S. M. Troop 1, Essington, Pa.

pg. 233

Handicraft with Odds and Ends

Around your camp, or your home, you may find many things destined for the junk heap. Old tin cans may be put to worthy uses.
The writer has seen three locomotive models, perfect in detail, made by a young genius from nothing more promising than old tin Cans. Anybody can make excellent field ovens from similar material.
A No. 10 can (size 7" high by 646" diameter) cut from top to bottom (Fig. 1), or across (Fig. 2), is already an oven, onehalf forming the oven while the other half, flattened out and cut to proper size, makes a serviceable tray on which is placed the food to be cooked. Place the oven on hot ground and cover completely with the raked up live coals.
Two small cans, each having a hole pierced in the end through which a piece of string is passed, and knotted, will make a portable telephone (Fig. 3). The string must be pulled taut and have nothing touch it.
Metal bottle tops, nailed rough edge up on a board make a serviceable shoe scraper, while nailed along a bit of stick make a fish scaler.

Bits of strong wire may be twined to an infinite variety of uses: a candle holder; grid cooker; toasting fork; pen and ink bottle stand.
From bits of sticks you make rustic picture frames, photo easels,
One should see an Eskimo sled of the far North constructed like

pg. 234

a jig-saw puzzle of many bits of driftwood, bone, and horn, pierced through and stitched together with scraps of hide. Let's see, when we are in camp, what we can do in the way of handicraft.--FRANK J. RIGNEY.

Ship Model Projects for Patrol

A ship model is more than a decoration, it is a breath of romance. Their appeal is so great that hardly a boy, or for that matter, older persons, can resist the spirit of adventure container! in an old Viking Ship, or its more magnificent brother, the Spanish Galleon.
And despite the fact that well-constructed ship models have the name of being far beyond the reach of the ordinary purse, it will be possible for many Scouts to construct one of these picturesque ships at a startlingly low cost,--From The Scoutmaster's Tool Box, Chicago Council.

A Good Turn Contest Project

Challenge Patrols to find needed repair or construction jobs for the institution with which you are connected, as a Handicraft Good Turn Contest each month. There will be bulletin boards, book-racks, steps, railings, wainscoting, plastering and painting, book rebinding, windows and many other items, large and small, that will offer opportunities. For points, count promptness in locating and doing the jobs, experience and thoroughness, comparative usefulness to the institution, and other elements you think should be considered.

pg. 235

Model of Portable Crane

Here is a small illustration of a fairly large working :model of perambulating block and tackle derrick, which was made by Brooklyn, N. Y., Scouts and entered in a Scoutcraft contest for the trophy offered annually by Mr. R. F. R. Huntsman, publisher of The Standard Union, to Brooklyn Scouts for industry and efficiency, the complete entries composing a large exhibit put on display at the salesrooms of the Brooklyn Edison Company. The work of some 2,500 Scouts was represented, and a high standard of craftsmanship was reached in practically every article on display, which included models of lean-tos, miniature facsimiles of camp sites, a blinker and signal machine operated by sun rays, gas, or electricity, models of the "Shenandoah," suspension bridges, aeroplanes, examples of Merit Badge foundry work, bird and insect mounts, towers, and practically the whole range of Scout craftsmanship.

Miniature Camp Fire
For indoor ceremonies, entertainments, and stunts, the Troop can have as part of its equipment an indoor camp fire outfit. The cut below gives the idea. The size can be whatever you wish, but this design will be found suitable for most purposes. Red "Creek fire" can be used in this contrivance with excellent effects, or a red electric bulb can be installed, and red tissue paper or yarn "flames" will help the illusion.
Starting with this device, the Troop can gradually create a comprehensive miniature camp layout, for display in a store window, on a table at parent night meetings, and to otherwise serve a useful purpose. Each Patrol should undertake one feature of this layout at a time.

You will want miniature tents, log cabins, camp furniture, cooking fires. mess hall, diving and signaling towers, bridges, and so forth, all made to a uniform scale.

pg. 236

Shelter Building Hike

The cut shows in fairly clear detail a good working model of a lean-to, put up by Troop 5, Akron, Ohio (who have had the same Scoutmaster, H. A. Shuman, for seven consecutive years). This is excellent activity for week-end hikes at any time of the year. Permission from owners to cut and use material must always be obtained. The best plan is to try to gather up enough fallen timber. Note that the walls and roof are thickly lined with dead leaves, held in place by slender saplings which are evidently nailed to side walls and rafters, but can be lashed fast or held in place by uprights instead. Apparently, some wide strips of bark have been used on roof. It is a matter of taste how you trim the whiskers on a roof. Troop 5 prefers them scraggly. Do not overlook the pot-hook. A green Troop can put such a lean-to by closely following this piece of workmanship.

Mohawk Village Cabin

ONE OF THE OUTSTAND-INC achievements of the
Boy Scout Mohawk Indian Village, at the Eastern States Exposition, Springfield. Mass.. in 1926, was the building of a log cabin for a permanent "village" headquarters. Under the direction of Harry Jordan, the Maine guide, old telephone poles were rescued from the wood pile, hauled to the camp, sawed and cut to fit. The "drop log" method. used in lumber camp construction (see photo) was used instead of notching described in the Handbook for Boys, because the logs mere old and dry, and tended to split off if deep

pg. 237

notches were made; moreover the former method was quicker and required less chopping.
By the "drop log" method two logs are laid parallel (Pig. I--A.) at correct distance apart from the walls. Then the grooves are cut. Two logs are then pointed off (Pig. 2--B.) and dropped in, fitting the V-shaped notches (Fig. 3). The log notched to receive the "drop log" is sometimes notched on top slightly to keep the next cross log from rolling out of place (D) and to fit down on notch drop in log which is usually of smaller diameter. In the next tier, the "notch log" is placed over the "drop log" below. The drop logs are usually smaller than the notched logs, thus making it easier to fit them into place.

Spaces for doors and windows were left as the logs were put into place. The top logs (one of which, shown in the picture, is being put into place by the boys) should be notched underneath, so that they may be slid back and forth more easily, to meet the correct slant of the roof. (Pig. 4 and 5). These top logs (Pig. 4 and 5, C) are extended in front to form support for porch roof.
Later, a porch was added, with railings. The roof and floor were made from regular lumber stock, covered with heavy roofing material.
The cabin will be the center of activities at coming Eastern States Expositions. Scouts will make the appropriate rustic furniture for it.--MERRITT L. Oxenham.

pg. 238

The Scout Staff in Patrol Work

One of the bits of Scoutcraft that caught the public fancy in the early days of the Movement, was the use of the Scout Staff as described in the Handbook for Boys, to improvise an emergency stretcher with two staffs and two Scout coats. In that practical bit of Scoutcraft you have a snappy Patrol contest for skill and speed to fill a quarter of an hour at the Troop meeting or on the hike.
It is a good Patrol project to procure poles for Scout Staffs (unless you prefer to buy them from the Supply Department), and mark them up for use. The staff can be six feet long, or shorter, if preferred, down to a few inches shorter than the Scout himself. The Troop and Patrol colors can be painted at the center, say for a space of two feet. The staff can be marked by feet and inches, to be used as a measure and for estimating. It can be carved with a Patrol symbol, stained brown if desired, notched or otherwise marked as a record of special Patrol events, or special Scout advancement.

Scout-made Movie Outfit

The illustrations tell in their own moving way how to make one, even a specimen of "film" the Troop artist can make to use in the Scout-made "projector" being shown. A strong light behind the "projector"-the audience naturally being in the dark--of course, is necessary. Try pasting good pictures on a thin "film." No reason why you shouldn't develop something very good out of this idea.

pg. 239

Troop Meeting-room improvements

Informative Handicraft Work
Three Patrols of Tulare, S. D., took a hint from an item in SCOUTING proposing a Handiman Contest, each contestant being given a shoe box containing the articles listed below, and, at a given signal, each contestant to construct whatever implement his ingenuity suggested, using as his only tool a pocket knife. An hour and a half was allowed for' the effort:

1 Board 8" x 6"
1 Small tin can
2 Dead sticks of wood
1 Yard of hay wire

2 Yards small size wire
1 Piece of cloth 12" x 16"
50 Pop bottle stoppers
30 Nails

The Scoutmaster of these three Patrols, C. C. Caffey, states that he allowed an hour, in which time there was evolved a "covered wagon," a fire engine and a sprinkling cart. The Troop Committee acted as judges and declared the "covered wagon" the winner. "The boys took to this stunt with a rush, he writes.
Consult index for other Patrol contests.

pg. 240

Rustle Camp Features

Rustic work in camp is craftsmanship that creates a feeling of pioneer activities. The knife and axe test can be made most interesting and instructive in developing useful articles and permanent improvements on a camp site. Most any site lends itself to some improvement, ranging from laying a few logs for "Corduroy" roadway to building a headquarters' cabin. Your boat - landing, swimming float and diving-tower will look better when constructed of rustic material. The gully which is washing down can be cribbed with willow or wild grape vines which are menacing your trees. The promontory can be made more accessible through a rustic stairway or ladder. The crowning feature of camp will be the construction of an attractive entrance, or a signal tower for weather observation, wireless, and signaling.
Save all large branches from windfalls, from pruning and thinning, on a special pile, and do likewise with straight poles for larger construction work. Then, when the time comes, you can just go to the pile and help yourself. Permitting the poles to dry with the bark prevents checking.

pg. 241

Where large timbers are not available, short sections may be spliced end to end. Use bolts on all towers and large bridges. Nails or wire alone are unsafe. Rope dries out and is not reliable for anything but small work of a temporary nature.

How to Make the Rope Machine
1. Place "crank" (a) on the straight end of the three wires on the rear end of the machine.
2. Person holding "fork" should stand in front of the machine as many feet as you wish the length of the rope to be, plus one-fifth the distance so-as to allow for shrinkage in twisting.
3. In "winding" or "filling" your machine, take binder's twine (or anything else), fasten one end to either of the two outside wire hooks, then string the twine around one of the prongs of the wooden "fork" from outside to inside,' middle wire hook and back around other prong or for to the remaining wire hook and back around the fork a to the starting point, where you fasten the two ends together and loop over the hook, thus making a continuous string around the hooks and fork. Now you have a total of six strings, three strands of two strings each. (Practice on small ropes before making larger ones.)
4. Now you are ready to twist. The boy holding the fork must keep the strings tight, while the winder turns the crank CLOCKWISE-be sure of this direction. A third boy should stand alongside the rope and keep the "whiskers" or ends of fibers from catching in the strands. Stop winding when the strands show signs of beginning to kink.
5. Now you come to the most difficult part of the operation; after a little practice you can make a smooth rope without having to do any unwinding. The winder remains at his crank in order to turn (slowly now) when necessary. The boy at the fork now grasps the ends of the strings in one hand and loosens slightly the fork, and the three strands will (because of the previous twisting) twist themselves anti-clockwise into a rope. This must be "encouraged" by one boy, who-will continue to twist it while the boy with the fork gradually works toward the machine, keeping the three strands separate between himself and the machine, while the other boy twists the three together back of the fork as rapidly as possible, thus forcing the fork toward the machine. The boy at the crank turns slowly as the fork nears the machine.
6. When all three strands are twisted together, clear up to the machine, take the ends off the hooks and "whip" or backsplice. The other end will take care of itself. The whiskers may be burnt off if you so desire. --A. S. Barrows, Scout Executive, Kalamazoo, Mich.

pg. 242


While on a hike cut a good handful of cat tail leaves, being careful not to dent them on the way home. Allow them to dry for a day or two in the shade, as the sun will bleach them when they are damp. The main reason for drying before working them is that they will shrink, and if a plat is made while they are green, it will become loose when dry. Cut off the coarser bottom part of the leaf, as well as the thin upper part. Take care also to get your leaves of a uniform width by cutting off the edges of the wider ones. If you work these leaves when dry they will crack and break, therefore they should be wrapped in a damp towel over night, and are then ready for platting

Method of Plotting
The illustrations show a space between the leaves. This is merely to show the plat clearly; in practice the leaves should be drawn closely together. The first is bent to form two strands, 1 and 3, leaving a space between them for another (Fig. I). A single leaf, 2, is then placed in this space (Fig. II). The third leaf, the two ends of which we will call 4 and 55 is then run under 1, over 2, and under 3 (Fig. 1II). Flat 5 is now bent parallel to 1 (Fig. IV), then parallel to strand 4 (Fig. V), passing over 1, under 2 and over 3.
The plat is now started, and the steps from now on are repeated. You will notice (Fig. V), that there are two strands running in one direction, and three running at a right angle: to the two. At each subsequent step (Fig. VI) you work with the side having three strands. Taking the outside one of the three, in this case strand 1. It should be bent up at a right angle, then woven over 2 and 3. This will leave three strands in the other direction, and then again the outside strand is bent at the right angle and woven over and under: the other two. The general direction of the plot is diagonal, as shown in the dotted lines..
The leaves will not be long enough, and splicing will be necessary, which can be concealed underneath the braiding. The ends of the hat-band may be woven together, or overlapped and wound about with a thin strand of leaf. You can also make other things of the leaf braid.--Geo. W. Martin, S.M., Culver. Ind.

pg. 244

Building Models of Bridges

THERE is romance in a tiny model of a well-engineered bridge, when two stringers nearly a yard long and as lithe as one's little finger will support a bounding Scout center. What the making of models instead of fullsize bridges means in conservation of timber, we will leave for others to calculate. What the collection of long slim willow switches and the hoarding of a precious bundle of sticks on top of the furnace or in the attic means to the boy in our Troop, hardly requires calculation or imagination. But the big important interest in these bridges is that the constructive ability, native to every Patrol in each of our Troops, is utilized in the most delightful way on rainy afternoons at camp or during winter evenings at home; something true, something imaginative, something fundamentally sound has been created by the Boy Scout.
It once was my privilege to assist Scout Executive Earl W. Beekman, then of Flint, Mich., in a Patrol Leaders' training damp. On the morning of the last day, our eighty boys hiked two or three miles along a charming stream in quest of small straight branches and willow sticks for model making, where it could be cut without harm to future timber crops. The boys were told that these models would be hopeless wrecks in a few days, as the green branches would shrink and the unshellacked cord would stretch. The wood should be seasoned in the warmest and driest place in the house, the attic, while the Troop is about its summer and autumn business.
The material should be cut along ditches, in roadsides which the highway commission must soon entirely clear of brush, and along streams where vegetation is so abundant that all we need will never be missed. This wood should be seasoned in the warmest and driest place in the house, the attic.

pg. 245

Building the Single Span Girder Bridge

The method of lashing the shears is illustrated in Figure 1, bowline or other fixed loop being used with two half hitches. The method of lashing the abutments is illustrated in Figure 2, the knot being the square. The floor timbers are fastened as indicated in Figure 3. Were it not for the fact that occasionally a string may break, it would be unnecessary to bother with the surgeon's knot under the girder and each additional timber would be but another thread in a woven floor.
The flooring of a model takes what the boys call a "lot of material," but the job of tying it to the girders is so interesting that they will stay with it until it is done. A base should be made to which the abutments are fastened, and this may be either a simple base with piers at the end, or a more elaborate shadow box, in the back and sides of which a complete representation of a stream with rocky banks overgrown with vegetation may be worked out. When the bridge is firmly fastened to its base and all of its elements securely tied in a most Scout-like manner, the whole should be shellacked as a safeguard against further shrinkage and the effects of moisture upon the lashings.
The boy who has built a good bridge model has built something into his own character, inevitably.

pg. 246

A Signal Tower As a Patrol Project

By Scoutmaster C. F. Gibson, Akron, Ohio

The number and lengths of timbers required are:
4 main uprights ..................21 ft.
4 horizontal pieces ..............9 1/2 ft
4 horizontal pieces ..............8 ft
4 horizontal pieces ............. 6 1/2 ft
4 horizontal pieces ............. 5 1/2 ft
8 cross pieces .................. 11 ft.
4 cross pieces ....... 9 1/2ft.
4 cross pieces........... 8 ft;

All measurements are taken from center to center of the timbers The uprights should at least be four inches in diameter the largest end. In the two upper sections we use only one cross piece, but when the tower is completed it gives the appearance that two cross pieces were used.

We have found that the square lashing on the horizontal pieces and the scissors lashing on the cross pieces are the most effective, being sure to lay great stress on pulling the two frapping turns as tight as possible. This makes it rigid and prevents slipping. Last year I used eight bolts in the lower horizontal pieces.
You will notice that the cross pieces are laid with the heavy end to the left, with the only exception in the lower sections, where one of the cross pieces is laid with the heavy end to the right (see sketch), also in laying the No. 4 side which is next to the floor, all heavy butts are laid to the right, but when the tower is raised they will be on the left, which gives the appearance of two cross pieces being used as described above.

I always use two teams of seven Scouts each, four lashers, two helpers, and one rope boy. Each lasher being responsible to make a certain lashing. Only use two different length ropes. The longest ones being used for the lower end of the tower. This is due to the diameter of the timbers being larger at this end.
The numbers one, and two sides are made laying flat on the floor, being sure to fit and notch each piece. Mark each piece so that they will always be used in their proper places. When these two sides are completed, raise them up on their sides

pg. 247


Raise from the center out (see sketch). This will put the horizontal and cross pieces on the outside of the uprights or tower.: Then proceed to lash on the third (on top) and fourth sides to the tower. While the third and fourth sides are being lashed on, only use three lashers, all other Scouts, except the rope boys, are busy holding the tower on its side and they must hold it rigid.

A Precaution
Before going out on the floor to put up the tower, have spots marked on the floor, showing where the upper and lower horizontal pieces are lashed or bolted to the uprights (see sketch). These lashings should be made first. This will make the two sides exactly square. This is very important. Also when you raise the number one and number two sides, be, sure to use these same spots (No. 1 side spots) to insure you a square tower when completed and not a lop-sided one. Build your platform for the top separately and lash it on just before you start raising the tower.
It is necessary that your main timbers be elevated from the floor four or five inches to make lashing convenient and sufficiently tight. This can be obtained by putting blocks under each end of the timbers.

Raising the Tower

All of the tower being built flat on the floor, next comes the task of raising it. Make some one responsible (adult preferred) to see that the tower does not sway while being raised. This can ~be accomplished by the use of guy ropes, but I have never had occasion to Use them; we use only one rope and that is to help pull the tower to an upright position.
There are a few things that must be remembered: Every piece should be carefully marked so as to be used in its proper place, just as in the construction of a steel building. Every Scout should know his specific duties and be able to perform them quickly and efficiently. Great care should be expected to see that the lashings are tight. Above all, lots of preliminary practice is essential.
We have built and raised this tower in a little less than 14 minutes, with only 14 Scouts.
Note: "How-to-Make" articles are too long and technical, as a rule, for the How Book. For this kind of information be sure to consult the books-and pamphlets listed in the Supply Department catalog.

pg. 248

Patrol Projects in Camp Handicraft


THIS program is adapted for use under the direction of the Scoutmaster from the Pioneer-craft Program for Boy Scout Summer Camps, which is a special feature of the Camping Course for Scoutmasters conducted at Columbia University with the cooperation of National Camping Director, L. L. McDonald.
The idea is for the Scoutmaster to make his Patrol Leaders responsible for his Patrol's showing in each of these activities. These projects can be undertaken on hikes, at camp or at Troop or Patrol quarters.


1. Knife-handling, safety and sharpening. 2. Whittling fuzz sticks. 3.Tent peg. 4.Paper-knife. 5. Totems 6 Napkin-ring ring.
Now, the way this is done: first of all, some one who thoroughly knows the art must instruct the boys in the handling and sharpening of their Scout knives. A small display of good specimens of the different things that are to be whittled will quicken the desire of boys to learn the art of a knife.
There is the idea. A definite subject and practical instruction step by step, one step a day for six days, plus review work on the sixth. Don't get the notion that you can't alter the order in which the program is given, not substitute other things to be done under each heading, if you or your experts can make helpful changes in the general scheme. You can even double up the subjects, if desirable, or drop one or two. if necessary. So here are the other subjects. Use every means to encourage boys to develop imagination and inventive genius.

1. Safe-handling and sharpening of axe. 2. Chopping firewood. 3. Felling and logging up. 4. Scoring and hewing. 5. "Riving" and splitting. 6. Making and fitting handles.

Rustic Furniture
1. Blanket rack. 2. Firewood crib. 3. Suit-case holder. 4 Bookrack. 5.Peg-leg stool. 6.Clothestree, etc.

1. Corduroy road building. 2. Crib work. 3, Flagpole. 4 Bridge-building. 5. Lean-to. 6. Tower construction.

pg. 250

1. Bed-logs. 2. Log steps. 3. Shoerack 4. Tree coathanger. 5. Rustic signs. 6. Canoe rack.

1. Broom. 2. Rake. 3. Fly-swatter. 4. Incinerator. 5. Towel rack. 6. Latrine.

1. Paperweight. cup. 2. Bamboo salt-cellar. 3. Bark drinking 4.Broiler.
5. Pot hooks, and cooking. 6. Wooden chair.

Alternative Subjiects
1. Tents: kinds and how put up. 2. Tent furniture. 3. Tent housekeeping. 4. Tent life: daily program, etc. 5. Care of Camp kitchen. 6. Breaking up housekeeping (How to pack equipment.) 7. Camp menus and outdoor cooking. 8. Camp programs and camp morale. 9. The camper's equipment and how to pack it to camp. 10. Physical fitness for camp life, and how to get the most out of camp life for physical set-up. (See also list of projects suggested in connection with Merit Badge work.)

In connection with each topic, it will help if you have an exhibit of the actual things to be made or explained. Opportunities should be given to everybody to contribute ideas out of their own experience. If P. L.'s are to attempt putting their Patrols through this course, they should meet with an expert in each subject in advance and get all the help possible. Obviously, it is best that each group should have the benefit of the training of an expert, an old-timer, or backwoodsman, if that is possible. Call on your Eagle Scout, Older Boy, Veteran Scout and Troop Committee reserves ! (See also list of projects Suggested in connection with Merit Badge work.)

pg. 251

Whittling Projects, by Bill Weasel

ONE subject to a month, 20 to 30 minutes to a meeting, and you can cover ten to twelve projects efficiently in a year, choosing from these topics. It is desirable to have at least one whittling outfit for each Troop, preferably one for each Patrol for handicraft work.

First Session: Steps in mastering simple rudiments in sharpening a knife and in the safe handling of the same.

A. EXHIBIT: 5 minutes
Types of knives:
Straight handle
Sloyd, etc.
Sand and oil stones
Sharpening steel and special mechanical devices

1. Do's and Don'ts.
2. Grinding and sharpening
3. Strokes in cutting

C. PRACTICE: 15 minutes
1. Cut handful of curly shavings
2. Square a stick of wood cut with and across the grain)
3. Make a dowel 1" in diameter by 6" long.

D. CONTEST: 5 minutes
Whittle a fuzz stick

7/8" a 7/8" X 9 (or proportionate size) sticks of spruce, white pine, cypress, or white wood. One bunch for each Patrol to be used in full stick whittling contest.
Extra wood for practice work.

Second Session: Whittling practice in making improvised cooking utensils.

A. EXHIBIT: 5 minutes
Samples of "boughten" wooden kitchen utensils. Patrol displays of individual articles whittled during the past week.

Assignment, by Patrols, such objects as listed under C, or any others which may be decided upon. It is important that each member of a Patrol make the article of its choice.

C. PRACTICE: 15 minutes
Patrol No. 1 Knives Patrol
No. 2 Forks Patrol
No. 3 Pancake Turners Patrol
No. 4 Spoons

D. CONTEST: 5 minutes Each Patrol judges the best article produced by its members and submits this for Patrol competition to the officers of the Troop.

6, 8, or 10 inch boards of soft wood sawn in foot lengths, 2 x 4's of spruce or soft pine, cedar shingles, or ordinary packing-box wood.

pg. 252

Third Session: Advanced stes in use of knife, tricks and puzzles of wood.

A. EXHIBIT: 5 minutes Each member of the Troop to bring some article of woodwork, carving, fretwork, or whittling to the meeting.

B. DEMONSTRATION: 5 minutes Best whittler of Troop to present special trick in quick use of knife such as the making of a coat lapel or button-hole puzzle

C. PRACTICE: 20 minutes Troop project in malting puzzles of various hinds, such as: Gosinta (Esquimo ball and spoon game), stick with button checkers, numerical puzzle, heart and arrow, assembled knob, ball and chain, and the like.

D. CONTEST: 5 minutes Patrol leaders to attach button hole puzzles to member of their Patrols. Competition in detaching the same.

Florist's wooden flower tags for lapel puzzles, %" square sticks for assembled knob, 1" square scantling for numerical puzzle red cedar for heart and yellow poplar for arrow, broom stick for checkers, 2 X 2" or 2 x 4" for other projects; also saw, string, and buttons.

Fourth Session:

A. EXHIBIT: 5 minutes (before opening of meeting) Display of all whittled articles made during month by Troop on Patrol tables.

B. DEMONSTRATION: 5 minutes Solving of puzzles and tricks made during the week.

C. PRACTICE: 30 minutes Give each Patrol a collection of various sized pieces of wood suitable for malting such articles as a bird house, boat, windmill, wagon, candle holder, and the like each Scout in the Patrol to make a certain part which will make up the finished article when assembled. ,

Judging of Patrol achievements.

Packing box wood, nails, Scout axe and saw.

Definite Objectives

A practical turn should be given to all handicraft projects. One of the best is the accumulating, through the year, of Christmas Good Turn gifts. By Programming your projects, you can come up to Christmas week each year with quite a sack full of good things for the Troop Santa Claus to distribute.

pg. 253

Leaf Casting

From article by CORNELIUS DENSLOW Scout Instructor, Children's Museum, Brooklyn, N. Y.

B Y THE TIME a Scout has made a cast of a leaf and painted it, he knows the leaf well enough so that-he will not very easily forget it. The necessary materials are about a half pound of the artist's modeling clay going under various trade names such as "Plasteline" or "Plasticum," etc.; it can be used over and over again and lasts indefinitely. Buy a few pounds of Plaster of Paris; get a board or an old table to work on, and a dish to mix the plaster in. Flatten some of the clay to the size you need, and thick enough to take the desired impression. Level with straight-edged stick, then polish smooth with palm of hand.
Carefully lay the leaf or cluster in the position desired, lay a sheet of paper on top and rub all over with the tips of the fingers (being careful not to let anything slip) hard enough to make a deep impression, as that is most important part. Rub well around the edge of the leaf. how carefully remove the paper and the leaf, and you will have an exact reproduction of the leaf in the negative Some sort of roller, such as a bottle, may be used instead of the fingers if desired. You

pg. 254

may use either the upper or lower side of the leaf, but the lower side gives a stronger impression as the veins show plainer. At this point you may print the name of the leaf or any other information in the clay. It must be printed backwards as though you were seeing it in the mirror. Begin at the right hand side and work toward the left.
When everything is in readiness, mix the Plaster of Paris. Take the amount of water you think you need' (this will be learned from experience) and slowly sift the plaster into it. It will sink to the bottom of the dish as sand will. When' it rises above the water level just slightly you have sufficient plaster. Do not stir it till all the plaster has been added, as it will not mix in readily after it has been stirred. If too much has been put in, it can be thinned with water; but don't attempt to thin it after it has started to set. It should be about the consistency of thick cream when it is mixed correctly. Stir it slowly till it is thoroughly mixed, then pour it into the leaf impression. At this point imbed a loop of strong string in the back upper side of the cast to hang it up by.
You will need to make some kind of frame of wood or metal to hold the cast in place on top of the clay until it dries. When you can tap the plaster fairly hard with your finger nail without making a dent in it, it is set. Remote the walls and lift off the cast. If it sticks, carefully insert a blade Under the edge. After it is trimmed with a knife, it is ready to paint.
You can use oils, water colors, or show card (opaque water colors) colors. If you use oils the cast must be allowed to dry until all the water has evaporated from it, or the color will peel off. Water colors or show card colors may be applied immediately. Show card colors ate the cheapest and most practical to use. A medium green is about right for leaves, and brown for twigs. Use it diluted as much as possible with water, as the thinner it can be applied and still cover, the better the fine markings on the cast will show. By the skilful use of several colors, one may reproduce many tints. After the cast has dried thoroughly a coat or two of white shellac will produce a gloss, and help to prevent soiling. Never allow chips of plaster to get into the clay. Always wash out the dish that you use for mixing plaster immediately. Never mix a new batch without rinsing out the plaster left from the former lot

pg. 255

For Your Bird-House Builders

While on hikes, gather up all sorts, shapes and sizes of twigs, branches, log-ends, bark, moss and other material which the Troop will want to have at hand when the boys start in making bird-houses as a popular indoor sport in bad weather, preparatory to the Spring contest exhibitions, sales and Good turns The building of bird-houses is an excellent Patrol project, an equally good Patrol contest, and you may Find yourself challenged in the Spring to an inter-Troop competition for birdhouse honors, with the possibility of having the handicraft work of your boys displayed in a prominent store window.
Four model bird-houses are sold by the Supply Department We believe the Agricultural Department at Washington publishes a good booklet on the subject. There still is room for originality in choosing materials, designs and decorations in bird-houses. Of course, feeding stations are a first-cousin project to bird-house building.

pg. 256

A Project for the Scoutmaster

SCOUTMASTER Floyd Deitrick, of Akron, O., made this Toolbox for himself of 1/2 inch poplar wood bound at corners with brass plates. It is made in two sections hinged together. A 12-ft. board 10 inches wide will be required. Each section is 9 inches by 20 inches by 41/4 inches deep, inside dimensions with partitions spaced as indicated. To keep the materials in each section in place, a cover is hinged flush with the top of section A which makes the three compartments 1/2 inch shallower than those of section B. This cover is held closed by a spring catch operated through a hole in the cover through which the finger is inserted to release the catch. On the top of this inside cover a packet is placed to hold papers. The two sections are hinged together with three brass hinges and are secured when folded together by small brass hooks. Handles are placed on each end. (Why not a good Troop project?)

pg. 257

Scout, Patrol and Troop Projects Based on the Merit Badge Subjects

THE FOLLOWING PROJECTS may be assigned to individual Scouts, or to Patrols or the Troop. All of the boys should engage in them whether or not Merit Badge holders in the respective subjects. When the projects become contests, however, they should be between Patrols, each of which has at least one Merit Badge Scout in the subject involved. Where it is a free-for-all contest, Merit Badge holders should be used as judges and, where it can be done with justice to all, as coaches. When desired, any project can be confined entirely to Merit Badge Scouts, in such cases representing their respective Patrols, thus making it in a sense a Patrol contest. The Good Turn angle can be substituted for the sales angle, or vice versa. Merit Badge projects can be under way almost all the time without conflicting with other Troop or Patrol activities.
Agriculture: Make local soil exhibit, well labeled, to present to school or library .Arrange a grafting contest that will have practical results.
Angling: Design, make and post signs for Fish and Game authorities. Make serviceable 3-jointed fishing-rods complete and give to younger boys for Christmas, or at any time. Archery: Make bows, arrows and targets for Christmas gifts.
Architecture: Make a survey to list the different styles of architecture in the town. with location of best examples of each, and use as basis for news story.
Art: Decorate Patrol corners with camp scenes. Make decorative flower boxes for home use.
Astronomy : Produce a star map, each Patrol working on one section, to cover ceiling~of Troop meeting-room. Design and construct artistic sun-dial for city park or other public place.
Athletics: Each Patrol to.train one younger boy for an athletic contest, each such boy to represent that Patrol.
Automobiling: Keep family car, or minister's, Scoutmaster's or Troop Committee Chairman's, in good order for one month Construct fireproof stand for gasoline and oil cans.
Aviation: Construct aeroplane-style kites, and toy gliders for Christmas gifts or for selling. Re requirement No. 4, put on Troop meeting stunt in which each of a number of Scouts

pg. 258

takes the name of a famous dirigible or a famous ace and gives its or his history.
Basketry: Patrol contest in designing and making waste baskets for the home, the minister's study, the Scoutmaster, etc., or for sale.
Bee Keeping: Construct a life-size cross-section of model beehive for exhibit.
Bird Study: Design and construct special feeding stations for use in public squares, and place them. Design artistic bird house supports for residence grounds.
Blacksmithing: Patrol contest in visiting blackshmith shop and bringing back most interesting account, to be voted on by Troop.
Bookbinding: Patrol contest in utilizing unusual materials in making practical binders or folders for Troop records, BOYS' LIFE, Merit Badge pamphlets.
Botany: Contest in making best local flower, plant, fungi, moss, fern or seed exhibits for presentation to members of the Troop Committee.
Bugling: Each Patrol to qualify one member for this Merit Badge.
Business: Each Patrol to apply requirement No. 3 to Patrol expense for six months, and then compare for best results.
Camping: Troop to construct bas relief model, to scale, of camp; or Patrols to produce camp models Of original design. Construct model rafts for handicraft exhibits.
Canoeing: Make small model canoes of correct design, material and construction, for Christmas gifts, or to sell. Make a practical canoe-stand.
Carpentry: Patrol contest in the largest number of odd jobs about Scout home or grounds. Make serviceable tool chest for each Patrol.
Cement Work: Patrol contest in original creations of a utility character under requirements Nos. 1 and 2.
Chemistry: Patrol visits, under requirement No. 9, with full reports to Troops or to Troop Committee.
Civics: With enough boys, represent the President and Cabinet in session, each member standing and announcing his office and duties. Similarly represent your city or town government.
Conservation: Patrols to make themselves responsible for reporting to proper authorities injured and diseased trees within a designated area, each Scout being responsible for those

pg. 259

nearest his home. Troop survey of parks and countryside to suggest measures to improve and preserve scenic beauty.
Cooking: A Good Turn by Patrols in practicing requirement No. 1 at orphanages, old men's homes and similar institutions. Each Patrol in turn to give the Troop Committee a treat via requirement No. 1.
Cycling: Each member of each Patrol to do requirement No. 3 as a Good Turn for some boy or girl, first Patrol reporting completion of project wins. Contest for Patrols in carrying correctly a verbal message, using bicycle for transportation. Interest will be heightened by requiring the cyclers to pick up an addition to the message at each of two widely separated points, reporting the completed message at Troop headquarters.
Dairying: Each Patrol to design and make a sanitary back porch receptacle for milk bottles. Troop to make and sell those of the best design.
Electricity: Using low voltage equipment, one boy from each Patrol to do requirement No. 5 in the dark, continuing until each lights a bulb. Design and erect with consent of city authorities, a street-corner light for the Troop meeting block (Patrol competition).
Firemanship: By relays, each Patrol to have a Scout fireman at every church service who knows all exits and can take charge or act with sexton and others in case of fire.
First Aid: Create Troop-size emergency First Aid kit at headquarters for mobilization use, containing, besides emergency supplies, individual filled kits ready for each Scout to use when Troop is called out.
First Aid to Animals: Each Patrol to keep a lookout over a period of one month and then report on all forms of cruelty to animals observed, foruse of local S. P. C. A., or city authorities.
Forestry: Devise a good forestry game at Troop meeting. Identify each species of tree in town and tag and give location of best specimens; story of this to the Press.
Foundry Practice: Each Patrol in turn to spend a day at nearest Foundry and fill notebooks. Merit Badge holders to demonstrate Foundry Practice as fully as possible at Troop meeting.
Gardeening: Construct trellis (requirement D) using paper vines, and sell to store for window use. Plot out most economical use of 20 square feet, with theoretical profits.
Handicraft: As Good Turns, each Scout meet each requirement in a practical way in shortest possible time, and report.

pg. 260

Hiking: Patrol contest in saving money by walking, instead of using street cars. Deposit in bank or camp fund. As a Patrol contest, plot out a treasure hunt in town.
Horsemanship: Construct flat, but otherwise full-size, collapsible wooden horse, fully marked as per requirements 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, in colors to differentiate, for Troop meeting use.
'Insect Life: Construct giant forms of various insects for exhibit in store window, with proper labels. Make and distribute fly swatters.
Interpreting: Distribute to foreign-speaking residents, the Scout Oath and Law written in their language as per requirement No. 3.
Journalism: Collect ads, under requirement No. 6 and submit with criticisms to Troop Committee to pass upon.
Leathercraft: Patrol contests in designing and making practical and decorative things out of old shoe leather.
Leatherrwork: Each Scout to do requirement No. 2 for himself for camp or hike.
Life Saving: Construct life-size dummies properly dressed and weighted, to serve purpose of requirement No. 2. Teach one non-Scoutmaster requirement No. 2.
Machinery: Design and construct child's runabout propelled by levers. (Patrol contest.)
Marksmanship. Each Patrol to make one wood-and-metal practice' gun with which to train each member in Boy Scout Marksman's code. Put on stunt now and then by having different boys who know the code, handle the practice gun incorrectly, the Troop or individual Patrols to call out errors.
Masonry: Do requirement No. 1 about home garden beds and paths.
Metalwork: Patrol contest in practical designing of new and better forms of any article suggested by requirements. Wirecraft work in original practical ideas.
Mining: Make exhibit as per requirement No. 15 of mineral substances found in town or city and immediate countryside; or, if a Rural Scout, within a radius of five miles from home. With materials, drawings and text, show on chart the working up of some one metal from mining it to actual use.
Music: A serious Patrol contest in group singing of Scout songs, to be judged by Troop Committee or at Parents' Night meeting.
Pointing: Patrol "Paint, or Putty-up" survey re requirement No. 5; or else do the thing at home or for the church.

pg. 261

Pathfinding: Patrol mobilization contest in covering all points named in requirement No· 5. By prior arrangement have sufficient cards stacked in each place for Scouts to pick up aS evidence of having been there.
Personal Health: Make up a Troop meeting game per requirement No. 7; Design and make for sale sanitary toothbrush racks. Patrol contest in each member walking three miles daily for one month.
Photography: Make a lens, or describe the process.
Physical Development: Fulfill requirement No 7 at orphanage, etc. Create new games as per requirements No·l and No. 6.
Pioneering: Erect log and plank knock-down platform for Scout demonstrations in public square or village lots.
Plumbing : Print and distribute brief "do's and dents" to neighbors re requirement No. 4.
Pottery : Patrol contest in designing and making house-number tiles, also flower bowls for hospitals or churches.
Poutltry Keeping: Design and build practical sanitary layingnest suitable for installing in house of 20 layers. Design and build sanitary and economical water station for inside use.
Printing: Patrol contest in collecting best typographic examples of car cards, posters, hand-bills, and newspaper ads., during one month, to be judged by Troop Committee.
Public Health: Design and make health signs for camp. Make survey under requirement No. 5 and point out need of more protection.
Radio: Each Patrol to qualify all its members to pass test.
Reptile Study: Patrol contest in creating best museum exhibit under requirement NO·1
Safety: Design and make Safety-First signs for use in school buildings. Make complete survey of town or city district for unsuspected danger spots.
Salesmanship: Each Patrol in turn to demonstrate requirement No. 1 before the Troop. One of each Patrol to sell something to Troop under requirement No. 3 inside of ten minutes and stand the gaff to the best advantage. Patrol competition in requirement No 6, proceeds to Troop fund.
Scolarship: Design an illustrated and lettered certificate for use under requirement No. 2.
Sculpture: Contest at Troop meetings under requirement No. 4, using Scoutmaster for model. Patrol school exhibit of requirement No. 2 or No. 3.

pg. 262

Seamanship: Plot out a treasure hunt in accordance with requirement No. 8.
Signaling: Each Patrol to construct a semaphore, and by it send a message--which is being carried to the receiver by a racing boy--to get there ahead of him.
Stalking: Patrol game contest in imitating the gaits of different animals; preferably under requirement No. 1, to be guessed by Troop.
Surveying: For story for the Press, locate and describe the 20 (more or less) highest objects in the town or city, such as church steeple, tree, flagpole, etc., the height of which was determined by Scouting judging methods. (Patrol contest.) Swimming: Construct and exhibit all of requirement No. 3 by use of mannikins in small glass tank for window use. Patrol contest in retrieving largest number of objects planted on bottom, from surface dive.
Taxidermy: Best designed wall chart of requirement No. 1 for school, library or Troop meeting-room.
Textiles: Patrol project in constructing a combination draw· ing and material exhibit, giving information called for in requirement No. 5, for store window display.
Weather: Patrol contest as per requirement No. 7. Construct a barometer and put up in suitable public:place.
Wood Carving: Design and make church emblem for use on flagstaff. Similarly, weather-vanes for sale. Also hardwood door knockers for sale.
Wood-Work: Patrol contest in designing and constructing wooden waste-baskets on legs, laundry boxes, and the like.

pg. 263

The Opportunity

From address by WALTER .W. HEAD, President, Boy Scouts of America

To you scoutmasters is given the opportunity to mould and form in a new and wonderful way the young manhood of America. Your work is with material more easily colored than canvas, more plastic than clay, more durable than marble, for it is invested with possibilities for growth and development only short of Divine. Great satisfaction must be yours as a result of this service. Scoutmasters remain young in thought and in body. They possess a continuously renewed outlook on life because of their contact with growing boys The thousands of Scout Troops throughout the country will annually "turn out" almost one hundred thousand boys, trained in character and citizenship-by you. In ten years this number will reach a million young men or more, distributed throughout every walk and activity of life. The youth of America, if poorly trained, misguided, and improperly educated, may in later years become a great menace, but if properly trained, they will become the most valuable resource possessed by this great Republic.

pg. 264


The New Member

"Twin Buddies" Advance the Tenderfoot

Each new Tenderfoot is assigned to tw~ advanced Scouts, whose responsibility is to "pal" with the new Scout and help him in every way to live up to the Scout Oath and Law. The Tenderfoot knows nothing of this arrangement; all he knows is that a couple of older Scouts have become interested in him and have made themselves unusually companionable.
These Scouts by close association learn all about the Tenderfoot and his personal habits. They mildly suggest modifications in conduct when the Tenderfoot shows evidence of failure to maintain the ideals of the Scout Law. Weekly verbal reports are rendered the Scoutmaster and conferences held on methods of treatment. If the new Scout fails to react favorably to the influence of his Scout "buddies" after a month or two, the Scoutmaster decides to attach himself to this particular Tenderfoot for the express purpose of helping him to see the light and to adopt the accepted standard of worthy conduct which marks the Scout throughout the world.
After six years I have yet to find the impossible boy who has to be given up as hopeless.--Fred Gassert, S. M.j Troop 1, East Newwark, N. J.

Lets Candidate Try it Out First

Many Scoutmasters have trouble with boys joining their Troop and then dropping out. This is certainly not a pleasant experience for the Scoutmaster as it takes his time which he could use to better advantage. Another thing--it is not well to have a number of boys in the neighborhood who can say they have been Scouts, but did not like it.

pg. 266

For the past two years I have been using a plan which has worked out very satisfactorily. When there is a vacancy in the Troop and an applicant is approved for membership, he is taken in as "Tad Pole." He must attend four consecutive meetings, before he is given a chance to take his test. He is given no instructions. After he has attended the four consecutive meetings he is asked if he still wishes to join. If he does and there is no objection raised by any member of the Troop he is turned over to a Second Class Scout far instruction. This makes it so that it is at least six weeks from the time he is taken in as a "Tad Pole" until he is made a Tenderfoot Scout. This gives him a chance to satisfy his curiosity and to cool off somewhat so that by the time he is given his Tenderfoot pin he is ready to Appreciate it. He also knows that it is not so easy to become a Scout and will not be in such a hurry to quit. When this plan is backed up by a waiting list (which I consider is the real backbone of a Troop) there will not be much trouble with Scouts dropping out soon after receiving their Tenderfoot pins. --Scoutnzoste7 Hartnzan, Stehley, Pa.

Give Scouts a Say-so On New Members

I find it very effective to give each Scout a certain time in which to finish a given test, then see that he finishes in that time. The boys know and feel that St. Joseph's Troop No. 1 is their Troop, not mine. To a large extent they run the Troop. I advise and assist, and I have succeeded in holding and increasing the Troop membership. Matters of discipline are handled by the Black Mark and Troop Court; when a Scout gets a certain number of black marks he is put under Troop "arrest" and appears before the "Court" for discipline. Membership in the Troop is governed to a large extent by the boys themselves, as they pass on each applicant before he is admitted.~--lra E. La Londe, Scoutmaster

A Troop Meeting Test
In a recent council bulletin appeared this advice: "If you know some boy 'who doesn't know whether or not he wants to join the Scouts' and 'who doesn't know why he doesn't want to join the Scouts,' just grab tight hold of him and take him to a Troop meeting. Once he gets to know all the fellows in the Troop, you can't keep him away."
Now, there is a very real test of your Troop meeting program. Why wouldn't it be a good idea in planning the meetings, to have as one objective the possibility of winning over an unconvinced boy who might be present as a spectator?

pg. 267

The Critical Year
The critical year is not "age fifteen" but--the first year the Scout is in the Troop.
Just how critical" is the first year!
Scouts who do not remain over 12 months average just 9 months.
Scouts who last more than a year average 2 years--6 months or 2330/0 longer!

Start Right: The recruiting and training of the Tenderfoot is the beginning! This is the Scoutmaster's first responsibility and.great opportunity. If the Scout is started right he may be pretty largely left to the normal operation and activity of the Patrol and the Troop. Nothing is more important than ensuring sound foundations of character in real understanding and practice of Oath and Law by the Tenderfoot. Failure here is fatal.
Initiate! Initiation of the candidate on completion of his preparatory training for Tenderfoot rank in a manner befitting the great aim of Scouting and significant of the dignity and importance of the occasion, provides the opportunity for deepening his desire, enlarging his hopes and establishing the purpose comprehended in the Oath he is bout to take.

Follow Through! What is the attitude of the Patrol Leader and the Patrol to the new member! The new Scout has crossed the threshold of his great adventure, for which so often he has waited years with intense desire. Are his hopes to be realized?
What is the policy and plan and practice of the Scoutmaster, the Troop, the Patrol?
Is he to be helped or hazed, or worst of all, left to shift for himself!
Will some one be his "buddy" right away? Will he at once begin to know the meaning of "out" in Scouting Have a Policy and a Plan!-Practice them George W

pg. 268

Starting the Tenderfoot

We have no "older boy problem." Our problem is that of the younger boy. Start him right and your other problems are largely solved. Some leaders unfortunately hurry a bog through his Tenderfoot tests for fear that he will become discouraged. This is a great mistake. He doesn't grasp the meaning of the Oath and Laws, when he simply has to learn them in parrot-like fashion, but when the Scoutmaster takes each point in the Oath, each Law, and tears it to pieces, explaining it, bit by bit, and then relating a short story, the boy begins to grasp it and use it. Let him tell you in his own words about each Law and you can learn a lot about that boy. He will reveal to you some of his ideas and reasons which may give you a working basis for judging him in the future.-Scout Signal, Detroit.

Beware of Far-off "Goals"

One explanation of the loss of boys during their first year in the Troop, is probably found in the tendency to start them to thinking in terms of First Class and Eagle Scout Rank. Instead, the goal that should be set before the Tenderfoot Scout is Second Class rank. While made to feel that as a Tenderfoot he has certain Scout standards to maintain, as a Second Class he will have still more important standards to uphold; he will have passed his elementary First Aid tests, his elementary cooking and axemanship tests, and so on. The added distinction of being a Second Class Scout rather than a Tenderfoot should he the immediate incentive held before the Tenderfoot, That is the goal that lies just ahead of him, the goal that is within his reach: the next step which he must take, if he is ever to 'reach Eagle Rank.

Bring your Tenderfoot Scouts through into Second Class, and you will hold them in your Troop.

pg. 269

How Not to Treat the "Candidate"

TOWARD the end of the meeting, I became aware rather subconsciously I guess, of the youngster in civilian clothes who sat leaning forward on the very edge of the bench near the door. I remember his eyes now. They were so wide and big.
I thought little of him at the time. A Scoutmaster with four Patrols in action on the floor has little time for speculation As the Senior Patrol Leader sang out "Dismissed," and the Patrols broke into quivering atoms, I began picking up my meeting impedimenta-Lefax, compass, rope, my new tin-can mess kit, I felt a light touch on my sleeve. Turning, I faced a pair of eyes.
"What do you want, son'" I said, a bit irritated probably. for the evening was no longer young.
"I want to join."
"Oh,"I was trying hard to be cordial. "You're a candidate"
"No," said the mouth, and the eyes looked puzzled, "I just wanted to join." "Same thing," I snapped. "Are you 12 years old!"
"Yes, sir."
"What's your name?" I asked.
He told me and--to my shame-I promptly forgot it.
A call came from the Troop Council corner.
I turned to the boy, "Son, I'm awfully busy to-night. Got a Patrol Leaders' council meeting. Let's see--Here, you take this Handbook. On page--here this page, it tells you all about the knots. Learn those and come back next week. I'm sorry I haven't more time, but--Well, be good."
"Kid wanted to join," I told the S.P.L. "Guess he had a Handbook though."
Toward the end of the meeting the next week, I became aware, rather subconsciously I guess, that the bench near the door was empty. Perhaps I missed those eyes.
I did my best to locate that youngster, but nobody knew him He was never found.
Perhaps those eyes haunt me a little. At any rate, that's why, when you visit my Troop, you see me spend so much time with the lads in civilian clothes.
I'm never too busy now for a candidate.--Front "Contfessions of a Scoutmaster," by J. Harold WILLIAMS.

pg. 270

TO Keep Up Interest

Troop Histories
When a Troop is keeping a record of its activities, it becomes more conscious of what it is doing and takes itself more seriously. Keeping the history from day to day is good practice for the Troop historian, and everybody should help. The done. Then at the end of the year you have a review which will surprise even the boys themselves, and will, if distributed in pamphlet form, serve a very useful purpose with parents and friends and with your local editors.-Troop 1, Renovo, Pa.

Troop Meeting Surprises Hold the Boys
Scoutmaster John H. Mitchell, Troop 7, Hibbing, Minn., says that a Troop radio assembled and installed by members and tuned in on good speech or piece of entertainment during the recreation or closing hour of the meeting, helps to hold the boys' interest. He also tries to "spring a surprise'' at each meeting, and finds it is important to get each boy interested in some hobby and give him a chance to demonstrate it at a Troop meeting or on a hike.

Personal Responsibility Works Wonders
Scoutmaster Carl Virgil Hohenstein, Troop 9, Chillicothe, Ohio, also speaks to this question: "In my personal case, I find the boys to be interested in the meetings and willing to work if they believe they are the ones actually responsible for the Troop and the Troop's progress. The busier I am finding responsibilities for them, the busier and happier my Scouts are."

A Waiting List Helps
One of the best ideas r have hit upon is to develop a waiting list of five boys, whose wish to come in makes those who are in want to stick, and when there is a vacancy, gives us a boy ready to join.--Clarence P. Moss, S.M., Troop 1, Tunknannock, Pa.

pg. 271

A "Troop Log" Stimulates Advancement

In Troop 1 we have a cabinet about three feet square, with a glass door, and inside this at the top is fastened a section of a tree limb, along the lower part of which are hooks numbered for each member of the Troop. The Scouts provide themselves with sticks about thirty inches long having a hook at one end, which are first thrown in a pile on the bottom of the cabinet to represent "inactive Scouts." Boys who are steadily advancing in their work, hang their sticks, numbered to correspond with their hook, on the "Troop Log. Each stick is notched clean around when the boy becomes a Tenderfoot, then Second Class and First Class, and an arrowhead is carved on the stick when he becomes an Eagle Scout. When he becomes a Life Scout, he ties a buckskin thong around the stick, and two thongs when he becomes a Star Scout. In between these special markings, he notches the stick for each test passed.

Each boy takes pride in getting his log stick fully decorated with notches and thongs and in doing a creditable piece of work on it. On one side of the cabinet stands a list of the Scouts, with their respective numbers, so that anyone can read the "Troop Log" almost at a glance.--Troop 1, Tallmadge, O.

The Troop 'Scrap Book

Some Troops maintain very attractive Scrap-Books containing

pictures and write-ups of Hikes, of Leaders and of Scouts Copies of the Troop newspaper, and group pictures are kept in this Troop "memory" book along with newspaper clippings about the Troop. One section is given over to a visitors' register where all visitors make their mark. Some Scrap-books grow into regular Troop logs or histories. Altogether a Scrapbook makes a mighty snappy exhibit to show to visitors. And even the Scouts when they are alone, enjoy turning the pages and reminiscing back to the "good old days.

Use of the Salute

The Scout Salute is a handsome gesture. Let us keep it in evidence. The custom of saluting a leader makes for good discipline, good deportment, good set-up. A salute is a gesture of courtesy. It makes for respect; It is really a very nice thing to see a Scout salute his dad and his mother. Your Scouts will be snappier and obey more quickly, and the Troop will be more on their toes for the salute habit. It is a small thing in itself, but full of "kick."

pg. 272

Unexpected Questions Make Scouts Think

I find it helpful each meeting night to have as a part of the program a series of about tell questions on a variety of subjects which will make the Scouts think For instance, what causes the tides? What is the principle of the operation of the telephone and telegraph? Explain how springs and flowing wells are caused! What causes rain! How is wood petrified Why does salt water support a person better than fresh? How does a fly walk on the ceiling? The boys enjoy these wonderfully.-Scoutmaster RExford M. Rexford, Indianapolis, Ind.

Six Shooters

Make a Patrol Scrap-book, putting into it pictures of Patrol members, hikes, camp souvenirs, etc.
Make a Troop Hall of Fame, by gathering photographs of all your Troop, Patrol Leaders, etc., mounting and framing them, to hang on your Troop walls.
Have you a sign posted outside your meeting place to do seven-day-a-week duty in recruiting and boosting for your Troop? (A fine type of steel sign is for sale at Headquarters.) How about a Troop Adventure Hike?
Or a Treasure Hunt, one of these bright-moon evenings.
How about a Family Night at the Troop Meeting? Bring a basket picnic dinner, and the whole family. Work out a program of games and demonstrations - WaLTER MCPEEK, in Talk of the Troop.

A Troop Hall of Fame

Troop 47, of Birmingham, Ala., speeds up healthy Scout advancement by use of wall charts, consisting of Scout portraits. There is a photograph gallery of the First Class Scouts, followed by Life, Star and Eagle Scout charts made up after the same manner. Another shows each Scout's advancement in Merit Badge Work; as each Scout reaches First Class rank, his name and the month and year are written on the next vacant space. The Merit Badges are painted in the squares opposite Iris name, as he earns them. Another group consists of portraits of Scouts who win medals in competitions worthy of the recognition.
The S. P. L. of Troop 47 is responsible for the advancement records. Patrol competition is used constantly. The Troop has a chart showing a "thermometer" for each Patrol, and each week the S. P. L. indicates on it the

pg. 273

scores of the Patrols. Points are allowed for attendance at meetings in full uniform, attendance at Sunday School and church, the Daily Good Turn, and for tests and Merit Badges passed. The contests run three months, and the winning Patrol has its name engraved on a small silver cup, which members of that Patrol keep, turn about, until it has to be surrendered to another Patrol.

Indoor Camp Fire

One of the most necessary story-telling articles of equipment is a CAMP FIRE. In most Troop meeting places, it ;; rather hard to build a campfire. The last time it was tried the firemen all came to the Scout meeting.
Take a large tin can about the size of a two-pound coffee can or larger, and with a nail punch around a set of designs. The Troop number, etc., can be worked in very nicely. Secure ,red or a yellow light bulb and some extension cord long enough to reach a light plug.
When the fellows are ready for a story, hook it up, place the bulb inside, turn out all the other lights, and turn on the campfire. It will give real atmosphere to your story. Try it. -Philadelphia Council.

Troop Bulletins Are a Real Help

This is one of the things which, if worth doing, are worth doing well. A Troop that has not started one, may find that fact one secret of lack of pep. The Troop Scribe. with the aid of a committee composed of Scouts who have access to typewriters, can readily produce a creditable 4- or 8-page bulletin (Or even , two page, rather than none) monthly. News about the Troop interesting to all Scouts, standing of individual Scouts in points, doings of the Patrols, a quiz to test Scout knowledge, a joke or two, records of any events run off since the last issue, announcements by the Scout Executive or by the commissioner and the Scoutmaster about coming events may be included.
One copy of each issue should be sent to the editor of each newspaper published in the community, and it wouldn't do any harm to send one to the mayor and to each of your Troop Committeemen. The better the bulletin is gotten up, and the mote wisely it is distributed among influential friends, the better it will serve the troop interests.

Your Troop Equal to a Pageant?

Scoutmasters in towns not under Council can get together and produce a creditable Pageant. It can be indoors or it can

pg. 274

be outdoors. You have the boys to play the parts. You have the talent for getting up pageants in your community, do not make any mistake about that. You can dramatize the history of your town with-Scouting as a feature, or dramatize the growth of the Scout Movement in the World, or select: some such subject as Heroes, Arts, the Sciences. Be sure the subject is one in which Scouting has a legitimate place.

Properly Used Drum Corps An Asset

Troop 4, Jamaica Plains, Mass., has a drum corps of six snare drums, a base drum and cymbals. Membership in it is a privilege, dependent in part on conduct and usefulness in the Troop. Scoutmaster S. C. Brackett, says:
"The corps is trained by a former Scout who has been drum major in the high school. Such training can be obtained in most large places, and we have seen good old drummers five miles from Nowhere, in the wilds of Vermont.
"The Troop runs under a regular program worked out for three months in advance. This provides for a game night about once a month, when extra time is given over to games. We also have drill for 40 minutes about once a month. The drum corps practices while the other boys are playing games or drilling, and thus its members lose no time from Scout instruction Or other exercises.
"Do not try to have too large a corps. Eight is enough. Run the drum corps to lead the Troop and not for exhibition purposes. Keep it simple. Confine it to percussion instruments. Do not let the drummers rehearse as often as they want to. Keep them to a strict schedule. Otherwise they will want to practice at every meeting. Our experience has been that the drummers are the very boys whom you are most likely to find on the overnight hikes."

Giving Schools First Aid
We project our Troop activities into the school and thus get boys interested, and also stir up some publicity, by supplying a capable older Scout to have charge of First Aid work. This was done last year and was so successful that another Scout has been appointed for the present year.-John H. Staley, S.M, Troop 7, Peoria, Ill.

pg. 275

The Spirit and the Steam for the Job

May each new year bring to you and to me:
A more vivid realization that it is the spirit, and the spiritual side of life, that count.

Respect for our Boy Scout job, and an appreciation that the average boy is not a simple proposition, to be measured by a foot rule, but a highly complex human being subject to countless influences, temptations, emotions and ideas which come pouring in on his consciousness, and than do our utmost, we can only dimly extend to him the kind of sympathy, friendship and spiritual help he needs.

Further growth in our own character, and a more vivid realization that, in its development, giving counts more than getting; that sacrifice for a cause is better than taking, on weight from overeating.

The appreciation that this Boy Scout adventure holds out the greatest promise for the future web fare of our country of any new thing brought for· ward during at least the last fifty years.

The conviction that stinginess in our effort and mediocrity in our results have no place in the Boy Scent program; that yen and I should either get the spirit and the steam for the job or get out of the job.


pg. 277

The Reading Programme
By Franklin K. Mathiews, Chief Scout Librarian

WITHOUT a Reading Program Scouting would be like a pianist with only one finger, whose tune, picked out key by key, utterly lacks harmony and does not outlive the playing of it. A boy's reading gives him countless pictures of scenes in which the training he receives in Scouting, school, and at home becomes dramatized before his eyes, and his respect for his Leaders, his confidence in them, and his willingness to follow them are strengthened accordingly. That is to say, if his leading is of the right kind.
That is why Mr. West characterizes the Reading Program of the Boy Scouts of America as "one of the most important factors in our whole Movement." What is this Reading Program Is it a list of books? Is it a daily schedule of reading' It does not disregard these things, but essentially, our Reading Program is an ideal set before the Scoutmaster.

pg. 278


Scout Film Earns Money for Troop

Successful presentations of various Scout motion picture films, recommended by the Library Department, continue to be reported from all parts of the country.
An especially successful performance was given at Stapleton, Staten Island. The pictures were shown under the auspices of Troop 9. The Troop had 1,500 tickets printed, of which 1,200 were sold by Scouts--one Scout alone sold over 400 tickets, while another disposed of 300. The Troop received over $60.00 net profit.
The success of this Troop and of dozens of others may suggest to Scout Officials a solution of their finance problems, and suggest, at the same time, a practical method of bringing the ideals and purposes of the Boy Scout Movement strikingly to the attention of the people of their local communities.

A Troop Budget

Baltimore Troop 70, Ralph E. Barnes, Scoutmaster, advises that the Troop is operating under the budget system, which was adopted February, 1927. Mr. Barnes has inserted one very necessary yet inexpensive item which he thinks should be included in every Troop's budget, namely, Baltimore Regulations. Distribution of the weekly dues, which are 10c per week, follows:
Boys' Life .......................... $1.00
Scout Handbook ................ .... .35
Troop Registration ........ ...... .50
Pins, Badges, Insignia, etc.. ................ 1.30
Miscellaneous ...................... 2.00
Each Scout ................... ............$5.15

Earn Every Cent They Spend

One point of pride which has become dear to Troop 1, Tyrone, Pa., is the fact that every penny ever earned for the Troop has been earned through the efforts of the boys. We do not ask performers to furnish an entertainment for nothing, and then content ourselves with selling tickets and reaping the funds.
The Troop has given Scout demonstrations, plays, concerts, carnivals, all the work being done by the Troop, and so successful have these affairs always been that the camp assessment has never been more than one dollar for any year. This is remarkable when one considers that our camp expenses for this year amounted to one hundred and sixty-five dollars.

pg. 279

Our dues are five cents a week, payable at the, weekly meeting every Tuesday night, and the boys are always prompt to band in their money. The Troop has been collecting waste paper, also, during the winter and spring, and a neat sum will be raised by the sale of this. Every Scout in the Troop owns the uniform, every boy having secured one for himself in spite of the fact that one public-spirited man of the town has offered to supply the uniform to any boy who cannot afford to buy one.
Most of the boys have knapsacks, axes, Scout knives, cooking-kits, and other pieces of equipment that are used in Scout work. Besides owning our tents, the Troop owns also, Sixtyfour cots, a complete cooking equipment, furniture for headquarters, and a number of miscellaneous articles necessary in our work.-Troop 1, Tyrone, Pa.

Earning By Doing
Two hundred and fifteen dollars in the Troop treasury from the sale of 23,611 pounds of old newspapers and magazines collected, baled and sold by our Troop in one year, speaks for itself. We do this sort of thing on a fifty-fifty plan, so that the boys get 500/0 of receipts and the Troop gets 500/0.Jonathan Guy Van Denmark, Scoutmaster, Troop 14, Cincinnati, 0.
My Troop met with great success earning money by a rummage sale of old clothes, books, and so forth, which were gathered up in paper bags left at the different houses by Scouts, and then called for with their trek cart. The use of a store was donated for the sale, the Scouts acting as clerks. We made $41 and bad enough stuff left for a second sale later on. --Charles Hayes, Scoutmaster, Troop 7, Watertown, N. Y.

Money in Cockleburrs
Carroll, Iowa, Scouts earned money for their camping trip by picking cockleburrs from three fields. J. A. Daugherty, receiver of a bank which owned the farms as one of its assets, paid the boys $2 a day, besides their meals, and furnished transportation to and from the farm


Raced to Pay Their Pees
We had worked out a mobilization plan by which the Troop could be quickly assembled in an emergency, but had not tested it. Announced at Troop meeting that on the following Monday night, hour not given, the mobilization call would be

pg. 280

sounded and at the same time a Patrol contest conducted. The first Patrol to reach Troop Headquarters 100 per cent. strong, every Scout with his re-registration fee, would be declared winner, and the Patrol's time would set a record for other Troops in the Council. The boys fell in with the idea with enthusiasm. The mobilization call: was given at 7 sharp, and the Scoutmaster was hardly ready before the Scouts began pouring in. The last arrival, a Scout who lives a mile and a half from Headquarters, reported just five minutes after seven. There was lots of fun, and we had a demonstration of real Troop spirit and cooperation, and re-registration business completed a week ahead of time.--L. R. Lucas, S.M., Troop 1, Claremont, Gal.

Secures 100% Registration
This is how one of our leaders is actually doing it.
1. He and his Troop Committee gave a complete report at a special meeting of the board of the institution which is sponsoring the Troop.
2~ The board officially voted to sponsor the Troop another year, and appointed the Troop Committee for the new year.
3.The Scouts and parents of Scouts in the Troop were notified by the Scoutmaster six weeks in advance of the expiration of memberships, and urged to re-register. (Credit is given in the Troop inter-Patrol contest for prompt re-registration.)
4. Every question on the application for renewal of the Troop charter is being carefully considered.
5. The application will be filed at Scout headquarters seven days before the expiration of the Troop charter. ·
6. The Troop's goal is "100 per cent. re-registration."

In Fairness to Scouts
The Scout is the one who really suffers if Troops are not promptly re-registered. He loses not only his standing as a Boy Scout, but he loses his faith in his leader and in the Movement which the leader represents. Something happens to him that no money or energy can replace. Is it fair to the Scout?

pg. 281

Saving Up the Registration Fee
Veteran Troop 8 of Easton, Pa., re-registers each February. We used to start right after Christmas to collect our 50c, but this would, drag along until the middle of February. Back in 1~24; we decided that as soon as the dues brought the treasury up to the amount necessary to register a full Troop, this amount would be turned over to the Troop Committee and would be held for this purpose. If a full Troop of old: Scouts was not registered, the balance was to be left with the Troop Committee for the next registration period. All candidates, of course, pay their first registration fees themselves.--Emest A· Andrews Scoutmaster, Veteran Troop 8, Easton, Pa.


Dealing With Absentees

One Troop tried this plan successfully with Scouts who were away from meetings; first, the Assistant Patrol Leader or Patrol Leader looked the absentee up. Second, if they did not have much success or if the Scout did not call next meeting when he promised, the Senior Patrol Leaders got after him. In each case the visit was made directly at the home of the absentee, for it is often helpful to have the parents of the boy know that the Troop officers want the boy to attend, and attend regularly. Third, if these calls were not effective, the Scoutmaster followed the matter up, and before the Scout was definitely dropped from the roll his name was reported to the Troop Committee, who in most cases assigned one of its members to visit the Scout's parents.
Cause and Effect: Of course, this all brings us to the question; why do we have Scouts stay away, aside from illness, etc. Is the program constructive, progressive, interesting? How are these for test questions!
1. What did the last program contain to advance the Scout mentally, morally and physically!
2. If a boy was absent last meeting what really interesting and helpful Scout work would he have missed?
3. What new games, or games with new "slants" to them did I put across?
4. What provision am I making for someone to take my place in case of sickness, etc., to run the Troop? Is he capable, and is he studying to fit himself to be a Scout Official?
5. Would-I be satisfied with the business methods of the Troop as practiced in the Troop if duplicated in my business'

-Tally Board, N. J.

pg. 282

Annual Troop Housecleaning
The Fall has always been a time for reorganization in the local Troop, but then Troops have different ways of carrying out this reorganization. All too frequently the process is simply one of "dumping overboard" the unfortunate Scouts who have not turned up at recent meetings, of shattering the Patrol lines of the previous year and setting up entirely new groups with new leaders and thereby beginning all over again where they started at the same season last year. This is a very wasteful way of reorganizing a Troop. If Patrols mean anything they should be able within a year to set up certain traditions and build up certain loyalties which will carry over to the next year, so that the "fall shake-up" will not mean a complete realignment of Patrols, but simply such minor adjustments within the Patrols as will serve to make them most effective during the coming season.

Knowing the Troop's Actual Condition
In conducting a Troop, you should have some method, as all other business executives do, of determining the condition of affairs. You want to know whether your Troop is succeeding or failing. While on the face of things to you it may seem to be highly successful, in the mind of the boys it may be a failure; or it may be the other way round.
One of the prime indications of the condition of a Troop is attendance. Do you know absolutely how your Troop attendance holds up? If your attendance is on the decline, it is up: to you to analyze the situation and find out why. If on the increase, the same thing applies.
Another indication of the condition of a Troop is the interest :he parents take in the Troop. The boy belongs first to his parents. If they understand what you are trying to do, you will usually get co-operation. To measure the Troop in relation to these and other conditions, I apply these tests:
Scout Tasks. Can my boys be depended upon to do a given task? If not, have I given them definite tasks, and then let the boys do them without my butting in?
Troop Meeting. Does Troop Meeting come above everything else with my boys? If not, is the same true in my own case! (Not only my own Meeting Night but Council Activities.)
Participation Do my boys want to, and do they participate in all Scout Activities' (Camp, public service, rallies, Troop Good Turns, etc.) If not, do I? Have I sold this to myself and them!

pg. 283

Advancement . Do my boys advance in Scout Rank? If not, do I use basketball and similar activities to make my job easy. Have I seen that they have an opportunity to pass tests'
Reregistration . Is membership in my Troop attractive to boys? (In other words, am I putting to work Scouting's greatest asset--the intense desire of boys to become and remain Scouts?) If not, am I planning each Troop Program, and my general Program carefully, so that boys want to join and remain in my Troop?
Troop Committee. Does the Troop Committee function? If not, have I given them definite jobs? Do they realize their responsibility, and are they organized to carry it out?
Leaders . Do the activities of my Troop develop leadership qualities in boys? If not, have I arranged my organization so that the real leaders are given their rightful opportunity?
Loyalty . Do I get from every member of my Troop real Scout Loyalty, both personal and to Scout Ideals? If not, do I set the example by displaying that Scout Loyally myself?
Oath and Laws. In short, do Scouting, and membership in my Troop, so affect the lives of boys that they live the Scout Oath and Law in their every-day lives'
K. L. Broum, Wheeling, W· Vo.

Use of Church Papers

We use the entire back page of our Church weekly bulletin to announce Troop 5 News. We give date and hour for each weekly meeting, state the character of it, and the name of the Patrol and the patrol Leader in nominal charge; also mention special Troop events, as, for example, announcement of "Troop Committee Night, January 30," which was in charge of the Troop Committee Chairman and open to all Scouts of Jamestown, who were entertained with moving pictures and a special program.-lMaavin C· Cokey, S.M., Troop 5, JMnestou~, N. Y·

Monthly Summary
You have a Troop Committee, haven't you? The best Scoutmaster in the world may not have time to send in reports to the Troop Committee and should not have to do it. His Scribe should do it. Then when the Scribe has it in form so that the Scoutmaster approves it, he should either send copies to the Troop Committeemen, or as the Scoutmaster's representative, invite them to a certain meeting for an inspection of the Troop and its records.

pg. 284

The "Difficult" Boy

A Suggested Problem and How It Was Answered

SCOUT PROPOSES for membership in the Troop a strong boy leader, prominent in athletics, popular, but a boy who cannot be depended upon for maintaining Scout standards of conduct.

Hold Up Ideals
I have known such a boy to be a member of a Troop for more than a year before he was finally converted. By constantly holding before him the ideals of Scouting, at the same time keeping him doing some branch of Scout work, the Scoutmaster can convert the boy to those ideals, and when "converted," he is very valuable to the organization.-Emerson H. VudEn, formerly Ass. S. M., Troop 152, N. Y.

Use His "Strong" Points
The noisy Scout, who talked out loud and sang all the popular songs during the Troop meeting was made Senior Patrol Leader so that he could make use of his taking ability in taking charge of the program. (Scoutmaster appoints him.)
The cut-up Scout just had to pull someone's chair out from under him and pinch the fellow next to him. A good meeting for the cut-up was at the expense of the other Scouts and usually the younger fellows at that. He was first elected Patrol Leader of a group of older Scouts and later appointed Junior Assistant Scoutmaster by the Troop Committee. (The Scoutmaster used his influence in this.)

When the older Scout became Junior Assistant Scoutmaster he, in order to do away with the temptation and confusion, proposed that the Troop try a few meetings without the use of chairs. (This proved very successful.)

pg. 285

Use Diplomacy
Unless a boy is totally depraved, there is always some weak spot in his armor. A boy must have strong personality in order to be popular and be a leader. The solution depends wholly upon the diplomacy of the Scoutmaster and his ability to lead boys. Find out what the boy's standard of honor is. He must have a standard to have attained both leadership and popularity. The next step is to blend the boy's standard with the standards of the Troop.-Walter W. MacDonald, President Muskegon Council Mich.

Study Him As An individual

I would say accept him, then find excuses to be with him as much as possible. Become close friends, visit him at his home, have-him visit you at home or your place of business, pick out his strong points and his weak ones and present them both to him. If you are a strong, conscientious man, likable and friendly, he will contrast his weak points with your own and will soon be endeavoring to model after you. Be tactful; don't talk of his faults before others.--Jas. A. Noonan, Assistant Scoutmaster, Troop 1, Bandera, Tex.

Get His Friendship
How do you know that he cannot be depended upon to maintain Scout standards of conduct! Take him on probation for three months. Do a little personal work. Let him know that you take a special interest in him. Get his friendship and confidence. Show him how you want him to live. If he does not come up under this treatment drop him. A boy of this type is well worth trying for.--Ernest K. Powlison, Plnkfield, N. J.

Good Stuff In Unruly Boys
Let me call attention to the advisability of holding on to the boys who make a poor showing as to conduct, obedience to rules, etc. One of the most acceptable Scouts in last year's camp was one who the rear before tried our patience the most. --Scozltmaster H. A· Waver, hT. ].

Give Him a Vision

I believe no boy, no matter how strong a leader or prominent in athletics or popular with other boys, who cannot be depended upon to maintain Scout standards should be accepted for membership in any Troop. However, any boy who has qualifications as designated above can be brought around to the point of view that Scouting holds out to him greater possibilities of leadership and of service than just plain athletic work. The Scoutmaster should take time to give this boy a vision, and I believe when he does have this vision he can be depended upon to maintain Scout standards.--F. Hozetard Covey, Scout Executive, Minedla, N. Y.

pg. 286

Bawling Him Out

From "Confessions of a Scoutmaster"
By J. HAROLD WILLIAMS Scout Executive, Providence, R. I.

WAS rather proud of my ability to "bawl out" a boy. Let anybody "crack wise" when my Troop was in formation I and I knew just the cutting remark to make to put him in his place, and keep him quiet, too.
And the Scout who was a "disciplinary problem"-J could get him off in a corner and hand him a' line of talk which made him feel pretty small, I can tell you.
I remember the meeting after the week when the Troop got wild, and broke two windows and the small organ in our parish-house meeting place. I told those kids a thing or two about Scout behavior, and some of the neighbors heard me, too.
One day I met Tim O'Neil in the lobby of the Journal office. In our town they call Tim O'Neil the "father of amateur baseball." Amateur baseball is Tim's hobby, just as mine is Scouting. He is president of half a dozen baseball leagues, composed of teams of players of all ages, from boys in their 'teens to young men in the twenties. Every fellow on a sandlot team in the city knows Tim and loves him, or hero-worships him, whichever way you like it.
I said, "Tim, don't you have some pretty rough times keeping all those youngsters in line?" "Sure do, Jimmy," said Tim.
"Guess you have to treat 'em pretty rough sometimes," I ventured.
"Never bawled a boy out in my life. Timmy," Tim answered.

pg. 287

"What, you mean to say you never gave a boy a call-down?" "Sit down, Jimmy." Tim led the way to the marble bench one side of the lobby. "Let me give you an example. Just this

week, a report came to me that the youngster who was catching on one of our kid league teams was getting in wrong, swearing at school teachers. I guess he was cussing pretty bad and: it was giving my outfit a real black eye.
"I sent for the boy to come and see me. They always know they can see me Saturday nights when I'm up in the sporting room working on scores.
"Well, the next Saturday night: I was sitting at a desk writing when out of the corner of my eye, I saw this boy come in. I didn't look up or recognize him. Just kept on writing. He sat down over at one side. I went on writing. I always keep 'em waiting a while, Jimmy. It makes 'em wonder.
"Finally, he got itchy. He came over and stood by the side of my desk. 'You sent for me, Tim,' he says. I looked him all over. 'No, boy, I don't think I sent for you,' and I went back to my scores.
"He stayed right there. 'Yes, you did, Tim,' he says.
"I looked him all over from head to foot. Why, young feller, you're a good, clean-cut looking kid,' I says to him. 'You've got a good face. You look as if you had some character and was going to be a real man. You're dressed nice, too. I didn't send for you. I sent for a roughneck by the name of Tom Black.'
"I saw the tears coming into his eyes, Jimmy. He looked through them at me and stammered, 'I'm Tom Black, Tim; honest I am, and I know what you sent for me for, and honest, Tim, I promise you I won't swear any more.'
"It got him, Jimmy. Pride. Everybody's got pride. Appeal to their pride and you can do anything. "No, I never bawled out a boy in my life."
I guess Tim touched my pride, too. Anyway, we don't go in for "call-downs" in our Troop the way we used to.

The Older Boy
Holding Him in the Troop

A HELPFUL STORY comes out of the life of Troop 51, Salt Lake City, Utah, E. B. Heisler, Scoutmaster, telling the result of a request by six Eagle Scouts for something in the nature of a "sticker's club" to hold the interest of older boys by giving them opportunities to put back into the Troop some of the things which they had received for themselves. This was a rather high-minded ambition, and after considerable planning, the Troop adopted the idea of the Asadonia Ring, which Mr. Heisler describes as follows:
Before a Scout can become a member he must have reached the rank of Star Scout, although at the present time eighteen in a membership of twenty are Eagle Scouts; he must have been a member of Troop 51 for at least three months; he cannot make application, but is elected by unanimous ballot. One of the principal requirements is the exposition of real leadership. The organization is for the older boy. A younger fellow would not appreciate, understand, or in any way care for the work. Asadonia is absolutely democratic and the Scoutmaster. who carries the title of Chief Adviser, has only one vote.
Definite Results: The effect is marked. With few exceptions, the only loss of Scouts in the Troop has been by removal from the city. At present, we have nine Assistant Scoutmasters, eight of whom are Eagle Scouts; every one has grown up in the Troop and has really assisted in carrying on the work although at the present time three are off at college. These fellows are carrying on the work of Scouting by assisting local Troops. Many boys of the Troop are over fifteen years of age, and three Patrols are composed of boys averaging sixteen or over. Our attendance at Troop meetings has been over 95 per cent., and in almost every instance absence has been among the younger fellows, and unavoidable.
In addition to the Assistant Scoutmasters, there are thirteen Eagle Scouts in Troop 51, ten Star Scouts, ten Merit Badges, three First Class, ten Second Class, and three Tenderfoot Scouts. When I say that not one, but all of the Eagle Scouts have more than the required number of Merit Badges, and a good many of them have over thirty and the ranking Scout in the Troop has fortqr-one, you will see that the program of Scouting has not been neglected after the rank of Eagle has been attained.

pg. 288

Your Scouts' Future Jobs
Fifteen minutes at Troop meeting, twice each month, sometimes a bit longer, is devoted by Troop 20, East Orange, N. J., to vocational talks. One of our Troop Committee is responsible for getting the right speakers. The Men's Club of East Orange, representing the various denominations, is one good source. He secured an army man and another from the Lackawanna Railroad, on Signaling. He locates civil engineers who can talk well, nature experts and specialists generally in the Merit Badge subject, and on Merit Badge and other vocational subjects. These talks are sometimes illustrated with the materials of the job being discussed. This procedure strengthens our hold on the older boys, and interests the younger boys also. This whole idea is to give practical direction to Troop activities. Helping a boy head toward the right job seems to us to naturally belong in a program of training for citizenship. In three years, fifteen boys from Troop 20 have entered college. Five of our Assistant Scoutmasters are now in college.--Harold A. Eaten, S. M.

Giving Him His "Rope"
A big problem is the older boy who is changing to a man. Careless, indifferent, clumsy, a trouble at all times. We use the Patrol system. Every thing the Scout does counts for himself and the Patrol. Anything he does not do counts against him and also against the Patrol. We all know how long any one would last among a gang trying to do something if he did not even try or care to keep up with the gang. "Kick him out," says the rest of the Patrol and you've got to do that or bust up the Patrol.
We kick him out figuratively; it is understood he counts neither for or against the Patrol, but his place in the Patrol is ready for him and is made welcome any time he comes. Usually he's a likable fellow. The other Scouts are glad to see him and there is no nagging or "bawling out" coming because it makes no difference, the other Scouts neither lose or gain and after a while he starts to come regularly and just

pg. 290

naturally takes his old place and goes along more loyal than ever because he appreciates that he's been "off" for quite some period and he appreciates the way he's been handled. He won't tell you so but actions Speak louder than, words. In a case of this kind Senior Patrol Leaders, Assistant Scoutmasters or Scoutmasters (as selected) are the only ones who hold the reins on that particular Scout.
Definite Troop Assignments Stops "Leaks"
Troop 5, Stamford, Conn., is in its fourteenth year, and has a record for holding its boys. A report on the operations of this Troop states:
"We keep boys from dropping out of the Troop by finding definite work for the older boy to do, and by not sliding over the tests. During the last nine years, we have conducted our meetings along the lines followed by most lodges--opening: ceremony followed by routine leading up to old and new business, and then breaking into classes for tests, after which comes the game period. This program lasts from 7:30 to 10.
"Our Troop takes entire care of all boys' work of the church, does all the janitor work, repair work and improvements in the several rooms we use as headquarters. These rooms are open every day from 8 A.M. to 10 P.M., with a different Patrol in entire charge of house duties, each week."

Inter-Troop Special Patrols
The Patrol idea is carried into inter-Troop activities in Yonkers, N. Y., in an interesting way. Two special Patrols have been organized of Scouts from different Troops, one for Nature study and one for leadership service. The leader of the nature study group is an Eagle Scout; membership is limited to advanced Scouts. Bi-weekly trips are taken to study forestry, mineralogy, botany and other nature subjects, under the supervision of adult specialists. The Service Patrol is limited to twelve Scouts, each of whom is pledged to become an Assistant Scoutmaster on reaching the age of 18. Half its members are actually leading Troops, others are serving as technical assistants to Scoutmasters. There is also a third city-wide Patrol, the Junior Service Patrol for boys under 16.

Make Him Peel He's a Help
The older boys are best appealed to from the unselfish standpoint. When un willing to stay for what they can get, they may remain in for what they can give.
Make them feel that they are a help in training the younger boys. Let them use their superior knowledge of Scout work by teaching the beginners. The best progress will be made by the


pg. 291

Tenderfoot Scouts if they can receive individual instruction from the Scouts who are more advanced.
Have a definite program of service for community and nation and show the older boys that their assistance is needed to carry it out,--Walter D. Covert, Stomfovd, N· Y·

A Service Patrol

A device for holding 0lder boys in the Troop, which can be strengthened by the new provision for Junior Assistant Scoutmasters.
Veteran Troop 8, Grace: Reformed Church, Easton, Pa tackled the problem of the., older boy by Placing an Eagle Scout (a student In Lafayettre collage in complete charge of the boys over 16 years of age, wo were put in a Patrol by themselves. Their objectives were to stick together, to stay in Scouting, to advance -as fast as possible in Merit Badge work to assist the Scoutmaster, and finally, at 18 years, to became Assistant Scoutmasters.
When this was started we had eight older boys who were losing interest. They all had a hard high school schedule, which, together with their other boy interests, kept them pretty busy. But they hold an indoor melting as a Patrol once a month, attend the first Troop meeting of the month--when we always have an outside speaker scheduled--and hold an outdoor meeting or hike once a month.

Use of "Slogan": Good results are showing up from this plan. Several of these older Scouts have continued to advance, and one has become an Assistant Scoutmaster. The Patrol adopted the objective of "Each One a Star Scout by Christmas." Now and then the Patrol is given full charge of the Troop meeting, and they do a creditable job. The, plan does not run itself, and the Assistant Scoutmaster makes it his responsibility to work with the P. L to find plenty of interesting things for the members of the Patrol to do.
Ernest A. Andrewr, S. M.

Older Boy '"Service Clubs"
Reference has been made to "Asadonia," the older boy program followed by a Troop in Salt Lake City. Other successful programs are the "Demolay" which is used in several places, and the effective "Senior Division" plan devised by Scout Executive Frank Gray, of Montclair, and used in Montclair and Brooklyn. Of course, no one interested .in older boy plans will overlook the Rover plan developed in England under the leadership of Sir Robert .S. S Baden-Powell. See his book, "Rovering to Success."

pg. 292

Using His Specialty

Every boy has some Scout requirement he likes better than all the rest. A Scoutmaster should remember this. If the boy is a good signaler, first aider, naturalist, hiker, swimmer, don't forget it and when the day comes that Bill Jones comes up and says: "I have decided to resign as I have been in the Troop a year or more and--etc.," meet him with this answer, "Well, Bill, I wish you would think it over, and stay with me and the Troop. You are a peach of a signaler (naming subject) and I should miss you. I wish you would stay and take entire charge of the signaling for me. Go home and think it over and let me know tomorrow."

If a Scoutmaster makes a' boy feel he is worth a lot to him the boy will stick and do his best to help his Scoutmaster. I had charge of Troop 22 and Troop 90 for several years in Philadelphia and found my plan of "Troop instructors" to work out well. I never lost a boy on account of lack of interest and now that I am away, the Troops are both flourishing and I have letters from these boy instructors nearly every week telling what they are doing.

System Gets Results

In our Troop every Leader must have something to do at Scout meetings, and the whole time for each Scout must be planned out. It takes some time to plan each meeting, but it is well worth the time. I do this with the advancement test card before me, starting with recruits for Tenderfoot, and assign to them the boys who brought them in and are training them, and assign them a special room to receive their instruction. I next tackle Second Class aspirants and put their names down for instruction in tests they haven't passed; the same way with those who are taking the First Class test. Then from my higher rank Scouts I select instructors for the various groups and scatter these groups around the room and in small rooms under the charge of Assistant Scoutmasters.-Fronklin L. Couch, Scoutmaster, Troop 4, Dolton, Mass.

pg. 293

Advanced Map Making for Older Scouts

As a rule, two reasons are given by the older Scout for dropping out. One is, additional duties in the school work, and the other is, the more or less natural objection of the "big" fellows to "playing" with the little "kids."

The remedy is of various kinds. Of course, we must avoid even the slightest suggestion of neglecting the school work, but even a high school boy must play sometimes and the problem is to make Scouting worth while enough to attract the boy from the alluring high school activities.
As elementary engineering beginning with advanced map making, etc., "works" for boys of geometric and trigonometric age. A special instructor must be appointed to take care of this work, if a number of boys are' interested.

Mixed Ages: The real problem, however, I feel, is with the two or three older boys who have come to feel "out of place"' in their own Troop due to the advent of newer and younger recruits. To cite an experience of my own--not long ago four of my boys came to me, filled with a somewhat exaggerated idea of their own importance (each being nearly 16) and protested against any more "little kids" being brought into the Troop.
As it happened, I had a snap-shot in my pocket, taken a little over a year ago and showing these same Scouts up as suite "little kids" themselves. They all admitted that it wasn't such a long time ago that that picture was taken and all agreed that it wouldn't be a bad idea to pitch in and help make big fellows out of these little kids and thought it wouldn't take long either.--R. 0· Bigby, Schsnectady, N. Y·

Adapt Methods to Ages
It is only natural that if a Troop has existed any length of time, the Scoutmaster must realize that he has to handle two or more distinct types of boys.
As it is impossible to instruct a grammar grade boy in the same class as a high school student, so it must be evident that the older boy must be specialized upon apart from the beginner.

Of course, to a certain extent the Patrol takes care of this but as the fellows get beyond the "gang" period, it is necessary to offer a program that will fit the boy.--James Kiberd, Lowell, Mass.
Note: Beginning on page 258 area large number of new projects for Patrols and Troops based: on the Merit Badge subjects, but not confined at all to holders of the Merit Badges

pg. 294

The Troop Committee

Dads As Troop Committeemen

OUR CONNCIL has, for the past two years, been quire consistently following the policy of enlisting fathers first as Troop Committee-men and Scoutmasters and with very satisfying results.
In the first place, Dads have a direct, personal interest and can be "sold" to leadership quite readily. Because they have a boy at home to enthuse them they stay "sold" longer. The boys help us a great deal. We go after men who have boys preferably 10, 11 or 12 years old, selling them on the idea of getting a running start n their boys. This idea takes and these men stay for several years, whereas your young man faces a constantly changing future and greatly, increases our leadership turnover, our Troop hazards and our headquarters problem of supervision.
Here are some of the advantages of Dads as Troop Committee-men:
1. They stay on the job more steadily and longer.
2. They require less training because possessed of greater knowledge, more experience and riper judgment. A man learns a lot of boy psychology from raising his own youngster.
3. They command greater parental and institutional confidence and co-operation.
4. Younger men, especially older Scouts, gladly help them, teach them and learn from them.
5. They furnish a recruiting source for Councilmen and Members of the Executive Board and make splendid Deputy Commissioners.
6. They appreciate principles, policies and organization more than do young men, likewise they co-operate more fully with home, school, church and other agencies.
7. The reflex action on the home is all to the good. They understand their sons better and are able to help plan their lives.

pg. 295

Special Assignments
Troop Committee-men, like the boys, will hang back and do nothing until given a definite thing to do. As one little stunt, I will mention that of having members of the Troop Committee call on the parents of the boss to invite them personally to parent-night Troop meetings. This brings the Troop Committee-men to the meetings also, and that result in itself is a long step toward getting the members to taking hold in good spirit. --A. E. Skaggs, S.M., Troop 15, Battle Creek, Mich.

Definite Jobs at troop Meetings
We have at least one Troop Committee Member present at every meeting, and many times all three are present. We accomplish this by giving each Troop Committee-man a definite job that actually brings him to the meeting. It may be inspection or one of the tests. There are plenty of ways to do this. -C. E. RauhcPuser, Scoiltmclster, Troop 4, Pontiac, Mich.

Let Them Know, What's Going On
Send every Committee-man a weekly report of the activities of the Troop. Not a cut and dried tabulated form, but a short story with a little coloring added. Things that created enthusiasm-the hikes, the campfires, competitions, all the incidents that the Scout of today will remember as long as he lives. This method produces immediate results.

What TrooP Committee-men Have Actually Done

Chairman Had cold meeting-place warmed.
Recruited Assistant Scoutmasters for their Troops.
Raised funds in Committee, among parents, and in Church, to help buy needed Troop equipment.

"Good Turn Man"
Developed an emergency traffic squad ready for duty on special occasions.
Trained a school traffic squad for regular duty at school crossings.
Communicated with all Service and Patriotic organizations, offering the services of the Troop for civic service.
Promoted and directed a city-wide health survey and clean-up campaign.

"Tie-UP Man"
Arranged special Church services for Troops.
Visited all parents of Scouts and enlisted their active backing for the Troop. (One Troop has a regular Visiting Committee.)

pg. 296

Had names of Committee and Scoutmaster listed with other standing Church committees and published regularly in Church Bulletins.
Promoted Troop Father and Son dinners; also Father and Son hikes.

"Test Man"

Arranged a number of industrial hikes for Troop on Saturdays, and assisted in conducting same.
Recruited special instructors for Troop on First Aid, Nature Study and other subjects.
Arranged to have educational motion pictures and slides shown at Troop meetings.
Conducted special classes in life saving and swimming instruction.

"Hike Man"

Took Troop to summer camp when Scoutmaster couldn't go.
Secured overnight camping privileges for their Troops on desirable sites.
Conducted Troop hikes where Scoutmaster was unable to go. Also assisted Scoutmaster in planning and conducting hikes.
Arranged some special form of entertainment at intervals for the Troop; coon hunt, a special "feed," a trip to the park, etc.

Acted as reception committees at all Troop functions.
Took over and operated the Troop successfully during a six months' absence of the Scoutmaster.
Members of Committee attended Scoutmasters' Schools so as to be able assist more actively.
Pastor on Troop Committee went out and conducted sunrise services for Troop out on overnight hike.
Assisted Scoutmaster regularly in giving tests and instruction. Built cabin for Troop.
Offered prizes and awards for special merit.

pg. 297

Adapting the "Visiting-Teacher" Idea to the TrooP

The institution known as The Commonwealth Fund for the prevention of delinquency, sponsors what is known as the visiting-teacher system for cooperating with the home and the school in handling "cases." Results noted are: Better understanding of the school system by parents, plus better cooperation, as a consequence. Better understanding of their children by parents, plus a more helpful attitude of mind toward them and their teachers. Willing assistance by parents in the development of civic undertakings, for the benefit of children.

Taking a hint from this constructive social betterment work, assign to the Troop Committeeman best suited for the purpose, the helpful task of visiting the homes of the backward boys in the Troop, with a view to promoting a better understanding of Troop purposes and methods by parents, which should result in better cooperation from them in the home; better understanding of these boys by their parents and assistance by parents in promoting Community Good Turns by the Troop, in which their boys will have a part.

Helping on Re-registration
The Scout Leaders' Association, of Springfield, Mass., have gone on record in the following resolution:
That each Troop set aside one cent per week a Scout, the maximum being 40 cents a year, for the re-registration of each Scout, the Scout paying but 10 cents one month before the registration is due, and the Troop charter filed at Headquarters at once. It is understood that a new Scout pays his 50 cents They do not care whether they, pay one cent a week, or 10 cents every three months, but they are figuring on the 40 cents and then one month before the registration is due, the boy will bring in his 10 cents for his next year's registration. This will help greatly in getting the Troop's registration in on time, and will save a great deal of time in following up and will cut down loss of boys.-J. HAMIL'ION LEWIS, Scout Executive.

Scoutmasters Pooled Their Problems
Through swapping ideas, the Scoutmasters in the Visalia, Calif., District were led into a very informal organization which has proved a big help to all of us, and so I am passing the idea along. Each Friday at noon we meet at a chosen cafeteria and spend one hour at luncheon, discussing our problems and getting well acquainted with each other. We have thus become familiar with each other's problems and have

pg. 298

become united in our efforts to solve them. As a result, we find the Troops which are represented at these Scoutmaster meetings working under a common system of advancement and operation, and there is a noticeable improvement in the condition of the Troops.--ChcrrEes R. Hurst, S. 1M., Troop 3, Visalio, Calf

When the Troop Needs a Pulmotor
An obituary was published in The Scoutmasters' Tool Box (supplement to December Scoutcraft, bulletin of: the Chicago Council), from which we printed a condensed summary, and suggested that every Scoutmaster whose Troop is "ailing," study it.
"Somewhere in this great country a Scout Troop died last week. We are sorry, because that Troop might have been a great power for good." For many months the boys knew that the Troop was sick. The leader thought, that his boys were "losing interest," but a post-mortem examination showed exactly what ailed the Troop.
1. For six years the Troop Committee had done nothing, excepting, perforce, sign the annual re-registration papers.
2. No effort had been made to keep the head of the institution in touch with the Troop, even to the extent of now and then awarding badges.
3. No reports had ever been made to the governing body of the institution on the work of the Troop.
4. The Scoutmaster had been powerful enough to manage the Troop alone, so he did not bother to secure an assistant.
5. There had been some theoretical (only) Patrols (but most of the Scouts did not know what Patrol they were in).
6. Never a Father and Sons' Banquet or a Mothers' Night program.
7. The Troop had never thought of the idea of attending church in a body, or of volunteering some definite service-folding calendars or something of that kind.

So the Troop died, when the Scoutmaster moved away. Died beyond the hope of resurrection, because:
1. No "gang" spirit had been developed to keep Patrols functioning.
2. The parents, knowing little about the Troop, will take no action.
3. The Troop Committee, being unconscious, can do nothing.
4. The pastor and the Board of Trustees are so out of touch with the Troop that they have no sense of responsibility to it.

pg. 299

Troop Headquarters

Baden-Powell says that--

HALF the battle is to get a meeting-room. This may sound strange to those who rightly understand Scouting as a program of outdoor activities. But a regular meeting place is essential, in order to get the boys together weekly to talk over things, get their bearings for the outdoor program for the week ahead, report on tests, and so forth. It is a primary Scout activity for the boys to clean and decorate the room and keep it in order themselves, and even make the furniture or earn its cost. Start in on that basis. This gives the boys more of a sense of proprietorship and responsibility. Make the boys themselves manage affairs as far as possible. Sit back yourself and let them make their mistakes at first, until they learn sense and responsibility

Troop Cabin As a Troop Project

WE were given permission to wreck an old building behind the church and put up ,log cabin as Troop headquarters
We put up a chain--we call it a shack--18 x 30 feet, of shiplap over the frame (roof included), covered with a layer of heavy roofing paper and then oak slabs. The slab work was the hardest part of the job. This construction gives us a very snug meeting-room.
On the front of our shack hangs an old-fashioned lantern with the Scout Badge painted on it. This lantern is lighted whenever we have a meeting. The walk leading up to the door is made of slab.
Our fireplace was built for us by a member of our Troop Committee, of rock taken from the foundation of an old barn. The chairman of the Troop Committee placed a bronze tablet Inscribed with the Scout Oath above the mantel; Each Patrol has its corner in the shack with small stools for seats, painted

pg. 302

to represent the Patrol colors. The stools are arranged so that the Patrol Leader and the Assistant Patrol Leader each has three boys to work with--like this--

P. L. (X
A. P. L. (X
(X X X) (X

We are accumulating a Troop museum inside the shack, also a library; the latter always contains Boys' Life. We also have an 8 x 10 movie screen for lantern slide lectures and motion pictures. The church pays our lighting bill. Each Patrol in turn keeps the shack in order for a week.--Thomas 0. Sletton, S. M., Troop 17, Lo Crosse, Wis.

Doing the Best With What you Have

One of our finest Troop meeting rooms was simply a portion of a church basement given over to the Troop by the Church with which it was connected, but the thing which made it a real Troop meeting-room was the fact that in every particular it bore evidence of the work and interest and time that the Troop officers and, we suppose, every individual Scout had put into the room and its equipment. Each Patrol had its corner, which served as a Patrol headquarters--and these corners were worth seeing. Decorated with Patrol emblems and trophies and with the "spoils of war" prominently displayed, they did much to perpetuate the spirit and traditions of the respective Patrols.

pg. 303

Turning a Basement Inside Out
Turn Memorial Troop 162, Overbrook, Pa., captured the basement of their church about a year ago, and have been busy making it over ever since. A diagram of the floor plan will be found nearby. The most needed commodity in the room was light. Here is how they got it, according to their Scoutmaster, Alexander B. Garwood:
We had four ceiling light sockets of the ordinary institutional variety. Four railroad lanterns cost us $1.00 each; Four plugs and sockets together with some wiring cost $2.50. The converted lamps were finished off with four Dim-a-lite sockets, and when you get these lanterns dimmed it creates the impression that you are: certainly away off in the woods with the real old-time oil: ramps throwing a soft light over your meeting.
Incidentally, this Troop is nine years old. The Troop had a piece of hard luck about two years ago; and found itself with no other meeting place than a camp-fire a mile out in the woods. After six months of that experience, the Troop was invited to become affiliated with the Overbrook Baptist Church. Boys of all religious faiths, however, are accepted into the Troop, provided they have their parents' consent. Protestant boys, who are unattached to any other church, are urged to unite with the Sunday School's Scouting Class, with the result that the Troop has added about eight boys to the Sunday School. "The Troop meeting room is open two nights a week, Tuesdays and Fridays," says Mr. Garwood. "On Tuesday, we have band practice and story telling, on Friday the weekly Troop meeting. Our membership is approximately 48 (8 Patrols and 3 S. P. L.'s). A library of 200 boys' books, a piano, a trek cart and so forth, are part of the troop property. Our slogan is, "A Darn Good Troop to Belong To," and time, interest and team work and a hearty respect for the other fellow have made it so.

A "Daniel Boone" Meeting Room

Our Troop meeting room in the basement of the Maxwell Street Presbyterian Church, is built in an exact likeness of a Daniel Boone log cabin. This is how come--
A room had been set aside in the basement for the boys and Boy Scouts of the church. It was roughly finished in plaster and in brick--no heat, no conveniences, nothing. The Troop had begun to attract the attention of men in the church and they became interested in securing a good meeting room for us. The log cabin idea was adopted and committees got busy. Rough-hewn oak logs were brought from the mountains of Kentucky, and every evening of the week, for seven weeks,

pg. 304

the men were on hand to help make the interior of the room over into a log cabin, by sealing up the side walls with the rough logs, bark side exposed. The logs were reinforced by 2 x 4 inch studding. The chinks between were filled with plaster over metal lathing. The steps leading down into the room were made of logs, smooth side up, and finished off with a rustic banister made from the branch of a tree. The ceiling was next sealed with rough oak boards, six inches wide, paneled off by logs. An iron girder across the room was hidden by logs, and the iron post supporting it was enclosed in a huge wild cherry tree trunk, split longways and hollowed out for the purpose.
A big stone fireplace was the only work not done entirely by the men of the church. The inside of the fireplace measures 4 x 3 feet, and the mantel is 7 feet high. Our andirons were made by S. P. L.

Handicraft Decorations

Among various ideas to do away with having chairs constantly rattling around, benches were built around the entire room. Electric lanterns, modeled after old-fashioned oil lamps, are used for light. For decorations, we have the bulletin board, a "Tin-can-craft" display of useful articles made by Scouts, two sets of elk antlers, a parade-size flag of the United States, won in a Troop contest, a knot-board, a stag's head, Troop flag, a mounted,giant fish, wildcat's hide, Troop charter, an inter-Troop contest shield won by us in 1921, the mounted head of a majestic Northern buck, and the woodpile.
So the Troop regularly meets in a room that, to all intents and purposes, is a log cabin of the primitive Daniel Boom type, a gift to the Troop from the men in the church. A local firm of architects says that the room, as it stands, would have cost between $2,500 and $3,000, had it been built on contract. The actual cost, including decorations of all kinds, was $522.70. -Robert Rouse, Past Scribe, Troop 16, Lexington, Ky.

pg. 305

What Is Leadership?

A TRUE LEADER KNOWS where he is going. I volunteered to act as a leader on a long hike one time. I ii thought I knew where I was going, but I was really only guessing and after hours of toil over little used trails, darkness settled upon us. We had no food, no blankets, and so stumbled on almost through the night--only to eventually come back to the exact point from where we had started. As a leader, I was a failure. Imagine my chagrin, for I had said positively I knew where I was going.
Very few boys know where they are going or are seriously considering the matter. How about you!
The reason there are so few leaders among men, is because there are so few leaders among boys. Think that over. "Don't wait to become a great man--be a great boy."

Keep in mind that nature never creates outright a leader; she simply furnishes the raw material, provides the opportunity to grow, and then lets the fellow finish the job to suit himself.
Know where you are going. So few folks really do know. So many folks do not believe it; is worth while to find out. They follow the cow paths to nowhere and bemoan the fact that they had no chance.
Get others to follow you, like the splendid plucky quarterbacks of a winning football team must, for he knows where he's going and how he's going to get there. That's LEADERSHIP. Think of it the next time you see a good football game.--From FBANK H. CHELEY)S "Scouting far Leadership."

pg. 306

Various Good Ideas--Take Your Pick

Our garden projects have proved a help in promoting thrift. --No. 1, Roseville, Calif., under Council:

We never meet indoors unless forced to by bad weather.-No. 9, Fort Scott, Kansas, not under Council.

We attend church in the evening in a body, the first Sunday every month, taking turns with the different churches the Scouts belong to.-No. 1, Lincoln, Kansas, not under Council.

The "Buddy" idea applied to the Troop increases the efficiency of the Patrol. Each buddy is interested in his fellow, helps him to advance, encourages him when he is discouraged, and sticks by him through thick and thin.--No. 2, Nezerberry, S. C., under Council.

Built Troop cabin, expenses paid by each boy earning a dollar and contributing same to fund.-No. 34, St. Lo2lis, Mo.

We find it a good practice to require each bor to read the Handbook for Boys entirely through.No1 Walholla, S. C., not under Council.

We have a different P. L. or Scout to act as senior officer at each Troop meeting. He makes out his own program and follows same, after it is O. K.'d by the Scoutmaster. No 5, Lexinoron. NC

We have the boys always planning for some hike or special work, which keeps them looking ahead for something to be accomplished.--No, 1, Towanda, Kansas, not tinder Council.

Brooklyn, New York, Troop 271, "stops the leaks," both at the bottom and the top, by calling boys under fourteen "Juniors" and assigning them to the same Patrols, and calling boys above that age "Seniors" and placing them in Patrols with boys of their own age Both groups have Inter-Patrol competitions. but the seniors are given "man work" to do, which keeps the juniors looking forward to becoming seniors, so they do not drop out. The seniors, enjoying their privileges, stick.--Asa Herzog, S. M.

I find that the more hikes the Troop takes, the more tests the boys pass.--James B. Moore, S.M.~ Troop 1, Belznett, Neb.

pg. 307


These Scoutmasters Say They--

Develop a waiting list, which makes all the boys anxious to hold their places in the Troop.--Troop 3, Vandergrift, Pa.
Numerous overnight hikes are a wonderful stimulus to re-registration, and hold the Scouts in the Troop.--Troop 516, Chicago, III.
Assign each A.S.M. a distinct department of Troop instruction for which he is absolutely responsible;-troop 2, Osage, la.
Always wear the uniform at Troop meetings; Scouts feel free to call at their homes Or get them on the telephone at any time.--Troop 18, Freeport, N. Y.
When there are vacancies in the Troop allow the Patrol bringing in a recruit to acquire him if it wishes.--Troop 4, Ithaca, N. Y.
Have experts on special Scouting activities give talks at Troop meetings, then two weeks later return to examine Scouts on same subjects.--Troop 7, Miami, Fla.
Develop Troop-archery teams of eight boys who construct from absolute raw materials, a complete archery set for each, consisting of six-foot lemon wood bows with bow strings, and six metal-tipped pine, arrows, 27 inches, for each, and one team target of weeds in canvas cover and including easel.--Troop 65, Kansas City, Mo.
Our Troop helped to organize four new Troops in nearby communities by putting on Scouting demonstrations." (That sort of thing will keep any Troop on its toes. Where practicable, follow through by lending your older Scouts to new Troops as temporary A.S.M.'s, S.P.L.'s, and P.L.'s. We have a report of one Troop being responsible for the enrollment of over 100 Scouts in other Troops.)

pg. 308

Getting Troop Publicity

The best press agent Scouting can have is a live boy living the Scout life and doing his Good Turn Daily. The fundamental for successful publicity by a Troop is the continual doing of good Scout work. The work of your Troop, however, should be made known to the parents and to the public at large by rallies, public meetings, community Good Turns, and by newspaper publicity. Regular write-ups of Scout doings in the local paper not only help to tell the public what Scouting means, but also serve to stimulate the Scouts themselves to greater efficiency.

Solving the "Janitor" Problem
The "Janitor" has been a frequent source of complaint and is often the determining factor in the tenure of a Troop in its school or church home. How do you solve this problem' Why did you fail?
Scoutmaster Wm. H. Atcheson of Troop 17, Staten Island, says: "Make a loyal supporter of the sexton by doing 'Good Turns' for him. He has not made a complaint since the Troop was organized. Some record for the boys."

Be at the End of the Rope

A good Scribe is hard to get. Pick a younger boy, as he will stay on the job longer than an older one.... It is all right for the Scoutmaster to let the boys and the P.L.'s run the Troop, give them plenty of rope; but let them know that you are on the other end of it all the time.... Encourage your Troop Committeemen to attend church with the Troop and to go on hikes with them occasionally.... I frequently note that when a Troop Committeeman visits the Troop he is not given something definite to do. If you make the members of the Troop Committee feel they are needed, they will show up and lend a hand at your Troop meetings and on your hikes. THoMas BILLS, Deputy Scout Commissioner, Belding, Mich.

Give Them Their Heads
The training itself is the best method; it is no use to wait for the boys to learn the whole thing directly; just shove the work on them and let them go ahead. Make the Patrol Leader responsible and he will jump to do the work.--BADEN-POWELL,

Housecraft can be as good Scoutcraft as is Woodcraft. One Scout did t~e housework for three months while his mother was sick.

pg. 307

Securing Parents' Interest

Investiture at Candidate's Home: There is a Troop in Lynn, Mass., which no boy can enter unless at least one of his parents attends the meeting when the boy takes the Oath and is presented with his Badge. The Oath and Law are explained in detail and the parent promises to see that the new Scout puts them into practice in his daily home life. If for any reason the parents cannot attend this meeting, the members of the Troop visit the candidate's home, for the ceremony.
Every parent has his problems in the home life of the boys and surely nobody is more interested in the 'boy than they. Regardless of this, parents of Scouts fail to keep themselves informed on what the Scout Oath and Law stand for and do not avail themselves of this fine opportunity of having just a bit better supervision of home activities.--North Shcore Scout, Lynn, Mass.

Tenderfoot Instruction in the Home

By going to the home of a boy who was ill and giving the Tenderfoot tests, I discovered the best hour and a half a Scoutmaster can spend.
Give those Tenderfoot tests in the boy's home, with Mother and Dad present. If you do your job in explaining the Laws, it will thoroughly "sell" the parents on Scouting. They will understand the high principles Scouting embodies. As It Is now, they may only feel that "it's a good Movement." They will know you and you them. They will thank you for the understanding you have given them. They will phone you for advice on Skinny and Red. They will co-operate to an extent that has been startling.- K. N· Clapp, S.hl., Troop 4,

Of First Importance
IT IS of the utmost importance that we interest the parents of each boy. We want to instill into the parents' minds the duty that they owe to the boys to see that they live up to their pledges. The parents must know about it and take an interest in it if we are to make this a stable organization.-GEORGE D· PORTER, Executive Board, National Council.

pg. 310

"Traditions" Make the Troop "Go"

POPE said, "What man has done, man can do." That is a good framework on which to construct this aphorism: 1 "What Troops have done, troops can do." "Third Providence" has specific results to its credit, and its work is worth presenting in a comprehensive way, for the study of Scoutmasters.
Many things have contributed to the success of Third Providence, says Scoutmaster Albert E. Lownes. Out: very name is a tradition. Back in 1914 there was a Third Providence. It lived for three years, and planted fertile seed. Two years later a new Troop came into being, and its Scoutmaster and Assistant Scoutmaster were both members of the "Old Third."

The Corner-tone of This Troop
Perhaps, more than any one thing, our belief in tradition has strengthened our Troop. "The Third expect- ": three simple words, yet they have often stood between our Troop and extinction. When the Troop was less than a year old, we began saying, "Fellows, you know it is a tradition in Third that..." And we still do it. A Troop with traditions does not live on its past but it uses that honorable past as a foundation to build for the future.

Planned Troops' Meetings

One of our traditions is: Every meeting shall be planned in detail several days ahead.
Our Troop meetings are geared into this other tradition: A comprehensive plan for the gear and a schedule of the main events and objectives shall be drawn up on paper at the beginning of the Scouting year in September. At the time that the Troop committee approves the year's plans, we select a slogan for that year and also one big piece of Troop work to be accomplished, say the building of a cabin.

Troop Committeemen "Father" the Patrols
Our Troop Committee lives up to our tradition for it: The Troop Committee shall be an active body. Primarily, it serves in an advisory capacity to the Scoutmaster. It acts as a Board of Award to review all Second and First Class tests, and awards these ranks. Each member of the Committee "fathers" one Patrol, and to him the Patrol Leader goes with his problems. They fill vacancies in their number when they occur, but one committeeman is always elected by the Scouts to be their "representative."

pg. 311

Getting Parents' Active Interest

It took us a long time to realize on our tradition that Every Scout parent shall have an active interest in and a chance to work with and for the Troop. But to-day we have no more interested members than the parents. This interest was gained in many ways. An effort is made to call upon: each parent when a boy joins the Troop. This gives us a chance to size up home conditions and to acquaint parents with the aims of Scouting. In return, we learn any special needs of the boy. Father-and-son hikes have been extremely successful. Fathers, by the way, are invited to attend all hikes. If parents fear to allow the boy to go on hikes or camps, the father is urged to attend a hike with him. After that there is no question of Scouting leadership. Semi-formal Parents' Night is held once a year, with special program and exhibits. Patrol meetings, held at Scouts' homes, arouse parent interest; and Troop mothers assist sometimes in preparing feeds for parties. A "chatty" mimeographed "newspaper" published occasionally, keeps parents informed of Troop doings. We seldom have a meeting without at least one parent visiting us. Sometimes there are a dozen!
Note:-The new Farm and Home Patrol places special emphasis on the linking of a Patrol with Scouts' parents.
Contact With Church and School
Another tradition of the Third is: There shall be real cooperation between our Troop and Church and School. No hikes are planned which will interfere with religious obligations. For First Class evidence, each Scout must bring a letter from his minister or Sunday School teacher and one from his school teacher (as well as from his parents and from each member of his Patrol). Copies of all Troop bulletins are mailed to the school, and teachers frequently talk over their "problems" with Troop officers.

Emphasis Is On Outdoor Scouting
"The Third shall be an outdoor Troop." Frequent hikes-day and overnight--are held. Supper hikes, leaving after school and returning early enough to study, are mid-week events in spring and fall. Outdoor meetings and night stalking and Scouting games in the woods of a park near at hand use almost every fair-weather meeting in spring and fall. At every indoor meeting we try to give three to five minutes to the demonstration and discussion of one "outdoor kink." It may be only a few words on the usefulness of blanket-points or the demonstration of one good type of pack or fire, but we try to drive that point home.

pg. 312

Once a Scout Always a Scout
True to our tradition, We shall keep in close touch with our Old Timers. When a Scout leaves the Troop he is reminded that the Third looks to the time when he will return as a Leader. Five years ago we held our first Old Timers' reunion Since then it has been a yearly event, coinciding with .the Troop birthday. ~ make it a point to keep our Old Timers informed of Troop happenings.

All All-Round Scouts
"The Third expects every Scout to advance i Rank." A graphic chart of each Scout's rank and advancement is constantly on our bulletin board. Inter-Patrol competition, individual challenges between Scouts, special neckerchief insignia for First Class Scouts, a Troop honor society( really a distinctive method Of awarding higher ranks in Scouting or installing sew Patrol Leaders)--all these help. But chiefly, "it's a tradition in the Third" that every Scout will win a higher rank; and The Third expects every Scout to be an all-around Scout. No "specialists" and no "stars" for us. We want no first-aid men who can treat nothing but a fractured wrist! Every Tenderfoot is impressed with the fact that some day the Third may need him. This thought is kept constantly before him.

Leadership Record

"The Third will supply its own leaders." This tradition produces surplus leaders, absorbed by other troops. (Note.--No less than 15 Scoutmasters and 25 Assistants, 2 Scout Executives and 25 per cent of the officers of the-local Council Camp, come from the ranks of this Troop in its ten years of existence,) It is quite natural that in connection with Troop advancement and preparation for leadership, we should have a tradition about Patrols, and it is this: Patrols shall be live entities and Petrol Leaders shall be leaders, Patrol Leaders are chosen by the Scoutmasters' Council. In turn, each Patrol Leader chooses his own Assistant, with the approval of the Council. Patrols are based upon the preference of Patrol Leader and Scouts.
Patrol organization is, of course, essential to Troop development. Active Patrols under real Patrol Leaders seem to me to offer the only hope for the future. Scouting is not the Scoutmaster's game, but the boy's. We are placing more and more responsibility on our boy leaders. Our ideal is to train our Patrol Leaders through a definite course of action within the troop. After that, to allow the Patrol Leaders practically full scope within their Patrols, with commissioned leaders merely to act as advisors and councillors.

pg. 313

And If a Boy Should Want to Leave the Troop?
Without intending it that way, we seem to do pretty well in "stopping the leaks" by means of our tradition: We still have a waiting list. Deadheads, beware! It is natural for a boy to covet that which others desire. A waiting. list, therefore, makes a boy think twice before leaving the Troop.
And here, to my mind, is a most important point. Contrary to usual practice, we make no effort to keep a boy in Scouting. If he is convinced that Scouting holds no more for him, we let him go. BUT, "the Third expects him back when it calls." For many boys there seems to be a "dead period" at 16 or 17 when Scouting does not appeal. A year's rest makes most of them ready for leadership work. The Third has yet to call an an Old Timer for leadership and be refused.

All First Class Scouts and Stilt Interested

Troop "1-2-3-4," Waseca, Minn., was able to make all its eighty-seven boys First Class Scouts, and then keep them interested. Its plan may be of value to other Scoutmasters.
Conflicting Interests: We found that the fact that the boys were interested in different tests, made it difficult to concentrate instruction on any particular things This difficulty was solved by enlisting the best men in the community to take charge of different subjects. For instance, the city engineer gives all tests in compass and map work. The public health officer passes all First Aid tests. We find that the busier and more important the man is the more willing he is to devote some of his time to Scenting, and, of course, the more information and efficiency will he hand on to Scouts. Lists are posted of all instructors, including those giving Merit Badge work, and it is left to the boys to make their own appointments, In this way he boys come in contact with many of the best men in town, and this contact atone is valuable training for future citizens.
Lagging in Tenderfoot Class: The next difficulty was that after passing their Tenderfoot tests, boys found they had all the privileges of a First: Class Scout, so they simply sat back, took it easy and attended meetings only when the spirit moved them, usually when there was no danger of any work being given. These boys acted like a wet blanket on the enthusiasm of the boys who wanted to go ahead and do things. We finally tried setting a certain date when all boys who had not qualified for First Class Scouts were to be dropped from the Patrols and seated on the side lines, being denied First Class privileges until they qualified. This action was drastic,

pg. 314

and I was doubtful if the boys would come across, or quit. The scheme worked.
Uses "Awards": Our method in keeping the boys progressing and then, after reaching First Class, keeping them interested, is largely a matter of thinking up privileges which may be given only to boys in successively higher ranks. For example, to push Merit Badge work, a very interesting trip to scenes of early Indian battles in Minnesota is promised to all Eagle Scouts. Patrol contests are carried on throughout the winter months to determine Scout efficiency, the winning Patrol to be given an interesting week's trip. To accomplish these results has required the closest kind of cooperation between leaders. Four of us have given the greater part of our leisure time to Scout work.

Securing High Average of Attendance
Troop averages 94 2/3% attendance. Each week the P. L.'s personally notify their members to attend. We also have a continuous efficiency contest, with charts on the: wall to show Patrols where they stand, and attendance at Troop meetings means points to the Patrols in this contest. So when a Scout is absent he gets no peace until he shows up at the next meeting, and then he has to do some mighty good explaining.
Last, but not least, we never duplicate a program at a Troop meeting. There must always be something different.
The Tenderfoot MUST advance: The incentive offered to the Tenderfoot in our Troop to get him into Second Class is Troop pride, of which there is a great deal when it comes to Council inspections--at which time the Tenderfoot does not mean very much in scoring points. I will not make a Scout a P. L. who is not a Merit Badge Scout, and an A. P. L. must be Second Class; the Scribe also must be a Merit Badge Scout. In this way I impress on the Tenderfoot that to amount to anything in Scouting, he must advance and be ready to step in and fill a leadership vacancy when needed.
There is no time spared in working with Tenderfoot Scouts, as we feel they are in the cradle roll of Scouting, and the sooner they get a taste of the big adventure, such as camping and knowing how to cook, and swing an axe, the more anxious they will be to advance to Eagle Rank.
The test cards of Scouts while Tenderfoot and Second Class, are kept in a prominent place in the Scout hut, for every body to see, and these act as a constant prod. We have no Tenderfoot Scouts enrolled at present, but have a long waiting list of prospective ones.-R. E. Hodgson. S.M.

pg. 315

Troop Mobilization

Putting Some Fun In It
This plan has worked in Troop 2 with success. This is a mobilization call, treasure hunt and weenie roast all in one. We collect 15 cents from each boy to pay for the treasure and the eats. The announcement is made that a mobilization call will be sent out at some time before the next meeting to Patrol Leaders only, and it is their job to reach every member of their Patrols. When the Troop is assembled, every boy is given a slip of paper with directions on it telling how to reach the treasure, using knowledge of Scouting as much as possible. When the treasure has been found at some out of doors place, a mile or so from headquarters, games are played and we close with a weenie roast.

The Patrol Leaders were notified by 'phone and the Troop was mobilized in about thirty minutes the last time we tried it. -Edgar Pl~nzmer, Wilkes-Borre, Pa

In Accident Emergencies

For some time the Scoutmasters' Association considered plans for mobilizing the Austin Boy Scouts. It was finally decided that the City Fire Whistle should be used, a special call having been selected. The permission of the City Council was secured and considerable publicity was given through the newspapers. Besides this a postcard with return card attached was sent to each boy's parents. This gave a brief statement as to the reason for having a mobilization call and explained how the boys would be called. The return card was to be signed by the boy agreeing to respond to the call and also by the parents granting their permission.
It was thought best to have a practice mobilization, so plans were made to call the boys just as they left school. When they reached the mobilization place it was announced that a street car wreck had occurred near by. Fifteen boys were sent to the scene of the supposed accident by automobile and proceeded

pg. 316

to raise two tents for hospital tents. They also assembled some folding cots that had been secured for the occasion and stretched a fence of guard ropes around the tents. In the meantime the rest of the boys were marched at double quick time to the scene of the accident and when they reached it, found some of the Scouts of the first division stretched out around the car tracks with tags indicating the nature of their supposed injury. They proceeded to treat them properly and then made coat stretchers and carried them to the hospital.

The boys were assisted by a squad of nurses from the Austin hospitals and from the Red Cross Society. Bandages were furnished by the latter organization and the tents and cots were secured through the courtesy of local merchants.-Scout COMISSIONER LYMA~F J. BAILEY, Austin, Texas.

For Troop Purposes

Troop 1, Shamrock, Okla., is situated in a town of only 1,400 people, and when I wish to communicate to the Troop for any special purpose, I am allowed to hoist the Troop flag on the municipal fl pole, and instantly ·a Scout sees it he spreads the word. This works splendidly. Twenty out of the twentyfive in the Troop will get together in less than half an hour.

Be Prepared

1. Inform every Scout's parents, by personal interview or by letter, that his Troop may be called upon to assist in handling local emergencies. Make it clear that the Scout's services cannot be accepted without his parents' permission. Tell them what kinds of service may be rendered. Provide blanks for them to sign, showing their permission or disapproval
2. Arrange detailed plan for reaching every available Scout in the shortest possible time. For example: Scoutmaster 'phones two Assistants; each Assistant 'phones two Patrol Leaders; each Patrol Leader 'phones one Assistant Patrol Leader and three Scouts. (If there is a Local Council, the call originates with the Scout Commissioner or Executive, who calls District Deputies. Deputies call Scoutmasters.) For every man, have an alternate. For, example: If Assistant Scoutmaster cannot be reached, an older Scout is called and does the Assistant's work.
3. Arrange an alternate plan for reaching the Scouts in case the telephone system is out of commission. Message may be carried by Scouts on foot, bicycle, motorcycle or motor car.

pg. 317

4. Supply every Scout or Scout Official who is responsible for calling others with a list of names, addresses, telephone numbers and any additional instructions needed. Let him understand that persons difficult to reach are to be left till the last. The ideals to get the greatest possible number in motion in the shortest possible time.
A quick and effective method for communities of moderate size is to display a mobilization flag (or a light if the call is issued at night) on the City Hall or other designated place.
Another is to give a special call on the fire alarm bell or whistle.

"General" and "immediate" Calls

A call for emergency may be issued during school hours or hours of employment, if arrangements are made with the school authorities, employers and parents.
There are two types of orders for mobilization. "General Emergency Mobilization" and "Immediate Emergency." The former allows time for each Scout to be equipped with uniform, haversack, Scout rope, signal flags, one day's prepared rations, pocket knife, first aid kit, two trolley tickets or carfare.
The latter calls for immediate response by Scouts without equipment other than that regularly carried on their person; Scout pin, First Aid kit and trolley tickets (or carfare).
A mobilization list of names, addresses, 'phone numbers and other information needed in mobilization are kept in a special file for quick reference.
Special calls may be issued for Scouts proficient in First Aid, signaling or other specialties. Tenderfoot Scouts will be called only in case of imperative need.

pg. 318

The Good Torn Habit

TO STIMULATE individual Good Turns we use the following methods:
1. Scoutmasters' talk on The Good Turn Habit.
2. A special ceremonial question in our investiture ceremony for Tenderfoot Scouts impresses on their minds the "Good Turn." 3. Privately and publicly, leaders compliment boys for especially worth while Good Turns.
4. Never refusing an offer of a service made by the boys.
5. Offering to old folks and shut-ins the services of Scouts to run errands, mow lawns, work in gardens, plant trees, bring books, escort them to church, etc., notifying them where they can get in touch with a Scoutmaster who will send the Scout to do the Good Turn.
6. Posting on the bulletin board the best individual Good Turn done during the week. (Anonymous.)
7. Holding discussions in Patrol meetings as to the effectiveness of certain Good Turns.
8. By refusing to let anyone take advantage of the Good Turn idea, we are then sure that when the task is finished the boy's heart says: "Gee, it's great to help someone like that," and not, "Gee, I'm glad that's over, and I hope they make the other boys do theirs now before they call on me again." To stimulate Petrol Good Turns we use the following method:
9. Asking our minister, the Salvation Army, the Chamber of Commerce and other organizations to keep us informed of need for service.

pg. 328

Trails and Community Service
THERE'S MORE than just getting Scouts ready for a Second Class Test to the subject of Trail Laying. As a community service there is nothing better for older Scouts to undertake than to mark trails.

Getting Everybody Into the Woods

Scouts of Troop One, Lynn, Mass., took it upon themselves to clear and re-mark a trail estimated to be two hundred or more years old in what is known as Lynn Woods, from the end of Lynn Woods car line to the so-called "Wolf Pits." These pits were dug by the early settlers of Lynn for the purpose of trapping the wolves which infested the community. The present renovated section of the trail is about three miles in length and has been cleared and widened to the extent of making it possible for a horse and wagon to pass through. This trail now forms one of the interesting public paths in the Lynn Park Reservation and has been clearly marked by the Boy Scouts.
Several years ago thirty-two Boy Scouts from Washington D. C., under the direction of E. S. Martin, built a similar trail four feet wide, and four miles long at Gilead, Maine, on the Wild River in the White Mountains. The boys worked on contract with the National Forest Service.

Historic Trail Discovered

Oklahoma Scouts have been interested in exploring the plains country to discover the wagon trails of the gold seekers and old settlers. Many of these places were marked several years ago, and the trails and marks have been kept up and Scouts are still pointing out with interest to succeeding generations of new recruits the trails so rediscovered and mapped.
The Meriden Council passed a vote some years ago that trail work should be a part of the Scout work. Out of this trail work grew the idea of the cross-Connecticut Trap Rock Trail which will probably eventually be carried out by the State Park Commission. These recent Scout Trails have been used for official trips of the Connecticut Chapter of the Appalachian Mountain Club.

Trail Clearing and Marking

These instances of trail making and other forest service by members of the Boy Scouts of America are mentioned here in order to get new background or setting for the familiar

pg. 329


Scout question "What shall we do next?" In other words. "Where do we go from here?" It has been suggested that Scouts might help to place road markers at junction points on many of less used country roads, showing direction and condition of roads as Good, Fair or Poor, in similar manner to the work of the League of American Wheelmen of a generation back.

Remember Scout Limitations

It may be well to add here a word of caution concerning the work that Scouts should or should not undertake. Many of our Scouts, eager for service and able to do many useful things, may not be old enough to swing the scythe or bushhook or to handle the axe or machete or other trail tools. On the other hand we are having more success than ever before in holding older boys. The Merit Badge system, new lines of civic service, the special branch of Sea scouting, wireless or radio work, and the many opportunities for real leadership among their fellows are appealing more strongly to the older boy or young man, so that we find they remain in Scouting longer than ever before. Surely such work as trail clearing and marking, arranged in conjunction with other authorized and more experienced adult organizations, is most desirable work for Scouts to undertake.

How to Plant a Tree

SCOUTS annually plant many thousand trees as a community or national Good Turn. The planting is best done LJ ;by teams of two. One is equipped with grub hoe or mattock to make holes, the other with a pail of seedlings, the roots of which are immersed in mud the consistency of pancake batter, ready to be inserted in the hole made by the grub hoe or mattock.
The holes should be dug large enough to permit the roots to lie in a normal position, and the trees to be set the depth that they grew before. The boy who digs the holes should leave the dirt at the side of the hole in order to assist the planter.
After the holes are dug, the trees should be set immediately to prevent the soil from drying, and inserted slightly deeper than they were in the nursery to allow fur the loose ground over them to settle.
The seedlings should be set upright, of course. The moist mineral soil should be firmed about the roots to help the tree to resist the loosening action of the wind. Grass or manure should not come in contact with the roots. No part of the foliage of the tree should be covered with soil or sod.
The usual distance to plant seedlings is about six feet apart each way. The nut trees, as well as oak and catalpa have a lone fleshy tap-root, about one-third of which should be cut off before the tree is set out in the field.

When to Plant

Hard-wood trees are best transplanted before budding. When the season has advanced so that young leaves appear on the tree to be transplanted, it is best to keep as much earth around the roots as possible. This can be accomplished by digging around the roots so as to leave a ball of earth which can be held in place by means of bags. When trees of this

pg. 330

kind are transplanted with little delay, and watered after planting, the losses should be very small.
Evergreen trees may sometimes be bought in small lots from nurseries. They are sometimes shipped in bundles, and they should immediately be dipped in pails of water when they arrive. At no time should the roots become dry. When the stock is to be planted, mix up a pail of soft mud, dip the roots in it. This is called "puddling." The trees are then ready to be planted.

Providing Christmas Trees

Foresters consider that 1,200 trees can be planted in one acre when spaced six feet apart. This job can be carried on by a crew of four Scouts in one day. In the case of planting evergreens such as White and Red Spruce, or Balsam, which in a period of ten to twelve years may furnish Christmas trees, and thus help to save our national forests, it is suggested that they be planted three feet apart, permitting 4,000 trees to take root in an acre of ground.
Seeds may be obtained at from two to six dollars the thousand from the Conservation Commission of any State.

A Perpetual Troop or Patrol Project

Many church and school grounds are destitute of trees or shrubbery. This can be corrected during the summer by Patrols or Troops, having in mind the beautifying of the grounds where they meet by securing trees and shrubs on hikes planned therefor and setting them out on such grounds.
One Troop landscaped and set out a very large churchyard, having the design therefor suggested without cost by a local landscape artist.
If the grounds or meeting places are already thoroughly landscaped, opportunity for similar planting is afforded by city or village property that may be unsightly and by playgrounds for children. Splendid opportunities may be found in any community.

pg. 332

The Christmas Good Turn as a Project

No Patrol project has more incentive in it than the Christmas
Good Turn of collecting and repairing playthings for distribution to very poor children at Christmas time. With a standard set for the number and kind of articles collected, and the excellence of the repair work done, patrols have a handicraft project ready at hand the year through.

Each year we receive almost amazing reports of what Troops have done to brighten the lives of thousands of children all over the country who otherwise would have been without Christmas cheer. This sort of thing is not confined to small games and toys, but includes school utensils, sport goods, articles that are useful in the home and practically everything that not only children, but boys and girls of years will be glad to have. The sooner this is under way, and the more nearly it approximates a Patrol competition project, the more satisfaction will your Troop have in its annual Christmas Good Turn.

Turns to the Christmas Good Turn

Last year, 291 Omaha Scouts put in the equivalent of 209 working days in the Council's toy-shop preparing toys for the unfortunate children of the city.

Playthings above toy grade collected and made as good as new for similar distribution.
Tools and other useful articles that boys and girls like to own treated in the same way.
Good books put into good shape, and decorated jackets made for them.
Warm clothing repaired, cleaned and pressed.
Troop 11 at Ottumwa, Iowa, packed and distributed 12 baskets of food on Thanksgiving Day, and 15 on Christmas last year; the delivery was made in 10 below zero weather.

Articles do not necessarily have to be second-hand to be appreciated.
One reason why some boys and girls do not go skating is that they do not have skates.
Some husky young boys might be able to earn a little money for the family needs if someone would give them serviceable snow shovels.

pg. 333

Troop 42, Kansas City, Mo., as a Patrol project, outfitted the home of a widow and three children with furniture, bedding, clothing, and food, and a radio, playthings and books, plus a tree with trimmings.
Troop 44, Paterson, N. J·, carried its Christmas Good Turn into the local orphan asylum, and suggests as a Good Turn a Christmas party, in place of the Troop meeting nearest to Christmas, with gifts for each young guest invited from among the unfortunates of the community.

Helping Traffic Authorities

The Chamber of Commerce at Coming, N. Y., wished to make a study of traffic problems on Saturday nights and busy days, when the matter of finding parking space was acute. It was decided to call Scouts into action, and Troop 23 was selected to furnish a detail of boys; 13 boys were selected, 12 in teams of two, to cover assigned territory, the thirteenth to act as recorder at the Chamber of Commerce office. Each boy went to his post at 7 o'clock in the evening, counted all the cars parked in his territory, every hour for three hours, and reported to the recorder. The total number of cars parked in town, and where they were parked, was known fifteen minutes alter the hour. This work was repeated on three different occasions, parked cars being counted a total of nine times. The Scouts won the thanks of the Chamber of Commerce, and of the community, for their efficient contribution to the solution of the parking problem of Corning. The President of the Chamber of Commerce, in acknowledging the work and commending the Scoutmaster of the Troop, Richard Reynolds, said he knew no other organization in position to do a piece of work like that for the city.

Only One a Day?

The real purpose of the Daily Good Turn is to inculcate habits of courtesy, kindness, helpfulness, self-forgetfulness, SERVICE. Do not let boys ever suppose that one little socalled Good Turn fulfills the spirit of the 3rd Scout Law. It isn't a matter of daily duty, but of daily opportunities (plural) to think of others first. The combination of kindness and Scoutcraft ability makes the ideal Good Turn.

Missing 335-339


pg. 334

Scouting Morale

THERE MUST BE RESPECT for authority. There must be no selfishness on the part of an executive, on the part of a volunteer leader. There must be no petty jealousies. There must be no divided leadership, no
confusion of purpose. There must be no lost motion and no waste of time or effort. These things we must achieve if we are to reduce our mortality, if we are to give Scouting a universal appeal to every boy, if we are to hold our members fast in firm allegiance through all the years to mature manhood and beyond. Every investment of money, time or effort must pay dividends of definite accomplishment. In whatever we undertake, we must fix the goal definitely, we must count the cost carefully, we must achieve the purpose which we have set, within the time, within the cost, and within the effort which we have been allotted.
The Boy Scouts of America, as an organization, may have its head in the clouds but it must keep its feet'on the ground--Waiter H. Head, President, Boy Scouts of America.

pg. 340


CO-OPERATION throughout the Scout field is so necessary if we are to have uniformity of procedure in those things that properly represent Scouting to the public and among Scouts, such as the use and wearing of insignia and all parts of the uniform, the use of the Scout Sign and Scout Salute, and many features of the activities, that it has been thought wise to repeat here certain important statements of policy as a reminder to Scout Leaders. To know and adhere to official regulations is so essential a part in the training of Scouts for participating citizenship, an emphatic reference to this surely has a place in the How Book of Scouting.

Chief Scout Executive.

Use of the Insignia

It is essential far the protection of the Movement that Scout leaders co-operate with National headquarters to prevent the improper use of the official insignia of the organization. Frequently, owing to a misunderstanding of the facts, Scout Officials themselves have been the unwitting cause of embarrassment by reproducing the Scout emblem without authority on printed matter, on banners or in connection with special medals, pins and contest trophies.
The designs of the Scout Badges are copyrighted and that of the First Class Badge is registered at the United States Patent Office as the trade-mark of the Boy Scouts of America, Inc. Its reproduction in any form whatsoever, without permission, is therefore contrary to law.
The purpose of the National Council in surrounding the Scout emblems with every possible legal safeguard against reproduction, is to protect the members of the Boy Scouts of America in the exclusive right to the use of their emblem against those who have not earned the right to use it by meeting the requirements of a Scout. Furthermore, such safeguards are a protection against unscrupulous dealers in merchandise who otherwise might use the badge design or seal to promote the sale of inferior articles of alleged Scout equipment.
The importance to everyone interested in the Boy Scout Movement of co-operating to avoid any misuse of the badge designs may be better understood if it is realized that laxity on

pg. 341

their own part in this respect may jeopardize the effectiveness of the protection secured by the copyright and trade-mark.
Do not ask a printer or die-maker to reproduce the Scout emblem on your programs, tickets, flags, badges or contest prizes for local use without consulting the National Council Headquarters. Under proper conditions, permission will be specially given to local Officials to make use of official emblems for such purposes, especially in connection with printed matter.
If special pins or prizes upon which it is desired to use the emblem are wanted locally, it is suggested that a sketch be submitted to National Headquarters and advantage taken of the resources of the Supply Department to furnish whatever is required at low cost. Purchasing in this way will also avoid creation of new dies of badge designs which possibly may 'later become a source of embarrassment through unauthorized use.

Official Regulations Imperative

We have been making efforts for several years to secure the loyal co-operation of Scout Leaders in a more faithful regard for the prescribed manner of wearing the Official Uniform, and especially the neckerchief. In the last year I have had occasion to be with innumerable groups of boys, and it is most heartening to observe the evidence of progress. But there are still some who either fail to understand what the regulations are, or fail to appreciate their responsibility to see that these regulations are observed. In some few cases, I understand that the failure to be guided by the official regulations represents a difference in opinion as to what the regulations ought to be.
It should be an easy matter for such a Leader of boys to analyze for himself the significance of this attitude. It is surely out of harmony with the ideals and purposes of Scouting for developing character and citizenship training, for a Scout Leader to be a party to a deliberate disregard for an explicitly stated regulation, no matter what his personal claim may be. It is the privilege of all Scout leaders at any time to register a different point of view, and ask to have a regulation altered. But: does anyone have the right to make boys a party to disregard for official regulations? Can it be done without saving to such boys: "Rules and regulations and law need not be taken seriously if you do not agree with them!" Isn't this an unsound--yes, a dangerous--doctrine, to which to lend leadership with growing boys? Leaders in America today need to think straight and soundly as to the obligations of each and all of us to be guided by rules and regulations, as well as by laws!

Only One Scout Uniform

If you wear the uniform, wear what is UNIFORM. That "UNI" in uniform means "ONE"-one form, and the whole word means "Like, One Another." That doesn't mean that you have to start off with every boy in uniform. Not at all. It's much better that each boy earn his own money for his outfit. Why not start out with a plan for every one of your boys having a Scout hat?' Then every boy to have Scout breeches; then Scout shirt; then Scout belt; then Scout stockings; then neckerchief. And there you are--all uniformed; the Scoutmaster should uniform along with his boys. It's great encouragement for them. One Scoutmaster in a big western city got jobs of sawing and putting in wood, and they all worked at it evenings and Saturdays until all were uniformed. Plan it out with your Scouts, and keep in mind that the official uniform is as inexpensive as makeshifts and cheaper than "civies."

Keeping Up Appearances

A spic and span appearance in a Troop does not occur through haphazard management. The Troop that makes a fine appearance does so because somebody, perhaps the Patrol Leaders' Council, has planned and worked until the Troop reached that goal. The thing is worth planning for. The sloppilydressed Scout is going to be sloppy in his character as wellwhile the neat and trim Scout is going to be that much better within. Let the Patrol Leaders' council, therefore, address itself to this important question right now.

Within Reach and Worth Reaching For

DO not be too easily persuaded that a boy cannot afford the uniform--which is the principal reason given for not purchasing it in Troops that are not in uniform.
Used whenever suitable to do so, and properly cared for, the Official Scout Uniform unquestionably is a money-saver in lessened wear and tear on other clothes.
The effort to earn and save the money for its purchase, is a never-to-be-regretted lesson in perseverance, resourcefulness and thrift.
The sense of ownership of property enjoyed by a boy who has earned his uniform is of life-long value to him.
The physical, mental and moral set-up imparted by the uniform, to the boy who wears it, is out of all proportion to any sacrifice he may have to make in order to own it.

pg. 342

The sense of team strength, Troop morale, good appearance, and everything of that kind that comes to the Troop, as a whole, when every boy is in uniform, counts enormously for ambition and achievement, and for the permanence of the Troop.
All these and other blessings that follow upon the purchase and use of the official Boy Scout uniform by the Scout, make the Scoutmaster's task far easier, far pleasanter and of immensely more satisfaction to him.
In this connection, note the following resolution adopted by the Patrol Leaders of Philadelphia, at their recent annual Conference:
That we believe a Scout in uniform gets more enjoyment from Scouting and that the wearing of the Scout uniform helps a Troop. We, therefore, endorse the plan to have Troops endeavor to have 100% of their boys in uniform.

Movies or Troop Meetings?

It is unfortunate to let a boy believe that his Scout uniform is of so little importance that he can divide his income between it and ice cream sodas and picture shows. His will power should be so developed that he can decide at once whether he prefers to be useful, or merely amused, then go to it, by the way of the Scout meeting, or the soda fountain or the ticket window as he may decide after a frank talk with the Scoutmaster.
They say they can't get the money, but other boys show that it can be done. The Scoutmaster can help by finding jobs and more, by his attitude of expecting big things of the boy.

Putting U in the Uniform

Troop 12, Buffalo, is in uniform, every man. This has been accomplished in two ways: First, by making the uniform count heavily in the Patrol point contest. A boy out Of uniform knows he is holding back his Patrol. Second, by having the entire staff of officers always appear in uniform.

Using the Scout Certificate
A number of our best Scout Leaders have called attention to the fact that there is much laxity among Troop Leaders as to the use of the Scout Membership Certificate.
I have in mind to organize some aggressive propaganda to encourage a greater use of the Membership Certificate, to the end that we may reduce to a minimum the participation of Scouts in Boy Scouts of America activity, unless they are actually registered in good standing, and I know no better way to do

pg. 344

this than to make effective the original intention of the Membership Certificate.
It has grown upon me, that undoubtedly there are a great many boys, who having failed to re-register with the re-registration of the Troop, are permitted to continue participation, even appearing before Courts of Honor for higher ranks, participating in rallies, inter-Patrol contests, inter-Troop contests, city-wide rallies and competitions, without reference to their status in a Troop.
If we could sell to all Scout Leaders the values that would come to the Boy Scout Movement in making this individual pocket certificate of more vital importance, even to the extent of having it serve as the only means of identification in purchasing Official Uniforms and Equipment, it would mean much progress.
I believe that most Executives are following this practice, but ii for any special reason a Local Council feels it is desirable for the boy to come to the office to get a special certificate, why shouldn't he present his membership card at the local office as evidence of his right to get the added certificate, and why shouldn't the representative of the National Outfitter require both the local Certificate and the National Certificate?

Religious Responsibility

At the Fellowship Meeting at Hot Springs, Mr. West read declaration of policy of the Boy Scouts of America as to its responsibility to give leadership, to seeing that every boy receives religious training. "The Leaders of the Scout Movement," he said, "were men of deep religious convictions. The Boy Scouts of America, while frankly aiming to encourage religious instruction, has carefully avoided becoming involved as an organization in the responsibility for denominational teaching; yet we who are leaders in the Boy Scouts of America, have very definite convictions, and each in our own respective field of responsibility are obligated to interpret to those with whom we work and to the community those definite obligations; and it has been our custom in all community gatherings and in all of our

pg. 345

National meetings to very definitely recognize, in an appropriate way, this definite concern of leadership of the boyhood of America through Scouting in the importance of religious instruction."

Week-end Hikes in Relation to Church Attendance

Resolution Adopted at the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the National Council, Held at Chicago, March 29-30, 1922

WHEREAS, the Boy Scouts of America is specifically and faithfulness to religious pledged to encourage reverence obligations;
AND WHEREAS, the attention of the National Council has been called to the fact that in some cases, Scouts have been permitted to neglect church attendance while at week-end camp or on week-end hikes,
BE IT RESOLVED, that the National Council record its disapproval of programs for the week-end hikes or camps which preclude the attendance of Scouts from religious services, or which cause loss of credits for the individual or Patrol, or Troop if the Scout elects to remain at home to attend church.

The Challenge

Scouting has no distinction of class or creed. The ideals which it cherishes find fertile soil alike in the mind of Jew and Gentile, of Catholic and Protestant. The training of body and mind which Scouting encourages makes better citizens in the largest cities and in the smallest hamlets of our land.

With such an organization, in which you men have won your right to participate, there are no limits to which Scouting may go in America. We have more than 663,000 boys enrolled in Scout activities. We have, in round numbers, 5,000,000 boys of Scout age outside our ranks. That number constitutes a challenge to each and every one of us.

These boys who are given into our hands to mould, in a few years will be taking over our responsibilities, will be doing our work, and will be achieving new goals beyond our power today even to comprehend. It is our responsibility today to extend to every one of them the opportunities afforded by membership in the Boy Scouts of America.--WaLTER W· HEAD.

pg. 346

Solicitation of Funds

Press clippings coming to National Headquarters showing that Scouts are participating in the sale of tags and other articles for charitable purposes, indicate that we have not been as diligent as we should have been in calling the attention of new Executives to the policy of our National Council, urged almost from the beginning, that Scouts shall not enter into campaigns for selling any articles whatsoever, as Scouts, that shall involve the handling of funds. Even on so important an activity as the selling of Thrift Stamps, Mr. West, in the year 1918, wrote as follows:
If We have thoroughly canvassed the question as to what is right and proper in placing -responsibility upon boys and girls, and it is our judgment that we have no right to assume the responsibility of placing upon children temptation which comes in the handling of funds, even if incident to so patriotic an enterprise as selling Thrift Stamps."
This policy has been set up many times, both before and since such utterance. This has prevented the participation of the Scouts in several very worthwhile activities, but individuals and organizations conducting the same have been quick to see the wisdom of such policy and have been glad to co-operate in its carrying out. We hope that Scout Executives will be equally prompt in calling this policy to the attention of those not yet cognizant of it and thus prevent a criticism that might ensue if Scouts were permitted to participate in such selling campaigns.

Credit for Material in the "How Book"

Where credit does not appear, the original source is not known, or else material has been extracted from various articles and incorporated with other similar extracts in such a way that it would be confusing to attempt to give credit.
While we are sure that under the circumstances no one whose name does not appear in connection with an item which he originally contributed, will mind its appearing anonymously, yet we do wish to make this explanation in all fairness, at the same time to express the warmest appreciation for the co-operation in the past from the field which has given to the National Office so much valuable Scoutcraft material.
Practically all of the material has appeared in SCOUTING or SCOUTMASTERSHIP NOTES even though credited here to some other publication from which we originally reprinted it.

pg. 347

A Crisis, A Man, And A Boy

THE MAN was manifestly unhappy. Practically everyone in the crowded rear of the 6 o'clock car had noticed the gloomy cast of his face. It seemed out of place the Christmas-time atmosphere. Bundle-laden folks were smiling at each other as if to say, "So you've got Christmas presents, too." The Man had enough bundles, but he didn't smile.
The Man got off at his street corner; walked a short block home and entered. Flinging his coat and bundles into a chair. he sat for a moment in the dark before the living-room desk. Then he switched on the desk light. From his pocket he drew out a letter and read it. He had evidently read it many times before, to judge from the creases.
It was a resignation. The Man was quitting.
The letter was addressed to the Chairman of a Troop Committee and it was signed by the Man, as Scoutmaster. In between were several paragraphs of regrets and excuses about lack of time.
The letter should have been posted days ago, for tonight was the Troop meeting night and the boys were to be told just before dismissal. The Man had made up his mind about that, but somehow he had kept putting off the posting of the letter. He told himself it wasn't really quitting. It was for the good of the Troop.
The Man sat there until a call from the kitchen revealed that his wife had discovered his presence.

THE TROOP MEETING was almost over. The Patrol Leaders had brought over the hats filled with nickels and dimes which the Patrol members had been saving for their Christmas Good Turn. A widow and her little children were to be provided with coal and warm clothing.
The Man sat at a table counting. Among the coins from the Beavers, he noticed a slip of paper. He unfolded it.
"I can't give any money," the slip read. "We need it ourselves. But I'11 give time. I'11 go over to her house every night after supper. Maybe I can help her somehow." It was signed by a Boy.
The Man lost count.

THE TROOP was in line for dismissal. The words he had framed to himself so many times were on the Man's lips ("I'm sorry, boys, but I'm so busy I find I must give up the Troop"), but they didn't come out.
The Man's eyes followed down the line. Foxes, Flying Eagles Pine Trees. Beavers. There stood the Boy.
The Man's lips moved. He said, "--A Merry Christmas, Scouts. Troop Dismissed."
Outside, the Man tore up a letter and threw it down a street drain. He walked home whistling loudly.

pg. 348


A System Not Over-systematized

STEREOTYPED, over-systematized meetings soon become a bare. A boy craves for variety, and the wise Scoutmaster satisfies this craving with something absolutely new at every meeting--some new "stunt" or game, or at least a new method of doing an old act.
Before a Troop meeting program is accepted, the Scoutmaster should be able to answer affirmatively all the following questions:
1. Will this meeting help to accomplish Scouting's purpose with these boys!
2. Will this meeting help to carry out the year's program that was planned'
3. Will this meeting interest the Scouts?

Dividing the Work
Few businesses that are "one-man organizations" are successful, and likewise where we find in one man the Scoutmaster, Scribe, and Patrol Leader, a Troop seldom accomplishes much with the individual boys. The secret of success in Scouting, as well as in business, is, I think, the ability to delegate to others that which is not necessary for the Executive himself to do.

pg. 350

Requisites for Troop Meetings
Action : Normal boys have an abundance of animal energy. Give them games, contests, drills, something to provide an outlet for this energy. Otherwise they will be restless and hard to manage.
Instruction : Each meeting must lead the Troop one step further up the Scouting ladder. Each Scout should learn something new every time he comes to a meeting.
Recreation : Yells, songs, and impromptu plays may be used. Every meeting should include games that Scouts enjoy.
Inspiration : The Scout Oath and Laws form the basis of all Scouting. The moral principles therein expressed must be kept constantly before the Scouts in an attractive and suggestive way.
Investiture ceremonies, inspiring stories of men that have set an heroic example, and short talks by the Scoutmaster are useful.
Occasionally a single activity will include two or more of the above "requisites."
Troop Business : Routine matters, such as roll-call, collection of dues, announcements, making plans for hikes and the like are bound to arise and demand time during the meetings. while these have important training value, yet Troop business should be kept at a minimum.
Inspection : Many Scoutmasters hold a brief inspection every meeting. Every month or two a real thorough inspection should be given.
Starting and Ending : The meeting proper should begin on time, close on schedule and the Scout should go directly home.
Before the meeting actually starts, the Scoutmaster should transact his business with individual Scouts. Keep the others busy with games, etc.
After the meeting is dismissed the Scoutmaster can hold a brief officers' meeting to check up the results of the meeting and make plans for the next meeting or bring up other matters.

pg. 351

Talks and Story Telling: This is the Scoutmaster's big opportunity to get across to his Scouts the principles and spirit of Scouting. All talks should be short and snappy, humorous, perhaps, and filled with a spirit that will enthuse the Scouts. Don't nag or bawl the Scouts out. Don't talk long; three or five minutes is plenty.
A story should be something alive, gripping, vibrating with real manliness. It should also be short, although it may be longer than a talk. Fifteen minutes is about right if you can hold the interest of the boys. Boys' Life, the American Boy, the Youth's Companion, and other such magazines all contain good stories.
Drilling : Drilling is important in that it develops discipline, correct carriage and appearance. It should not, however, be overdone; not extend over twenty minutes, and often five or ten minutes will be enough. It is also advisable for the Scoutmaster to call out different Scouts and let them try to drill the Troop for short periods. Use setting-up exercises, O'Grady Drill, etc., as substitutes for military drilling.--The Scout Signal (Detroit).

Before Meeting Begins
Be on time. A boy will do anything for you with good grate, except WAIT.
Have a definite purpose for each meeting.
Plan your work. Work your plan.
List and have ready all needed equipment.
Keep every moment busy.
Something must be happening every minute. You make it happen.
Collect all dues before meeting.
Train Patrol Leader to prepare room for the meeting to fit the program.
Keep visitors in proper place.
Get members of Troop Committee to attend as often as possible.
Give them some definite thing to do.

The Meeting
Do not permit pauses or stop to whisper to someone. Crowd things along.
Boys have a thousand muscles to wiggle with and only to sit still with. That one gets mighty tired pretty quick.
Don't do too much yourself. Yes. we know it is fun. Train your Leaders to do things also.

pg. 352

If your planned program won't work, be resourceful; make a switch to suit conditions for that meeting.
Discipline must be maintained. It starts with yourself.
Self-reliance and moral courage are your lieutenants. Boys know these elements without your labeling them.
Know what you want and get it.
An unsettled mind spells failure. Know what you believe.

The Periods
Your schedule will get you somewhere and you will get through.
Shift the periods, but accomplish your aim for that meeting.
Study conditions in your Troop and adapt your program to that.
These outlines only suggest ONE method of work. Yours may have to be different.
Recognize and acknowledge faithfulness and diligence in the boys. Reward these with promotions or honors.
You are dealing with boys. Get their slant on things. Get down o~ your pedestal.

Net Results
Count that meeting lost which does not accomplish the following:
Every Scout going home feeling that:
1. He has had a good time.
2. He has advanced a step, no matter how small, on the Scoutcraft advancement ladder.
3. He is going to be a better boy.
4. He loves his country better.
5. Definite plans have been made for Scouting during the week.--Toledo (Ohio) Council.

A Source of Help
Since most of us, especially those in the larger cities are forced to do at least fifty per cent of our work at indoor meetings, it is very important that we give very careful attention to the plans and programs for those meetings. We cannot turn too often to the Handbook for Scoutmasters and get the inspiration and practical suggestions contained in its pages to help us "to lead boys into useful lives."

pg. 353

Keep Scouting a Game
Here are some excellent suggestions on this subject contributed by Mr. C. S. Frampton, of Victoria, B. C.:
Straight competition and contests are not necessarily a game.
The test of a game is that it can be spelled with three letters --FUN.
Scout Laws are easiest learned in the same way as the rules of football, i.e., a gradual understanding by the player through experience. Play into efficiency.
Score points on everything and anything, always varying to some degree.
Let points be earned frequently enough for the tail-enders to have a real chance of becoming the winners in a meeting or two.
Keep the subjects covered extremely varied so that everyone can have a real chance.
If you have four Patrols, give points for first, second and third.
Give consolation points when deserved.
Let your P. L.'s and if possible Scouts, invent your games, if necessary you giving them the educational aim or "test" to underlie them. They are far more likely to follow natural channels than you can, and for this reason their inventions will go off much better.
Foster the spirit of concentrating on success, giving points to the winners in preference to deducting from the losers.-"Nothing succeeds like success;"
Get your Scouts to realize that--
In a game there is a considerable element of luck. In a close game this is very often the deciding factor.
Every team has "off days."
Every player has "off days."
That the losing team is very often the winner.
Sportsmanship is the only real test of a team.--Duffle Bag.

Putting Snap and Fun In It
The Patrols are having a contest for a prize being given by the father of one of the Scouts, and the first few minutes of each meeting are taken for inspection, etc., to see which Patrol has piled up the most points. This is usually a mighty interesting few minutes. Of course, this comes after the formal opening of the meeting. The fellows like to sing so sometimes we open the meeting with one of our many songs. We have some with a lot of action to them. Then a yell or two to get everyone working together. The Scribe then takes charge for a few minutes; takes roll, collects dues from the Patrol

pg. 354

leaders, and reads the minutes of the last meeting. Then announcements are made and we have a general discussion of anything the fellows might have to bring up. Then I usually give a very short talk on or demonstrate some phase of Scouting.

Patrol Confabs
But the greater part of the meeting is conducted by the S. P. L. Then the Patrols are given twenty minutes to have a separate Patrol meeting. They plan on all their activities and have reports from each fellow. To get them together again we usually have instruction in the particular work we are doing in preparation for tests. This is always demonstration by Scouts and participation by everyone. No one watches very long before he is given a chance to do it himself. Then we have a contest in this work to see who has taken it in.

A "Surprise" Stunt Game
We have games of all kinds which give practice in doing Scout work. Then we have games just for the fun of it. After the fellows are full we call it off and form a circle. This circle is an established part of every one of our meetings, is a tradition. We have a box called the "Mystery Box of Troop 7." In this box there might be anything from, insignia to eats, but there is always something. The fellows look forward to opening it. After it has been placed in the center of the ring and everyone is quiet the lights are turned out and the box opened. The fellow who makes a noise goes through the rickets. Then the lights are turned on and the yell goes up. Our last box had cookies donated by the mother of one of the boys. Our next one will have our Troop neckerchiefs in it. The boys are not expecting them, and I sure am anxious to see the bunch when we open the box. If the box holds eats, we eat ;End plan for the next meeting or hike. If it is insignia, we have a little ceremony for the ones receiving them Then we have our closing ceremony.

pg. 355

Subjects Omitted From the "How Book"

THE BOOK makes no attempt to be exhaustive. It avoids so far as possible all duplication of matter appearing in our permanent literature, such as the Handbook for Scoutmasters, Handbook for Boys, Merit Badge Library and other pamphlets.
Furthermore, the aim has been to reprint from SCOUTING and SCOUTMASTERSHIP NOTES only actual gleanings from the experiences of successful Scout Leaders all over the country, and to introduce very little, if any, matter contributed especially for the Hew Book. One partial departure from this is the following section on Troop Programs prepared by William Hillcourt, an experienced and successful Scoutmaster. These programs began in Scouting in 1927 and are here completed to cover one year's programs in a comprehensive way.

Upon some features of Scout activities we do not have any reported experiences from the field; consequently, true to the above principle governing the production of the How BOOK, such subjects are not touched upon. It is our hope that the next issue of the How BOOK Will present helpful experiences on every topic of vital interest to Scout Leaders. That statement is in effect a definite invitation and request to Scout Leaders to make a much wider use of SCOUTING as a medium of communicating to other Scout Leaders experiences which may be helpful.

pg. 356
Planning and Preparing the Year's Program for the Troop

By Scoutmaster, William Hillcourt

SUCCESS IN BUSINESS depends to a great degree upon the Executives' ability to plan. Success in Scouting depends upon the Scoutmaster's ability to look ahead, to plan and prepare for the life of the Troop in such a way that all phases of Scouting are covered and nothing is being overlooked.
A program for a Troop's: life can no: be written so that it will be of equal value for all Troops, but we have tried in the following to cover the functions of a Troop which believes in activity and advancement, and it is up;to you, as a Scout; master, to work the program over in order to make it fill your own needs.

January. Trustworthy"

Indoors: New Year's Day ceremony in Troop meetingroom. Troop Committee and interested parents present. Chairman delivers New Year message to the boys, and afterwards the Troop as a whole takes part in the Church service. Patrol Stunts at Troop meeting. Inter-Patrol contest in Handicraft: Woodcarving. Special speaker on Safety.
Outdoors: Visit Troop in neighboring town, Tracking and Trailing contest. Sled Hike. "North Pole Hike." Special Activities: Good Turns suitable for the Winter months are snow shoveling, strewing of sand or ashes on slippery streets and sidewalks, feeding the birds.
Preparing for the Future: Make preparations for the celebration of Anniversary Week. Secure First Aid instructor. Work out Mobilization Plan. Check up on Merit Badge advancement plans.

February. "Loyal"

Indoors: Celebration of Anniversary Week, including February 8th, the date of the original incorporation of the Boy Scouts of America (1910), and February 12th, Lincoln's Birthday. Reaffirm allegiance to Flag and Scout Oath. Patriotic Troop meeting. History of our Country, biography of Lincoln and Washington. Special speaker on First Aid. Bird talk. Start of Bird House Building Contest. Court of Honor.
Outdoors: Patriotic pilgrimage to historic spot. Skating carnival.
Special Activities: Two Sundays of the Anniversary Week Troop takes part in special Church Services. Special Anniversary Good Turn days: To home, to church, to school,

pg. 357

to comunity Takes part in the Council's Merit Badge Exposition and other Anniversary features.

Preparing for the Future: Have camp equipment looked over and repaired.
Plan and send invitations for Parents' Night in March. Start preparations for Scout Circus or Entertainnent Night in April for the Camp funds.

March. "Helpful"

Indoors: Training for Scout Circus. Parents' Night. Neighboring Troop on visit for an evening of fun. InterPatrol Contest in Handicraft: Kite-Making and Model Airplane building. Visit to Museum or Art Gallery. Special speaker on the "Good Turn Habit."
Outdoors: Mobilization plan tried out. "Thief Hunt" in city. Kite and airplane flying contest. Training for 14 mile hike.
Special Activities: Setting up of bird houses in suitable places. Garden planning if the Troop has interests in that direction. Merit Badge work.
Preparing for the Future: Final check up on camp equipment. Prepare week-end camp in April. Tickets and programs for Scout circus distributed. Collecting material for exhibition in connetion with circus.

April. "Friendly"

Indoors: Scout Circus and exhibition. Inter-Patrol contests in the different tests. Special speaker on "International Scouting" at meeting around April 23rd. Talk on trees. Court of Honor with conferring of awards.
Outdoors: Visit neighboring Troop. Treasure Hunt. Spring:hike in connection with week-end camp. Nature study.
Special Activities: Work in garden. Tree repair. Good Turn gardening, weeding, planting, etc. Patrol Leaders' camp training.
Preparing for the Future: Plan Father-and-son Hike. Prepare Inter-Patrol Rally in May with Patrol Leaders and Assistants. Secure judges. Start Camp publicity.

May. "Courteous"
Indoors: Celebration of Boys' Week. Dad's Troop meeting. Special speaker on Camping. Agitation for summer camp. Inter-Patrol contests in model building.
Outdoors: Father-and-son Hike closing with camp fire. Inter-Patrol Rally. Week-end camps. Memorial Day parade.
Special Activities: Have the boys celebrate Mother's Day in their homes. Collect green branches and flowers for distribution to sick and old. Other Good Turns.

pg. 358

Preparing for the Future: Prepare for three-days' camp in June. Arrange with owner of swimming place (or pool) to have Troop start on swimming instruction. Secure a nature study expert and a swimming instructor. Last effort to get all the boys to summer camp.

June. "Kind"

Indoors: Inter-Patrol Stunt contest at Troop meeting. Agitation for camp continued. Special speaker on "The History of Old Glory." Annual Troop feed; boy speakers. Neighboring Troop on visit. Court of Honor;
Outdoors: Three-days camp. Outdoor Troop meeting. Nature hike. Study of birds, plants, insects, etc. Instruction in swimming and life saving. Flag Day hike.
Special Activities: On account of the examinations there will not be much time left for extra activities. Encourage the boys helping around house and garden.
Preparing for the Future: Check up on camp attendance. Visit parents of boys who have not as yet registered for camp. Prepare hikes and week-end camp in July for boys who do not get any vacation.

July. "Obedient"

Indoors: No indoor activities.
Outdoors: As many boys as possible in camp. Instruction in swimming and life saving continued. Hikes and weekend camps for boys at home. Outdoor meetings with games and athletics. Celebration of the 4th of July. Special speaker on "Declaration of Independence."
Special Activities: Help farmers who have placed camp sites at your disposal, with hay harvest, etc. Have the boys prepare nature collections.
Preparing for the Future: Get as many boys as possible to camp for the August session. Start planning the fall work. Have boys at home suggest new decoration of Troop meeting room. Work on Merit Badge projects.

August. "Cheerful"

Indoors: No indoor activities.
Outdoors: As many boys as possible in camp. Instruction in swimming and life saving continued. Hikes for boys not attending camp. Cooking contest.
Special Activities: Have, the boys at home help decorate Troop meeting-room in order to have everything ready, when season starts again. Gather material for Troop museum.
Preparing for the Future: Send letters out to all members about first meeting after the vacation. Make arrangements for Troop Committee meeting. Have plans ready for the fall months. Prepare a recruiting drive.

pg. 359

September. "Thrift"
indoors: At first meeting have Troop Committee members tell what they expect of the Troop in the coming year. Check-up and reorganization of Troop. Inspirational talk by Scoutmaster. Start point system. Start savings bank immediately for next year's camp.
Outdoors: Week-end camps with camp fires. Inter-Patrol contest: Leaf collecting and mounting. Mushroom trip under competent leadership.
Special Activities: Start immediately the training of Patrol Leaders and junior officers at "Cornertooth" meetings. have Troop Committee-men visit homes of boys who have not shown up after the vacation.
Planning for the Future: Have meeting of Troop Committee with junior leaders present for planning the winter's activities. Planning the Troop budget, Plan Roosevelt celebration and Columbus Dav.

October. "Brave"

Indoors : Inter-Patrol First Aid Contest. Investiture ceremony Special speaker on "Roosevelt," "Columbus." Visit water works, fire department, and other city departments. "Know your city:" Court of Honor. Hallowe'en Troop party.
Outdoors: Week-end camp. Columbus Hike. Nature study. Fall colors, plaster casting of tracks. If in the East: take part in Roosevelt pilgrimage; if far from Oyster Bay: special Roosevelt ceremony with planting of Roosevelt memorial tree. Visit neighboring Troop.
Special Activities: Membership drive. As Good Turn collect wood from forest (with permission) for distribution among poor.
Planning for the Future: Prepare program for Parents' Night in November. Have Troop activity slides made, practice songs and stunts with the boys. Reegistration of Troop.


Indoors: Stunt night. Teaching of new songs. Mock court. Parents' night and banquet. Scoutmaster's and Troop Committee-men's report on the life of the Troop. Showing of lantern slides. Entertainment by the boys. Special speaker on "The Value of Books." Inter-Patrol Handicraft contest: Totem pole. Armistice celebration.
Outdoors. Thanksgiving camp or hike. Astronomy. Hike with visiting Troop.

pg. 360

Special Activities: Thanksgiving Good Turn. Establishing of Troop library.
Planning for the Future: Prepare Christmas Good Turn. Send invitations to former members of the Troop and plan for Re-union Hike last Sunday of the Year.

December. "Reverent"

Indoors: Inter-patrol Handicraft contest: Leatherwork. Special speaker on "The Christmas Spirit." Court of Honor. Troop Christmas tree.
Outdoors: Christmas camp. Astronomy continued. Tracking and Trailing. Re-union Hike last Sunday of December for Old Boys, Troop Committee-men, and members of "Cornertooth." Start with church attendance, then hike out in the country, lunch at country inn, and hike home.
Special Activities: Preparing of Christmas gifts. Christmas Good Turn to poor and sick. Bird feeding station. Bird Christmas tree with suet and bird-seed.
Preparing for the Future: Plan New Year ceremony. Arrange with minister for Scout service Anniversary Week, and make other arrangements for week.
Note: Without fortnightly leaders' councils ("Cornertooth"meetings) and individual Patrol meetings, where the Patrol Leaders really lead, even the best Troop program will be only a poor semblance of the real Scouting.

pg. 361

Program for Year, Month by Month
January: Prepare in Time

... day, January 1st, 9:00-12:00 a.m,


9:00-Troop Assembly at Headquarters. "Fall in Rank." Check up. Report from Patrol Leaders. Parents present.
9:10-Chairnman of Troop Committee delivers a New Year message to the boys. Emphasis on the Good Turn.
Songs of inspirational character,
9:30Troop lines up outside meeting room. The Flag is brought to the front. March to church. (If Troop Headquarters is a part of a church, the New Year Ceremony starts at 9:30, and when it is over the boys walk directly into the church.)
10:00-Church Service.
11:45--(When service is over.) Troop falls in outside church. Salute The Flag.

... day, January ... th, 7:30-9:30 p,m,

"CoRNERTooTH"-MEETING" (Leaders' Council

Officers of the Troop, i. e. Patrol Leaders, Senior Patrol Leaders, Junior Assistant Scoutmasters, Assistant Scoutmasters, Scoutmasters.
(a)Report from the P. L.'s about their boys and the work in their Patrols. Paying dues.
(b)Recapitulation of events inside the Troop. Criticism since last "Cornertooth" Meeting. The value of the work done.
(c)Planning the coming meetings and hikes. Give all details for the North Pole hike and instructions for a Patrol Contest in wood carving. Discuss program for the Anniversary Week in February.
(d)Instruction of the P. L.'s by the S. M., in Scout tests. Planning of Patrol meetings, hikes, camps. During "Cornertooth" Meeting go through every part of the tests in order to keep the P. L.'s ahead of their Scouts. Put your instruction down in such a way that the P. L.'s are able to pass it on to the boys. Give in some cases direct instruction, in other cases only suggestions, on which the P. L's can build their work.
(e) Questions, discussions.

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

pg. 362

... day, January ... th, 7:30-9:15 p.m,

7:30eTroop Assembly. Check up. Report from P. L.'s.
Inspection of Patrols.
7:40~Flag Parade. Unfurling of The Flag. Scout Salute. One verse of "The Star-Spangled Banner".
7:45-Gaemes: "Swat'em," "Hog Tie," "Chase the Tail," etc. (S. M.'s Handbook.)
8:05--instruction. Troop Committee-man Mr. X talks on "Tracking Our Local Animals." Describes different tracks and the technique of tracking. (Other subjects-"Animals I Have Seen," "Winter Sport in Foreign Countries," etc.)
8:30~Competitions. Patrol Stunts. Performance of small plays (example, "The Dagger," in "Scouting, May, 1927). Story Telling, Part Singing, etc.
9:08--Community Singing and Story by Scoutmaster. Songs which will create cohesion, and a short speech.
9:10Closing ceremony. Salute the Flag. Scout Law. Taps. Closing salute: Scoutmaster: "Be prepared!" The Boys: "We are prepared!"

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

... day, January ... th, 2:00-5:30 p.m,

2:00Check-up. The P. L.'s account for present and absent Scouts.
2:l0--The Patrols are sent out in order to find, study and follow animal tracks; and to prepare small drawings of the tracks they find.
4:00--Patrols arrive at spot previously decided upon Fire Building.
4:20Reports from the P. L.'s around a campfire about the results of the tracking hikes.
4:45--Start home trip. 5:30--Dismissal.

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

... day, January ... th,7:30:9:30 p,m.
"CoRNERTooTH"-Meeting (Leaders' Council), For program see above

pg. 363

... day, January ... th, 7:30-9:15 p,m,

7:30Troop Assembly. P. L.s Report on Attendance. Inspection.
7:40Flag Parade. Unfurling of the Flag. Scout Salute. One verse of "America".
7:45--Games. "Basketball Tag," "Three Deep" (Pamphlet B. S. Games) "Wet and Dry," "Black Sheep" (S. M.'s Handbook.
8:05--Instruction. Fire Chief, Mr. Y., speaks on "Fires and Their Extinction and Prevention," or Chief of Police, Mr. Z., gives talk on "Safety First on Streets," or the Editor of a local paper on "From Clay Tablet to Newspaper," etc.
8:30Songs and Yells.
8:50--Trick Story by Scoutmaster. The S. M. tells a story of a made-up hike. White telling it he brings in accounts of accidents, description of nature, signaling, cooking, etc.; but purposely makes errors in his description of the subjects. If the errors are allowed to pass, he stops; corrects them himself, and scores a point. If errors are discovered by a Scout, the Troop scores a point. Creates a lot of fun and attentive listening.
9:10--Closing ceremony. See above.

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

... th, January ... th, 2:30-6:00 p,m,

2:30-Check up on attendance. Each Patrol is in possession of a sled, bearing full equipment for an overnight hike, minus provisions. 2:40March to starting point.
3:10-The Patrols are started on "North Pole" hike through the snow-clad country, with maps showing their position at the start and location of the "North Pole." They are supposed to race across country to the pole (where an Assistant Scoutmaster is placed), plant their Patrol Flag and return to the starting point. The Patrol returning first after having reached the Pole, is declared the winner. Variations on this may be planned for "no snow" country.
5:20--Assembly at starting point. Winner is announced. Yells for and by winners and losers. Starting the home trip.
6 :00--Dismissal.

pg. 364

February: Prepare in Time

... day, February ... th, 7:30-9:30 P,m,
"CORNERTOOTH"-MEETING (Leaders' Council)

(a) and (b)-See January Program.
(c) Planning the coming meetings and hikes, Make last preparations for Anniversary Week, and for a pilgrimage during the month to a historical spot.
(d) See January program.
(e) Questions, discussions.

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

... day, February ... th, 7:30-9:15 p,m,
TROOP MEETING Celebrating the Anniversary of the Boy Scouts of America

7:30-TroopAssernblv. Check-up. P.L.'s Report. Give reasons for absences. Inspection of the Patrols by Troop -Committee members and parents present.
7:40--Flag : Parade. Unfurling of the Flag. Scouts salute, while singing one verse of "America." Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag.
7:45-insprirational speech by Chairman of the Troop Committee on the Scout Oath and Law, telling in a few words the history of the Boy Scouts of America and the meaning of Scouting.
8:00--Community Singing. Scout Songs.
8:15--Reaffirmation of the Scout Oath. Before the Troop, the Scoutmaster names the twelve Scout Laws, and continues somewhat like this: "Scouts! At this minute, Boy Scouts all over the United States pledge Allegiance to the Scout Oath and the ideals for which Scouting stands. We will pledge ourselves to the same Oath and try to do our best to follow the Scout Law. Scouts! The Scout Sign. (Scouts make sign.) Repeat with me the "Scout Oath." He than gives each of the boys the left hand, in the international Scout handclasp. Immediately afterwards the officers of the Troop and members of the Troop Committee re-affirm their Oath.
8:35--Demonstration in different Scout tests. Fire by friction, First Aid, Signaling, etc.
8:55--Two or three very, brief talks by invited parents about their opinion of Scouting, or short biographies of Lincoln and Washington.
9:1O--Closing Ceremony. See the January program.

pg. 365

Get the theme for a short inspirational talk from the current news.
9:10 Closing Ceremony. See January program.

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

... day, September ... th, 2:30·8:30 p,m,

2:30-Check up. Patrol Leaders report.
2:40 Start for map hike. The Scoutmaster leads the Troop through the country on several roads which go in different directions. The Patrols take field notes in order later to be able to make a map of the route. The Patrol Leaders divide their Patrols into two teams, one for the right and one for the left side of the road. The teams consist of: One compass man, one pacer, one judger and one note taker. The work can most easily be described through an example: The judger sees a church on the left side of the road. The team stops, and the note taker takes down the following remarks: The judger: "A church 350 feet ...," the compass man: "in West Northwest direction from the place where we are now...," the pacer: "625 paces from last turn." (The pacers from the two teams will have to work together in their pacing in order to get the best results.)
3:40--Arrival at destination. The maps are made from the field notes and turned over to the Scoutmaster.
4:30 Games. "Flag Raiding" (S. M.'s Handbook). Or a treasure hunt has been prepared by the Assistant Scoutmasters while the Patrols were occupied by map making.
5:30--Fire making; Preparing of supper.
6:15--Supper. Cleaning up.
6:45--Council fire. Songs, story telling, recitations, stunts, etc. Closing with Taps, Scoutmaster's Benediction or the like.
7:45--Extinguishing of Council fire. Starting home trip.

October: Prepare in Time, October ... th, 7:30-9.30 p,m,
"CornertooTH"-MEETING (Leaders' Council) of the Officers of the Troop

(a) and (b) See January Program.
(c) Planning coming events. Plan to participate in the

pg. 386

Roosevelt Memorial Pilgrimage Hike on October 29th or else to have a fitting program at meeting, the week preceding. Walnuts from the Roosevelt tree may be had upon request from the Editorial Department, National. Council, Boy Scouts of America. Arrange for the training of the new members, discuss the possibility of getting hold of special instructors for Merit Badge work. Planning of a number of fall hikes, day hikes as well as overnight hikes. Make arrangements for some definite observance on the occasion of Fire Prevention Week, October 9th to October 15th.
(d) Instruction of the Patrol Leaders by the Scoutmaster in Patrol leadership, in various Scout Tests, in the conducting of Patrol meetings and hikes.
(e) Questions, discussion.

During the week: Patrol Meetings and Hikes.

... day, October ... th, 7:30-9:15 p,m,

7:30 Troop Assembly. Check-up. The P. L.'s Report of Inspection.
7:40--Flag Parade. Unfurling of the Flag. The Scouts salute and sing the first verse of "The StarSpangled Banner." Pledge of Allegiance.
7:45--Games. "Swat 'Pm," "The Hunter," "Fire," "Spud," etc. (Handbook for Scoutmasters.)
8:00 Instruction. Sea Scout Officer, Mr. X, tells about "Finding Your; Way on the Sea." How to know your position by the help of simple astronomy. If possible Mr. X has brought along with him a sextant and other navigation instruments and has some of the boys try the use of the instruments. (Or. Mr. X tells about "How Columbus came to 'India'," "The Mysteries of the Sargasso Sea," or "Explorers and Adventurers in America.")
8:25--Patrol Meetings. The Scoutmaster announces a Patrol competition in songs and yells. The Patrols go to their corners and prepare themselves quietly for the event by an orderly training, under direction of the Patrol Leader.
8:40--Patrol Competition in songs and yells. Originality and the way in which the yells are rendered count in the judging. For examples, see "Scout Yells," given in this book. Consult Index.
9:00 Story by Scoutmaster. A short inspirational talk or the account of an interesting episode in the life of the early American explorers. Announcement of the winning Patrol

pg. 387

Special Occasions and Ceremonies

Anniversary Programs
The whole subject of Anniversary Programs is covered so fully and with such variety, every year in Scouting, that it has been thought unnecessary to repeat its Content here. Each year, moreover, brings its own new slant or emphasis. Some things, however, remain true, year after year. For instance, Scout Leaders should always:
1. Begin to plan and prepare for their Anniversary Program at least two months in advance.
2. Try to make Anniversary Week a period of real interest to the public; Show people during that week what Scouts really do; why the Movement is worth supporting; why their boys should be in it.
3. Make it a good time for Scouts, also a time when they feel, as, perhaps, they may not feel to such a degree at any other time, that it is distinctly worth while to be a Scout.
Anniversary Week is the year's high spot in Scouting.

Rooseevelt Day
October 27 has definitely taken its place in the Boy Scout calendar as Roosevelt Day, the Anniversary of Theodore Roosevelt's birth in 1858. New Troops, and Troops which have not previously observed the Day in a special way, will do well to adopt the custom. Where tree planting is still possible, and is also feasible, a Roosevelt memorial tree can be ceremoniously planted at some public spot in the community, or near Troop Headquarters, or at the camp site. Select a tree of beauty and long life.
Other ways of observing the Day are obvious. A patriotic parent-night Troop meeting on Wednesday night, or on the regular Troop meeting night A memorial campfire at night to which other boys are invited. An individual Troop or an inter-Troop hike into the country, terminating in an outdoor memorial meeting, when the Scout-like characteristics of Theodore Roosevelt, his great services to the Country and the World will be reviewed, preferably by older Scouts.
Scoutmasters of Troops within the zone of the Annual Pilgrimage to the grave of Theodore Roosevelt, under the leadership of National Scout Commissioner, Daniel Carter Beard, will no doubt plan to have their Troops represented.

pg. 396

Scout Funeral Services

IENCLOSE a copy of the funeral regulations suggested by the Buffalo Scoutmasters' Association. Recently our I Troop was required to assist at the funeral of one of our Scouts and we found the form very Satisfactory.

In accordance with paragraph three, I conferred with the family and at their request made arrangements for a Scout funeral. The pall-bearers were chosen from the Scouts and wore their uniforms. The Troop attended in a body in uniform. After the service at the house, the Scouts formed in lines on each side of the walk, while the casket passed through. They made the same formation from the hearse to the grave. After the last of the service, taps was blown and the Scouts filed past the grave and dropped in their flowers.

In addition to the regular service, at the Troop headquarters, we raised the flag to half-mast with "To the colors" and "Taps" before the funeral, and held regular evening colors after it.

As a token of mourning each Scout wore black braid in place of the regular Patrol stripes.

The S. M. Association Recommendation

1. No formal ritual be adopted, such matters being left to the officiating clergyman.
2. When the death of a Boy Scout occurs, notice shall be sent to all members of the local Troop, and a memorial service not later than the next regular meeting be held.
3. The family of the deceased visited and their wishes consulted in regard to having the Troop attending service in a body and express willingness to act as pallbearers or render such service as may be possible.
I. The Scribe shall be instructed to write the family a letter of condolence.
5. When invited to take part in such services, Scouts should see to it that deceased wear the Scout pin, and the pennant "Be Prepared." In the case of short distances a Scout Guard is furnished to walk on either side of the Casket, and as a last tribute of honor drop into the grave a white flower, or a sprig of evergreen 6. In the matter of a death of a Scoutmaster or Assistant the Scribe of the local Troop shall notify Scout Headquarters. who shall arrange with them for the service. --LOUIS B. THORNTON, A.S.M., Buffalo, El. Y.

Simplicity the Keynote

Troop participation in the funeral services of a member, or, upon invitation, of a fellow-Scout of another Troop, is most appropriate. If requested, a simple exercise can be carried out, though acting as an escort to the body would usually be sufficient. Scouts should, of course, be in uniform, and where appropriate, carry their Troop flag.

pg. 397

At the time of the death of one of their members, a St. Louis, Mo., Troop, the Scoutmaster and Troop Committee called on the family to o~er their services. The Flag of the United States and the Troop flag were placed beside the casket. Members of the Troop acted as pallbearers, and the Troop, with colors, escorted the body into church. There the Tenderfoot pin was attached to the Troop flag, which was dipped to the casket, after which the Scoutmaster removed the pin and placed it on the lapel of the Scout's coat. Then twelve Scouts ,toed about the casket, carrying flowers, and each placed a flower on the casket, repeating, in turn: "Scout Brown was

Trustworthy," "Scout Brown was Loyal," and so forth. Standing with their arms folded square, they sang the Scout Vesper Song, then locked arms around the casket and the Scoutmaster pronounced a benediction. After this the body was escorted to the cemetery, where colors were posted at the grave, Scouts standing at salute while the bugler sounded "Taps" to the lowering of the body.

Parents' Night Programs

Song--"America' '--Scout Orchestra and Audience.

First Aid Demonstration or Drill-Scout Patrols Knot Tying Contest--Signaling Drill

Address············Prominent Citizen
Address············ Scout Mother
Address················ Scout Father

Scout Camp Scene:
Staged by Scouts, including songs, stories, campfire stunts. Scout Contests and Races--as much demonstration as space permits.

Awards and Badges: Repetition Scout Oath and Laws--By All.
Closing Selection-Orchestra.

1. Assembly.
2. Flag Ceremony, Scout Oath' and Laws.
3. Inspection of Troop by Troop Committee.

pg. 398

4. Stunts by Patrols--each Patrol to put on some stunt (short playlet or Scout demonstration), let the boys themselves under the direction of the Patrol Leaders work out beforehand their own stunts or demonstrations. Do not try to arrange and supervise them yourself.
Limit the time each Patrol is to have for its stunt. 'Have the parents, etc., act as Judges.
Close with campfire--sing one or two good Scout songs and if desired the Scoutmaster may make a few remarks--Have TAPS sounded on bugle or whistle it.
The object of this meeting is to show the parents and friends of your boys what Scouting stands for and what your boys, can do. Make it impressive, but at the same time entertaining.

ASSEMBLY--Final touches to exhibits, arrangements for seating guests and other details of the evening's program. Junior Assistant Scoutmasters, or other older Scouts not in Patrols, to serve as ushers, etc. Promptly at 7:45, at signal on bugle or whistle, Troop to take usual opening period formation. Inspection by visiting Scout Official and A. S. M. Flag Ceremony. Scouts to seats by Patrols.
BUSINESS PERIOD--At this point, S. M. to welcome guests and announce the general program of the evening.
INSTRUCTION PERIOD--First Half, Patrol demonstrations under direction of P. L. in any of the tests previously selected, no two Patrols the same test. Second half of period, Troop mass demonstration in Knot Tying for speed, Bridge Building, Fire Building without lighting, or other Scoutcraft subject.
GAME PERIOD--Suitable games should be selected in advance of meeting. Consult Handbook for Boys and material on games in Scoutmasters' Handbook. The games should illustrate good team work, Scout pep, and good fun and, perhaps, some item of Scoutcraft. The Chariot Race, for example, contains all these elements.
CLOSING PERIOD--SCOUT feed, if that is part of the program, with incidental Scout songs, yells, and, if conditions favor, some entertaining Scout stunt on a raised platform. Otherwise a brief program of good Scout singing, either a humorous or a serious bit of entertainment by Scouts, perhaps impromptu, to show their skill, brief remarks designed to secure more interested co-operation from parents. Whatever the final period program is, close with the re-commitment to the Scout Oath and Law, and either "Taps" sung or on the bugle, or the Scout Benediction.

pg. 399

Father-and-Son Banquet
1. Selection ··..........······· ·······BOY scout Orchestra (A real Scout is True to His Scout Oath. Are you a real Scout?)
2. Scout Oath and Law--All Scouts led by local minister.
3. Invocation.
4. Address--A Scout Father--When I Was Old Enough to Be a Boy Scout (What I Had, What I Had Not.)
5. Popular Songs--"When Dad Was a Boy "Scout Fathers and Scouts.
6. "Why I Am a Scout"--Senior Patrol Leader.
7. "Why I Am a Scoutmaster"-Scoutmaster.
8. Scout Stunts--By Scouts and by Fathers.
9. Scout Songs--Orchestra and Scouts.
10. "Why I Believe in Scouting"--Scout Father.
11. Address--Prominent Citizen.
12. Scout Drills, Contests, etc. Scouts (First aid contests, tableaux, showing Scouting, etc.) 13. Awards of prizes, badges, etc. 14. Songs, followed by 15. Taps.

Special Patriotic Program
Troop 8, of Elizabeth, N. f., in its biggest Jamboree Get together yet, attended by many prominent citizens, provides this effective set-up for a patriotic program in connection with a banquet.
A Scoutcraft demonstration in the auditorium preceded the banquet. After the opening bugle blast, the Troop passed in inspection before official guests, and, as they stood at attention, gave the Pledge of Allegiance and the Oath and Law. Under dimmed lights. Scouts sang "Silent Night". Following this, there were successively unveiled, on a chart on the stage, pictures of many of the country's heroes. As a mixed quartet sang "America the Beautiful," George Washington's picture was received with cheers. To "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" Abraham Lincoln's was uncovered. Theodore Roosevelt's picture was shown to the hymn, "How Firm a Foundation." A group picture representing Scout activities and standards was shown as the quartet sang "Faith of Our Fathers". The quartet sang "The Star-Spangled Banner," everybody at attention. Brief addresses were made by local men and visitors. The Director of the National Department of Publicity made a statement

pg. 400

that will bear repeating at such meetings, to the effect that he saw before him the three important requisites of successful Scouting, namely, the Scoutmaster, the fathers and mothers representing the citizenry, and the arrested and continued interest of the older boy. Assistant Scoutmasters, Senior Patrol Leaders and Scouts handled the affair with marked efficiency, W. L. Neill, S.M., directing but keeping in the background.

Annual Troop Meeting
Sometimes it's called the "Re-Charter Meeting," or the "Anniversary Night," but whatever you call it, be sure you call it! It's a great chance to round up all the parents, the old-time members, and the general public of the community, and make them take notice of what's doing in your Troop.
Troop meeting opening ceremony (after one Patrol has been detailed to welcome the guests).
Night-letter speech (50 words) telling purpose of meeting, by Chairman of the Troop Committee.
Presentation of service stars by Scoutmaster.
Presentation of new charter by a Council representative, who will also turn over the individual membership cards to the Troop Committee for distribution to the Scouts.
Action-stuff by the Troop; fragments of First Aid, compass work, Scout games, etc., in charge of the A.S.M. or S.P.L.
Bravery demonstration by the Scoutmaster who will tell the folks just what is expected of them as parents of Scouts, Report and "Forecast of Big Things," by Scribe or some other Scout.
Another telegraphic talk by the head of the local institution.
A closing stunt by the Troop--camp fire and songs, investiture ceremony, or something else with a real inspirational

Eats, if circumstances permit.
Such a program, carefully prepared for and snappily carried through, has tremendous value for the Troop. If new committeemen are needed, it is the right occasion to ask for volunteers or to "sell" picked men. If there is any other major problem in the solution of which the parents should share, this is the time to put it up to them.
To insure a good turnout of the grown-ups, credit the Patrols for it if there's a live contest on; if not, send each parent a brief note of invitation and have the committee follow it up by telephone.

Note: National "Days" such as Mother's' Day, Safety Week, International Golden Rule Sunday; local anniversaries and similar occasions offer chances for good public Scout meetings.

pg. 401

Impressive Tenderfoot Investiture

I BELIEVE that nothing helps a Scoutmaster start a boy right as does an impressive Tenderfoot investiture. In I our attempt to start our candidates in a way which would remain with them throughout their Scout lives, the following method was worked out. 'We have used this plan for four years and are more than pleased with the results.

Preliminary Try-Outs

A candidate, before he may take the investiture ceremony, must have attended at least one regular Scout meeting of our Troop; he must have gone on one hike with our Troop, and eaten one meal in our company. This, of course, includes the responsibilities of each, such as behavior, camp policing, etc. On these occasions the Scoutmaster closely observes the boy and notes his actions and willingness to cooperate.
Investiture is always held after dark, in the woods at the end of a hike. During the afternoon a First Class Scout worthy of some distinction, is allowed the honor of clearing a circle for the meeting. (This circle is held very sacred.) He makes a small altar of stones or other material and arranges logs as seats for each patrol. In the center he piles a campfire ready for lighting. From then until the ceremony no one goes near this place. At evening mealtime the candidate is assigned to a Junior Assistant Scoutmaster. The two go off by themselves to prepare the investiture supper. The Junior Assistant Scoutmaster does the cooking while the candidate gathers wood and helps.

Getting the Candidate Mentally Prepared

During the meal the Junior Assistant Scoutmaster quietly tells the candidate the history of his wonderful Troop. He tells him of some of the trials he will probably have as a Scout, of the Oath, the Laws, how he will be called on to obey orders he does not like, and how he will see others disobey the Laws when he must do his best to obey.
After dark the Troop assembles to march to the sacred circle. The candidates are taken to a secluded spot, where they can neither see nor hear the Troop. A runner of high Scout rank has been placed in charge of them.
The Troop slowly marches to the circle to the muffled tones of a bugle and takes place by Patrols. All regular members sit in the circle proper with their hats on--visitors sit behind the circle with their hats off.

pg. 402

The Scoutmaster takes his place behind the altar, his assistant to his left and the Troop Committee to his right. The runner is at the rear of the circle. The fire is lighted. A Scout song is sung softly and the meeting is opened.

Final Vote On Admitting the Candidate

The name of a candidate is read and the Scoutmaster asks for comments. At this time, the boys tell of the habits, good and bad, of the fellow. After this a vote is taken as to his acceptance. The Troop is reminded to speak or forever hold its peace. This eliminates all talk of former bad character of the candidate. The candidate is then brought in. He gives the Scout Sign at the edge of the circle. He is bidden to enter. He approaches the altar and rests on his right knee.

The Scoutmaster questions him on his understanding of the Oath and Law. He is asked if he agrees to all of this. After his assent, the Troop rises on its right knee as the candidate repeats the Oath. The Scoutmaster then touches him on the left shoulder with a wand, on the end of which is a First Class Badge. He is given his badge and certificate and is permitted to join his Patrol (members), sitting in front of them. After all candidates have been received, the closing song is sung and taps is blown. This ceremony is a most serious one in our Troop and has been a wonderful help in putting across the idea to beginners. Even the noisiest boy has quieted to the spell of it in the woods.--RAY SKIFF, S. M·, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Outdoor Investiture Ceremony

DASH OF ROMANCE, a little mysticism, a bit of A adventure, considerable stirring about in the open--

that's the Jackson, Mississippi, recipe, for the Tenderfoot Investiture Ceremony of that Council, as given by Scout Executive, Morris B. Abernathy. The object of the ceremony is to impress Scouts and the public with the serious purpose of Scouting and with the enjoyable program through which it is put over. So the first step is to hold the ceremony at the camp site three miles outside the city.

The Outdoor Touch
The second step is to notify the candidate in a formal letter to report for this ceremony on a given day and hour, prepared to remain at ramp overnight. That touch gets him. He is told what to bring for the experience: 3 heavy blankets or equivalent, 1 mess kit, a can of pork and beans, fresh fruit, bread, butter, sugar, condensed milk, frankfurters--(to cite one lay-out).

pg. 404

He is informed that his badge and certificate of membership will be awarded at the Scout Breakfast the following morning. The notice is signed by the Scout Executive. Does it get the boy! Does it!

Parents Are Invited
The third step i; to invite the parents of each Scout to attend, and to remain overnight if they wish. The invitation opens the eyes of the parents to what is being undertaken on behalf of- their boy's upbuilding as a future citizen. The fourth step is to notify the Scoutmaster concerned by a bulletin which gives the program of the ceremony, as follows:

The Council Program, which Single Troop Can Adopt
1. Each Scoutmaster will utilize every possible means in order that the candidate may secure as broad a vision of Scouting as possible while studying for his tests. He shall stress, with the applicant:
a-Sacrednsss of his Oath.
b He becomes a Scout because he wants to do so.
c--Scouting a world-wide movement.
d-An opportunity for citizenship training.
e-The duty of good citizen, f--Scouting a spiritual force
2. The Council, with the assistance of the Scoutmasters, shall each month conduct a Tenderfoot investiture ceremony at the camp, embracing:
a--One night spent at camp.
b An inspirational interpretation of Scouting.
c--'The Tenderfoot Vigil" (When the Tenderfoot taken his blanket and bees out under the stars for a period of deep thinking with regard to the step which he is taking.)
d--Practical instruction and demonstration of all Tenderfoot requirements
e-Cooking of the 'Tenderfoot Breakfast' f-Presentation of badge and membership card.

pg. 405

Candidates' Night
Devote opening period to candidates. Seat Troop by Patrols, preferably on three sides of square, candidates in a group. Patrol Leader talks on significance of the badge, using blackboard. Points out distinguishing marks of the different badges of rank.
Before same group, another P. L. gives question-and-answer talk on history of Flag and forms of respect due it, standing beside the American Flag while speaking. Close this with "Pledge of Allegiance," all standing.
Before reseating group, third P. L. puts candidates through the Scout Sign and Scout Salute and the Scout Oath and Law.
Being reseated, fourth P.L. gives brief talk on uses of some of the knots, and calls up one or more candidates to attempt the knot being described.
Game : For practice work and demonstration in signaling, particularly for the benefit of candidates, use one of the contests already described in the book. Follow with any lively indoor game.
Business : Quiet down with brief session to transact necessary Troop business and make announcements of activities scheduled for the next two or three weeks.
Closing : Scouts all standing at attention, each P. L. states the best Good Turn for the week reported to him by members of his Patrol. Very brief word from Scoutmaster, particularly to candidates, on the place of the Good Turn in the Movement. Close with Scout Oath by all Scouts and the Laws by all P. L.'s and First Class Scouts.

Opening and Closing Ceremonies

Opening Ceremonies
1. The Troop is assembled and called to order by the Senior leader. When all is ready, the Scoutmaster enters, and is received by the Troop standing at salute on command of S. P. L. When the S. M. is in place, guests enter, with Scout escort, and are announced, saluted, and accompanied to prepared seats. Colors are paraded and the Oath is said, after which the Colors retire to a place opposite the entrance. Any late arrivals pass before the Colors, halt, come to attention, and salute. The salute is returned by the Color Guard. standing, after which the entrants take their places. After parading the Colors, the Scouts are dismissed according to classification, beginning with the highest. For example: "Eagle Scouts dismissed." These salute and retire. Star, Life, Lesser Merit Badge, First Class,

pg. 406

Second Class, Tenderfeet. This form has several psychological advantages needless to enumerate.--Troop 4, Monticello.
2. At the command "assemble," the Troop "falls in" at attention, the Patrol falling in directly behind their own Patrol Leader in single file.
At the command "Prayer," silent or oral prayer is said.

Presenting the Colors
At the conclusion of the prayer a proper guard of honor of at least four Scouts brings the National Colors and Troop Flag (if the Troop has one) to the front of--and facing the Troop.
The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag should then be given, the Scouts being at Scout Salute, and the Troop Flag being dipped forward.
The Color Guard then places Flags in appropriate places in meeting-room. Then follows the meeting.--The Bronx Scout.

Good Songs Help

3. If a phonograph can be procured, the use of "The StarSpangled Banner," and a well-known record in which "Taps" is sung as well as blown, are effective in connection with Colors. Inspection precedes the ceremony. Sound "To the Colors" (your bugler). Have Flags brought in. (National Flag invariably to right of B. S. A. flag.) Officers salute at first note of call. (B. S. A. ceremony makes optional to Leaders holding units at attention or at Scout Salute. If at salute, give command, early.) Maintain salute and give Pledge of Allegiance, releasing phonograph for National Anthem, at its close. [NOTE: Teach boys to stand at attention with every muscle relaxed. The position is the thing. Tension causes boys to collapse, but relaxed, it is a desirable exercise.] Give commands "Two" and "At Ease" at conclusion.
4. Arrange chairs in a large circle, space between chairs. Draw shades making complete darkness in room. Meet the boys outside the door, explain to them that they are to be conducted by a Patrol Leader to a seat in the dark, where they are to contemplate the Scout Oath and Law for ten minutes, thinking over their own lives. That they are to maintain quiet, regardless of disturbances made by Tenderfeet.

pg. 407

When the boys are all assembled, in less than the ten minutes, enter with a candle lantern, covered so that it an be made to give only the smallest shaft. Standing in the center, talk of the darkness of the world, the effect of brotherhood, the significance of the helpfulness clause in the Oath, and calling upon the Scouts to stand and repeat in unison the Oath and Laws meanwhile unwrapping the lantern to give increasing light.

Closing Ceremonies

1. Get attention by whistle signal, then call for "Seats!" and absolute silence inside of ten seconds, as a test. Any brief announcement of importance by the Scoutmaster or visiting Scout Official. Troop to stand at attention facing the Scoutmaster and Assistants, Patrol Leaders one pace in front of Scouts, all saluting and repeating in unison the "Great Scoutmaster Benediction": "May the Great Scoutmaster" (all make gesture toward heavens) "of all good Scouts" (inclusive gesture from right to left at height of shoulder) "be with you till we meet again" (right hands being brought to hearts and heads bowed).
2. Draw up Troops in formation for Flag ceremony. Very brief word of commendation and inspiration from a selected visitor or a specially invited guest. Then call upon each Patrol in turn to step one pace forward, one Patrol at a time, the Scoutmaster then to say the three points of the Scout Oath, omitting "On my honor I will do my best," and at the close each Patrol to salute and say, "On my honor I will do my best." Dismissal.

Emphasizing the Oath and Law

3. Draw up Troop ;n formation for renewing their Oath of Allegiance to the Flag in the usual manner. Before going through the Flag Ceremony, however, have the Scouts read in unison, or if preferred, have Patrol Leaders read in unison, all the stanzas, and the chorus once, of "America the Beautiful." These can be distributed in mimeographed form. Follow that by the Oath of Allegiance and follow that with the singing of one stanza and chorus of "America the Beautiful." After that the Scoutmaster, or one of the Assistant Scoutmasters, should repeat the points of the twelve Scout Laws, immediately after which the Troop should come to salute and repeat in unison the Scout Oath; Then Scoutmaster: "Good night to you all." Scouts in unison: "Good night to you, Sir."
4. Stand in circle with Joined hands and repeat Scout Oath quietly, thinking particularly of the part that applies to the

pg. 408

Daily Good Turn. Scoutmaster: "Good night, boys." Scouts: "Good night, Mr--."
5. LEADER: TO do your duty to God and your Country, always.
RESPONSE: Be prepared.
LEADER: TO help other people at all times, always. RESPONSE: Be prepared
LEADER: What is the scout law(l) (2), etc.? Response follows each number.:(1) A Scout. is trustworthy, (2) Loyal, etc. Enumeration by Leader prevents confusion. Leader: What is your constant duty to yourself? RESPONSE: TO keep myself physically strong, mentally rake, and morally straight.
LEADER: What is the Scout's Daily Duty to the World?
RESPONSE: The Good: Turn, Troop 4;: Montclair.

The Personal Touch

6. "I saw an interesting Troop dismissal at the meeting of Troop, 1, Rumford, last week, which, because of the elements of-'patriotism, courtesy and ceremony involved in it, is worth passing on At the close of the meeting, the Troop "fell in" with; hats; and over coats on, and were formed into single file. The color gaurd with Troop and United States Colors took a position in the centre of the hall and the Scoutmaster stood beside- the door. At the command, the first Scout started off. halted in front of the Colors and saluted, resumed his march, halted in-:front of the Scoutmaster, saluted him and passed out. The second Scout started when the first had gone about six paces and went through the same ceremony. So on down the line.
One of the fine features was that the Scoutmaster had the chance to say an individual word in a friendly way to every boy so that he could ask any one with whom he wanted to talk more, to wait for a moment after the meeting."--J.: Harold Williams, Scout Executive, Providence, R. I.

pg. 409

Ho! Let the "Fires of Friendship" burn,
To warm out hearts through coming years
With glowing thoughts, that quickly turn
To days we tracked-and knew no fears-
Through deepening woods; heard eagles cry,
Battled the snows, and watched the sky
Light friendly lamps at close of day;
When back we hiked, great lessons learned,
To where our Fire of Friendship burned.

pg. 410