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Outdoor Family Party, 45


Below is a suggested program for a community picnic or backyard gathering of several families. It will be a novelty and add to the fun if the men are obliged to do all the cooking and serving. They should, of course, be properly attired with aprons, and, for the amusement of the children, the Father Host may wear a dress. Serve the meal in the back yard and conclude it by letting every one roast marshmallows over a bed of hot coals. Program material for outdoor family gatherings follows:
Ball Games, 97, 99, 111, 117, 119, 121; Tag Games, 139 to 142; Miscellaneous Playground Games, 161,171, 172,181, 192, 242, 249; Leaders' Stunts, 387, 388, 39'; Picnic Activities, 636, 640, 641,645, 654, 556; Treasure Hunts, 677, 679

Book Magic, 46


Any time after dinner Mother could take Daughter into her confidence and explain this trick. Even the task of dinner dishes assumes an air of festivity while they rehearse behind

pg. 48

closed doors, using dishes instead of the customary books. When practice has made perfect, they appear before the family to perform the trick.
Lay six books in a row on the table. Send Daughter out of the room and let the family decide upon one of the books. Call Daughter into the room and quiz her while touching the different books, saying each time, "Is it this!" Finally, when Mother touches the book chosen by the family, Daughter answers, "Yes." Daughter knows when to say yes, because Mother touches the chosen book immediately after having touched the second last book from either end.
Notes for Mothers. After the family has learned this system for determining the book, Mother may adopt a new scheme and inform her accomplice by using the number of words in a sentence as the clew; for example, if the first book were selected, the command for the accomplice to return to the room would be merely, "Come;" if it were the fifth, a five word sentence would be used, as, "All right, Mary, come in."

Black Magic, 47

If Mother and Father will work together, Black Magic may be coordinated with Book Magic, 46. While Mother and Daughter are secretly practicing Book Magic, Father and Son may get ready to counter with this ancient game.

Father agrees to perform a similar feat of magic following the game of Book Magic, so he sends Son out of the room. While he is out the: family decides upon some object in the room and then Father recalls Son. Father quizzes his accomplice, naming miscellaneous objects, asking, "Is it that ----?" Finally, when he names the object selected by the family, Son says, "Yes, that's

pg. 49

it," and he knows he is correct because Father named it after naming an object black, or nearly black, in color.
Notes for Fathers. When leading this type of game remember the only pleasure the players derive from it is in discovering the trick. The leader can help them by occasionally emphasizing the color black. For example, announce the name Black Magic clearly before starting; when pointing out the object which provides the clew emphasize the word "black" in naming it.
Whenever any one claims that he knows the trick let him act as an assistant. There is no objection to letting all who learn it go out of the room each time a new object is chosen.

Red, White and Blue, 48
This game should be played after Black Magic, 47. In Red, White, and Blue the correct object is the one named after something red the first time, white the second, blue the third. This series is repeated at the discretion of the leader.
Notes. To be sure, most of the players would discover the trick immediately if the name of it were given before playing it. After playing it a few times name the game without emphasizing the colors, then, if they do not catch on, name it again with emphasis.
This may be a good place to caution parents against playing the type of trick game in which a practical joke is played on an innocent child making him the laughing stock of the evening. To be sure, such tricks can be used with propriety at an April Fool Party, but even then care must be taken so that children do not lose faith in their elders. Better let them try their pranks on each other than to let an adult lead them into trouble.

Spirit Photography, 49

Mother and Daughter can entertain the family with this trick game without letting any one know they are working together. That is a secret. They should practice together until they know

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the signals perfectly before they perform for the family and friends.
After the family assembles Daughter modestly boasts of her magic photographic power, and when challenged, she starts to demonstrate, selecting her brother to help her. Naturally, everybody thinks Brother and Sister will work together. Sister instructs him how, during her absence, to take a magic exposure of any one in the room, using the bowl of a highly polished tablespoon as the sensitive, photographic plate, holding it for a second one foot from the face of the person to be photographed. Sister leaves the room, assuring the family that upon her return she will gaze upon the spoon and name the person photographed.
When called she returns, studies the magic plate (spoon) and by mysterious passes pretends to develop it. All the while she is carefully studying Mother to get the clew. Finally, to the mystification of all, she names the person.
Mother may convey the information to daughter by any of the following means:

1. Imitating the exact sitting posture and pose of the one photographed.
2. Signaling Daughter as she steps to the center of the room, by a slight motion of the right or left hand, as the case may necessitate, that the photographic subject is located on that side of the room.
3. Signaling by folding hands, as Daughter stands beside the subject, so that she can step to the next person and say positively, "You."

Notes. A special signal should be arranged, such as Mother brushing her hair back from her forehead, to convey the information to Daughter that the photographer decided to photograph Mother.
If motions are used as signals, during the entire game Mother should sit in an upright position, with her head erect, so that the slightest change of position decided upon as a signal can be quickly noted by Daughter. Mother's hand also should be held in such position that any slight motion can be readily observed by

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Daughter yet seem quite the natural thing by any one else who notices it.
If possible, Mother should seat herself where Daughter can observe her at all times without appearing to do so.

Admiral Spoof, 50

This is a tantalizing recreational activity of early English origin. It is apparently easy, but in reality it is difficult. Admiral Spoof furnishes recreation after a meal with all members of the family taking turns around the dining table.
Pick up an empty glass with the right hand, first finger and thumb around the glass, saying, "Here's to the health of Admiral Spoof." Take an imaginary sip from the glass, set it down on the table, and with the first finger of the right hand, dry the imaginary moisture on your lip, first to the right and then to the left. With the same finger tap the top of the table on the right of the glass and with the first finger of the left hand, tap the table on the left. With the right finger touch the right side of the table underneath and touch it underneath on the left side with the left finger. Then, alternately stamp the right and left foot once only, and next, rise a few inches from your chair and sit down again.
Next, lift the glass with the first two fingers and thumb of the right hand, saying, "Here's, here's, to the health, health of Admiral, Admiral, Spoof, Spoof." Take two sips, and using two fingers, dry the imaginary moisture twice to the right and twice to the left. In the order previously stated repeat each of the other movements twice in succession finishing with two stamps and rising and sitting down twice.
The third time hold the glass with three fingers and drink the toast, "Here's, here's, here's to the health, health, health, of Admiral, Admiral, Admiral Spoof, Spoof, Spoof." Use the first three fingers of the right hand to dry the lips three times to the right and three times to the left, and so on, repeating all the other movements three times.

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Thinking of Colors, 51

Probably every reader has played this game in his childhood. One player starts the game saying, for example, "I'm thinking of something in this room that is green." The others in turn name green objects, and the one who guesses correctly is next to choose an object.
Note for Parents. Father or Mother may ask the children to whisper to them the name of the object, and thus prevent children from unfairly shifting their choices to prolong the guessing.
On the Table, 52. This variation of the above is played with the family seated at a meal. Some one starts saying, "I'm thinking of something on the table beginning with "P." The one who names the correct object calls the next letter.
Note for Parents. Call "E" for elbows, "C" for crumbs, "S" for spots, etc.

Teakettle, 53

Many mothers and fathers will recognize this guessing game as an old time party favorite. The degree of intelligence which the solving of the camouflaged statements frequently requires makes Teakettle more suitable for older children.
"It" leaves the room while the others decide upon some object in the room, say, a lamp. Upon his return, every one gives a clew by using a simple sentence, substituting the word "teakettle" for lamp. For example, "Teakettle is bright"; or, "Teakettle is bright at times." After each player states a sentence "It" usually guesses the object and tells which remark was most leading, and the player who gave the sentence becomes "It" for the next round.
Notes for Leaders. Be sure that "It" does not guess until everybody has given a sentence.

Missing pages 54-57

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Alphabet Contest, 59
EQUIPMENT: A complete set of letters printed or pasted on paste-
The letters are placed face down in the center of the table. In regular turn, each player draws a letter until some one draws "A." "A" is retained by the lucky player, but all other letters are placed back on the pile, face down, and mixed. The drawing starts a second time and continues until some one draws "B," which he keeps. The others are again returned to the pile and the drawing continues until all letters, in alphabetical order, have been drawn. The player who has the greatest number of letters wins.

Anagrams, 60
(Real Anagrams)
EQUIPMENT: Paper and pencil
What is a true anagram? Answer: The transposition of all letters of a word to form another word or words. Anagrams of the word "team" are mate, meat, tame.
Ancient kings, poets, and philosophers spent hours on anagrams just as we of this age do on cross-word puzzles. To-day, older children and adults are also discovering that there is educational recreation in anagrams. The words below are taken by permission from The junior Anagram Book, which contains anagram material in game form, including cut-out letters, for the entire family. The figure in parenthesis following a word indicates the number of additional anagrams which are listed in the book. How many of the additional anagrams can you supply'

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1.Ant--Tan 2. Aster--Stare (3) 3. Bertha-Breath (1) 4. Bluest--Bustle (2) 5. Bowl--Blow 6. Chesty-Scythe 7. Dora-Road 8. Equip--Pique 9. Fluster--Restful 10. Forest--Softer 11. Heart--Earth (1) 12. Leap-Pale (2) 13. Low--Owl 14. Organ--Groan 15. Pale--Plea (I) 16. Pans--Span (2) 17. Peach--Cheap 18. Plum--Lump 19 Rifle--Flier 20. Risen--Reins (3) 21. Rubies--Bruise (2) 22. Shore--Horse 23. Slate-Stale (3) 24. Smile--Miles (2) 25. Snake--Sneak 26. Solemn--Lemons 27 Spot--Tops (3) 28. Star--Rats (2) 29. Team--Mate (2) 30. Toiler--Loiter 31. United--Untied 32. 32. Wasp--Paws 13. 33. Wines-Swine (I) 34. Wolf--Flow (I) 35. Won--Now 36.Words-Sword

Notes for Parents. When playing with children use only three and four-letter words, and even then, tell them the first letter of the anagram.
Interest will be maintained longer if correct answers are given for the first word before the second is dictated; for the second, before the third is dictated, etc.
Two-word anagrams will prove tantalizing for the older folk. Would you believe that fifteen two-word anagrams can be made from the word "Yankees".' Four of the more difficult ones ate given: Sank Eye, Yak Seen, Easy Ken, Kens Yea. Can you form the others!

Flower Anagrams, 61
These anagrams may be used in several ways. They were found in a very old book on recreation.

1. One name-Anemone 2. Tears-Aster 3. Chant mus rhyme--Chrysanthemum 4. List came--Clematis 5. Me in a rug--Geranium 6. One lucky she--Honeysuckle 7. Thy china--Hyacinth 8. Untie Pa--Petunia 9. A wee pest--Sweet pea 10. Love it-- Violet

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Note for Leaders. Notice that these anagrams are arranged in alphabetical order. Such procedure might be used to advantage with either young players or older players not thoroughly familiar with the names of flowers.

Anagramatics, 62

The letters needed to play this popular game may be purchased in toy shops under the erroneous name of "anagrams." According to the Standard Dictionary an anagram is "A word or phrase formed by transposing the letters of-a different word or phrase." In a true anagram all the letters-no more no less--are used, while in this game a two- or three-letter word is first formed and then a different word is formed by a player who "steals" the original word and forms another one by adding one or more letters, either with or without rearranging them.
The Letters. Paste large printed letters, or print letters on one inch square pieces of heavy cardboard. One hundred and fifty-five to two hundred letters will be needed depending upon the number of players. A suggested distribution follows:

A, E, I, O .................. 12 to 15 == 48 to 60
S, U, D, T................... 8 to 10 == 32 to 40
B, F, H, L, M, N, R ......... 6 to 8 == 42 to 56
C, G, P, W .................. 5 to 6 == 20 to 24
J, K, Y ..................... 3 to 4 == 9 to 12
Q, v, x, z................... 1 to 2 == 4 to 8
155 to 200

All of the cards are turned face down in the center of the table. Each player draws one letter and turns it fate up. The one drawing the first letter of the alphabet or the one nearest "A" has the privilege of starting the game. He turns two letters face up and places them in the "pool" or "kitty" on a spot in the center of the table. If he can form a two- or three-letter word by combining the letter he drew with one or both of those in the pool, he does so,

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and he then draws a letter and turns up one or two letters in the pool as a signal for the player on his left to play. Notice, there must always be two letters turned face up in the pool. If he cannot make a word, he places his letter face up in front of him, and draws a second letter which he conceals, as he calls "Pass') to signal the player on his left to carry on.
If the first player forms a word, the second player tries to steal it by combining with it either the letter he holds or one or both of those in the pool. If he cannot form a word by stealing, he either forms a word of his own, or, if he cannot do this, he draws a letter and calls "Pass." In this manner the game continues until one of the players forms six words.
Notes for Parents. From a real competitive point of view players would not help their opponents, but when young children are playing, it is recommended that older players help them.
Some people play this game by calling "Rummy" upon a player who fails to form a word when that is possible, whereupon, the player who is "rummied" must hand over the word involved. Experimentation proved that the omission of this rule improved the game when children were among the players. Furthermore, the usual rules forbid the formation of two-letter words, however, we found that it speeded up the game to permit them.
It must be made clear that no one is permitted to steal letters -words only may be stolen.
It may seem that the suggestion which follows is too extreme, but in our own family, experiment proved otherwise. In the customary method of playing this game, a player is permitted to form new words only when he changes the roots of words already formed. Thus neither different tenses of verbs, degrees of adjectives, nor plurals would be permitted. We tried both ways and permitted such formations and found that they added to the fun, and, what was more important, we were able to complete the game before interest waned.
Parents may receive a liberal education in the use of slang if they will permit slang words, provided every player at the table admits that he is familiar with the word.

Anagramatic Call Snatch, 61
As its name indicates this variation of Anagramatics is very lively. It requires less concentration than Anagramatics, so naturally children enjoy it more.

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All the letters are placed in the center of the table with a large cleared space in the center, called the "Pool" or "Kitty." When the leader says "Turn," each player turns a letter face up and places it on the table in the open space. If letters thus exposed form at least a three-letter word, the one who first calls the word and snatches one or more of the letters in that word is the one who gains possession of it, hence the name, "Call Snatch." The leader calls "Turn" again and the players repeat the performance just described. Occasionally, the leader pauses before calling "Turn" to allow the players to study the words of their opponents in an attempt to steal words by adding one or more letters just as in Anagramatics.
The game is continued until all the letters have been turned up. Just before the Winner is announced the players should be permitted to stand up and walk around the table to study opponents' words in an attempt to steal them.
Notes for Parents . Should parents wish to eliminate the snatching of words, along with the arguments which ensue, the game may be played differently. Each player, in regular order, turns one letter. This game progresses more slowly since each player is permitted all the time he wishes to study the letters in the pool as well as the words on the table, consequently, there is more concentration and study with the stealing of many words.
The following necessary rule is difficult to enforce: At all times players must wait until others are ready before turning a letter. Evidently, it is unfair for a player to turn a letter while an opponent is busy laying out letters to form a word.
Anagram enthusiasts will frown upon the following rule, but, nevertheless it is recommended for players who enjoy Action better than serious study: To steal opponents' words it is not necessary to change the root of the word; that is, it is permissible to form plurals of nouns, comparative degrees of adjectives, and various tenses of verbs.
The following play-way feature is strongly recommended to the parent who is interested in increasing the vocabulary of the players:

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At the conclusion of the game let each player, in turn, study the words on the board and challenge any other player on either the meaning or spelling of a word. In case of doubt refer to the dictionary. Should the one challenged be incorrect, he must give the word in question to the one who challenged him. On the other hand, should he be correct, the one who challenged must give him a word.

Bible Story-Telling, 64

If a game is made out of telling Bible stories, the subject will be more interesting to younger children.
Mother or Father might start the story by saying, "Once upon a time there was a man who...Of course, the story-teller would tell considerable about the man, and after finishing, all who know the name of the man might be asked to raise hands. The one who names the character in question is asked to start another story. If several succeed in naming the character, one of them is selected as next storyteller.
Notes. Stories and Story-Telling in Moral and Religious Education, Use of the -Story in Religious Education, and Religious Education Through Story-Telling provide useful references for parents especially interested in the subject.
Certainly, the stories need not be confined to Bible stories. Little children prefer imaginative tales and fairy stories. For a reference see Fun, Folk and Fairy Tales which contains a compilation of the most popular stories told by Junior Chautauqua Leaders.

Bible Characters, 65
This is an excellent Sunday evening game if the players are familiar with the names of Bible characters.

pg. 63

Some one starts the game by saying, "I'm thinking of a Bible character whose name begins with the letter J," and the others try by indirect questioning to get a clew. If the character chosen by the Starter were the disciple John, and a second player asked if he had risen from the dead, the answer would be "No." The next one might ask if he betrayed Jesus and the answer again would be "No." The next questioner might ask if he was one of Jesus' disciples, and the answer would be "Yes." With this definite information disclosed, further questioning would quickly reveal that John was the character the Starter had in mind. The one who supplied the name would be the next one to select the next character.

Hunting Bible Verses, 66

If there are not enough Bibles to provide one for each player, this game may be played as a team game, with one Bible for each team. It is here described as an individual hunt.
Some one starts the game by calling, for example, John 3: 16. The first individual or team that finds the verse in the Bible reads it aloud and calls the next reference to be read.
Notes. Coach the players to turn their backs or keep their Bibles hidden when they select verses, so that the others cannot see the relative location of verses.
Let older players call references without looking in the Bible. It would not be necessary for them to be familiar with each verse -merely with the books of the Bible. For example, Timothy is a short book, with short chapters, and if some one should call, without referring to the Bible, Timothy II, 3:25, it would be found upon looking up the reference that the chapter contained only seventeen verses. Obviously, this method would prove interesting, as well as instructive.

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Word Forming From Words, 67

The spelling and writing practice which this game provides does not detract seriously from the fun. Played in the home, it is advisable to divide the family into two teams and seat them around tables in separate rooms. A word with a liberal number of vowels, such as, characteristic, incomprehensibility, prepositional, recreational, or sociability, is given to both teams, and from this word they form as many other words as possible. The team that writes the greater number of words (employing only the letters of the word specified) wins.
In one family the game was played with good results, as follows: Father and Mother acted as captains, coaches and writers, and the others were separated into teams. Each player had before him the selected word printed in large type on a sheet of paper, thus: R-E-C-R-E-A-T-I-O-N-A-L. When a player thought of a word, he reported it and his captain recorded it, if it was correct.
Notes. It is difficult to agree upon a time limit in advance, which makes it advisable to stop when either team begins to lose interest.
On holidays the spirit of the day may be carried out by forming words from the name of that particular holiday. Examples: Christmas, New Years, Thanksgiving, Saint Valentine, Saint Patrck's Day, Washington's Birthday, Independence Day, and Decoration (offering better opportunity than Memorial) Day.
Abstemiously, arsenious, and facetiously are unusual words; they contain all the vowels in their regular order.

The Minister's Cat, 68

This game might seem particularly acceptable to people who have a fairly large vocabulary. As a matter of fact, it may be

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played with people of varying degrees of education, for the oftener players fail the more-fun there will be at the conclusion of the game in the payment of forfeits.
Each player in turn repeats the statement, "The minister's cat is a so and so cat." One player starts the game by substituting for the words "so and so," an adjective beginning with "A," which describes a cat. He might say, "The minister's cat is an ambitious cat." The next player substitutes some other adjective beginning with "A," Until finally, one player admits that he cannot think of an adjective that has not been previously named. Thereupon, he is informed that later he will be required to pay a forfeit, and then the description of the minister's cat continues with the use of adjectives beginning with "B." Other letters are used in alphabetical order until the players have had enough.
Notes Do not play this game without reading the suggestions on methods of assigning forfeits in No. 587.
The leader is cautioned against continuing too long. The majority will tire of it in less than ten minutes.
When a player fails to think of an adjective after a reasonable amount of time, start to count slowly. If number five is reached before he thinks of one, score a miss against him.
When played as a schoolroom game, the teacher may use Minister's Cat as a means of developing children's vocabularies. She may occasionally challenge a player by requiring him to explain the meaning of the adjective used.
Minister's Cat can readily be adapted to special parties; for example, at a musical party adjectives might be applied to a predetermined song, or, better still, each player might prefix an adjective to any song he pleases; at an automobile party adjectives might be applied to automobiles of the players' choosing; similarly, adjectives might be applied to such real or fictitious heroes as, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, St. Patrick, Old Father Time, etc.
The leader who is familiar with the game Ghost, 536, will recognize that Minister's Cat may readily be improved by considering those who fail either Half-Ghosts or Ghosts, just as in the game of Ghosts, page 475.

Poor Pussy, 69

A person who reads this game without ever having seen it played might judge from the consideration of its playing value that it would not be popular. Experience indicates that he may be mistaken. Children enjoy playing it with older people. It may be tried when dignified aunts and uncles call.
A boy or man is first chosen to act as a "Poor Pussy." He is provided with a pillow, and starts the game by kneeling at the feet of a girl, where three times he imitates the mew of a cat. The girl accompanies his three imitative cries by stroking his head three times, saying, the while, "Poor pussy, poor pussy, poor pussy." The object of the Pussy is to make some one either laugh or smile while stroking him. The player who even smiles must change places with Pussy.
Notes. Before the game starts ask everybody at the same time to imitate the cry of a cat three times. Then select those who are funniest and ask them to present solos. It is surprising how much fun this creates.
Before the game starts suggest that it is advisable for those who become Poor Pussies to present a variety of mews and motions and do almost anything they please to induce a laugh.

Whose Hat? 70
(Prince of Paris)

The children are numbered off consecutively and seated in a circle without regard to their numbers. One player, chosen to be "It," takes his position in the center and starts the game saying, "Some one lost his hat, some say this and some say that, but I say number (for example) four." Instantly, "It" counts to ten as rapidly as possible. Should he count to ten before player No.

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4 jumps to his feet and responds they exchange places. The conversation following ensues between "It" and No. 4:
No. 4. "Who sir, I sir?"
"It." "Yes sir, you sir.
No. 4.''No sir, not I sir."
"It." "Well sir, who then sir?"
No. 4. "Number six, sir."
"It" then tries to count to ten before No. 6 can jump up and reply, "Who sir, I sir!" If No. 6 fails he becomes "It." Note. "It" will enjoy the game better if he is permitted to try to induce a player to rise and answer when his number was not called, He may be coached to do this by pointing, for example, at player No. 3, just as No. q is called. Should No. 3 answer, "Who sir, I sir.)" he becomes "It."
Rotative Party Games . Games No. 71 to 84 are especially appropriate for Children's parties. Parents may be surprised to learn that these simple games are very popular at adult parties. For an explanation of a method to organize and arrange these games for a party see the introduction to Chapter XX, Rotative Party Games. All of the games described in that chapter are equally suitable as home games.

Bean Bag Toss, 71
(Faba Gaba)
EQUIPMENT: One or more bean bags or soft balls, wooden board
or pasteboard box with three holes

There are no standard dimensions for bean bag boards. To make one cut the smallest hole near the top of the board and mark it "3," Cut the medium sized hole in the center and mark it "2," finish with the largest hole near the bottom, marked "I." The board must be constructed so that it will stand at an angle of approximately 45 degrees

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The players stand behind a throwing line eight to twelve feet away from the board, and take turns trying to toss the bags through the holes. They receive I to 3 points, as indicated by the holes they bag. One player keeps score.
The First player who scores 25 or more after all players have had an equal number of throws may be declared the Winner, or, better, the game may be played by innings, allowing each player ten throws.

Golf Ball Pitching, 72.
A variation of Bean Bag Toss, 67, consists o~ pitching golf balls through the holes in a bean bag board or box, with whatever club each player prefers. Use a door mat for a tee. For the convenience of the entire family this should be played in the basement or back yard.

Bean Bag Target, 73.
In this variation of Bean Bag Toss, 67, the players throw at a target instead of a board. Three concentric circles serve as targets. They may be drawn upon the floor or upon a board placed on the floor.

Waste-Basket Toss, 74.
Another variation makes use of a waste-basket instead of circles. Young boys-prefer the basket, as their' imagination associates it with Basket Ball.

Chair Quoits, 75.
Place a piano stool or an ordinary chair upside down upon another chair, so that the four legs serve as stakes. Each player in turn tries to toss four rope quoits over the legs. Score I point for each ringer and an additional 5 points for ringing all four legs. When throwing, players should stand behind a line not more than six feet from the chair.
Note. To make rope quoits six inches in diameter, take a piece of one-quarter inch rope five feet long. Form a five inch loop in the center of the rope just as you would in starting to tie a square knot, and twist the ends around and around the loop. Tuck the free ends under and secure them with string or tape.

Disk Pitching, 76.
With chalk, draw upon the floor three concentric circles, six, twelve, and eighteen inches in diameter. Each contestant in turn tries to pitch or slide four disks into the circles from behind a line at least eight feet from the center of the circles. Score 3, 2, or I point depending upon the circle within which the disk rests.

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Note. For disks use rubber heels, rolls of electrician's tape, or metal tops used on glass jars.

Rice Picking, 77.
Place a plate of uncooked rice on the center of a card table. Provide each contestant with a table knife and tooth pick. With these implements they must remove rice from the bowl, one kernel at a time. This contest is conducted on a go-as-you-please plan; that is, players do not proceed in regular order; they play continuously.

Checker Spinning, 78.
This game seems very simple, but when Father joins in, he may be surprised to learn that his children excel him in this type of simple skill.
Upon one end of a large piece of cardboard draw three concentric circles, about 2, 5, and 8 inches in diameter, and number them as illustrated. Six inches or less from the outer circle draw a starting line. Three books or magazines should be laid tangent to the outer circle (see diagram). Provide a checker or 50-cent piece.
To start the game the first player holds upright, with the index finger of the left hand, a checker or coin back of the starting

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line, and then he spins the coin with the thumb and finger of the right hand. Three consecutive spins are allowed each person, and the lie of the checker when it comes to test determines the number of points scored. If it lies completely within the center circle, to points are scored; just within the second circle, 10 points; and within the outer circle, 5 points. After all players have had the same number of spins, the player whose score exceeds 100 in the greatest amount wins.
Notes. When there are four people they usually prefer to play as partners.
When Checker Spinning is played as a lone game let the player try to establish a record of total points in five spins. In this manner establish a family record.
After the players tire of spinning the coin or checker, they may toss it from a distance of five or ten feet.

Table Baseball, 79
(Washer Baseball)

This game is briefly described, as it is assumed that those who play it will be sufficiently familiar with regular baseball to understand the terms and to devise rules as necessary.
Lay out a diamond, as illustrated, on a piece of wall-board or cardboard, at least 18 inches square. For a throwing disk provide a small roll of electrician's tape.
The players toss for Ins and Outs. The one or more members of the Ins take

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turns at bat; that is, they toss the disk from behind a line six or more feet away from the front of the diamond. Failure to pitch the disk upon the diamond counts a strike; three strikes are out. If the center of the disk lands on any one of squares 2, 3, 8, 10, 14 or 161 the batter is out, but if it rests upon any of the other squares, the batter is given credit as the notation on that particular square indicates.
Notes. The squares may be marked to make scoring either easier or more difficult. Make it easier for little children.
In my home we worked out as many as forty squares on a board which covered the library table. An Out was then scored, instead of a strike, whenever a player failed to land the disk on the board.
If a red pencil is available, use it to print notations in squares which count as Outs.

Mason Jar Ring Toss, 80
2, 3, OR 4 PLAYERS
EQUIPMENT: 4 rubber rings and a home-made board

In this form of ring toss Mason jar rings are used, and a single peg can be made by driving a spike or large nail through the center of a board about six inches square and one inch thick.
Place the board flat on a table. The line from which players toss the rings should be six feet or more from the table, depending upon the ability of the players.
Five points are scored for a ringer, three for a leaner, and one or two for the rings that lie nearest the pin, just as in regular Quoits. No points are allowed for rings that fail to touch the board.
Notes. Instead of calling 21 points game, as in regular Quoits, it is better to call 121 points game, because the lower number can be secured very quickly.
Youngsters get a thrill with every ringer, so they should be

pg. 72

stationed near enough to the peg to secure ringers frequently.

This game very readily lends itself to handicapping by allowing less skillful players to throw from lines nearer the peg board.

Mason Jar Ringers, 81
Three pegs are used in this ring toss game, and only ringers are scored.
The peg nearest the thrower counts 5 points, the one in the center 15, and the one on top 10 points.

Triangle Ring Toss, 82
2, 3, OR 4 PLAYERS
EQUIPMENT: Long nails are driven into a board and numbered as in the illustration. The board is suspended from a wall or fence at a height approximating that of the players. Three or more rubber Mason jar rings are provided.

The players line up behind a pitching line about eight feet from the board. Each one takes a turn pitching three or more rings at the projecting nails, and scores the number of points he "rings." The player wins who has more than 20 points, and is nearest 21, after all players have had the same number of throws.
Notes. The highest total according to the method of scoring suggested is not necessarily the winning score; for example, a

pg. 73

player with twenty-three points loses to another who has twentytwo.
Since this method of scoring may be confusing, it may be better, when children are playing, to concede the game to the one who has most points over twenty.
A cleat nailed on the top of the back of the board will incline the board toward the players and make successful throwing easier.

Marble Rolling Race, 83

This is one of many marble games that can be played by the entire family. Son can suggest many more. Why not play marbles with him occasionally! Notice that this game is unusual in that it combines foot racing with marble playing.
When playing this marble game indoors use the central design of the rug. If outdoors, mark a ring on the ground. Let Mother act as the scorekeeper and starter. Divide the family into two teams and station them on opposite sides of the room, equidistant from the ring. Provide each player with a marble. The players toe their respective starting lines and Mother calls, "Go." Instantly, each player rolls his marble, and tries to have it stop in the ring. This completed, Mother scores the number of marbles in the ring. Again she calls "Go," and this time one representative from each team races to get all the marbles which belong to his team and carry them back over the starting line.
One point is scored for each marble in the ring and I point for winning the race back to the starting line. The first team to score 21 points wins.
Notes. It is necessary for each team to have marbles of different color; that is, provided one team with brown colored marbles and the other with green.
Let each player take his turn in running to get the marbles.

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Penny Putting, 84
(Move the Penny)

EQUIPMENT: A golf putter, two golf balls and a thin card with
three concentric circles--1 1/2, 2 and 2 1/2 inches in diameter. Cut a ~4 inch hole out of the center of the card.

To start the game place a golf ball on the cut-out center of the card and place a penny on top of the ball. The object of the game is to hit the ball by the use of a second ball putted from some designated distance, and knock the penny outside the circumference of the circles--an accomplishment that looks easy until you have tried it.
Score I point when the penny lands beyond circle No. I; 3 points, beyond circle No. 2; 5 points, outside all three circles. The person or team scoring most points after nine trials (nine holes) wins.
Notes. The putting distance should be adjusted to the ability of the players.
In order to knock the penny outside of the first circle the ball upon which it rests must be struck off center.

Automobile Recreations

The games in this section are the outcome of the personal experiences on an automobile tour. The games are simple, having been worked out by the members of the family, who took turns in contributing ideas. This added much to the enjoyment of long trips, as there was a lively spirit of competition in inventing and playing the games. It is therefore suggested to parents that using the following games as examples, they permit their own children to originate games.

pg. 75

One Hundred, 85

As an auto approaches Note the first and last digits of the license number. Add them and credit the sum to player No. I. The total of the corresponding digits on the license plate of the next car should be noted and credited to player No. 2, etc., etc. The first player who has a credit of 100 wins.
Notes. Each player does his own adding and keeps his own score in mind, paper and pencil being used only when necessary, as might be the case when the party includes a young child.
For all games of this type consider only the fifth car when traffic is very heavy.
It proves more satisfactory to consider only the numbers from cars passing in the opposite direction. Parked cars ate not considered.
Children can be taught "Safety First" if the driver explains his inability to participate in the game while he is driving.

One Hundred by Pairs, 86.
This is a variation of One Hundred, 85, with the difference that only the digits which occur anywhere in the license plate in pairs are used. If the license number on the passing car has no pair, the player whose turn it is has nothing to add to his score. More fortunately, however, if a license number has more than two like digits, the lucky player is entitled to include all of them as a credit to his score.

Ten Pairs, 87
Automobile only
2 or More PLAYERS

Each player selects a different digit for which he scans the license plates of passing cars. Three digits of a kind count as two pairs and four of a kind count as four pairs All players score on

pg. 76

any license number that bears a pair of their chosen digits. To illustrate, if a passing car carries license number 73,773, the player who chose "3" scores one pair and the player who chose "7" Scores two pairs. The first player who secures ten pairs wins.
Note. The game will be more exciting if the Winner is required to get exactly ten pairs and no more. Thus, if the player who chose "7" had a score of nine pairs and the next car that passed bore a license with three 7's, he would be obliged to continue in the game until a car with only two 7's passed by.

Modified Poker, 88

The party decides upon a number under ten and the order of the players. If 5 is the number selected, player No. 1 observes the license of the first car passing in either direction. If it contains one 5, he scores I point; a pair of 5's, 2 points; three 5's, 4 points; four 5's, 8 points. The players have an equal number of chances and the player or players who first score ten or more win.
Notes. If desired, Winners may be required to score exactly ten points.
Notice that parked cars are not included in this game.

What Car is It? 89
2 or More Players

Each passenger, in turn, names a certain make of car. No two players are allowed to select the same. The lucky player is the one whose selection of car passes first. Only cars moving in the opposite direction are considered.

pg. 77

Puzzle Peg, 90
2, 3, OR 4 PLAYERS

EQUIPMENT: Home-made or purchased puzzle peg board
It is difficult either to understand or explain the fascination of this game, yet it is known to have been the favorite of an entire family on a three months) automobile trip.
To make a Puzzle Peg Board, mark out a series of dots, as illustrated, on a piece of soft wood about eight inches square and three-quarter inches thick. Drive a small nail nearly through the board and then pull out the nail, leaving a peg hole; or, if a drill is available, use it. For pegs, break tooth picks or matches in half and put them in all holes, except-the one in the center.
The object of the puzzle is to leave a single peg in the center hole and remove all the others by jumping them just as in checkers. Puzzle peg differs from checkers in that players do not alternate in "jumping." Each player continues until he can remove no more pegs.
Note. This puzzle is much more difficult than it may appear. When playing with children it is advisable to reduce the number of holes. This may be done by plugging the discarded holes with broken matches. Layouts may be found in the booklet which accompanies Puzzle Peg Boards purchased in toy shops.

pg. 78

Around I Go, 91

EQUIPMENT: A pencil and piece of cardboard

This game, of ancient origin, has no standard rules. One way of playing it is described and illustrated.
Upon heavy paper or cardboard draw two concentric circles about one and four inches in diameter, respectively, and mark them similar to the diagram. This card is called the Indicator.
Each player, in turn, places the point of a lead pencil on the center of the Indicator. He then closes his eyes and an opponent swings the Indicator so that the player does not know the location of the numbers on the dial. When the opponent says "Go," the player lifts his pencil, without opening his eyes, and moves it around in a circle, saying the while, "Around I go. When I stop, I stop on this." On the last word he puts the point of the pencil upon the dial and scores from 0 to 10 points according to where the point is placed. If the point lands outside the large circle or inside the small one, his score is zero. If the point touches a line between divisions, the player takes another turn.
The first player who scores twenty-five or more, after everybody has had the same number of turns, wins. Notes. A lotto card may be used as the Indicator. When there are four players two usually play as partners.

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While swinging the pencil, preparatory to striking the Indicator,
children like to drone the following rime:

Tick, tack, toe, my first go,
Three jolly butchers all in a row,
Stick one up, stick one down,
Stick one in the old man's ground.

Tick, Tack, Toe, 92
(Naughts and Crosses, Tit, Tat, Toe)

This well-known game for two people scarcely needs description. Some
books list it as Tit, Tat, Toe, but players call it Tick, Tack, Toe, so
the latter was given the preference. Draw four lines at right angles
enclosing a square as illustrated.
The first player starts by drawing a naught in one of the spaces and the second one puts a cross in one of the remaining enclosures. They continue alternately marking naughts and crosses, and the player who succeeds in getting three of his marks in either a horizontal, vertical or diagonal line wins.
In the game illustrated the first player wins, and according to tradition, says, upon drawing the third naught, "Tick, tack, toe, Three in a row."
Note. This can be played in the sand by the roadside while Father is fixing a flat.

Cross Road Mapping, 93
This game was devised on an automobile trip. It proved so entertaining
that it was played at home many times thereafter.

pg. 80

It is an unusual paper and pencil type of game which succeeds regardless
of road conditions or springs--in fact, the rougher the toad the better.
When played in the auto use a piece of cardboard. A half sheet of
writing paper will be satisfactory at home. Draw, approximately parallel
to the top of the paper, about one hundred short heavy dashes ~" to f/4"
long as illustrated. These lines represent towns. Now put in dots to
represent gas stations.
The game is described as two people would play it. The first person
starts his car (pencil point) at the top of the map, and, with his eyes
closed, drives south until he runs off the map. He opens his eyes and
draws a circle around each town or gas station through which his road
happens to pass, scoring I. point for cities and 3 points for gas
stations. Then the opponent takes the pencil and tries his luck. If he
drives through cities already encircled, he cannot score them. After a
player has scored twenty-five points he is permitted to draw lines
across the paper from east to west. A game consists of 50 points. When
three play, the Winner need score only 33 points. Four people play the
game as partners.

Closing Squares, 94

This is a well-known game for two people. It is enjoyed by old and
young and can be-played either in an automobile or at a table.

pg. 81

On cardboard in the automobile or on paper at home, draw a series of dots 5 x 5, ,or 6 x 6, or whatever number may be desired. (The illustration contains a 5x5 series.)
In turn, the players join two dots with either vertical or horizontal lines. When a player completes a square (rectangle) he places his initial in it, as illustrated ,in the game which is incomplete. When all the dots have been joined with straight lines the player whose initial appears in the greater number of squares is the Winner.
Notes. It is customary, but not advisable, when an older person plays against a child, to permit a player to draw an additional line each time he completes a square. By this method a player may enclose several squares during a single turn.
If there are several players, a tournament may be arranged as well as a consolation series in which the two losers play against each other to determine the "Champ-Nit."

I Saw, 95
This play-way of reviewing worth-while things observed is much more interesting than the description would lead one to believe. It is very popular while resting, when on a hike, or while traveling in a train or automobile.
One person starts the game, saying "5 saw --," mentioning some interesting object actually observed on the trip. The

pg. 82

next one names the object mentioned by No. I and adds his own observation. Each succeeding player mentions, in exact order, the objects named by preceding players and adds his own contribution. If a player fails to enumerate objects previously mentioned or can add nothing, he drops out of the game. The player who remains in longest wins.

In concluding a chapter, "Play and Life," in The Child and His Home, Dr. H. W. Hurt suggests to parents the following questions :

1. Is this home dominated by adult interests?
2. Just what place does the child have here?
3. Is it a fair place for child growth?
4. Is it organized to further the child's play?
5. Where can the child play! At what? With whom.?
6. What is our adult play atmosphere?
7. At what do we adults play?
8. 8. Does that include our children?

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THE game leader may find himself pressed to answer the educator's question, "Why do you teach ball games which are merely imitations of standard games when you might just as well be teaching the real thing!" The educator might not be satisfied at first with the answer, "I am teaching a series of simple ball games which lead up to standard games." If the educator is still unconvinced, the leader might contend, "According to one educational theory, one way to learn well any game which requires unusual skill, is to practice with success a form of that game as fully advanced as the present physical conditions and skill of the players will warrant."
Lead-Up Games Justified. Miss J. Anna Norris points out logical reasons for the use of so-called lead-up games in the foreword of An Athletic Program for the Elementary Schools:

pg. 102

More and more the idea gains ground that complicated team games should be split into their elements to be taught to groups of children. Simple games are being devised and used which involve throwing and catching a ball, running to base, tagging a runner, judging distance and batting with hand or bat. They serve the purpose of offering a type of game which appeals to an age which is younger than the team game age and which is sufficiently compact so that it provides for participation of all the children at once. They are learning the basic skills of the game and getting an idea of its rules and strategy under conditions so simple as to be easily understood.

Methods for Physical Director and Recreation Leader. When working with large classes the trained physical director is entirely justified in breaking up a major ball game and teaching component parts. Further, in a logical plan for teaching a complicated game, a physical director may dissect it, and substitute, in place of formal gymnastics, parts of the game, whereas a leader of play and recreation, owing to his limited time, would better teach the game in its entirety, rather than modified forms thereof.
Attitude of Children in Gymnasium and on Playground. The mental attitude of children is another factor to be reckoned with. The attitude of children toward play on the playground is different from their attitude in a physical training class, and the play leader is fully aware of this. A gymnasium period occurs as part of a school day, as a relief from the tedium of school, so pupils invariably accept any game the director suggests. On the playground the child feels that the time is his own. He wants what he wants, and in the matter of ball games, particularly, he knows what he wants at each changing season of the year.
Official Rules. To be adequately equipped, the leader of ball games should be quite as familiar with official rules as the athletic coach, though he need not be so conversant with technique. The rules for standard ball games played throughout the nation may be found in Official Guides published by the American Sports

pg. 103

Publishing Co. For an athletic program see An Athletic Program for Elementary Schools, or Handbook of Athletic Games.

Circle Dodge Ball, 96
(Team Dodge Ball)

EQUIPMENT: An air-filled ball, preferably a soft basket ball

Due to the fact that this game is one of the most popular playground and gymnasium games, it has many varieties. One of the common circle varieties is described here.
Appoint a timekeeper. Divide the players into "Ins" and "Outs." Arrange the Outs in a large circle and provide one of their members with a ball. The Ins scatter within the circle formed by the Outs.
The timekeeper Notes the exact time the leader gives the starting signal. Then one of the Outs tries to hit an In. Any or all Ins whom he hits drop to the floor, provided, always, that the ball was thrown from outside the circle. Any member of the Outs may recover the ball and try either to hit an In or throw it to a team mate for that purpose. This is continued until all Ins have been hit. The timekeeper Notes the exact time required to eliminate the entire team. The teams then change places and the performance is repeated. The exact time is again noted.
The team wins that eliminates its opponents in the least time. The Winner may also be determined upon a time basis, thus: Each team is allowed two minutes or longer in which to hit as many opponents as possible. The team hitting the greatest number wins. When time is limited, the latter method is preferable, especially when the majority of the players are skillful dodgers.
Notes for Leaders. It is recognized that for good reasons some leaders will insist upon the usual procedure and have players drop out of the game when they are hit. Certainly, when the play area is not clean dropping out is preferable to "dropping dead." If this game is played only occasionally, it should not be

pg. 104

encumbered with numerous rules. As players increase in efficiency rules similar to the following may be taught:

1. When a player is hit he must leave the circle. (For those who wish, a second game should be provided.)
2. A player must be hit below the waist to score a hit. (Important for girls.)
3. If a ball bounds from one player and hits another, only the player hit first is out.
4. If the ball strikes the floor before hitting a player he is not out.

Individual Dodge Ball, 97.
This individual form of Dodge Ball differs only slightly from the better team form, No. 96. It is preferable to the latter for small groups and for outdoors in cold weather.
Two sides are chosen, the "ins" and "Outs," just as in Circle Dodge Ball. The chief differences are that a player joins the Outs when hit, and, instead of a team winning, the individual who remains in the circle longest is the Winner. When Individual Dodge Ball is played as a pre-assembly game the late comers are required to join the Outs.
Note for Leaders. A quite common practice of using two balls for a large group is not highly recommended. Observe the apparent emotions of the players when two balls are used. They do not appear to especially enjoy either being hit in the back or hitting a companion from behind. This leads to the conclusion 'or large groups divide the players into two or more small circles and use only one ball for each circle.

Snowball Dodge Ball, 98.
Players within the circle throw snowballs at those on the circle. When any one is hit he must assist those within the circle.
Notes for Leaders. An inner circle should be tramped down to confine throwers. Similarly, a wide path should be tramped down on the outer circle, and players dodging must remain in it.
A player should not be required to enter the ring when hit above the shoulder.
Certainly, hard and icy balls will not be permitted.

pg. 105

Bombing, 99.
This variety of Dodge Ball is very popular among English Wolf Cubs. The game starts with all but one of the players in the Circle. The one outside, the "Bomber," hits one player inside the circle. This player stands on the side of the circle opposite the original Bomber and helps him, and the third player hit joins the first two, etc. The player who remains in the circle longest is Winner and acts as the original Bomber for the next round.

Three Team Dodge Ball, 100


This form of Dodge Ball appeals especially to younger children who enjoy to "drop dead" when hit more than do older and less imaginative players.

The players are divided into three teams and lined up at the start of the game as illustrated. The distance between the throwing lines should be twenty feet, more or less, depending upon the number and ability of the players.
The leader Notes the time to the second as he throws the ball to any member of either the No. 1 or No. 2 team, and the game starts. The members of the two teams on the Throwing Lines try to hit, or, as the players say "kill" the entire No. 3 team. When

pg. 106

a player is "killed" he drops dead on the spot. The leader Notes the exact second when the last man is hit. Each team takes a turn between the Throwing Lines. The team that remains in the center area longest wins.
Notes for Leaders. The leader and players should devise their own rules. The following are suggested for less skillful players: 1. A player is not "killed" if hit by a player, who, in the act of throwing, steps over the firing line.
2. A ball which comes to rest between the lines can be recovered only by one of the players at either of the four ends of the lines, marked ''R" in the diagram. 3. The ball may be rolled, bounced, or thrown. 4. A throw kills as many players as it strikes. 5. A player is "killed" if hit on any part of his body or clothing.

Progressive Dodge Ball, 101

This complicated form of Dodge Ball should be preceded by a simpler form in a curriculum of games. Before reading this game it is advisable to study Three Team Dodge Ball, 100, of which this is a variation.
The players are divided into three teams of equal number and lined up just as in the diagram of Three Team Dodge Ball. However, for Progressive Dodge Ball the play-area must be divided into three courts of approximately the same size. (The center court may be larger than the others.)
At the outset of the game the members of teams No. I and No. 2 line up with one foot on their respective boundary lines which are named "Throwing Lines" in the diagram. To start the game the leader tosses the ball to one of the members of the No. 3 team stationed in the center court. Instantly, teams No. I and a scatter over their respective courts to avoid being hit. The player in the center court who receives the ball may run to either boundary line, or he may throw from where he catches the ball, in an attempt to hit either a No. I or 2 player. If he succeeds a point is scored for No. 5 team, and the leader blows his whistle

pg. 107


as a signal for all players to reassemble as they were at the outset of the game. However, should the center thrower fail to hit an opponent the game continues and the One who recovers the, ball runs to his boundary line and attempts to hit one of the center players. If he succeeds, again the whistle is blown, the players reassemble and the game is started all over again. Thus, the game continues for a period of five minutes.
The game is played in three' five-minute periods. The name Progressive Dodge Ball is applied to this game because teams progress from court to court three times. Thus, at the end of the game, each team will have occupied each court for a period of five minutes. The victory is awarded to the team having fewest hits during the three periods. Each time a player is hit one point is scored against his team. The team having fewest points wins.
Notes for Leaders. A wise person will never attempt to act as leader, scorer, and timer, all at the same time. The leader should select an assistant for each period from among the players occupying the center court. When a large score board, such as is used; in a basket ball game, is available, the scorer should use it to record instantaneous scores, also called accumulative scores.
To prevent players from taking unfair advantage by intentionally delaying the game when their team is in the lead, the leader may start to count aloud slowly when he notices a player holding the ball longer than necessary. If such a player fails to throw the ball before three is counted, one point may be scored against the team.
On a large field it is advisable to score a point each time a player is hit on any part of his body or clothing; but on a small field establish the rule--No hitting above the waist. When the game is played by girls the size of the field may be reduced, and hitting above the waist should be forbidden.
In some forms of Dodge Ball a player is considered hit when struck by a bouncing or rolling ball, however, such practice is not recommended for Progressive Dodge Ball. Only "try ball" hits should be scored.
Notice that at all times the two teams occupying the outer courts work together against the one occupying the center, while

pg. 108

the center team -plays against both outer teams. An outer court player may feint to hit a center court man and then pass to any one in the opposite outer court who may be in a better position to hit a center man. Similarly, players in the center may pass the ball to each other.
For older players who are familiar with basket ball it may be well to suggest--No running with the ball.

Four Court Dodge Ball, 102
(Quadruple Dodge Ball, Dodge Basket Ball Combination)

This combination of Basket Ball and Dodge Ball map be played either indoors or outdoors on a basket ball court. The court is marked out and the players distributed as illustrated.
The ball is put in play by tossing it up between two centers as in basket ball, but with this difference--they try to tap it backward. The player who gets the ball from the center quickly passes

pg. 109

it over the heads of his opponents to a member of his team in the end section. Of course, opponents try to intercept passes just as in basket ball. When a player in the rear or end court gets the ball he tries to hit an opponent in the center area just as in Dodge Ball. End players only are permitted to hit opponents, and center men pass the ball to end men. When a player is hit a point is scored, but the game is not stopped. At the end of a three- to five-minute period the players change sections and the ball is tossed up in the center to start each new period.
Notes for Leaders. Rules should be made befitting the ability of the players. The following are suggested for skillful players:
1. A point is scored only: on a fair hit below the waist. Bouncing or rolling hits do not count.
2. A foul may be called when a player steps into the opponent's territory. A free throw may be allowed after a foul just as in basket ball.
3. When time permits, a free throw for the basket may be allowed each player who hits an opponent. Following either failure or success, the ball is put in play again by tossing it up between the centers. One point is scored for a basket and the same for a hit.
A more complicated scoring system preferred by basket ball players is to award 2 points every time a player is hit, and then allow him an opportunity to reduce this to I point by shooting a foul. This method of scoring is not recommended for younger players who may try to get hit in order to secure a free throw.

End Ball, 103

For this game use a basket ball court or mark out a playing spice about the size of a basket ball court in the proportions illustrated for younger players, for more skillful ones make the end areas narrower.
One-third of the members of each team act as "End Men" and

pg. 110

the others as "Floor Men." Each team has one "Center," so marked. At the start of the game the players line up much as illustrated.
The ball is put into play by tossing it up between the Centers just as in basket ball. Centers may try to catch the ball or bat it to a team mate. Two points are scored each time a Floor Man throws, bounces, or rolls the ball to an End member of his team. One point is scored for each free catch following a throw after a foul. The team first to score 21 points may be considered the Winner, "'"" or the victory may be awarded to the team having most points at the end of a time limit.
Notes for Leaders. There is a tendency to spoil this game with too many basket ball rules. Ordinarily, it is only necessary to consider running with the ball and stepping into an opponents' territory as fouls. If a tendency to hold the ball too long develops, it may be considered a foul to hold the ball longer than three seconds.
The method of awarding a point to opponents for each foul is not recommended. Instead, allow the player against whom the foul was committed to throw the ball the entire length of the field to a team mate, and score I point if a catch is made.
It is strongly recommended that play be as continuous as possible. Instead of throwing the ball up between Centers each time an End Man receives the ball, why not do so only at the start of the game! It may seem necessary to put the ball in play in the center after each foul throw, however, experience has shown that this is not essential.
corner Ball, 104 This game is not so active as End Ball, 103, but it requires less space and fewer players. Instead of having

pg. 111

several Ends, each team has only two Corner Men, who are confined in small areas marked in the four corners of the field. Otherwise the two games are played exactly the same.

Captain Ball, 105

This game is designed for boys and girls who are eager to play basket ball before they are physically able to endure its strains. It appeals to playground and gymnasium directors because a large class can be accommodated. There are many ways to play Captain Ball. The game described here was evolved by a student who experimented with seven different methods.
The diagram shows the location of the players on two teams,

the Blacks and Whites, each composed of fifteen members. The Basemen are stationed within the two-foot squares, and are required to remain there while the Guards are not allowed to step into the squares. The Captains, marked "C," have squares about half again as large as the Basemen's. The Rovers, marked "R," are free to move anywhere in their own half of the field.
The game is started by tossing up the ball between the two Rovers, just as in basket ball. The object of the game is for the

pg. 112

Guards or Rovers to throw the ball to the Basemen, who try to throw it to the Captains. No score is counted if a Captain receives the ball from one of his Guards or the Rover. After the Captain secures the ball it is put into play again just as at the start of the game. If a Captain fails to catch the ball On a free throw after a foul, the ball remains in play. When the ball goes out of bounds, regardless of who threw it out, the Rovers recover it and throw it in from the spot at which it left the field.
Two points are scored each time a Captain catches the ball, provided it is passed to him by one of his Basemen. One point is scored every time a Captain catches the ball on a free throw following a foul. Following a foul the Captain receives the ball from a team mate stationed in the center of the field.
Notes for Leaders. As this is not an official standard game, a leader may devise his own list of fouls. The following is suggested for consideration:

1. Captains must, at all times, have both feet in their allotted squares.
2. Basemen must, at all times, have at least one foot completely inside their squares.
3. Rovers must stay in their own half of the field and must not step inside the squares of either their Captain or Basemen.
4. Guards must remain in the vicinity of their respective Basemen and must keep out of an opponent's square. Furthermore, they must not step over the center line. 5. A Guard must not, under any circumstances, attempt to guard any opponent but the one to whom he has been assigned.
6. No player is permitted to hit, bat, snatch, or kick a ball out of an opponent's hands.
7. Running or walking (save for one step) with the ball is a foul.
8. Only the Rovers are permitted to recover the ball when it goes out of bounds.

When the players rank about equal in ability, it is suggested that they all move (right or left) to the next base every time two points are scored.

pg. 113

When, in the opinion of the official, the ball is being held too long, instead of calling a foul immediately, it is suggested that he begin counting up to three and then call a foul if the ball is not passed before the expiration of the count.

Basket End Ball, 106

This variation of basket ball will appeal to teachers and club leaders whose children tease to play basket ball under conditions in which it would be unwise to permit them to do so.
Study the self-explanatory diagram before reading the description of the game. A basket ball court is divided into six nearly equal sections. The players take positions similar to those illustrated to start the game. Players must remain in the sections to which they are assigned at the beginning of a period.
The ball is put into play just as in basket ball. Forwards only are permitted to shoot for a basket. Other players attempt to pass

pg. 114

the ball to their Forwards. One point is scored each time a Forward attempts to shoot a basket, and two additional points are scored for each successful attempt. For each attempt to shoot a basket on a free throw after a foul, One point is scored and one point additional is credited for each successful throw.
Notes for Leaders. This is not a standard game, so leaders may devise their own rules. Since the game leads up to basket ball the rules of that game should be used wherever practicable.
It is recommended that a game consist of three five- to eight minute periods. Players should change positions at the end of each period, so that each has an opportunity to play all three positions before the conclusion of the game.

Nine Court Basket Ball, 107

This game differs from official boys' basket ball primarily in that players are confined for a limited time within one-ninth of the entire playing space. However, players rotate to the next higher numbered area after each field goal, so that they all have an opportunity to play each position.
Divide the players into two teams of nine each. Two opposing players are stationed in each area. Only the Forwards in areas No. I, 2, 3 are permitted to shoot baskets.
Official girls' basket ball rules govern the game with a few exceptions which vary in different sections of the country.

I. No bouncing or dribbling is allowed.
2. Only the players in the center forward position, Nos. 2 and 6, shall attempt foul goals, regardless of the players upon whom fouls are called.
3. When there are only eight players on a team area No. 8 is

pg. 115

omitted and the Jumping Center covers spaces No. 8 and 9
4. When there are seven players areas No. 8 and 4 are omitted and one player covers the entire center section.

Notes for Leaders. Since there are no official rules for Nine Court Basket Ball, it is suggested that leaders in communities where the game is played extensively get together to adopt standard rules.

Basket Ball Shooting Contest, 108

Superior basket ball players will not be keenly interested in this contest which is merely a method for organizing basket shooting practice, so that every one has an equal opportunity. Without a leader present superior players invariably pass the ball among themselves, so that poorer players get only an occasional shot; Teams are organized informally as the players come onto the court, and a Captain is appointed for each team. The Captain numbers his players and has them shoot in numerical order. Each team shoots for a separate basket. Every time a player shoots a goal his team calls out the score.
Suggestions for scoring follow:

1. Goal shot on first attempt from marked spots 15 feet or more from the basket ................. 3 points
1. Goal shot on first follow-up .................. 2 points
1. Goal shot on second follow-up ............. 1 point

Note for Leaders. One follow-up is better for varsity players.

All Around Town, 109. This is a variation of No. 108. The players are divided into teams A and B and stationed thus:

pg. 116

The first player on each team, stationed at point No. r, tries to shoot a basket. If he fails, he goes to the end of his line. If he succeeds, his Ball Retriever gets the ball and throws it back to him, while the thrower moves quickly to point No. 2 and tries again. He continues to advance from point to point as long as he succeeds. Other players repeat the performance of the first. One point is scored each time a player shoots a basket.
Notes for Leaders. Let the Captains be the Ball Retrievers and when they take their turns shooting let others replace them.
It makes a more exciting game to have all the players on a team call out their accumulated score after each basket is shot.
When played as a recess game or at the conclusion of a gymnasium period, the team wins with the greatest number of baskets to its credit at the close of the period. Otherwise, the team that makes an agreed upon number of baskets wins (25 or more depending upon the number of players).
A certain type of shot may be specified, such as, overhand. underhand, chest, dribble, etc. Players may be permitted to run in and try a second shot when they fail on the first.

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When each team uses a separate basket the game is less exciting. When they both use the same basket there is an element of chance, as, either intentionally or accidentally, they may interfere by hitting each other's ball.

Punch Soccer, 110

Although Punch Soccer is quite new, its "go-as-you-please" element has made it popular among boys. It was described in print for the first time by John H. Chase in a 1929 number of the Playground magazine.
The teams line up much as in soccer football. A fence or building usually serves as the goal. When such structures are not available goal lines drawn entirely across both ends of the playing area are necessary.
The Captain of the side that wins the toss puts the ball into play by punching it toward one of his wing players, who runs forward to receive it. From then on the game is like soccer except that players may strike the ball with their fists, and they may catch the ball provided they do not run with it. Each time a player throws, kicks, or punches the ball across his opponent's goal line, one point is scored for his team.
Notes for Leaders. When there are less than six players on a side, only the middle portion of the goal line is used, as scoring becomes too easy when the goal line crosses the entire field.
It might seem that players would attempt to advance the ball by passing it, as in basket ball, but they prefer punching and kicking to throwing.

Kicking Home Runs, 111
(Hit Pin Baseball)

EQUIPMENT: Four Indian clubs and a soccer ball or substitutes
It is predicted that the reader may conclude, as the author did,

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that this game may be all right for youngsters, but that it is not a game for grown-ups. It was explained and highly endorsed by the recreational officer of an ocean liner. His enthusiasm was fully appreciated when he demonstrated the game with a class of college men and women.
Lay out a rough diamond about two-thirds the size of an indoor baseball diamond. Draw twelve- to fifteen-inch squares for bases, and erect Indian clubs on the center of each base. Fielders take positions just as in indoor baseball.
The Pitcher rolls the air-filled ball. When the Batter kicks a fair ball he runs around all the bases, knocking down the clubs as he goes around. The Fielders throw the ball, first to the First Baseman. If, by hitting the Indian club with the ball, the Fielder knocks down the club before the Batter can do so, the Batter is out. No matter where a fair ball is fielded, it must be thrown, first, to first base. If the First Baseman cannot put the Runner out, he throws the ball to the Second Baseman. Similarly, the Second Baseman throws to third, and Third Baseman, to home.
Notice, the First Baseman has no choice, he must always throw to second. Similarly, the Second Baseman, if he fails to knock down the club before the Batter does, must throw to third, and the Third Baseman throws to home. If the Runner reaches home first and kicks down the club, I point is scored for his team. The Only way the Batter can be put out is by a Baseman knocking over an Indian club with the ball before the Runner kicks it over.
It is necessary to emphasize the rule that every Baseman must touch (with foot) his base before throwing the ball to the next Baseman.

Kick Baseball, 112

Kick Ball serves as a substitute for regular baseball in school yards where it is not permissible to hit a hard ball with a bat. It requires less skill than baseball, and, fortunately, boys have little objection to playing it with girls. It is recreation principally for outdoor play in cold weather.

pg. 119

The Pitcher rolls a soccer or basket ball underhand along the ground. The Kicker, as the term implies, uses his foot instead of a bat. The Runner may be hit with the ball while running bases, or may be put out just as in regular baseball. In other respects the game is played like the national game of baseball.
Note for Leaders. The Pitcher should be taught to roll the ball easily so that the Kicker can successfully kick every pitch. In Fold weather no time should be spent in waiting or chasing "wild pitches."

Long Ball, 113

This is an indoor adaptation of One Old Cat which is especially popular among intermediate girls. The field is laid out as illustrated.

Boundary lines are unnecessary, since every hit is a fair ball. For that reason the fielders must scatter over the entire playing area. The rules differ from baseball in the following respects:

1. A player may be put out by being hit with the ball.
1. Players are not allowed to "lead-off" the long base. When they leave it they must run for home, except when a fly ball is caught.
3. Players cannot be run off the long base. As long as one player is at home to bat, the others may remain on the long base.

pg. 120

There is no such thing as a foul ball. Even if a player bats what in baseball is called a "foul tip," he must run for the long base.
German Bat Ball. This is a popular variation of Long Ball. A Pitcher is not required. The Batter tosses up a soft ball and hits it with his hand instead of a bat. He is not allowed to stop at first base, as in Long Ball. He must touch the base and immediately start for home to score a run. He may be put out by being hit with the ball.
Notes for Leaders. For less than six or eight players this game is better than Long Ball. It can be successfully played with three players. When so played, as the saying goes, one out is all out. When there are three players on a side, each takes a turn in batting until three are out. With two-man teams, two out is all out.
When there are more than three on a team it improves the game to use the following rules: (a) At least three of the players on the "outs" must touch or pass the ball before the Runner can be hit. (b) Fielders are not allowed to run with the ball.
During the autumn this game is often played by kicking the ball instead of hitting it with the hand.

Hand Baseball, 114

This game, with its many variations, is very popular with boys where there is insufficient space to play either outdoor or indoor baseball. It is also popular among high school girls.
Lay out a diamond with about go feet between bases. The outfield need not be beyond the base lines. The Pitcher both pitches

pg. 121

and catches. He takes his place just in front of the Batter at: home plate.
The rules of the game are the same as baseball with three chief exceptions:

I. The ball is batted with the hand.
2. The Batter may be put out by any method used in baseball; also by being hit with the ball. 3. Base stealing is not allowed.

Notes to Leaders. Usually, the Pitcher carries over from baseball the impression that he must pitch so that the Batter cannot hit well. In this game the Pitcher does his best to pitch every ball just the way the Batter prefers it. For example, if the Batter likes the ball tossed a little higher than the Pitcher usually tosses it, he simply requests a high one. This makes a lively game because there is no such thing as a "wild pitch" or called balls and strikes.
Bunting should be allowed only when the distance between bases is more than forty feet. When the distance is any shorter it is almost impossible to put a Runner out at first base on a bunt. The leader will find it worth while to experiment with bunting, because the players enjoy the game better when bunting is permitted.
The game succeeds best with a very soft playground or indoor baseball. A tennis ball is rather unsatisfactory.
Players so thoroughly enjoy hitting each other with the ball that they do it in many instances where it would be much wiser to throw to Basemen to get double plays. They should be coached to avoid this error in judgment.

Stand Wall Ball, 115
(Wall Spud)

Among older boys this variation of Spud, 270, is a popular afterschool game. It requires a soft rubber or tennis ball and a high smooth wall or very high board fence. Before starting the game one of the players is selected to be "Thrower."

pg. 122

The players stand in front of, and at any distance they may choose, from the wall. The Thrower throws the ball against the wall between two real or imaginary lines parallel to the ground. As he throws the ball, the Thrower calls the name or number of one of the players, who must catch the ball either on a fly or first bounce. The others try to block him just as football players block each other from receiving a forward pass, but they are forbidden to touch the ball. When the player called fails to catch the ball the others scatter, and he calls "Stand" when he picks up the ball. He takes aim when they halt and tries to hit a player just as in Spud. If he hits an individual they exchange places. If he fails he continues as Thrower.

Days of the Week, 116
(Call Hand Ball, Burley Whush)

This is a ball game of low organization which boys play without adult leadership.
The players are known by the names of the days of the week. "Monday" starts the game by throwing the ball against a high wall and calling one of the days. The player who has the name called tries to catch the ball, and the others run away. If he fails to catch the ball he can make up the failure by hitting a player with the ball, throwing it from the spot where he picks it up. The player whose name was called takes the next turn throwing the ball against the wall whether he has missed it, caught it, or succeeded in hitting another player.
According to rule, a point is scored against a player each time he misses, but when playing by themselves boys pay no attention to the score.
Notes for Leaders. Younger boys like to play the game by considering the first bounce a free catch.
Instead of selecting days of the week, boys imagine themselves baseball stars and take names of their favorites.

pg. 123

Guess Ball, 117
(Hot Ball, Hot Hand)

This game is not recommended because of its playing qualities, but rather as a substitute for a much poorer game; namely, Hot Hand, which boys will play whether or not we adults will it.
By some counting-out method "It') is selected. The players stand behind a line fifteen or twenty feet away from a wall. "It" stands against the wall with his back to the other players.
One of the players takes aim and throws at "it." If he fails, they exchange places. If the player succeeds, "It" instantly turns and tries to guess who hit him. If the guess is correct, the two change places. In case no one misses him, "It" remains against the wall until he guesses correctly.
Note for Leaders. In Hot Hand, instead of throwing at the boy who is down, the boys spank him. The mean part of the game is that often, when the boy who is down guesses correctly, the truth is denied, and he is required to remain down until the spankers' hands are sore. Spankers are even known to use paddles instead of open hands.

Ball Passing Race, 118
(Call Ball)

EQUIPMENT: Balls or bean bags of same kind and size

In this variation of Circle Ball Passing Race, 159, the passer, called the "Center Man," never knows to whom he will pass next, which makes the game very interesting and lively.
Players are organized into teams of about twelve each. Each selects a Center Man, who takes his place in the center of the circle formed by his team mates. All circles should be nearly the same size. The Center Men are requested to retire to the end of the gymnasium or playground, while the leader very quickly numbers

pg. 124

off the players consecutively, beginning with number one. All players are then asked to shift so that they are arranged on the circle in irregular order. Next, the Center Men return to their respective circles and the fun begins.
Upon the starting signal each No. I player calls, "One, One!" to attract the attention of his Center Man who throws the ball to him. Just as No. r returns the ball No. ~ shouts his number, and so the passing and shouting is continued until each player receives the ball and returns it to the Center Man.
Note for Leaders. If the leader wishes to teach accurate passing and catching, he may insist that those who fail repeat the operation until they succeed. When the game is played just for fun this is not advisable, because a player loses time whenever he fumbles, and thus he handicaps his team.
Teacher to Class Ball Passing, 119. This form of Ball Passing Race, played with bean bags or balls, is popular in the lower grades. The class is lined up in a single front rank facing one of the players, called "Teacher." The ball is passed back and forth between Teacher and class. If a pupil does not catch the ball or makes a "wild throw" in returning it, he must go to the foot of the class. Similarly, if Teacher fails he goes to the foot, and the pupil at the head of the class then becomes the new Teacher.
Note for Leaders. When playing with older players Teacher stands in the front and center and throws from that point; but when the players are very young Teacher moves along the line and throws from directly in front of each player.
Corner Spry, 120. This team Ball Passing Race is played with four teams of equal number. The teams are lined up in the four corners of the room. Each team selects one of its members to act as Teacher. At the word "Go" the ball is passed back and forth between the entire class and the Teacher. When the Teacher throws to his last player, he calls "Corner spry!" and runs to the foot of the line, and the player at the head runs to the front to become a new Teacher. This continues until all players have acted as Teacher. The team wins whose last player, after having served as Teacher, is first to return to the end of his line.

pg. 125

Note for Leaders. Coaches may use this game to advantage when instructing basket ball players, by specifying how the ball is to be passed throughout each round.

Ring Ball, 121
(Medicine Ball Pass)

Formerly, when heavy medicine balls were part of the regular gymnasium equipment, Ring Ball was a very popular gymnasium game. To-day, except In business men's classes, medicine ball activities have been supplanted by games in which basket balls are used.
The player selected to be "It" takes his place in the center of the ring. The rest of the players, at intervals of about six feet, form on a circle, facing the center. The players throw a ball promiscuously about the circle while "It" endeavors to knock it to the floor. When he succeeds, he changes places with the player who last touched the ball before it was knocked down. Similarly, "It" wins a place on the circle if any player drops the ball or makes a "wild throw."
Note for Leaders. When learning Ring Ball, players in the center often intercept passes and forget to throw the ball to the floor, whereupon, players on the circle immediately tackle him in an effort to rescue the ball before it touches the floor. This, of course, is not strictly in accordance with the rules of the game, but men and boys enjoy this rough feature. If they are in gymnasium suits there is no objection to playing it that way.

Pass and Catch Relay, 122

This is a simple relay designed to provide recreational activity rather than athletic training. The athletic coach will prefer the split-team method in game No. 124 for purposes of training.

pg. 126

For the Pass and Catch Relay players are formed into two or more teams and lined up as illustrated. The Captain of each team ~s stationed behind the Throwing Line and provided with a ball.
On the word "Go" each Captain throws the ball to the first member of his team stationed behind the Receiving Line. As soon as he receives the ball he runs forward to the Throwing Line, while the Captain runs to the end of his team. Each pair repeats the performance of the first. This: continues until the Captain gets to the head of the line, then, when he receives a pass, he runs to the Throwing Line. The Captain to cross that line first wins for his team.
Notes for Leaders. The finish of the game is easier to judge and is more exciting when the Captains fetch the ball back to the Receiving Line.
For purposes of training, when a basket ball is used, players should dribble it, soccer players may also dribble, while football players may run.

Catch and Sit Relay, 123.
For a complete description of a relay very much like this see Catch, Throw, Sit, 299. For the game Catch and Sit, the Captain of each team is stationed behind the Throwing Line just as in game No. 122. (See illustration.) At the word "Go" the Captain of each team throws to the member of his team at the head of the line. That player catches the ball, throws it back to the Captain, and then sits down. Each player, in turn, repeats this performance. The team that is first to have all its members seated wins.

Split-Team Ball Passing Relay, 124

EQUIPMENT: A soccer or basket ball for each team
This type of relay is of value principally to the athletic coach

pg. 127

as a skill-developing game for basket ball or soccer practice.
The teams are divided into sections A and B and lined up as illustrated.
The first pair of players on each team moves straight forward while passing a basket ball or kicking a soccer ball between them. Upon reaching line AB, they turn around and return to the starting line, continuing to pass the ball between them. Upon reaching the line SF, either player passes the ball to either one of the second pair. Each pair repeats the performance of the first two players.
Note for Leaders. For purposes of training it is much better to eliminate the relay feature of the race and start each pair of pairs on a signal, thus running a series of races.

Circle Ball Zigzag Races, 125

This is a circular zigzag relay in which the ball is tossed, bounced, or kicked from player to player, as indicated in the diagram.
Study the diagram and notice in particular the relative positions of Starter No. I and Starter A diametrically opposite each other

pg. 128

on the inner and outer circle, respectively.
Played as an overtake race, the passing continues until one ball overtakes the other. Played as a relay, the team wins that first completes passing around the circle one or more times. A game usually consists of passing around the circle three times. An interesting way to do this is to toss on the first round, bounce on the second, and kick on the third.
Notes for Leaders. Players like the excitement of calling out "Once," "Twice," and "Hurrah," at the completion of the various rounds.
The basket ball coach may use this game as a: play-way of teaching by specifying the method to be used in passing. The soccer

pg. 129

coach may use it similarly.
A more unusual but simpler formation for zigzag ball passing races is illustrated.

pg. 130


TAG games: Ahem--children's games! And so, we thumb the pages and pass on. Notwithstanding that this idea has been carried over from childhood by most of us, let us consider for a moment. The dominant feature of all tag games is the chasing and pursuing element, which old and young enjoy. Permitting our thoughts to revert to the time when we were nearing the team age, imagine how we should have felt had a professional leader dared to insult the dignity of our assumed maturity by suggesting, "Let's play tag." On the other hand, had he said, "Let's play Prisoner's Base" (a team form of tag), we would have said "Good."
Tag Leadership. The fact that children play simple tag games under their own leadership with considerable success gives rise

pg. 131

to the question, "Why should a play leader spend his time teaching children how to play tag!" One answer is, "He should not, unless be teaches them to play it better than they would without his guidance." To give children useful guidance a leader must know the difficulties children encounter under their own leadership, and then attempt to provide remedies. Let us consider, for example, the well-known game of Cross Tag, 127 What leader has not seen this game break up at the very outset because a very slow runner was selected to be "It" and soon became exhausted chasing fresher and faster runners! Has he not listened to the argument, "No tagging back.'" Has he not seen players derive pleasure out of interfering with "It" just about the time he was ready to tag a fugitive! Has he not observed the better runners monopolize the game by crossing continually!
Rules Provide Remedies. To remedy partially these difficulties the adult leader might simply stand by and watch while the children play Cross Tag under their own leadership. Then, during a rest period, while discussing, "What shall we play next.'" he might call them together and say, "Let's play Cross Tag again, and see if we can play it better." Instead of arbitrarily stating rules, he might better enter into a discussion of such rules as:

1. No tagging back. When a player is tagged, he must pause momentarily, and name the player he has decided to chase.
1. No one shall try to help the runner by interfering with "It," the chaser.
3 After a player has crossed twice, he must not cross again until some one else becomes "It." 4 After all players have crossed twice, "It" may tag any one. 5 After every one has crossed twice, if "It" fails to tag a player after about one minute, the player who crossed last shall be the new "It."

Any one--rarely more than two--of the above rules might be suggested by the leader for adoption. The clever leader would point out a difficulty and allow the players themselves to suggest a rule. By such procedure the leader can reasonably expect the

pg. 132

players to play the game better in the future under their own leadership.
Tag Games for Assembly Periods. Inasmuch as tag games can be quickly organized, do not require all of a leader's attention, and permit the entry of new players at any time, they recommend themselves for use during assembly or pre-opening periods. Only simple games of low organization, similar to tag, can be played successfully while players are assembling. For these periods gymnasium classes and clubs have what is sometimes called a "One game," that is, one game that almost plays itself. If a piece of apparatus is needed, all that is necessary to start the game is for the leader to open the doors and pass out the apparatus. Examples include All Around Town, 109, Spud, 270, and numerous tag games.
Suggestions for Leading Tag Games. It seems advisable for leaders to establish a universal tag rule, "No tagging back." When children play by themselves, they have disputes as to whether or not this rule applies to the particular form of tag they are playing. One says, "Well, our teacher says you can tag back." The other says, "I don't care, my teacher says you can't." Another advisable rule is, "Last one caught is 'It.'" The best players are caught last, and when they act as "It" when the games are repeated, they tend to "speed up" matters.
Most simple tag games for children produce greater playing values when limited to from ten to twelve children. When the group is large, the leader should divide it into two or more sections and teach one section while the others watch.
In Wood, Stone, Squat, or any other tag game in which some simple Action exempts a player from being tagged, it seems well to permit that Action only three times. The adoption of such a rule will encourage timid children to "take a dare."

A Tag Game Program

The person interested in a tag program for children, arranged in progressive order of difficulty, might group tag games as follows: (a) Plain Tag; (b) Object-Touching Tag; (c) Object-Passing Tag; (d) Combinations of (a), (b), (c); (e) Circle Tag games; (f) Tag games requiring team work and cooperation.

pg. 133

Plain Tag, 126.
In this, the simplest form of tag, all players, with the exception of one chaser, called "It," are fugitives. "It" tries to tag any one of the fugitives. When a fugitive is tagged, he becomes the new "It," and the game continues.

Cross Tag, 127.
This is a higher form of Plain Tag. A player may at any time run between "It" and the one he is chasing, whereupon, "It" chases the player who has crossed.

Object-Touching Tag, 128.
In this type of tag game some means is provided for fugitives to escape, such as, touching wood, iron, stone, any tree, or any specific fence or wall. Such tag games are known by the name of the object, contact with which exempts a player from being tagged.

Object-Passing Tag, 129.
Another variation of Plain Tag, as its name indicates, is one in which fugitives pass an object. If a handkerchief is the object used, "It" can tag only the person who is carrying the handkerchief. To free himself the player carrying the handkerchief hands (not throws) it to any other fugitive,

Position Tag

Any tag game in which players place themselves in predetermined positions to secure exemption from being tagged may be placed in the Position Tag category. The name of each game usually indicates the position which the players assume, as Hang Tag, 130, Stoop Tag, 131, Squat Tag, 132, and Back-to-Back Tag, 133.

Ostrich or Skunk Tag, 134.
The name Ostrich Tag is not as descriptive of the Action as that given it by children, namely, Skunk Tag. As its name suggests, a player holds his nose to be free. He does this by putting his arm under his knee. It is an excellent game for fat people, if they can do it. Try it.

pg. 134

Sore Spot Tag, 135
(Japanese Tag, Spot Tag)

This game is described in nearly all game books. It is listed under a variety of names. The name "Sore Spot" has been selected because it is more suggestive of the Action.
Sore Spot Tag is played like simple tag, with the exception that "It," when tagging a player, must hold one hand on the "sore spot" where he was tagged. The original "It" has no sore spot.
Note for Leaders. Some leaders adopt the rule of having "It" hold his hand on the sore spot continuously. Such a rule is very difficult to enforce, leads to disputes, and slows up the game.

Monkey Tag, 136.
This is suitable for children who are confined in a small area. One end of a rope about twenty feet long is secured in the center of the play-area. "It" grasps the free end and holds it, while attempting to tag players who enter his area and pretend to tease him.

Chickidy Hand, 137

This game is similar to Chain Tag, 261, but less rough and therefore more suitable for girls.
Assemble the players in the center of the playing space and select one of them to act as Captain and be "It.)' The remaining players clasp their own hands. "It" takes a position in the center, counts ten, and the game is on.
The first player tagged unclasps his hands and joins hands with "It." The game then proceeds just as Chain Tag with this necessary difference: Fugitives must not unclasp hands until they are tagged, whereupon they unclasp and join the chain.

pg. 135

Poison Circle Tag, 138

This is a clever combination of a circle game and a tag game. The circle element is nothing more than a method to select one or more players to be "It."
Have the players join hands and form a circle. Then draw upon the playing surface a smaller circle, called the "Poison Circle," with a radius of three or four feet less than the circle formed by the players.
When the starting signal is given the players tustle and pull, trying to make each other touch or step within the Poison Circle. As soon as one is drawn, the others call out "Poison." Then the circle feature of the game ceases and the player who was "poisoned" is "It" for whatever tag game has been previously decided upon.
Note for Leaders. For the enjoyment of the players the circle game may be continued until several players have been "poisoned." These players then may: be the "Its" for such tag games as His Royal Highness, 139, o' Help Tag, '4", in which more than one acts as "It."

His Royal Highness Tag, 139
(Her Royal Highness Tag)

There is special reason for leaders to teach this game, since children enjoy its dramatic element, and after they learn it, they can play it in small groups under their own leadership.
Appoint one player "His Royal Highness" and two others to act as the "Advance Guards." The remaining players are "Bad Men," who attack their sovereign. In the center of the field mark the "King's Throne," a three- or four-foot circle or rectangle. The King prepares for the game by standing upon the

pg. 136

throne behind the Advance Guards, with a hand on the shoulder of each guard. Thus they sally forth.
As soon as His Royal Highness steps off the throne the disloyal subjects torment him, even to the extent of trying to spank him with open hands. Immediately, upon being struck, the King calls out the name of the villain and runs toward his throne, while the two Advance Guards pursue the culprit. The Bad Men are not allowed to impede the progress of the King, but may spank him until he reaches the throne. Once on the throne, however, they must not touch him. The guard who tags the villain reported by the King is freed, the one tagged becomes King, and the King becomes an Advance Guard.

Help Tag, 140


Select a player, called "Help," to act provide him with a swatter, such as, a k loosely rolled newspaper, or stuffed stocking.
At the outset Help quickly secures his first assistant by tagging him three times with his swatter. This assistant then catches another player and calls for Help, who rushes to the scene, and, if the player has not escaped before his arrival, he tags him three times with the swatter. Thus a second assistant is secured. This continues until all players are caught.

as the chief "It," and knotted handkerchief,


Swat Tag, 141
(Whip Tag, Whipped to the Gap, The Beater goes Round)

Provide a swatter, such as, a loosely rolled newspaper tied on the ends, a stuffed stocking, or a belt. Form the players in a circle,; facing inward. Instruct them to hold their hands behind their backs in readiness to receive the swatter.

pg. 137

The leader starts the game by walking around the outside of the circle and secretly placing the swatter in the hands of one of the players. This player, then called the "Swatter" or "Beater," turns unexpectantly upon his right-band neighbor and swats him below the belt as many times as he can while chasing him once around the circle. When the runner returns to his place on the circle he takes the swatter and places it in the hands of another player, and so the game is continued.

Hook On Tag, 142
(Freight Train Tag, Head and Tail Tag)

Children enjoy the vigorous Action of this game. They like to be at the head and swing their "hangers-on" to left or right to avoid the chaser. In fact, even though not chased, they do the swinging, much as in the game of Crack the Whip.
Choose an "It" and divide the remaining players into groups of three. Each set of three, standing one behind the other, locks hands around waists to form a unit. The player in front is called the "Head" or the "Engine" and the one on the rear the "Tail" Or "Caboose."
"It" tries to hook onto the Tail of any group. When he succeeds, the Head of that group becomes the new "It." Thus the game continues.

Hooked Four Tag, 143
(Arm Tag)

Needless to say, during the football season boys enjoy the interfering and dodging feature of this game.
Roughly mark out a comparatively small square space, regulating

pg. 138

the size by the number of players. Count off the players by four. Select one member of the first set of four to be "It," and allow the remaining three sets to act as "Fugitives." By hooking arms or grasping hands, form the remaining fours in compact lines. Allow time for the players to scatter.
"It" tries to tag any one of the three Fugitives, notwithstanding the interference of the locked fours, who may do anything to hinder him except hold or trip. When "It" tags a fugitive a new chaser is chosen from the second set of four, and the remaining three become new Fugitives. The original set of four hooks arms and acts as interferers. The game continues until each set of four has had opportunity to repeat the performance of the first set.
Notes for Leaders. When the playing area is large, requiring considerable time for "It" to capture a runner, and consequently a long wait for other players to become Fugitives, they lose interest in the game.
Any of the simple counting-out methods in Chapter II may be used to determine which members of each set of four shall act as "It."

Affinity Tag, 144

As its name indicates, this is a game in which partners must find their affinity or "sole-mate" to exempt themselves from being tagged.
By a counting-out method select "It" and let the other players select partners and scatter. "It" tries to tag any player who is not sitting with the soles of both his feet touching those of his partner.
Note for Leaders. Occasionally call "Partners change," if there is a tendency for players to just sit near their partners as the girls are doing in the illustration at the beginning of Chapter II.

pg. 139

Circle Squat Tag, 145

A circle large enough to contain all the players in squatting posture is drawn in the center of a play space, preferably bounded by walls or fences. If natural boundaries are not available, goal lines may be drawn twenty or more feet from the circle. The players stand about the circumference of the circle and "It" starts the game by squatting wherever he pleases within the circle.
The players tantalize "It" with one of the usual childlike methods, such as:

Johnnie's It,
Got a fit,
Don't know how to get over it.

Quite unexpectedly "It" jumps up and chases the others. All players tagged before reaching a goal must go inside the circle and assist "It" to catch the other players. The players then change the first line of the rime, saying, "You're till It." The original "It)' acts as Captain and as unexpectedly as possible gives a starting signal, whereupon all who are "It" rise and chase their tantalizers. This is continued until all the players are caught. The last one caught acts as both "It" and Captain for the next game.

Maze Tag, 146
(Streets and Alleys)

Maze Tag, which might more appropriately be called Streets and Alleys, is the type of game a leader uses occasionally to make the best of a difficult situation. It is recommended for a large number of players, and then only when space is limited. It answered this need during the World War and deserved its popularity for mass play.

pg. 140

One player is selected to be "It" and another to act as "Runner." The remaining players are formed in regular relay fashion in parallel files, with opposite players holding hands, to form "East-West" lines. "It" and the Runner take their places, as indicated, and all is ready.

The Runner weaves in and out of the East-West lines, chased by "It." Just about the time "It') is ready to tag the Runner, the leader suddenly commands, "Right,--Face!" or "Left,--Face!" as he sees fit. Instantly, the players drop hands and face. When they again clasp hands "North-South" lines are formed, through which the Runner dashes, pursued by "It." When the Runner is tagged, he selects the next "It," and the first "It" selects the next Runner. The retiring pair will be very willing to rest and take their places in the ranks.
Note for Leaders. When the Runner is faster than "It" and is not tagged in about a minute, it is advisable to select a new pair. The leader may further regulate the game by giving the commands "Right" or "Left,--Face" at such times as will make it easy or difficult for the Runner to be captured.

pg. 141

Crow and Crane Tag, 147
(Black and White, Wet and Dry, Heads and Tails)

This team form of tag is a favorite for players of all ages. It is played in various ways. The method here described seems best for general use. Strange to say, adults seem to enjoy the storytelling part of the game even better than do youngsters.
Mark out an area small enough so that players will be within hearing distance of the leader, who takes his position in the center. Divide the players into two teams of equal number, the "Crows" and the "Cranes." Have each Crane brand himself by either tying a handkerchief on one arm, rolling down one stocking, or wearing a cap. Instruct the players to scatter over the field and stop instantly at the sound of the whistle.
The leader blows the whistle, whereupon the players stand in the pose they were in when the whistle blew; that is, they "freeze on the spot." To start the Action the leader calls either "Crows" Or "Cranes." Suppose he calls "Crows," all Crows run, pursued by the Cranes. When the leader's whistle sounds again everybody must stop instantly, or freeze. All Crows who were tagged are then instructed to stay wherever they are and squat so that the others may know that they have been captured. If played by a mixed crowd of men and women, instruct those tagged to drop out. Then the play continues by the leader calling either "Crows" or "Cranes." The team called becomes the fugitive. The game may be continued until all members of one team are caught.
Notes for Leaders. The leader can do much to add to the merriment of this game by calling "Crows" or "Cranes" in a variety of ways, such as:
I. Call out either name, without an instant's delay, after sounding the whistle.
2. Call very falteringly by stuttering over the letter "R," thus, C-r-r-row.

pg. 142

3. Fabricate a brief story, the more nonsensical the better, using in unexpected places the word "Crow" and "Crane." Include also other words beginning with "cr," which will deceive both sides.

Look--See! There's a pure white C-r-r-row!
He's c-r-r-eeping up that tall C-r-r-ane.
Sh ! It's a white cr-rumpled C-r-r-row.
Well, it acts like a cr-rippled Cr-r-r-ow.
Now it's cr-rawling after that Crane.

Last Couple Out, 148

This well-known form of Partner Tag succeeds with all ages, and is one of the tag games that may be used with reasonable success with older groups of boys and girls. Probably, older groups like it because it requires less running than the more active games preferred by younger players.
Select one player to be "It" and arrange the others in a line of couples, one behind the other. "It" stands behind a line about ten feet in front of the line of couples, with his back toward all the players.
"It" starts the game by calling "Last Couple Out," whereupon, the last couple comes stealthily forward, one on each side of the line. As soon as they reach the line behind which "It" stands, they break and run, trying to join hands before "It" can tag them. Should they succeed in joining hands they take their place at the head of the line and "It" is still the chaser. Should "It" succeed in tagging one of the partners, he joins hands with the remaining partner and they go to the head of the line. The player tagged becomes the new "It."

pg. 143

CHAPTER VII Circle Games for Gymnasium and Playground

MOST Of the games in this chapter are designed for children but many of them are enjoyed by older boys and girls as well I by adults. The introductory game of Three Deep, and especially the Notes following it, should be studied carefully before reading the remainder of the chapter.

Three Deep, 149
(Third Man)

A description of Three Deep, the most common circle game. may seem unnecessary. However, the experienced leader who has

pg. 144

seen a beginner teach it will appreciate the "Notes for Leaders." Choose a "Runner" and another player, "It," to chase him. Form the remaining players in a double circle, two deep, that is, one player behind another, both facing the center. Station "It" and the Runner diametrically opposite each other.
At the starting signal "It" tries to tag the Runner, who exempts himself from being tagged by running in front of a pair of players, making a row of three players, or three deep. The third player then becomes the new Runner, and hastens to avoid "It," who, by this time, will be close upon him. Any Runner whom "It" tags must also run instantly, because "tagging back'' is permissible.
Notes for Leaders. Before criticizing a novice consider the numerous problems that arise in a game so well known.
1. Is there a tendency to play Three Deep oftener than its playing values warrant.'
2. For what age-range is Three Deep most suitable! Most popular! Most valuable!
3. Why do inexperienced leaders postpone the selection of the Runner and "It" until after the circle is formed!
4. How shall the Runner be selected! How shall "It" be selected .2
5. What should the leader do when there is an odd number of players! An even number of players!
6. Of the several ways to form a two-deep circle, which do you prefer! Can you think of a better method than to form a single circle first, then count two's clockwise and have numbers one of each team step behind numbers two on their left!
7. Under what conditions would it be advisable to use a formal marching method to form the double circle!
8. Should Three Deep be played differently at different times, or should standard rules be adopted!
9. Which of the rules listed appeal to you for your particular conditions I'

(a) Under no condition shall the Runner or "It)' be permitted to run across the circle.

pg. 145

(b) A Runner may dash across the circle, but must not pause while in its confines.
(c) A Runner shall not be permitted to deceive players by pretending that he is about to step in front of one pair and then suddenly shift to another.
(d) A Runner is permitted to run around the circle only once; that is, he must step in front of a couple after he encircles all the players.

10. What can a leader do to discourage long runs and to encourage the third man to refrain occasionally from running and simply shift in front of the two players in front of him?
11. Is it better to teach beginners Three Deep by directing or by actually playing with them?
12. What should the leader do when a poor Runner becomes "It" and slows up the game through failure to tag various Runners?
13. What should the leader do when players become confused and run at the wrong time?
14. What is the ideal number of players for one circle! What is the minimum?
15. Under what conditions would it be advisable to use the Three Deep variations Nos. 31, 150, 151?

Locked Arm Circle Tag, 150.
In this variation of Three Deep partners stand side by side facing inwards, with arms locked and free arms akimbo. The Runner, chased by "It," locks or hooks onto the outside arm of one of the pairs, whereupon, the third player is chased.
Note for Leaders. This form of Three Deep is often played outdoors by permitting the paired players to move about just as in any ordinary tag game.

Two Deep Leapfrog, 151.
In this vigorous boys' variation of Three Deep the players stoop and grasp their ankles as the Runner approaches, chased by "It." The player over whose back the Runner leaps is chased by "It."

pg. 146

Circle Weaving Race, 152.
(Circle Zigzag)

Races in which contestants run around a circle in opposite directions at full speed are objectionable because of the confusion, and the danger of collision as the players pass each other. The method here described overcomes this objection.
Divide the players into two teams, appoint a captain for each team, and arrange the teams alternately in a large circle, as illustrated.
Upon signal, the Captains start to travel around the circle, passing alternately in front of and behind each player on the circle. Captain A runs to the right and Captain B to the left. When they meet they step inside the circle, grasp both bands and spin each other around once. Then they return to the circle and continue weaving around it from the point at which they left it. The player who is first to return to his original position and stand at attention wins. All members of each team, in turn, repeat the performance of the Captains.
There are as many individual races as there are team members. The team that wins the greatest number of individual races is declared the Winner.
Notes for Leaders. For older players this race may be conducted as a circle relay, but such procedure is not recommended for younger children, who so much enjoy individual races.
If it is desired to maintain interest at high pitch, the players must be arranged so that competing runners are of approximately equal ability.
It will stimulate interest if each Captain will call out, at the conclusion of each individual race, the total number of races won by his team.

pg. 147

If time is limited, the game can be speeded up by allowing the players, after they have spun each other inside the circle, to return directly to their original places, or to the point outside of the circle at which they left it and from there run to their original places without weaving.

Circle Pursuit Race, 153

This method of foot racing is more satisfactory to the leader teaching team play than a straight-away foot race, but it requires more organization and consumes considerable time.
Arrange the runners at equal intervals on a very large circle. Face them right, So that they will be in position to run around the circle counter-clockwise.
At the word "Go" all players run around a clearly defined circle in the same direction, each trying to tag the one immediately in front of him. When tagged, a player drops out of the race and stands on the circle. It is important that they do this, for thus the circle about which the remaining players run is clearly indicated.
The race may be continued until only one player remains. This virtually results in an endurance test for the last two runners. The better way, therefore, is to stop the race when three or four players still remain, and declare them joint Winners.
Notes for Leaders. The game will fail if the circle is not distinctly marked or outlined. If it is difficult to mark a circle, form two teams and have one team stand or sit in circle formation, thus defining the course about which the other team runs. This type of circle necessitates that the race be run in heats. The third heat may be a race between the four survivors of heats No. I and 2.
It will add much to the interest if, during the last heat, the leader will occasionally blow his whistle as a signal for the runners to change direction. Of course, he will blow the whistle just about the time one of the runners is ready to tag the one in front of him.

pg. 148

Circle Pursuit Team Race, 154.
This team variation of No. 153 is suitable for older players and mixed groups, for whom walking may be substituted for running.
Form a circle and count the players off by fours, each set of four players constituting a team. (When there are less than sixteen players, form two teams.) Instruct all No. I players to take one step backward and face right, thus placing the No. r member Of each team in position to run around the outside of the circle in counter-clockwise direction.
Each No. I player tries to tag the runner in front of him. When tagged, a runner immediately drops out of the race and returns to his original position on the circle. Time is called after one or two minutes, and all No. I players return to the circle. All players still in the race when time is called become entrants for the finals. Finalists Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are selected in the same manner. All of the finalists enter a final heat, and the team having the greatest number of members remaining when time is at last called is the Winner.
Notes for Leaders. Just as in Circle Pursuit Race, the leader can introduce an element of chance and merriment by occasionally blowing a whistle as a signal for the players to turn and run in the opposite direction.
When this race is conducted with players of both sexes a balancing feat may be added to slow down the runners. This may be accomplished by having each runner (or walker) balance on the back of his hand an object, such as, a coin, knife, button, or, if nothing else is available, a handkerchief. A player who drops the object is required to step out of the game, just as he must when tagged.

Follow Chase, 155
(Circle Tag)

This superior form of tag can be played successfully in a small space. It engages both the interest and Action of players more

pg. 149

than do simpler forms of tag. This is a variation of Garden Scamp, 19, a favorite game of younger children.
Select an "It" and let him choose the player he wishes to chase. Form the other players, placing hands on each others' shoulders, in as large a circle as possible. "It" and his chosen Runner take places on opposite sides of the outside of the circle.
At the starting signal "It" chases the Runner, who weaves in and out or cuts across the circle as he pleases. "It" is permitted to skip players in weaving, and to run across the circle only when the one he is chasing does so; that is, "It" must trace the exact footsteps of the one he chases. Any Runner whom "It" tags becomes the new "It" and selects the person he wishes to chase.
Notes for Leaders. Since odds are against "It,)) the game can be improved by sounding a signal after a minute of play, whereupon players forming the circle assist "It" by raising arms to permit him to pass and lowering them to obstruct the fugitive.
In this game and others in which "It" selects the fugitive, it is essential that one of the best runners be "It" first. Poor runners invariably select slow fugitives, thus the fast runner may never be chased.

Two Man Circle Tag, 156.
See the illustration on page 151, and notice two boys are "It." Also notice the players in the circle help the Runner and hinder those "It."

Skip Away, 157
It will be observed that while this game may be classified as an active game, it is not intense, since only two players are in Action at a time. It cannot be recommended for an outdoor program in cold weather. It has, however, a legitimate place in a program following a very active game. At all times the number of players on each circle should be small, say, from twelve to fifteen.
Select one player to act as "Tagger." Arrange the others on a circle with a three-pace interval between players. The Tagger walks around the circle in a clockwise direction. Suddenly he tags one of the players standing on the circle. This is the starting signal for -both to run, the Tagger clockwise, and the player tagged, counter-clockwise. When they meet they perform whatever Action was previously agreed upon, such as, bowing, shaking

pg. 150

hands, or spinning each other around. Upon completion of the Action, they instantly resume running, each in his original direction. The one who gets into the vacant place in the circle wins. The one without a place becomes the Tagger, and thus the game continues.
Notes for Leaders. The object of insisting upon the Tagger running in the more difficult clockwise direction is to compensate for the head start that he always has.
The performance of some simple Action when the players meet halts them sufficiently to avoid serious collision.

Object Passing Circle Race, 158
(Ball Passing Pursuit)

EQUIPMENT: For men, two medicine balls; for young children,
two bean bags; for others, basket balls

Arrange players in a circle with a two-pace interval between each player. Form two teams by having the players count off by

pg. 151

twos, then every second player is a member of a different team. The Captains, who are placed diametrically opposite each other, are told the direction in which they are to pass the ball, and then each is provided with a ball. (Illustrated on first page of Chapter V.)
The object of the game is for each team to overtake the ball of the other team. At the starting signal the Captains start the ball on its way around the circle.
Notes for Leaders. The leader must not be impatient when this game is used with young boys and girls if they naturally pass to their next door neighbor. A number of them will forget that neighbors are opponents.
When a player fumbles the ball be should be permitted to do the natural thing--pass the ball from the spot on which he recovers it. A leader will spoil this game if he insists that, when a player fumbles, he must recover the ball and return to his original position on the circle before he passes it.
Each time the game is repeated, as in a "two-out-of-three" contest, every one should take one long step away from the center of the circle, thus enlarging it for each succeeding round.

Circle Ball Passing Race, 159.
This game is especially useful
for juniors learning to play basket ball. However, it succeeds with older players.
Form the players in a large circle and count them off by twos, thus forming a No. 1 and No. 2 team. The two Captains or "Starters," Stationed directly opposite each other, are each provided with a ball.
Upon signal, each Starter passes his ball to his team mate, the second player on his right (or left, as may be directed) who, in turn, passes it to the next member, etc. The team that first gets its ball back to its Starter wins that round, provided each member of the team handled the ball in regular order. Three to five rounds constitute a game.
Notes for Leaders. With older players this game may consist of three to five continuous rounds. When thus played, it adds to the fun to have Captains call out at the end of each round the total number of completed rounds.

pg. 152

When played under the direction of a basket ball coach various methods of passing may be specified for each round.
When played with children, in order to avoid confusion, it is advisable to place No. 1 players in one circle and No. 2's in another; that is, form two Circles.
Younger boys and girls enjoy playing this game with rubber bouncing balls, the ball being bounced instead of thrown.

Two Circle Race, 160

This race and the one following are examples of the way in which games usually played in straight line formations can be improved.
The players are organized into two teams and formed into large circles, with a skillful player stationed in the center of each circle to act as "Center Man."
The Center Man of each circle starts the game by passing the ball to a member of his team. This player passes it back, and in this manner the ball is passed completely around the circle. At the beginning of the game it is agreed that the team wins that completes passing the ball from all players to the Center Man one or more times around the entire circle.

Hit the Director, 161
Two circles are formed, just as in race, No. 160. On the word "Go" each Center Man passes the ball to a player on the circle, who returns it to the Center Man, who passes it to the next player, and so on around the circle. Each time a player returns the ball to the Center Man everybody on the circle counts out loud. On a count previously agreed upon (a few more than the number of players) all the members of the team rush the director, who is stationed equidistant from both teams, and try to hit him with the ball. The first player who hits him wins for his team.

pg. 153

Circle Ball Tag, 162
(Center Catch Ball)

This is an organized method of conducting a popular free play activity, called Keep Away, 263. The Action in Circle Ball Tag is quite the same as in Keep Away. The variation lies in the formation, the players being arranged on a circle instead of being scattered.
Select "It" and provide him with a ball. Form the other players around him in a comparatively large circle.
"It" starts the game by passing the ball to a player on the circle who throws it to any one on the circle. The object of the game is for "It" either to catch or touch the ball while it is being passed about the circle. When "It" intercepts the ball the player who touched it last exchanges places with him.
Notes for Leaders. Proficient players may sit in a circle instead of stand.
In event of the ball being thrown out of the circle, the player who made the wild throw may be required to exchange places with "It.
For a rougher variety of this game sec Ring Ball, 192.

Break and Run, 163

For this variation of the well-known game of Bull in a Ring, select one player to act as the "Bull'' and let him choose his "Keeper." The Bull is stationed inside a ring formed by the other players joining hands; the Keeper is outside the ring.
The Bull, assisted by his Keeper, tries to escape from the ring by dodging between players or under their legs. The Keeper assists the Bull by knocking up arms, pushing players, or pulling

pg. 154

the Bull. They may also break the circle by forcing apart the hands of any pair of players. When the Bull gets out of the ring he and his Keeper run. The player who tags the Bull takes his place in the circle as the new Bull, and the one who tags the Keeper acts as the new Keeper.
Notes for Leaders. Break and Run furnishes an excellent example of the ease with which a simple game can be modified for older players. The author has played this game with college freshmen who enjoyed it during the height of a football season. Of course, they were not told it was a variation of Bull in a Ring. We called it Break and Run, and considered a player captured only when "downed," just as in football.
Since all players enjoy being Bull it is desirable, especially with younger players, to allow a player to be Bull but once. If a player catches the escaping player a second time, he may be permitted to choose the one to take the coveted position.

Bull in a Ring, 164.
In this game the "Bull" breaks from the ring without assistance. The one who captures him takes his place in the next round.
Note for Leaders. Occasionally, this game fails when the Bull is unable to break from the ring. In this respect the game of Break and Run is better.

pg. 155

Circle Stride Ball, 165

Select one player to be "It" and provide him with a ball. Form the others in a circle, each standing with feet apart, touching, with his toes, the toes of the players on each side of him.
"It,'' always starting from the center, tries to throw the ball out of the ring, between a player's legs or the adjoining legs of two players. Those in the circle, using their hands only, try to prevent him from doing this. Should a player move his feet or lose his balance while preventing the passage of the ball, he must exchange places with "It." When "It" throws the ball out of the circle, the player between whose legs it passed or the player on the right of whom the ball passed takes the place of "It" in the Notes for Leaders. Most players prefer to throw from the center out, but occasionally the players may be faced outward while "It" tries to throw the ball into the circle.
A football may be used instead of a round ball. Its tendency to bound erratically adds interest.
This game may also be played by kicking the ball instead of throwing it.

Circle Rush, 166
(Circle Snatch)

EQUIPMENT: A combination of miscellaneous substantial objects,
such as dumb-bells, Indian clubs, sticks, stones, etc. Provide four objects less than the total number of players participating.

This game resolves itself into a very rough indoor or outdoor scramble, and is recommended only when participants are dressed in either gymnasium or roughing clothes. It may be played on a beach in bathing suits.

pg. 156

Form the players in a large circle, the larger the circle the less rough will the game become. Suppose there are twenty-four players, place twenty objects of varying size in the center of the circle.
Upon command all players rush to get one of the objects and then return with it to the circle. Those who fail drop out of the game and watch. Four players drop out after each rush, so the leader places four objects less in the circle each time. By this process all objects are removed and the four players who remain are declared the Winners.
Notes for Leaders. This is one of the few games in this book in which no means is provided for overcoming the elimination of players. During the brief Action the eliminated players seem to enjoy watching the scramble quite as much as taking part in it.
The person who is interested in a game similar to the above should refer to One Out Race, 274, which is better for girls since it is less rough and vigorous.

Circle Snatch Grab, 167

EQUIPMENT: Three objects, preferably ail different, such as, a ball,
Indian club, dumb-bell, stick, or stone

Organize the players into four teams and let each team select a Captain, who also acts as scorer. Beginning with himself, each Captain numbers his players consecutively, commencing with one. The teams sit (or stand) together as units on a circle. The three miscellaneous objects are placed in the center of the circle, and all is in readiness.
Each Captain, in turn, calls one of the numbers assigned to the players. Whereupon, the four players (one from each team) bearing that number rush out and try to get one of the three objects and return with it to the circle. Of course, one player gets left, as the children say. The leader then collects the objects and places them in the center of the circle. The game is thus continued as long as desired.

pg. 157

A Captain scores one point for his team each time one of his players returns to the circle with an object. The team having the highest score wins. It will add to the general interest and assist the Captains to score accurately if each Captain will announce

his score after each round.
Notes for Leaders. If players become unduly rough, adopt the rule, "One point off for unnecessary or intentional rough play." There is less danger of bumping heads when players start from a sitting position.
Roughness and danger may be reduced by using three balls and tossing them up instead of placing them on the floor. Under these conditions players may stand instead of sit.

Poison Circle, 168

EQUIPMENT: A ball--either very soft indoor baseball, or air-filled

The players are formed in a circle as large as the joining of hands will permit. When the circle is completed, all drop hands and each one takes the longest step possible toward the center. Then, with his toe, if outdoors, or with chalk, if indoors, each player marks on the ground a section of the so-called "Poison Circle." After completing the Poison Circle, the players step back to the original circle and again join hands. A ball is placed in the center and the Preparation is complete.

At the starting signal, the players, still holding hands, move around the circle to the right. Then, without warning, the leader

calls "Change," or blows his whistle. At this signal everybody moves in the opposite direction and the players try to force one another into the Poison Circle. When a player is drawn into the circle every one calls "Poison" and runs from him, while he, in the meantime, gets the ball and tries to hit one of them. If two or more players are drawn into the circle at the same time, any one of them may get the ball and try to hit one of the others. After the move one who throws either hits or misses the circle is reformed and the game continues.

pg. 158

Jump the Shot, 169
(Make 'Em Dance, Sling Shot, Circle Bag Jump)

EQUIPMENT: A rope with a soft weight secured to one end

This very active game is usually played by having the players who miss drop out. As here described, all players, with one intermittent exception, remain in the game. This so intensifies the Action that the game should be played for only a short time.
Arrange the players in a circle sufficiently large so that each player will be free to jump. Let one person, preferably the leader, who is called the "Swinger," take his place in the center of the circle. Provide him with a rope at least as long as the radius of the circle. On the end of the rope tie an object, such as, an old shoe, or a small bag of sand or grain. (See illustration at beginning of this chapter.)
The swinger starts swinging the weight on a short radius, paying out the rope as he increases speed, so that by the time the object at the end of the rope reaches the players on the circle, it will be in steady motion close to the floor. The players jump the rope as it passes them. Of course, they must not be permitted to step off the circle to avoid jumping. When a player misses he drops out of the game until a second player misses. Then these two players exchange places. Two persons, therefore, will never be out of the game at one time.
Notes for Leaders. When played by older players any player who misses may exchange places with the Swinger. This practice is not recommended for younger players, not because of any objection on their part, but because they so enjoy being the Swinger that they willfully miss. Then, unfortunately, they do not have

pg. 159

sufficient skill to swing the weight properly. Either the leader or an older player should act as Swinger throughout the game.
When Jump the Shot is played by having the players who miss drop out, the swinging and jumping continues until only one player remains. He is declared the Winner. This method produces keener competition, but reduces the sum total of the activity.
Children enjoy it when the leader speeds up the swinging to the proverbial tune of "Salt, vinegar, mustard, all-spice, pepper." He will rarely reach the "pepper" speed.
When there are enough players to form two circles make this a team game. The team having the fewer misses within a specified time is Winner. When played as a team game the players like to put all members who miss three times on the so called "firing line" to take a shot at them, just as in the game of Spud, 270.

Spin the Wooden Man, 170
(Spin the Hun, Wooden Indian, Round the Ring)

This is an interesting activity for occasional use, rather than a competitive game. It succeeds best with twelve to fifteen mature players.
The players form as compact a circle as possible by sitting very close together with knees up and feet braced. The player chosen to be spun, called the "'Wooden Man," stands in the center of the circle as rigidly as possible with hands at sides.
The Wooden Man falls backward onto the waiting bands of the man directly behind him, who passes him to the man on his right, and, in this manner, he is passed from man to man around the circle. Should a man allow the: Wooden Man to fall, he exchanges places with him.
Note for Leaders. Since Spin the Wooden Man is interesting to both participants and spectators, it can be used appropriately at exhibitions, in which event it should be practiced in advance.

pg. 160

Numbers Change, 171


Select one player to be "It" and send him from the room or out of hearing. Form the remaining players on a comparatively large circle and number them consecutively, beginning with one. Then let them rearrange themselves on the circle, so that the successive numbering will be disarranged. Recall "It" and station him in the center of the circle.
"It" calls any two of the assigned numbers. The players whose numbers were called slyly try to exchange places. During this exchange "It" tries to secure either one of the vacated stations. If he succeeds, the player without a place becomes the new "It." Whenever a player becomes "It" he must surrender his number to the player whose place he takes in the center of the circle.
Notes for Leaders. The weakness of this game, which is very difficult to rectify, is that a player will be entirely out of the game if his number is not called. After the game has progressed for a time the leader might ask for the numbers that have not been called with a suggestion that they be called.

Fruit Basket, 172.
This is a party game which is quite the same as Numbers Change, 171 The players take names of different fruits instead of numbers. When the leader calls "Fruit basket" all players must change. This feature may be added to Numbers Change by the leader calling "All change."

pg. 161

CHAPTER VIII Relay Races for Gymnasium and Playground

THE deserved popularity of relay races as one of the best methods to engage large numbers of players in a comparatively small space under the leadership of one person, has carried over to smaller groups. Before giving relays a prominent price in a program for relatively small groups, the leader should study carefully the playing values of relay races. In many relays each player is actively engaged for only a frAction of the entire playing time, and the more players on each team the less each is engaged. In extended play periods or gymnasium classes relays provide ample time for resting. On the other hand, in short periods they usually provide more rest than is needed.

pg. 162

As an example of typical questions a leader might ask himself when making a game program, there is listed below a number of questions relating to relay races:

1. Under what conditions are relays desirable for preadolescents who are not especially interested in standing still while waiting for their turn!
2. When conducting relays for children, should their natural inclination to jump and shout while writing be entirely curbed, if that be possible!
3. Are the players usually dressed so that moving on all fours or crawling between legs is advisable, even though enjoyable to the players! Would mothers approve!
4. Do players prefer games requiring complicated Action, such as passing an object alternately overhead and between legs! When we perform unnatural complicated Actions are we not giving so much attention to the activity that it provides more exercise than recreation!
5. Would relays involving the carrying of individuals be as valuable for a miscellaneous group as for a Troop of Scouts or a first aid class studying transportation of the injured!
6. When time is limited, would it not be advisable to have eight or less on each team!
7. As a means of increasing activity, would it not be advisable to use relays in which two persons perform at the same time, such as the Double Action Relays, Nos. 193,194.
8. When both time and space are limited, would it not be better to use mass games very similar to relays called Centipede Races, in which an entire line performs in unison' See games Nos. 195 to 198.
9. To what extent should a club leader who devotes only a portion of each weekly meeting to play use relays! Would it not be advisable for club leaders to use only those relays which require intense Action, such as lump Stick Relay, 183?
10. Do mixed groups of adults prefer relays of the picnic type involving funny, or even somewhat foolish, Action to those requiring athletic skill!

pg. 163

164 11. Would ridiculous Action, used with good taste at picnics, be enjoyed by a homogeneous group of adolescents in a gymnasium, or would they prefer more dignified and skillful activities!

Suggestions for Conducting Relays

Permanent Teams. Well-balanced permanent teams for relays and other forms of competitive play are strongly recommended wherever a homogeneous group meets regularly, as in a gymnasium, playground, school, or club. Permanent teams rouse keener competition, make it possible to keep continuous records, provide a stimulus for the development of group morale, and save time necessary to form temporary teams.
Uneven Teams. When using permanent groups a leader is confronted with the problem of conducting relays with teams of unequal number. Sometimes, this may -be adjusted by having each team run a number of players equal to that on the largest team. In relays of the object-passing variety the team having the greatest number is handicapped by the above-mentioned method, but even so, where strong team spirit exists the players do not object to a slight handicap. In basket ball relays with uneven teams the Winner may be determined on a time basis, the team shooting the greatest number of goals in a given time winning. In cases where it is impossible to make adjustments the extra players may be used as more or less important officials.
Informal vs. Formal Methods. When a leader has reasonably certain control of the people with whom he is dealing the informal or semi-formal methods of organizing teams are to be preferred to the absolutely formal methods. As soon as the leader sees that the group respects his authority he can use informal methods, which induce a more spontaneous play spirit. Those who consider the formal methods more efficient might be interested to observe a group of Boy Scouts moving rapidly from one game to another by a semi-formal method called Scout Drill.
Choosing Teams. The method of selecting captains and choosing

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teams is not advisable for regular procedure. This method takes considerable time and causes disappointment as well as embarrassment to those chosen last. However, when this method is used the captains should take their positions on the starting line, and as a player is chosen he should fall in behind his captain.
Making the Formation a Game. Organizations that use permanent groups similar to gymnasium squads, playground teams or Scout Patrols can make a game out of-lining up for a relay race by assigning to each group a definite line upon which to form for all relays. Then, upon signal or command, all players race to their respective positions. The first team with all players in line standing at attention wins.
Forming Temporary Teams. A method similar to the above for forming temporary teams is to line up the players and have them count off by the number of teams desired. For example, if four teams are desired, count fours. Instruct the individuals in the first set of four to act as captains and take positions at intervals on the starting line. Then, upon command, the remaining players race to the positions, with "ones" behind captain No. I, "twos" behind captain No. 2, etc.
Gymnasium Methods. A method of forming relay teams commonly used in gymnasiums consists of lining up the players in a single front rank and counting them off by the requisite number of teams. Each player multiplies his number by two or more, depending upon the space available, and, upon command, takes that number of paces forward. A more simple method, that of counting off the players consecutively by the number desired in each team, is less used, because this results in the players of larger physique being on the same team when the players are lined up according to size.
Marching Methods. Organizations that use formal marching can make a practical application of drill by marching teams into positions for relay races.
Circle Formation. The circle method of conducting relays is used on either outdoor or indoor running tracks. It may be used on a regular floor or field by having the players form a circle around which the members of each team run in turn. This formation

pg. 165

is recommended only for adults dressed in street clothes. Of course, boys and girls do not like it because it is so difficult to run rapidly around a small Rat circle as compared to a padded, banked running track.
On a large outdoor track all teams may be started behind the same line. This method is not used on small indoor tracks because it causes congestion with consequent confusion. Indoors, it is preferable to form the teams behind four equally spaced lines. Regardless of the size of the track each player should run one lap; otherwise confusion arises.
Use of Team Captains. Since it is customary to have the person at the head of each team act as captain, player No. I will be hereinafter designated "Captain." When permanent teams are used the Captains should be coached to assist the adult leader, and, instead of going to the end of the file after running, they may remain in front to see that the rules are obeyed and to assist in any other way possible.
Lines. The starting line should be conspicuously marked so that players will not inadvertently start ahead of it. When a wall or fence is inaccessible, a goal line should be drawn parallel to the starting line. Posts or trees will serve the purpose, but to use players as posts is objectionable. Who wants to be a post and be grabbed by all the players who circle "the post!" Water lines are very good on dirt playgrounds. Whitewashed lines are excellent on grass. Painted lines are best indoors.
Starting Succeeding Runners. The common method used in running relays is for the first player to carry to a goal, an object, such as, an Indian club, dumb-bell, handkerchief, stick, or stone. Upon returning to the starting line, he passes the object to the second runner and then goes to the end of the line.
A commendable method for small teams is for the first runner to cross the starting line and continue to the end of his team, and there touch the last player, or, better still, hand an object to the last man. This touch or object is passed forward by each player, in turn, until it reaches the one at the head of the team, who runs with it.
Young boys, who imagine themselves athletes, like to use the sprinter's crouch start, starting when touched on the shoulder by the preceding runner.

pg. 166

Marking the Last Runner. When teams are numerous, it adds to the interest and greatly facilitates the determination of Winners, if the last player is distinctly marked. Methods of marking include tying a handkerchief around an arm, rolling down a stocking, wearing colored sashes or caps, etc. At picnics or demonstrations when spectators are present, it adds to the fun to mark the last runners in some amusing way, such as, wearing a ridiculous hat or a false face, or by making them up as fat men or clowns.
When the last runner is not marked, the teams should be instructed to throw up their hands when their last player finishes.
A fun-producing method of marking the last runner at men's parties is as follows: Just before the start of the race the leader calls, "Last man, hands on shirts in rear." Next he commands "Pull shirt tails out! Pull!" It requires little imagination to hear the laughter. When it subsides the leader explains, "Now we shall have no difficulty in determining the order of the Winners." When this method is used the players do nor give up after one or two Winners have crossed the line, the fun continues until the last shirt tail crosses the line.
Fouls and Penalties. With children it is to be expected that there will be unintentional infrActions of rules under the excitement of the moment or due to misunderstandings. While penalties may be imposed upon older players, patience and leniency should be practiced with children under the team age. One case comes to mind in which a boy was quite severely punished by his team mates because his inadvertency led to the summary disqualification of the entire team.
When relays are conducted in athletic meets very specific rules with corresponding penalties for infringement should be agreed upon in advance between the officials of the various organizations participating. Under such conditions relays may be conducted on a point basis, scoring I point for the team finishing first, 2 points for the second, 3 points for the third, etc. To these points I point is added for each foul. The team then having the lowest total number of points is declared Winner.

pg. 167

Simple vs. Complicated . Relays which include unnatural movements, zigzags, and complicated combinations should be avoided. How can as much benefit be derived from the performance of complicated unnatural Actions that require considerable mental effort as from care-free natural movements! Certainly, there is no objection to races designed to include the use of swinging ropes, vaulting bars, horses, and bucks. Relays of this type may be found in 325 Group Contests for the Army, Navy and School.

Simple Running Relay Race, 173.
The most common formation used for relay races is illustrated with teams No. 1, 2, 3, 4 lined up behind the starting line.

At the starting signal the leader (Captain) of each team runs straight forward, touches or crosses a goal line, wall, or fence, and then returns to the starting line, touching off the second runner. Each player, in turn, repeats the performance of his Captain and goes to the end of his line. The team wins whose last player is first to cross the starting line after he has touched the goal.

All Up Relay, 174

This relay is sanctioned as an official relay by Public School Athletic Leagues. It is especially popular with girls.
Preparation . Draw two tangent circles two feet or less in diameter upon the floor or ground directly in front of each team. Place either one, two, or, for Official races, three Indian clubs in

pg. 168

one of each pair of tangent circles. Line up the teams in parallel files behind the starting or take-off line as illustrated in No.173.
Action. At the starting signal the player in front of each team (hereafter called the Captain) runs to the circles in front of his team, where he changes the club or clubs from one circle to the adjoining tangent circle. Then he returns to the starting line and touches the outstretched hand of the second runner. The first runner then goes to the end Of his line, while the second runs and transfers the club or clubs to the circles they were in originally. The game proceeds until each player has changed the clubs.
Winner. The team whose last player is first to cross the starting line wins. When used in school or playground competitions fouls may be scored on the following: (a) Starting before being touched off; (b) Use of both hands in changing clubs; (c) Failure to place club in circle; (d) Failure to replace fallen club.
The team finishing first receives 5 points; second, q points; third, 3 points. To the points scored for order of finishing, I point is subtracted for each foul.
Notes for Leaders. It is recognized that many modern gymnasiums are not equipped with Indian clubs. However, since they are so valuable for use in play, they should be requisitioned as play equipment. Where they are not available, bottles, sticks, stones, etc., may be used. Pointed sticks are better than Indian clubs on soft ground.
In a variation of this game each team is provided with two milk bottles and a ball. Each player transfers the ball from the top of one bottle to that of the other.

Up and Down Relay, 175.
As its name indicates, this is a variation of All Up Relay, 174. It requires less Preparation , provides more fun, and the rough element is enjoyed by both boys and girls.
Preparation . Instead of putting the clubs or sticks in a circle, they are placed upon a line at any distance desired from the starting line and parallel to it.
Action. The first player runs to the clubs or sticks, knocks them down, and returns and touches off the second runner, who sets the clubs or sticks up again. In this manner the running players alter-

pg. 169

nately knock clubs down and set them up again.
Note for Leaders. The tendency of boys to see how far they can kick the clubs can be checked by making them realize that the farther they kick the objects the more they handicap their team mates.

Bowl'Em Over Relay, 176.
This variation of the All Up and Down Relay is slightly complicated and requires skill. It, therefore, must be played several times before the children can play it well enough to enjoy it thoroughly.
Preparation . Line up the teams behind the starting line and place two or more Indian clubs on a line fifteen or more feet in front of each team. Station a player behind each set of clubs to act as "Ball Boy" and return the ball to the starting line. Provide the first member of each team with a basket ball, or volley ball, or large indoor baseball. For younger children bean bags are satisfactory.
Action. Each player, in turn, bowls (not throws), from behind the starting line, his ball at the clubs, then he runs out and sets up the clubs that he has knocked down. Provided he knocks none down, he runs forward and touches each club, then runs back and touches the next player. While each player is' setting up clubs, the Ball Boy, previously stationed behind the clubs, gets the ball and throws it to his team mate behind the starting line. The Ball Boy also acts as scorer for his team. So that each team may know its competitors' scores, the Ball Boy should be coached to call out loudly the instantaneous score after each throw, that is, the total number of clubs knocked down.
Winner. To determine the Winner add to the number of clubs knocked down points for the order of finishing--g points for first, 2 for second, I for third.

Bowling Relay, 177.
This game requires more time than No. 176, but it provides more fun. The players are lined up, as illustrated, ten feet or more from the pins, depending upon the ability of the players.
Action. To start the race Nos. 2 bowl twice, and Nos. I act as their "Pin Boys." Following his second ball, each No. 2 "Bowler" runs forward to act as new Pin Boy, while No. I players grab the

pg. 170

ball and return to the starting line to bowl twice. Nos. 3 and 4 then alternate as Bowlers and Pin Boys, etc.
Scoring. The team wins which has the most points scored as follows: r point for each pin knocked down and I to 3 additional points according to order of finish.
Notes for Leaders. To avoid confusion among younger players have the same one act as Pin Boy for all others. Let him take his turn bowling as the last man on his team, with any other member acting as his Pin Boy.
It adds greatly to the fun and facilitates score-keeping if the members of each team call out their total score each time a pin falls.
It provides more fun to use three pins, but the game may be played with only one pin to a team.

Between Pin Bowling, 178.
Two pins are set up a foot or more apart. Instead of knocking down the pins each bowler tries to roll the ball between them. The team wins that receives the least number of points, scored as follows:

Ball rolled between pins .......0
Each pin knocked down ............ 1
point Failure either to knock down or roll between pins .. 2 points

Individual Pin Bowling, 179.
When there are only a few players each one may be provided with a bail and club. Each player then sets up and knocks down his own pins. The one who first knocks down a certain number, say twenty-five, is the individual Winner.

pg. 171

Stride Stand Hustle, 180

Preparation . Line up the players in relay formation, standing with feet apart. Instruct the Captain of each team to get the object (Preparation a ball) to be passed and hold (emphasize the word hold) it in readiness for the starting signal.
Action. At the word "Go" the object is passed between the legs of the players to the end of the line. The end man runs to the head of the line and passes the object back as previously described. Each player in turn repeats the performance of the first.
Winner. The winning team for this or any other hustle may be determined by any of the following methods:

I. First team lined up in its original position with the Captain back in his original place wins.
2. Team whose Captain is first to touch a wall or fence in front of his team. (Spectators enjoy this method.) 3. Team whose Captain performs as above, then returns and is first to cross the starting line. (Players appreciate this method.) 4. The Captain who is first to touch the Leader who stations himself in front. (Younger children enjoy this method.)

Notes for Leaders. If the object to be passed is a ball, it is extremely difficult to enforce the rule, "Every one must hand the ball to the one behind." It is much better to say, "Get the ball to the end of the line any way you please, as long as it passes between every member's legs.)'
On the other hand, if an object other than a ball is passed, it is customary for each player to hand it to the one behind. There is no difficulty in enforcing this rule if the teams are lined up with a space between each player.

Overhead Hustle, 181.
Provide as many basket, volley, soccer, or medicine balls as there are teams. Almost any object that can be readily passed may be substituted for balls. If balls are to be

pg. 172

used, give one to each Captain. Instruct the players to stand very close together, with hands raised overhead, so that the ball can be virtually rolled down the line. If dumb-bells, clubs, or anything other than balls are used, have players leave an interval, so that the object may be passed from hand to hand to the end of the line.
Action. The Captain starts the ball rolling, or, if some other object is used, passes it to the one behind. When it reaches the last player, he runs along the right of his team to the front of the line and passes the object over his head toward the rear. This continues until each player has carried the ball to the front.
Winner. To facilitate judging the order in which teams finish, the last one to carry the ball to the front, i. e. the Captain, should run straight forward to a goal a short distance in front of his team and then return to the starting line. The team whose Captain crosses the line first wins.

Pass and Turn Race, 182.
This parallel file game is a variation of the object-passing relays. It is excellent for use where space is limited, and is appreciated by older girls and adults who are not enthusiastic about running.
Preparation . Line up the teams in relay fashion, with an interval between players. Provide each Captain with an object, preferably a ball.
Action. Upon command, the Captain starts the game by passing the object over her head to player No. 2 and then, making a half turn the Captain faces the rear. When the last player gets the object she also turns, whereupon, the entire line is facing the rear. By repeating this passing and turning the object finally returns to the Captain. In other words, the object is passed to the rear of the line and back again to the front.
Winner. The team wins whose Captain is first to place the object on the floor. Since the Action of this race is brief, it is well to repeat it several times, in which event the first team that wins two or more times is declared the final Winner.
Note for Leaders. To add interest, instead of passing the ball overhead each time, it may be passed sideward, right or left, or, it maybe bounced.

pg. 173

Jump Stick Relay, 183
(Belt Jumping Relay)

This popular relay provides Intense activity and can be conducted in limited space and time.
Preparation . Line up the teams (preferably eight on a team) in regular parallel file relay formation with an interval of five or six feet between players. Provide each team with a stick, rope, or belt about three feet long. Place the first two players in front of and facing their respective teams. Each of these pairs stands in a stooping position, holding the stick or belt between them awaiting the starting signal.
Action. At the signal the first two players on each team run, with the stick held close to the floor or ground, to the rear of their respective teams, while their mates jump over the stick.
Upon arriving at the rear, the Captain takes his place at the end of the line, while No. 2 player returns to the front, where No. 3 grasps the free end of the stick. This second pair repeats the operation of the first, and upon arriving at the rear No. 2 remains, while No. 3 carries the stick to the front. Finally, the one who was originally at the end of the line runs across the starting line with the stick, or better, if space permits, runs to a goal line in front of his team.

Human Hurdle Relay, 184.
Line up the players in relay formation, with at least one pace between them. Face them right and instruct them to sit and extend legs.
Action. First, the Captain of each team rises and hops over the extended legs of his team mates to the end of the line. After hopping over the last player, he turns to the right, and returns to the front and touches No. 2, then sits in his original place. The race proceeds, each player, in turn, hopping, running, touching and sitting.

pg. 174

Paul Revere Relay, 185
(Pony Express Relay)

This game satisfies the desire of boys to "play horse," without danger of strains, for it does not have the objection common to similar races in which lighter-weight players are forced to carry heavier ones.
Preparation . Line up the teams in regular relay formation. Let each team select its lightest-weight player, "Paul," to act as rider, while all others act as "Ponies." Each Paul mounts his first Pony and stands in readiness behind the starting liner
Action. At the signal each No. I Pony carries Paul to the goal line and there Paul dismounts. The Pony remains at the goal line while Paul runs back and mounts Pony No. 2, who stands ready in a stooping position on the starting line. The race continues in this way until all the Ponies have been ridden.

Hockey Relay, 186

Preparation . Provide each team with a wand or stick. A ball or a dumb-bell will serve as a puck. Form the players behind the starting line and establish a goal for each team. For goals, lines three or more feet apart may be drawn at right angles to a goal line, thus :

Action. Each player, in turn, drives or dribbles his puck between his goal lines, then picks it up, runs back, puts the puck on the floor behind the starting line and hands the stick to the next player.

pg. 175

Note for Leaders. To avoid danger players must be coached to push the puck, rather than hit it.

Driving Pigs to Market, 187.
When the above is played at St. Patrick's Day Parties it is called "Driving Pigs to Market." Of course, a dressed-up potato is used as a pig.

Measured Standing Broad Jump Relay, 188

Athletic relays of this type are of special interest to physical directors, since they afford an excellent means for the conduct of mass athletics. Permanent balanced teams are advisable for athletic relays and are recommended even though they are to be used for only short periods of time.
Preparation . The teams are lined up in usual relay fashion. Great care should be exercised to select a responsible person from each group to act as Captain, since the Captains also act as officials.
Action. Each Captain jumps and marks a line at the spot made by his back heel, thus forming a take-off line for player No. 2. Then No. 2 comes forward, toes the mark and jumps. The Captain, acting as official, marks No. 2's jump as the take-off for No. 3. In this manner all members of the team jump.
Winner and Group Average. The distance from the take-off line to the heel mark of the last player of each team is accurately measured and the total divided by the number of players. Thus, the occasional absence of a member does not affect the scoring system. The team having the highest group average wins.
Notes for Leaders. If possible, have an assistant calculate the averages and announce them before the players leave the field, as such procedure enlivens the interest.
Players expect athletic games to be conducted in a very orderly manner. The wise leader will not attempt to do this single handed, but will carefully select and coach boy and girl leaders to assist him.

pg. 176

To avoid confusion and to facilitate the leadership of Captains the following rule must be enforced: After a player has jumped he must immediately go to the end of his line.
To minimize claims of partiality Captains should change places after they have jumped, so that no Captain is in charge of his own team.

Informal Athletic Relay, 189.
For regular gymnasium and play periods it is possible to conduct informal jumping relays without the use of a tape. Such a system is described for jumping, but it may be applied to other events, such as, hop, step, and jump; javelin throwing; ball and weight throwing. These events require an even number of teams, composed of an even number of players.
Preparation . Divide the players into an even number of teams, each consisting of from six to twelve players. Pair off the teams so that teams A and B, % and D, etc. compete against each other.
Action. The Captain of team A jumps forward from the take-off line. The Captain of team B toes the heel mark of Captain A and jumps back toward A's take-off line. In this manner members of teams A and B alternately jump back and forth.
Notes for Leaders. If more than two teams participate, the final Winner is determined by the tournament method; that is, the Winner of A and B match jumps against the Winner of the C and D match.
When this system is used for a throwing contest the teams should be lined up on opposite sides of the field with an interval between teams, as indicated in the diagram.

In the above formation there should be no confusion. First, team A throws toward team B, then, from the spot on which the object lands, team B throws back toward A, etc.
For additional suggestions and programs of recreative athletics, games, and sports, see Recreative Athletics.

missing pages 178-179

pg. 177

Message Relay, 192
(Word Message Race)

It is difficult to explain the continued popularity of this game, which was so much in vogue during the World War and still continues to be a favorite. Its fascination seems to be based on the mystery element rather than the physical, and it is surely a puzzle to guess what the final outcome will be.
Preparation . Line the teams up behind the starting line, call out all the Captains and whisper a message to them. An unusual combination of about ten words forming a complete sentence makes a good message.
The Captains then return to the head of their respective teams.
Action At the command "Go!" the Captain of each team runs forward with No. 2 player. While running to the goal line the Captain whispers the message to No. 2. Upon arriving at the goal, the Captain remains there while No. 2 runs back and touches No. 3 Nos. 2 and 3 proceed as did the Captain and No. 2.
Winner. As soon as the last player on each team receives the message, he remains silent and runs to the leader. When all end men are gathered in front, the leader has each one, n turn, tell, before every one, what message he received. Some of the final messages are woefully distorted, much to the amusement of the
players. Teams receive 3, 2, and I point for the order of finish plus I point for each correct word.
Notes for Leaders. Unless the players are coached to enunciate each word distinctly and to listen carefully while running slowly, this relay develops into a farce. -The leader should be sure that each Captain can repeat the exact message before he allows him to return to his team.

pg. 180

Message Relay illustrates a type of party or social game that may be used occasionally to advantage in a gymnasium or, even better, on a playground on a hot day.

Double Action Relays

As the name indicates, a double Action relay is one in which two people are in Action simultaneously. The advantage of this type of relay in producing twice as much Action as a simple relay is apparent.
Formation. In double relays the teams are lined up in the usual manner in parallel files behind a starting line. The No. I player, or Captain, of each team is stationed at the goal or performing spot, a short distance in front of his ream.
Action. When the signal is given No. 2 player runs forward to the Captain and helps him perform the required Action, usually a simple gymnastic feat. No. 2 remains in front, while No. I runs back and touches off No. 3, who runs out to help No. 2. In this manner each player performs the required feat, the Captain being last t0 do the helping.

Gymnastic Double Relay, 193

In the manner described above partners assist each other in performing gymnastic feats, such as, head stand, hand stand, forward or backward roll, handspring, dead man's lift, etc. Girls enjoy holding hands and swinging completely around. Younger boys enjoy leap frog.
Note for Leaders. The physical director of boys can find novel and unusual activities in Health by Stunts, Chapter V. Any one interested in stunts for girls consult Chapter IX of the same book. Group Contests for Army, Navy and School contains suggestions for older boys and men.

pg. 181

Double Pass Basket Ball Relay, 194

Since this game includes basket ball shooting, it is very popular. This relay is recommended for quite proficient basket ball players. It should be simplified for beginners.
Preparation . A small number of players may be divided into two teams, each using a separate basket. For large numbers four teams should be organized, with two teams shooting for the same basket. Each team must have one ball.
Action. A basket ball is passed between legs, overhead, or sidewards to the end of the line. The last two players take the ball to the basket by passing as in regular basket ball. Upon arriving near the basket, they take turns in shooting. As soon as one of the pair shoots a basket, he may help his partner by getting the ball. After both have made a basket, they return with the ball to the front Of their team, and pass the ball back between their legs. Other pairs repeat the performance of the first.
Note for Leaders. For less proficient players a single relay may be used, in which one player dribbles the ball toward the basket and shoots. A player may be allowed three trials provided he does not score in the first or second attempt. Both games may be played either on a time or number basis; thus, the team shooting the greatest number of baskets within a given time wins, or, the first team to score a stated number of baskets wins.

Centipede Races

Centipede races are very similar to relays. The teams are lined up exactly as in relays, but, instead of individuals running separately, each team runs en masse. Since these games provide continuous Action for all, they are especially valuable for organizations and clubs that use but a portion of a meeting for games.

Chain Centipede, 195.
It Will be observed that some of the methods for forming the chain are designed especially for girls, while all of them may be used with boys. The teams are lined up exactly as for a relay race.

pg. 182

To form the chain each player, except the Captain, takes hold of the player in front, as may be directed. In this linked formation the teams race to a goal line, return to the starting line, and swing around into their original starting position. If any player loses his grip his team is disqualified. (See illustration at beginning of this chapter.)
Notes for Leaders. Girls seem to enjoy the method illustrated for forming the "Centipede." Boys prefer to grasp belts.
When space is limited, it is advisable to run these races in heats, because much of the fun is derived from swinging around at the goal and then swinging into original position at the starting line.

Boat Centipede, 196
(Land Boat Race)

This type of centipede race will appeal to the leader seeking an interesting and amusing race for occasions at which spectators are present.

The boys form a centipede by straddling either a stick or rope. The Captain, who acts as Coxswain, faces his mates. In this formation the Coxswain drives his crew backward over the finish line. He should be reached to cheer his crew, keep it in step, and steer a straight course.

pg. 183

Chariot Race, 197

This spectacular race is a favorite with Scouts and junior high school boys, especially after the "Chariot Drivers" develop sufficient skill to pick up the handkerchief without the "Horses" stopping as they make the turn. (See illustration beginning Chapter XXVII.)
Preparation . Divide the players into groups of either 5, 7, or 9 Each group chooses one of its members to take his place in the center and act as Driver. Arrange the Horses and Drivers behind a starting line. Each team sets up a handkerchief in wigwam fashion on the goal line, and all is ready for the word "Go." Action. When the signal is given the "Chariots" race to the goal line. As they approach the handkerchief, the Horses slow down to make the turn, and, as he passes the handkerchief, the Driver picks it up with his teeth, without releasing his grip on the Horses.
Winner. The Chariot wins that crosses the finish line first, provided no player lost his grip throughout the entire race.
Notes for Leaders. Unless a great amount of space is available this race must be run in heats, since it requires so much space for each Chariot to turn.
When time does not permit of running the race in heats make it a straight away race, and erect the handkerchief half-way between the start and finish lines.

Bounding the Waves, 198


For want of a better place this activity has been included with Centipede Races, although it involves all arms instead of legs. It requires strength and succeeds best with older boys and men.
Preparation . Organize teams of odd numbers with as many as

pg. 184

twenty-five on a team. Let each team select its light-weight member to be its "Bounder." Arrange the teams in double ranks, with each member facing a team mate. All members stand shoulder to shoulder, and each one firmly grasps both hands of the one opposite him to form what is called the "Channel." Each Bounder stations himself about twenty feet from one end of the Channel formed by his team.
Action. At the signal each Bounder runs and dives into his Channel. With a rhythmical motion in time with the Captain's calls of "Heave" and "He," the players swing the Bounder back and throw him forward toward the opposite end of the Channel. In this manner the Bounder, who keeps his body as rigid as possible, is passed to the end of the Channel. The one who reaches the end first wins for his team.
Notes for Leaders. The players who are tossed, the Bounders, should either remove their shoes or wear rubber-soled shoes.
Bounding the Waves must be practiced several times before the players develop the rhythmical motion necessary to keep the Bounder moving.

Additional Relays

After a leader has thoughtfully conducted different types of relays he can determine the kind most suitable for his purposes, and may then intelligently design relay races to fit his special need. To that end the suggestions which follow may prove helpful.

Animal Imitation Relays, 199.
Children enjoy running to a goal line and returning by a method of locomotion intended to imitate an animal. For example, the Kangaroo Hop--hopping with feet together and hands on hips; the Lame Duck--waddling like a duck; the Elephant Walk--hands on floor, stiff knees; the Rabbit or Dog Run-tracking like a rabbit or dog; the Frog Hop, Crab Walk, Donkey Run, etc.
Notes for Leaders. It adds fun to permit the children to make a noise like the animal while imitating its locomotion.
The leader who wishes to, correlate play with nature lore will find animal races instructive.

pg. 185

Balancing Races, 200.
Balancing may be practiced by having players balance objects in the palm, on the back of the hand, or on the head while they are running or walking to the goal. Floor boards, rails, or even chalk lines are also useful for body balancing races.

Dressing and Undressing Relays, 201.
This type of relay is used for boys at exhibitions, much to the amusement of the spectators. The players remove and deposit several articles of their wearing apparel (sweaters, belts, shoes, stockings, etc.) in various places along the outgoing course and don them on the return trip. Needless to say, some one will mix up the carefully placed objects.

Hoop and Tire Relays, 202.
The old-fashioned sport, hoop rolling, is still popular in Relays. Playground and camp directors have modernized it by substituting old tires for hoops. The tires furnish more fun, since players can get a ride by coiling inside the tire while a companion rolls it. The use of tires at "Father and Son" meetings provides great sport when Father rolls Son.

Obstacle Relays, 203.
Is it surprising that obstacle races, which involve such natural activities as jumping, hurdling, climbing, crawling, as well as running, are always popular! In fully equipped gymnasiums it requires no ingenuity to provide obstacles, but, outdoors, a leader must explore the field in advance and use trees, fences, brooks, banks, etc.

Rope Relays, 204.
Rope may be put to many uses in relay races. To a limited extent climbing and swinging are popular with all players. Girls enjoy rope skipping, and, in the absence of the girls, boys do also.

Rescue Relays, 205.
While rescue relays have their place in teaching methods for transporting injured persons, leaders are cautioned to exercise discretion in their use. Frequently, inexperienced leaders fail in this type Of race because they do not arrange the players so that the stronger players carry the lighter ones. If "Safety First" is to be practiced, only methods in which two or more persons carry one can be recommended, such as chair, basket, three-man, and stretcher carry. Fireman's Lift Races are not advisable.

pg. 186

Scout Races, 206.
With more than a million active members of Boy and Girl Scouts, the professional play leader may see fit to include special Scout races in his repertoire of games. Scout relays can be adapted to such subjects as first aid, life saving, Scout pace mile race, compass, camp craft, etc. For a chapter on Boy and Girl Scout games and methods see Games and Recreational Methods.

pg. 187


NOVEL motor or vocal contests, called Duel Contests, in which one person combats another, are of two general types: (a) Amusing activities requiring very little skill, designed to entertain onlookers; (b) Activities requiring considerable skill and providing but little entertainment for spectators. The well-known Pillow Fight and Talk Fest typify the former, while equally well-known forms of Indian Wrestling illustrate the latter.
Creating Interest in Duels of Skill. Naturally, skill contests are interesting to observe only when the performers are skillful. Therein lies the pitfall of this type of event. Many leaders make a mistake in conducting skill contests by simply calling the two best, or supposedly best, performers into the ring and allowing them to battle to a finish. To get observers to experience partially the feelings and emotions of the combatants they should try the duel before they watch it. Why not divide the entire camp, play

pg. 188

ground, or gymnasium class into groups of eight each and let each group conduct its own tournament to select its champion, This will develop group loyalty and each group will better enjoy sitting in the grandstand cheering its hero.
Management and Organization of Duels. Duels requiring skill should first be demonstrated before the entire group by a pair of superior contestants. After all rules are explained and illustrated the players should be divided into units of four for small classes, and eight for large ones. A boy or girl leader responsible for the selection of his best duelist should be appointed for each group.
Teaching Duels. When teaching duels to beginners count them off by twos and let each pair practice the contest informally after it has been demonstrated. Next, call out eight players and very quickly demonstrate the tournament method of elimination to select the group champion. Now, the group leaders should take charge of their groups and select representatives. Again, the entire class should be assembled and the group champions called to the front, and the "Grand Champion" selected under the direction of the adult leader. Group eliminations, semi-finals, and finals are usually selected on the two-out-of-three 'basis. Small groups require careful supervision or the weaker members will yield to the stronger and give in without trying.
Duel "Champ-Nits." A Champ-Nit contest is exactly the opposite of a championship. At the end of the first round all Winners are eliminated and losers compete in the second round. Again, the Winners drop out, until, finally, there is one person remaining in each group who lost every round. He- is the Champ-Nit. This type of Contest has great merit in that it provides most activity for the less skillful members who need the practice most.
"Champ" and "Champ-Nit" Combination. Divide the contestants into groups of eight and pair them off and conduct four contests. Now divide the contestants into two groups, the Winners and Losers.
By the above tournament method of competition every member of the group will participate at least twice, and the Group Champion will have won all his matches, and the Group "Champ-Nit" will have lost all of his. The group Winners then come together before all the competitors and a "Grand Champ" and a "Grand Champ-Nit" is selected.

pg. 189

Indian Hand Wrestling, 207.
Of all the duel strength contests this is universally known and accordingly very popular. Each wrestler advances his right foot and places it against the outside of his opponent's right foot. At the outset they grasp right hands with arms quite straight. At the word "Go" each wrestler attempts to knock his opponent off balance by pulling, pushing, or twisting. (See illustration under chapter heading, page 188.) Should a player, in an attempt to throw the other fellow or to save himself, move either foot or touch the floor with his free hand, he is defeated.
Note for Leaders. The player who, as the saying goes, "beats the starter " has a tremendous advantage. To prevent this use the following commands for starting wrestlers: "Position!" (take position clasping hands loosely); "Grip!" (grip tightly without bending arms); "Pull!" (start wrestling).

Indian Leg Wrestling, 208.
This is a contest of speed and skill in which a weaker player often defeats

pg. 190

a stronger by "getting the jump on him." Wrestlers take positions as illustrated. The leader, keeping time with the rhythm of the raising and lowering of legs, says, "Up and down." Twice the players simply raise and lower their legs. The third time, instead of simply lowering legs, they interlock them and attempt to roll each Other over.

Cock Fighting, 209.
Contestants take positions about as illustrated. They are permitted to hold whichever ankle they please. At the signal they hop toward each other in an attempt to knock the other fellow off balance. If a player releases his grasp with either hand, he is defeated.
Note for Leaders. To prevent overcautious players from prolonging the game and making it a hopping contest, draw a rough circle six or eight feet in diameter and make them stay within it.

Shoulder Shoving, 210.
This contest is intended for girls as a substitute for the preceding game of Cock Fighting. The girls take positions illustrated, hopping on whichever foot they prefer. The object of the contest is to try to push the opponent either out of the ring or off balance. It is a foul to lift the folded arms from the body.

Hand Slap, 211.
The contestants stand with one foot directly behind the other upon a line or a narrow floor-board. Each one touches his forward toe to that of his opponent, thus all four feet are in line, touching toe to toe and toe to heel. Each contestant extends his right hand forward and grasps his belt or clothing behind his bark with the left hand. The object of the contest is to knock each other off balance by slapping extended palms.
Note for Leaders. At camp it is customary to conduct this contest

pg. 191

by having the opponents stand upon a rail or scantling elevated above the ground. In this position players lose their balance quickly and, thus, the contest is not a long drawn out affair.

Under-Hand Slap, 212.
Players take positions as illustrated, staring each other in the eyes. The one with hands underneath attempts to withdraw them very quickly and strike the backs of her opponent's hands. Players alternate striking. Score two points for striking both hands and one for striking one.

Stick Pull Up, 213
In other than college contests a Stick Pull Up is more popular than the more gruelling Stick Twisting and Cane Spreeing events. Contestants sit as illustrated and by direct pulling attempt to either secure the stick or pull an opponent off the ground.
Note for Leaders. On alternate pulls, let the players change grips; that is, the one who has the inside grip for the first pull takes an outside grip for the second. Unfortunately, the stick twists when each player takes one inside and one outside grip.

Rooster Fighting, 214.
In this ring game the contestants hold a stick: in the position illustrated and attempt to knock each other off balance or out of the ring.
Notes for Leaders. A number of other positions requiring no equipment are quite as good as the one illustrated. Players may grasp the toes of their shoes or their ankles. In a still better position, they tie their shoe strings loosely and place the index finger of each hand under the ties.
Omit the circle when it is difficult to mark it distinctly, and allow the spectators to form a natural circle in which the combatants battle until one of them is knocked over.

Dog Fight, 215.
This is a strenuous contest, recommended only for strong boys.

pg. 192

The contestants get down on their hands and knees as illustrated. Two towels or belts are secured about their necks. The contest is a tug-of-war to see who can pull the , other over a line drawn midway between them. Should one of the players slip the belt off his head, either accidentally or otherwise, he is defeated.
Note for Leaders. When belts are used this game is popular only among players who take punishment with a smile. The pull of a leather belt over the ears is painful. The leader who plans to conduct Dog Fights often should provide a harness made of wide canvas.

Chinese Get-Up, 216.
Contestants sit back to back with arms folded and legs extended. At the starting signal they rise without unfolding arms.
Note for Leaders. When introducing this activity allow various couples to struggle and find out for themselves easy ways to get up. This comment seems necessary, particularly for the formalist, who might be inclined to experiment for himself and teach the class his particular method of rising quickly.

Slap the Duck, 217.
Contestants stand as illustrated. The person with arms extended must keep them apart a distance equal to the width of her body. Her opponent ducks down and up between the outstretched arms. The object of the slapper, A, is to slap the face of B, who chooses her own time to duck down and up quickly, through the outstretched hands of A. The slapper is given six chances to hit the duck, then they exchange, and B acts as slapper.
The one who succeeds in hitting oftenest wins. It looks easy, but much to the amusement of the spectators, the striker rarely hits.

pg. 193

Note for Leaders. The leader must caution the striker to stand with arms outstretched and head back to avoid being bumped on the chin when the duck suddenly raises his head.

Crack the Nut, 218.
This is a variation of Slap the Duck. The slapper sits and his opponent kneels as illustrated. The contest is conducted the same manner as Slap the Duck, 217.

Bag Bursting Duel, 219.
Children thoroughly enjoy this, particularly if toy balloons can be substituted for paper bags. Each contestant enters the ring with a toy balloon tied on a short string around an ankle. The object of the contest is to burst the other fellow's balloon by stepping on it.

Nimble Jack, 220.
In this variation of No. 219 the contestants stand on the outside of a circle six feet in diameter. At the starting signal each contestant tries to step on either foot of his opponent.
Note for Leaders. Instead of two opponents for this game and for the Bag Bursting Duels, turn a half dozen loose in an eight-foot circle.

Friendly Enemies, 221.
This duel contest provides much more fun for the spectators than for the performers. It succeeds best when the combatants heed preliminary coaching, and go after each other vigorously.
Two blindfolded antagonists are as a few sheets of newspaper rolled loosely, or a stuffed stocking. They stand any way they please grasping extended left hands. To start the contest one of them asks the other, "Where are you, Friend!" His opponent either ducks down, or sways backward or sideward, and, while in that position, answers, "I'm here." His opponent listens and Notes the armed with a swatter, such

pg. 194

apparent spot from which the voice comes and takes a swat at his "Friendly Enemy." If he strikes him above the shoulders, he receives I point. Opponents alternate in calling and striking. They continue until one of them scores either 2 or 3 points.
Notes for Leaders. It is always necessary to caution combatants, both before and during the duel, to wait until they are in the exact position they wish to maintain before saying, "I'm here." What is more important, they must be cautioned to remain in that exact position until after the opponent delivers a blow. Only a single blow is permitted.
The referee must stand close by and give combatants constant instruction. He should tell the player doing the hitting, after each attempt, exactly where he struck his opponent and whether or not he received a point.
The leader who uses this contest at a Father and Son meeting will be surprised to Note how much boys enjoy seeing their fathers hit each other. If the ethics involved do not annoy the leader, he can add to the entertainment immensely by coaching the fathers to swing wild and high occasionally so that they apparently lose their balance and go down in a heap.
In all duels involving blindfolding it is a mean trick to remove the blindfold from one opponent and allow him, while at this advantage, to beat his antagonist. The leader who does this must not be surprised to find a dearth of volunteers every time he suggests a blindfold game.

Blindman's Biff, 222.
In this variation of Friendly Enemies opponents lie face downward grasping each others'' extended left hands. In all other respects the duels are the same.

Kill the Rattler, 223.
The spectators encircle a comparatively small plot to form a ring. Two combatants are blindfolded and placed in the ring. One is provided with a swatter and the other with a small tin can containing four or five pebbles. The game is similar to Friendly Enemies, 221. But, instead of asking the snake to tell where he is, the "Hunter" simply says, "Rattle," whereupon, the "Snake" is required to rattle the can to inform his tormentor of his whereabouts. After rattling, the Snake is permitted to go where he pleases. The Hunter tries to kill the Rattler by hitting him a full hard (not glancing) blow.

pg. 195

When the Hunter succeeds he exchanges places with the Rattler. The Winner is the one who kills his opponent in the shorter time.
Note for Leaders. Secretly coach the combatants to give the spectators what they want-a lot of Action. Kill the Rattler is a failure from the spectators' point of view when players move slowly and cautiously. We all enjoy watching badly aimed futile blows.

Hit the Whistler, 224.
In this variation of Kill the Rattler, 223, a stake is driven in the center of the ring and the players are secured to it by a rope. One is provided with a whistle, the other with a swatter.

Bronco Bustin', 225.
This is not recommended for occasional use; players enjoy it only after practicing it a number of times, for it requires skill to remain upon a rearing "Bronco." Without practice the Bronco will invariably throw the "Rider," providing contestants are the same size.
At the outset the contestants take the positions illustrated. At the signal the Bronco bucks, plunges, twists, and turns in an effort to throw his Rider within sixty seconds. If the Bronco falls or removes his hands from his knees the Rider wins. If any part of the Rider's body touches the ground, if he releases his grip, or carries his feet to the front and wraps his legs around the Bronco, the latter wins.
Notes for Leaders. As players become expert extend the time limit to two minutes.
This contest may be conducted on a time basis. The contestants alternate as Bronco and Rider, and the one who stays on longer wins.

Lighting a Candle at Sea, 226.
This very difficult contest, in which two players act as partners in an attempt to light a candle, must be conducted on a time basis. Each player takes the position illustrated, one holds an unlighted candle and the other a lighted candle. It is important that partners be separated at such a distance

pg. 196

that they must stretch just a little to bring the candles together. If a contestant touches the floor with the knee he holds up before the candle is lighted his team is disqualified.
Notes for Leaders. If it is essential that contestants succeed in this event, for the benefit of the spectators, they must practice in advance.
It adds to the interest if the timer tolls off the seconds. This can be done very accurately by counting as the photographer does--one-half and one, one-half and two, etc.

Indian Blanket. Duel, 227.
The entire assembly is divided into two groups. Each group selects an entrant, covers him with a large blanket and leads him into the room or arena. The object of the contest is for the players hidden under the blankets to maneuver about until one of them identifies his opponent.
Notes for Leaders. This contest succeeds best when all members of a group are well known to each other. It succeeds better at an all summer camp than at a short-term camp.
Do not permit players to guess. If a contestant names an opponent incorrectly he loses.

Gum Tug-of-War, 228.
Tie a stick of chewing gum in the center of a clean string about five feet long. Let each contestant wrap the end of the string around his tongue so that the distance of the gum from the mouths of the contestants is equal. The contestants stand with hands clasped behind bodies. Each contestant tries to get the gum by winding the string around his tongue.
Notes for Leaders. It will provide additional fun if the string is tied securely around the center of the gum. When this is done

pg. 197

the contest usually results in a tie, because any contestant who is at all clever will discontinue chewing the string when his opponent reaches the gum and usually each succeeds in getting half a stick.
The leader is cautioned not to overdo contests of this kind. After one or two performances they cease to be funny. The leader may be tempted to overdo because be will find willing volunteers among children as long as his gum lasts.

Horse and Rider, 229.
This very popular double duel (four contestants) contest is described with reluctance due to the fact that it is quite dangerous. Unfortunately, leaders permit players to play it on wooden floors or hard ground. History records very serious injuries received in Horse and Rider. This should warn leaders to play the game only on very soft ground or turf, or better still, on the beach.
Two players are selected as "Horses" and two others as "Riders." The Riders mount their Horses and then try to dismount each other by pulling, tugging, and charging. The Horses are permitted to charge each Other, but are not allowed to use their hands for anything except to hold their Riders.
Notes for Leaders. Accidents happen in this game when a very large boy carries a smaller one. When they fall together the light Rider is unable to free himself and is liable to strike the back of his head.
Horse and Rider would be much less dangerous if the Horses were required to keep their bands on their knees at all times as in the game of Bronco Bustin', 225. But many years have fixed the habit of Horses holding firmly to their Riders.

Tractor Pulling, 230
This double duel contest is similar to Horse and Rider. It should never be played on a hard floor or ground. The players take the positions illustrated and at the word "Go" begin a tug-of=war. The one "unhorsed" first or the team pulled back over the center line loses.

Talk Fest, 231
This is an excellent duel contest for older players.

pg. 198

It is one of the author's favorites, and is described in the manner in which it has been used with but very few failures. It is divided into two' parts.
Part I. The leader asks the crowd to name the four best talkers in the entire camp, club, or group. The four selected are instructed to come forward. Before the entire group they are instructed as follows: "All four of you must talk at the same time for sixty seconds. You must not pause an instant. Try to make yourself heard by all. Regardless of the difficulty you may have to restrain yourself, you must not make a single gesture." Then a subject in which the entire gathering is interested is announced and the talk begins. Invariably, two players eliminate themselves by either making gestures or by ceasing to talk for a frAction of a second.
Part II. The object of Part I is to prepare the crowd and to select the two finalists for the fun to follow. For the second part of the contest the two finalists are instructed as follows: "Now for a minute or more one of you talk on the positive side of the question and the other on the negative. This time you may make all the gestures you please, but, again, you must not cease talking for an instant. The crowd will judge the Winner." It is difficult to explain why the crowd invariably agrees with the negative side of the argument. For example, the members of a class in recreation will agree that the contestant who tells them why children should not play is the Winner, or a group of Boy or Girl Scout Leaders will agree that the person who tells them about all the expense, cares, worries, and difficulties of a Scout leader, presents the best case.
Notes for Leaders. At the conclusion of a Talk Fest do not let the crowd tempt you to invite the negative representative to deliver his speech a second time. Such after-speeches, delivered not under the heat of argument, are tremendous disappointments.
Suggested subjects: Women's Rights, League of Nations, Finance, Radio, Athletics, Education, and Prohibition.
A scheme used at camp may be added to a Talk Fest when ice is available. Each talker is provided with two pieces of ice. Each holds one in each hand while speaking.

pg. 199

Buzzing the Bees, 232.
This duel contest is unusual in that two people, called "Bees," compete against one person, the "Buzzer."
Study the illustration and carefully Note the stride-stand position of all the contestants. The two Bees stand with a foot touching that of the center man, the Buzzer. Each Bee places the back of his outside hand against the ear next to the Buzzer.
The Buzzer starts the contest by making a constant buzzing sound, first into the ear of one Bee and then into that of the other. Suddenly, he slaps the palm of one of the Bees, at the same time dodging forward. The instant he is struck the Bee tries to knock off the Buzzer's bat. If he succeeds without lifting either foot from the ground and without taking his hand from his ear, he scores 3 points. The Buzzer receives I point if the Bee moves either foot while in the act of trying to knock off the hat. In addition, he receives a point each time a Bee strikes him prematurely or without having been slapped. Of course, the Bees also get a point if the Buzzer loses his balance while dodging. Six points constitute a game.
Notes for Leaders. Here is a contest that a leader can teach best by taking an active part in it. Acting as Buzzer, he can demonstrate how to put fun into the game by tempting the Bees to strike at his hat, or by feinting to strike the Bee.
The Buzzer's temper will be tested, because, occasionally, a Bee will try to out-guess him and will strike too soon, and, to the amusement of the audience, the unsuspecting Buzzer will receive the full benefit of a blow.
In coaching the Bees emphasize the fact that they are permitted to Strike once and once only, and then, only the instant after they are slapped.
The Bees will miss striking the Buzzer's hat by more than a

pg. 200

foot, unless they are coached to keep their free hands constantly in readiness to strike downward the instant they are struck.
If the leader who believes in very thorough Preparation will coach two Bees privately, so that he can use them to teach the others, it is predicted that Buzzing the Bees will become a popular duel contest.

Battle Royal, 233.
This is different from duel contests in that four or more enter the ring at the same time as illustrated. A Battle Royal provides a rapid method for the selection of a "Grand Champion." The two best combatants from each group enter. At the outset all players stand outside the ring. At the signal they enter and battle away until only the Grand Champion remains.
Note for Leaders. In the illustration the contestants are trying to push each other out of the ring. Other methods include: (a) Stepping on feet of opponents, (b) Stepping on balloons or bags tied to ankles, (c) Holding shoestrings by placing fingers under the knot which is tied loosely.

Additional Duels

Additional duel contests designed for spectators' entertainment are listed with brief explanations.

Smudge Boxing, 234.
Boxing with blackened gloves.

Barrel Boxing, 235.
Contestants stand in bottomless barrels.

Pillow Fight, 236.
Contestants sit astride a pole and try to knock each other off with pillows.

pg. 201

Knocking off Hats, 237.
Sparring partners try to knock off each other's hats.

Tub Tilting, 238
With tilting poles, opponents try to push each other off a tub, barrel, or stool.

pg. 202
CHAPTER X Miscellaneous Playground Games and Tournaments

THE few games in this chapter may be used in either gymnasium or playground. The leader who uses the tournament type of activity will be interested in 88 Successful Playground Activities. Any one desiring information concerning official tournaments may communicate with the National Recreation Association.

Mowgli and Shere Khan, 239
(Fox and Geese, Fox Tail)

The game expert will recognize this as the American game which is called, among other names, Fox Tail. Mowgli and Shere Khan is the English adaptation, taken from the Book of Cub Games.

pg. 203

All players, with the exception of "Shere Khan," the tiger, form a line, by each one clasping his hands about the waist of the one in front. The first in line is the "Father Wolf" or "Mother" ) and the others represent a pack of wolves. The smallest wolf, "Mowgli," loosely tucks a handkerchief under his belt to represent a tail, and takes his place at the end of the line. Shere Khan has the duty and pleasure of capturing Mowgli's tail. (See illustration beginning Chapter XXVIII.) Led by Father Wolf, the pack turns and twists, and Father may even use his outstretched hands to ward off Shere Khan, the attacker. When this villain succeeds in capturing Mowgli's tail new characters are chosen, and the game begins again. Should Shere Khan fail after two or three minutes the changes should be made notwithstanding.
Notes for Leaders. The characters in the American interpretation of this game are foxes and geese. When little children play they use the following dialog to start the chase:

Fox: "Geese, geese, gannio!"
Geese: "Fox, fox, fannio!"
Fox: "How many geese have you to-day!"
Geese: "More than you can catch and carry away.

If the leader will tell the players the story of Mowgli and Shere

Khan, no doubt any group of children will enjoy the game as much as do the Cubs (the Younger Boy Organization of the Boy Scouts of America) who know the story. The story which follows was adapted from Kipling's Jungle Book and is taken from the

English Wolf Cub's Handbook.

Once upon a time, far away in India, a great big tiger was prowling about in the jungle trying to find food. Presently he came to a place where a wood-cutter and his family were camped, and he thought it would be a grand thing to get hold of a sleeping man or, better still, a fat child for his supper.
Although he was a great strong animal he was not very brave, and he did not want to face an armed man in the open.
So he crept up close to the campfire, but in gazing at his

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prey he did not look carefully where he was putting his feet, and in crawling forward he trod on some hot embers.
The pain made him howl, which aroused the camp, and he had to go limping away hungry.
One small boy ran off into the hushes to hide, and there he met a great grey Wolf. But the Wolf was a brave and kindly animal, and, seeing that the child was not afraid of him, he picked him up gently in his mouth as a dog does a puppy, and carried him into his cave close by.
Here the Mother Wolf took care of the child and put him among her family of cubs.
Shortly afterwards Tabaqui, that is the jackal, came to the tiger whose name was Shere Khan and said to him, "Mr. Tiger, I know where that small boy has gone to, and if you will kill him you might give me a nice little bit of him to eat as a reward for my telling you where to find him. He is in that little cave under the rock."
A jackal is a nasty sneaking kind of animal, who lets other animals do the hunting and killing, while he loafs about picking up the scraps.
So Shere Khan went to the mouth of the cave, and though he could put his head inside, the opening was too small for his body to get through, and the grey Wolf inside knew this and defied him.
The Wolf told him to go away and hunt for his food, and not to go trying to steal what other folk had captured; he told him he must not break the Law of the Jungle which says that no animal shall kill a human being because it causes more men to come to the place to hunt out the murderer, and this brings trouble on all the animals in that jungle.
Shere Khan roared with anger, and wanted to bully the Wolf with threats of what he would do to him, when Mother Wolf suddenly joined in and told him to go about his business; that she would take care of the bay, and that some day the boy would grow up and kill Shere Khan if he was not careful.
So the boy remained with the Wolves and grew up as one of the family. They called him Mowgli, and they taught him all the tricks of the jungle.

pg. 205

The Hunger Dance of Kaa, 240


This illustrates a type of highly imaginative play of English origin that will appeal to a playground leader on a very hot or rainy day. The dance is conducted after the leader tells Kipling's story of the Bunderlog (Monkeys), which is quoted below from the Wolf Cub's Handbook:

One day the Bunderlog monkeys got hold of Mowgli (the boy). They had watched him through the trees while he was building a little house for himself out of branches and creepers, and they thought what a fine thing: it would be to get him to teach them to make their own houses.
So one day, when he was sleeping, they crept down and seized him, and two of the strongest of them, grasping him by the arms, dashed up into the tree-tops with him, and then rushed him along between them for miles, leaping from tree to tree, and taking him away from his friends.
Now and then he got glimpses of the earth, far below between the branches, as they dragged him through the leaves and twigs. Now and then they would spring across an open space from one tree to another, landing with a jerk on a waving bough.
And then with a cough and a whoop they would fling themselves into the air, outward and downward, and spring up suddenly, hanging by their hands on the lower branches of the next tree.
So, bounding and crashing, whooping and screeching, the whole tribe of Bunderlog swept along the tree-top roads with Mowgli as their prisoner.
As he went he gave the Jungle Call to the other animals for help, and, high up in the sky above him, the eagle, Rann, saw what was going on, and watched where the monkeys took him to and then told it to Baloo (the bear) and Bagheera (the panther).
These two struggled through the forest as well as they

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could in the direction which the monkeys had taken, but Baloo was old and slow and could not keep up with the Bunderlog.
Then they came across Kaa, the great serpent. He was a good-natured, slow old thing, and badly wanted his dinner, so was easily persuaded to join in the hunt of the Bunderlog. Bagheera further told him that these monkeys had spoken insultingly of him, calling him a "Footless yellow earthworm." Old Kaa was not easily roused, but this disrespect made him very angry, and when Baloo said, "Will you not come and help to catch the monkeys!" he said, "I think I will, especially as they called me 'Yellow Fish.' Fish indeed!'
"It was far worse than that," said Bagheera, "Worm-worm-'footless yellow earthworm,' they called you." Kaa was now thoroughly roused to join in with Baloo and Bagheera, and they made their way to an old ruined town where the monkeys lived and liked to play at being men.
Bagheera, in his keenness, got ahead of the other two, and when he saw the monkeys gather round Mowgli he dashed. in and boldly attacked them.
But there were thousands of them, and they all rushed for him at once and soon overwhelmed him, and he was obliged to take refuge in a deep pool of water, until Baloo came up and also tackled them.
Then there was a glorious fight; but in order to make sure that Mowgli should not be taken from them, the monkeys took him onto the roof of a small summer-house and dropped him down through a hole into the place from which there was no escape. He found it full of snakes, but he at once gave the jungle hiss of the snake, and they became friendly and did him no harm.
Bagheera and Baloo were having a rough time and were getting rather the worst of it in the battle, when old Kaa appeared upon the scene, and, gathering all his strength, he rushed for the crowd of monkeys and butted in with his hard head, knocking them right and left, and frightened them still more with his hiss, for the monkeys all knew that they were the favourite food of the python, and in terror they turned and fled.
Then the three faithful animals turned to get Mowgli out of his prison, and Kaa succeeded in doing it by gathering up

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his enormous strength and butting a hole in the wall with his own head. Mowgli was thus able to escape.
Then Kaa commenced a curious twisting and turning, out in the open, and hissed to the monkeys who were crowding in the trees round about and told them that he was going to dance the Hunger Dance, and as he twisted and turned himself about, the monkeys could not resist watching him, until

they could no longer control themselves--and he called to them to come to him, and they gradually came nearer and nearer, until he was able to seize those that he wanted, and to crush them up in the folds of his body, and then to swallow them down, one after another, until he had had a full meal of them.
And that was the end of Mowgli's adventure with the Bunderlog.

The Dance. After telling the Bunderlog story the leader would conduct a dance similar to the "Hunger Dance of Kaa," which is quoted below from the Wolf Cub's Handbook.

The leader will be Kaa's head, and the rest of the players will tail on behind him, each holding the one in front of him, and will follow the head wherever it goes, moving as slowly as possible.
The head will quietly glide along on a track like the figure of eight, and will then wind his tail up into a circle; gradually getting smaller and smaller, until he turns round and works his way out again in the figure which is commonly called a "spiral."
Every player will keep on hissing during the whole performance, and will walk on the tips of his toes without making the slightest noise, so that the whole body sounds like a snake rustling through the grass, making occasionally the louder hiss which is a snake's way of calling to his friends.
When Kaa has thus coiled and uncoiled himself, the leader gives the command "Bunderlog," and at once the snake breaks up and each player runs about in his own way, imitating the monkeys.
One will run as if on urgent business in a certain direction

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and will suddenly stop, sit down, and look at the sky. Another will dance on all fours round and round without any real object. Another will hunt his own tail. Others will climb imaginary branches and sit down and scratch in the middle of it. One will keep running round in a figure of eight. Another will creep on all fours up to some imaginary enemy and then suddenly sit down and look up at the stars. Another runs after his own tail, walks a few paces, and then runs after his tail again. Another will keep prancing, pick up an imaginary straw and examine it and prance again. Another turns head over heels, sits up and scratches himself. Another will walk very hurriedly for a few paces as if on important business, stop, forget what he was going for, scratch his head and walk rapidly again in a new direction, and do the same thing over again.
In fact, do any silly thing you like such as monkeys do but don't take any interest in what anybody else is doing. Be very busy all the time and do all the different things in turn. The whole time you keep on giving the monkey's call. All will be in a state of confusion doing aimlessly silly things, and all will at the same time give the monkey's cry--"Goorrukk, goorrukk bow, how, goorrukk."
This will go on Until the leader again shouts "Kaa!" when at once all the players will run and form the body of the great snake again, and show how quickly they can get into good order and into silence, except for the hissing of Kaa. And once more they will quietly writhe into the figure of eight and then into the circle.

Note for Leaders. The leader who is familiar with Lofting's Doctor Doolittle Stories will recognize in them possibilities similar to those in Kipling's stories.

Forcing the City Gates, 241

This vigorous game of Chinese origin has just enough but not too much roughness so that it appeals equally to boys and girls, and succeeds well when they play together. Members of opposing

pg. 209

teams alternate in attempting to force the "City Gates," that is, break through the opponents' line.
Line up two teams of equal number facing each other in parallel Lines, ten or more feet apart. The players of one team hold hands to form the City Gate, and the Captain of the opposing team selects one of his members, a "Charger," to attempt to force the City Gate. A Charger is given three trials. Each time he must start from his line and may go through the opposing line by jumping over, dodging under, or forcing the hands of two players apart by charging through. Teams alternate in holding and breaking the line. After each player has had a turn as Charger a count is made. The team that forced the Gates the greatest number of times is the Winner.
Notes for Leaders. When Captains discover weaknesses in their line they may shift players.
When there are more than twenty players on a side two Chargers should attack. They are not permitted to charge on the right and left of the same player at the same time.
The game will be slow if players are permitted to dilly-daily. Cooperation can readily be secured if the players are made to appreciate that others are always waiting for their turn as Chargers.
The leader should appreciate that this type of game is played by children under their own leadership, therefore, in the hope of training boy and girl leaders, an adult should, while setting a pattern, insist upon fair play, adherence to rules, and speedy Action.

Steps and Statues, 242
(Cheese It!)

First, each player demonstrates the pose or statue which she wishes to assume throughout the game. The one who is "It"

pg. 210

plays "Detective" and blinds against a wall or fence, as in Hide and Seek. The others line up behind a starting line about forty feet away.

The Detective starts the game, calling, "Ready, Go!" While she counts to ten, the others move forward as rapidly as possible from behind the starting line. On the tenth count the Detective turns and observes the players. If she sees any one moving or notices a player who has not taken the pose she agreed to take at the outset of the game, she points out all such violators, and they are obliged to return to the starting line. The Detective retains her position until one of the players reaches her, whereupon they exchange places and a new round is started.
Note for Leaders. In a game very much like Steps and Statues, commonly called Steps or Ten Steps, posing is omitted; otherwise the game is exactly the same as No. 242. Older children prefer to omit the posing.

Statues, 243.
In a logically arranged program this game would follow Steps. In Statues the players pose, but do not advance, and the Detective turns on the tenth count and changes places with any player caught moving or posing incorrectly. (See illustration beginning Chapter XI.)

Notes for Leaders. Instead of counting, "It)' may toss and catch a ball. She must be taught to be fair and toss the ball reasonably high. Of course, occasionally, she may toss the ball only a few feet.

When playing games No. 242 or 243 in the city on play streets the children move from curb to curb. Under these conditions they call "Green Light" and "Red Light" at the beginning and end of the count.

When players argue and sulk while returning to the starting line, the Detective or Traffic Policeman may be coached to start counting after a reasonable time, even though the sulkers have not reached the line.

pg. 211

Snatch the Hat, 244
(Snatch the Handkerchief, Steal the Bacon)

The players are lined up and numbered off as illustrated, and a cap, or a handkerchief on a stick, is placed in the center. When the leader calls a number each of the two players to whom that number was assigned tries to get the cap and cross with it to his line of players without being tagged by his opponent. The one who succeeds scores one point for his team, also a player receives one point if he tags his opponent before he crosses his line.
Notes for Leaders. In order for this game to succeed beginners must be taught to use strategy. The natural tendency of any one to rush out to grab the object the instant his number is called must be controlled. Usually, both players sally forth and feint several times before one of them suddenly attempts to take the cap.
It's decidedly better to call numbers promiscuously rather than in regular order. Obviously, when numbers are called in rotation the game is robbed of the intense element of expectancy, because Nos. 2 know that they will be called after Nos. r., etc.
To be sure that every player's number is called, the leader should list each number as he calls it.

Bombardment, 245

EQUIPMENT: One soft indoor ball or air-filled ball for each five or
six players, and one Indian club or piece of wood 2" x 4" x 10" for each player
It is predicted that wherever this game is played often enough

pg. 212

for players to become proficient, it will be an outstanding favorite.
The teams are lined up on opposite sides of a center line as indicated in the diagram. Each player erects his club on a line indicated three or four feet in front of a wall or fence, if that is possible. Each player is assigned to guard a particular club in front of which he stations himself at the outset of the game. The balls are distributed along the center line.
At the word "Go" as many players as please rush to get the balls, while the others remain in position to guard the clubs. The object of the game is to knock down the clubs of opponents.
Notes for Leaders. In the usual method of playing this game, when a player's club is knocked down he is required to pick it up and drop out of the game, and thus the game continues until only one club remains standing. This makes rather a long drawn out game, therefore, it is recommended that players be permitted to replace their clubs and continue playing until the expiration of time. When this is done a scorer must be appointed to keep an

pg. 213

accurate account of all clubs knocked down. The team knocking down most wins.
When a player accidentally knocks down his own club or that of a team mate a point is scored against his team.
Should a player accidentally step over the center line in either throwing or securing a ball one point is scored against his team.

Human Bombardment, 246.
This is a variation of the Indian club variety of Bombardment. It differs from the latter in that instead of knocking down opponents' clubs, players try to hit each other.
Note for Leaders. When many players are participating in a limited space it is so easy for them to hit each other that it is advisable to score a point only when the player who is hit is holding a ball.

Stealing Sticks, 247

Stealing Sticks is regarded as an improvement upon the popular and ancient game of Prisoner's Base, 276. It is a complicated game and is recommended for use only when an adult is present to act as umpire and settle disputes. The game is worthy of its universal popularity, for it requires team work, initiative, daring, and personal sacrifice. The element of chance sustains interest so that once learned, players enjoy the game for an hour at a time.
The playing space is divided into two equal parts and marked out as indicated. The object of the game is for each team to capture (steal) its opponent's sticks. The first team that does so wins.
Whenever a player succeeds in getting through the enemy ranks and past the "Stick Guard" to the sticks, he is permitted to take one prize to his own territory without being captured. When a player is captured--tagged while on enemy territory-he is put in prison. When a team mate touches him he is released and led by that mate to their own territory. A player is exempt from capture while acting as escort to a released prisoner.

pg. 214

Notes for Leaders. As this is not an officially standardized game, special rules may be made to fit particular occasions. Suggested rules follow:
1. Each team should choose a captain to issue orders.
1. Each captain appoints one Stick Guard and one "Prison Guard."
1. The Stick Guards stand outside the semi-circular guard lines unless the guard lines are crossed by an enemy.
4. Captains may exchange prisoners. In cold weather they should be required to do so.
5. Prisoners may stretch out in a line toward their territory provided that they all touch each other, and provided further that the prisoner captured last is touching the prison base.
5. The captains may change the size of the field or location of prisons or sticks, if they so agree.
7. A player is permitted to capture only one player at a time and must personally conduct his prisoner to prison. A prisoner has no escape from prison, nor may he escape while being conducted there.

B-l-l-lack and B-l-l-lue, 248
(Rats and Rabbits, Crows and Cranes, Heads and Tails, Black and White, Wet and Dry)

This game is very similar to Crow and Crane Tag, 147 In the center of the playing space draw two parallel starting

pg. 215

lines, AB and CD, at least one pace apart. At equal distances from these lines draw goal lines, as indicated, at distances of twenty feet or more. Divide the players into two teams, the "Blacks" and the "Blues." Line up the teams on their respective starting lines facing their own goal lines thus, they will be standing with their backs toward each other. The leader takes his position between the two teams as indicated at L in the diagram.

The leader starts the game by calling the name of one of the teams. Suppose he calls "Blues"; the Blues immediately run to their goal, chased by the Blacks. All Blues tagged before reaching their goal line must join the Blacks. The teams are reassembled on the starting lines and again the leader calls the name of one of the teams. The calling, chasing, and tagging continues far approximately five minutes. The team having most players when time is called is the Winner.

pg. 216

Notes for Leaders. In this game, and in all others in which players run at full speed toward goal lines, such lines should be placed five or six feet from walls or fences to prevent injuries.
To prevent arguments insist that players who tag others must take them by the hand to the starting lines.
It is customary to permit one player to tag one or more opponents. But-this practice is not recommended when the total number of players is less than twenty-four.
When this game is played on a playground or in a gymnasium where permanent teams are used, it is decidedly advisable to allow each player tagged to return to his own goal line instead of to that of his opponents. When played in this manner the team wins that captures most opponents, after each team name has been called the same number of times. The leader must keep accurate count.
Instead of having the players always toe the starting lines, occasionally have them stand on one foot, get down on one or both knees, or even assume poses as may be directed by the leader.
After the players catch on to the game it will add greatly to the excitement and suspense if the leader will apparently stutter by holding the letter "L," thus, "B-l-l-lack" or "B-l-l-lue." After players have played the game several times the leader may add further to the interest by occasionally deceiving both teams by calling "B-l-l-lank," "B-l-l-lubber," etc.
Story-telling may be made an additional feature for players of all ages. The leader may tell a story about some simple thing such as the weather, including in it the words "black" and "blue." (See Crow and Crane Tag, 147.) The words "rats" and "rabbits" lend themselves to similar manipulation.
Scouts use this game as a play-way method to teach transportation of the injured. Each time a player is captured he must be carried back to the starting line by the use of chair carry, baby carry, fireman's lift, three man lift, etc. The leader must be cautious to. prevent players from straining themselves when using individual carries.
When this game is played under the name "Heads and Tails" coin is tossed; when called "Black and White,'' an object, black

pg. 217

218 on one side and white on the other, is substituted for a coin; as "Wet and Dry," an object, wet on one side and dry on the other, is tossed.

Touch, 249

Every play leader who has occasion to provide intense vigorous Action in a short time and limited space, should include in his repertoire this remarkable game which is enjoyed by players of all ages. It is first described as it would be played with less than twenty-four players; for a method of play for a larger number see the Notes for Leaders.
Divide the players into two teams and line them up across the center of the playing space facing each other, six or eight feet apart. The object of the game is for the leader to name an object close at hand which all players must run and touch and then return to their original places.
The leader calls "Touch" and pauses briefly before naming the object. For example, "Touch-a door!" The instant the object, door, is named all players break ranks, run and touch a door, and run back to their original places. The team wins whose members are first back in line.
Notes for Leaders. When there are more than twenty-four players divide them into teams of from six to eight each; arrange them in relay fashion, with odd and even numbered teams facing each other and competing against each other. Thus: teams No. I and No. 2 face each other and compete against each other, similarly, No. 3 competes against No. 4, etc. Unless this method of competition is used there will be times when team No. 4 will be required to run so much farther to touch an object than No. I that they stand no chance of winning. When more than one pair of teams compete an umpire must be appointed for each opposing pair of teams.
At the outset of the game it is advisable to name only one object

pg. 218

to be touched, such as, wood, iron, glass, a wall, fence, or building. Next mention colors, thus: anything in the room black in color; something growing, green in color, etc. Later mention two objects at a time, such as, wood and iron; the front and rear wall; one black and one white object; a tree and a fence. Near the close of the game mention more than two objects, thus: any three doors in the room; four walls; any three trees. To end the game name one of the players, thus: "Touch--John Jones." Of course, the leader will have consulted with John and he will run the instant his name is called.
Since members of competing teams stand facing each other, it adds considerable to the enjoyment of the game to instruct the players what they shall do when they return to their original positions. For example, stand on one foot; kneel and pretend you are asking a young lady for her hand; smile your prettiest, or laugh your loudest.
When Touch is played at camp or while on a hike it may be correlated with nature study by asking the players to bring in nature objects. Then, when they are resting after a long run, they will be contented to listen to a brief lecture on the object or objects which they were required to bring in. it provides fun to ask every one to bring in something alive.

O'Grady, 250

This game, which was so extremely popular during the World War, is a play-way for conducting physical exercises and drill for large or small groups.
Line up the participants in open order or in a less formal arrangement with an interval between players. The leader takes his position on a platform or elevated spot, if convenient, in front of the players.
The leader commands the players to perform either a formal

pg. 219

or informal Action. However, orders must be obeyed only when they are preceded by the words, "O'Grady says." All players who execute commands which are not preceded by "O'Grady says" are required to pay a penalty.
Notes for Leaders. As usually conducted players are required to drop out of the game when they fail. Naturally, this results in very little fun for those who drop out in the early part of the game, since they are required to stand and watch until only a few players remain. Instead of eliminating players substitute one or more of the methods listed below:
1. Run to a designated spot, or run and touch a specified thing.
2. Where space permits arrange participants at the outset of the game on a line in a single front rank formation, and have players who succeed step forward.
3. The leader may pause occasionally to request those who failed during that interval to step in front and perform some simple "monkey-shine" for the amusement of the others.
4; In The Scoutmaster's First Year, Canadian camp leaders are advised as follows:
"Those missing out move into a second or "Booby Squad," where the movements are continued until but one boy remains in the original formation. Immediately on discovering that he is last, this boy may race for his patrol site, the rest endeavoring to catch him; if he reaches his tent he is accorded some special camp privilege for the day as, "O'Grady Champion." Or he may thus earn special points for his patrol in the camp competition; in which case the other members of his patrol endeavor to prevent his being caught by holding members of the other patrols until the champion has reached his tent."
Instead of using all formal gymnastics, try mimetic exercises; that is, informal imitations of Actions of persons or animals. Players get more fun out of informal exercises and fail more frequently for they are so interested in the activity that they fail to observe whether or not "O'Grady" issued the order.

Mimetic Exercises, 251.
The leader can readily work out his own mimetics for O'Grady from the following:

pg. 220

Morning Stretch, Flag Raising, Run to Lake, Dive into Pool, Swim out, Breast Stroke, Crawl Back to Dock, Saw Wood, Chop Wood, Make Fire by Friction, Flip Pancakes, Paddle Canoe, Row Boat, Play Games, Lower Flag

Pitch Baseball, Bat Baseball, Punt Football, Run Slowly in Place, Sprint in Place, Standing Broad Jump, Running Broad Jump, Throw Discus, Put Shot,
Lift Weight, Box, Fence, Jump Rope, Skate

The Game of Marbles, 252

Below are the Official Interstate Tournament Rules as adopted by the Committee on Games appointed at the Conference of Recreation Executives from sixty cities in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The official game of the State and Interstate Marble Championship Tournaments is Ringer.
Ringer is played in a Ring ten (10) feet in diameter, with thirteen (13) marbles arranged in the center on a cross. The object is to shoot these marbles out of the Ring, the player shooting the largest number of marbles out of the Ring in any one game being the Winner of that game. No less than two and no more than six may play in one game of Ringer, except that in championship matches two only play. In preliminary eliminations as many as six play in one game. All tournament play is "for fair," and marbles must be returned to owners after each game.

pg. 221

Rule I--Equipment

Sec. I. The playing surface shall be a smooth and level area of ground, made of hard clay, or other suitable substance. The Ring is inscribed upon this area, 10 feet in diameter (inside measurement) and play is within this Ring. The outline of this Ring should be approximately one-half inch wide and one-half inch deep to aid the judge in determining whether marble or shooter is but.
Sec. 2. With the center of the Ring as a point of intersection, mark or paint two lines at right angles to each other to form a cross, which shall be a guide for placing the playing marbles. It is recommended that markings be omitted when a cardboard or metal spacing gauge is used. Place one marble at the center, and three each on the four branches of the cross, each marble 3 inches away from the next one.
Sec. 3. The Lag Line is a straight line drawn tangent to the Ring, and touching. it at one point. The Pitch Line is a straight line drawn tangent to the Ring, directly opposite and parallel to the Lag Line.
Sec. 4. Playing-marbles shall be round and made of glass, and shall be not more than five-eighths inch in diameter. All marbles in any one playing ring must be of uniform size. (A local tournament committee may use agate or glass marbles.)
Sec. 5. Shooters shall be round and made of any substance, except metal, and shall not be less than one-half inch nor more than six-eighths inches in diameter, by exact measurement.

Rule 2 Plan of Game

Sec. 1. Lagging is the first operation in Ringer. To lag the players stand toeing the Pitch Line or knuckling down upon it, and toss or shoot their shooters to the Lag Line acoss the Ring. The player whose shooter comes nearest the Lag Line, on either side, wins the lag.
Sec. 2. Players must lag before first game. The player who wins

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the lag shoots first, and the others follow in order as their shooters were next nearest the Lag Line. The same shooter that is used in the lag must be used in the game following the lag. Starting succeeding games, the Winner of previous game shall shoot first but the other players shall lag for order.
Sec. 3. On all shots, except the lag, a player shall knuckle down so that at least one knuckle is in contact with the ground, and he shall maintain this position until the shooter has left his hand. Knuckling down is permitted, but not required in lagging.
Sec. 4. Starting the game, each player in turn shall knuckle down just outside the Ring Line, at any point he chooses, and shoot into the Ring to knock one or more marbles out of the Ring.
Sec. 5. One or more marbles knocked out of the Ring are credited to the player knocking them out and the player continues to shoot from the spot where shooter comes to rest. Marbles knocked only part way out of the Ring are left where they come to rest and the next player is permitted to shoot at them. A player whose shooter goes outside of the Ring, after success in shooting a marble out, continues shooting from the Ring line taking roundsters if desired.
Sec. 6. After a miss, a player picks up his shooter wherever it lies until his next turn and then is permitted to take roundsters and shoot from any point of the Ring Line.

Rule 3--Playing Regulations

Sec. I. Marbles knocked out of the Ring shall be picked up by the player who knocks them out.
Sec. 2. Whenever a marble or shooter comes to rest in the Ring Groove it shall be considered out of the Ring because the inner edge of the depression is the outer edge of Ring. If its center is inside the Ring it shall be considered inside the Ring.
Sec. 3. When a shooter slips from a player's hand if the player calls "slips" and the referee is convinced it is a slip and if the shooter does not travel more than 10 inches, the referee may order "no play" and permit the player to shoot again. The referee's decision is final.

pg. 223

Rule 4--Scoring

Sec. 1. The scorer counts all marbles each player scores, the player first obtaining seven (7) marbles being declared the Winner of that game, provided that, on Obtaining the seventh marble, the shooter also goes out of the Ring. If shooter remains in Ring on this shot, the marble or marbles knocked out on this shot are respotted on cross line, the shooter being picked up, the shot counting as a miss.
Sec. 2. In games where more than two players are engaged, if two or more players lead with the same score, those in the tie shall play a new game to break the tie.
Sec. 3. A player refusing to continue a game once it is started, shall be disqualified, and if only two players are engaged, the game shall be forfeited to the offended player.
Sec. 4. The score of a forfeited game shall be 13-0

Rule 5--Officials

Sec. I. The officials shall be a referee and a scorer. If a scorer is not available, the referee shall also keep score.
Sec. 2. The referee shall have complete charge of the play. He shall interpret these rules and have power to make decisions on any points not specifically covered by these rules. He shall have authority to disqualify players for unsportsmanlike conduct. He shall have authority to order from the playing field, or its vicinity, the coach or other representative of any player who conducts himself improperly.
Sec. 3. The scorer shall keep a record of the game, marking score of each player, shot by shot, and at the termination of each game shall notify the referee of the score and the referee shall announce the Winner. The scorer may assist the referee in enforcing the rule against coaching and may call to the attention of the referee any infrAction of the rules.

pg. 224

Rule 6 Penalties

A player shall not-
Sec. I. Raise his hand until the shooter has left his hand. This violation is known as "hysting."
Sec. 2. Move his hand forward until the shooter has left his hand. This violation is known as "hunching."
Sec. 3. Smooth or otherwise rearrange the ground, or remove any obstacles. He may request the referee to clear obstructions.
Penalty--If any marbles were knocked out or dislocated on the shot, they shall be restored to their place, and the player shall lose his shot.
Sec. 4. Change shooters during the course of any game, except that he may choose a new shooter on each lag, provided he uses that shooter in the subsequent game.
Penalty--The player shall be disqualified from the game.
Sec. 5. Communicate in any way with his coach during the course of the game.
Penalty--Forfeiture of all marbles he has knocked out of the Ring, said marbles to be returned to the game, and placed on the cross.
Sec. 6. A coach shall not give instructions to either his own or any other player engaged in the game.
Penalty--Coach shall be ordered from the playing field if, after being warned once, he continues his violation. Sec. 7. Players must not walk through the marble-ring.
Penalty--Referee may require the forfeiture of one marble, said marble to be returned to the Ring and placed on the cross.

Rule 7--Age of Players

Sec. 1. The tournament is open to boys or girls of 14 years or under.
Sec. 2. A boy or girl who becomes 15 on or after July r is eligible to play, and one who becomes 15 any time before July I, is not eligible to play.

pg. 225

Sec. 3. Each municipal unit (borough, town, city or county recreation system) shall have but one entry in the state or interstate tournament.

Rule 8 Definitions

The term "marbles" in these rules is used to denote the object marbles only, variously known as mibs, miggs, commies, hoodles, ducks, etc.
The term "shooter" is used to denote the offensive marble, variously known as the taw, moonie, glassie, etc.
"Knuckling down" is the act of resting a knuckle or knuckles on the ground when shooting.
"Shooting" is the act of holding a shooter between the thumb and first finger and releasing it by force of the thumb.
"Hunching" is the act of moving the hand forward across the Ring Line when shooting from the Ring Line, or forward from the point at which the shooter came to rest when shooting inside the Ring. (Forbidden.)
"Hysting" is the act of raising the hand from the ground in shooting. (Forbidden.)
"Roundsters" is the privilege of taking a different position on the Ring Line for shooting and is permitted only at the start of the game or on a turn after a shooter has passed out of the Ring.
"For Fair" is playing for sportsmanship only, when marbles are returned at the end of each game to their owners. All marble tournament games are "for fair."
"Lofting" is the act of shooting in an are through the air to hit a marble.
"Spinning" is the act of causing shooter to strike a marble, making it travel, while the spin causes the shooter to lose momentum. This is perhaps the most difficult shot in the game.
"Bowling" is the act of rolling a shot on the ground to hit a marble.
"A Match" may be decided in one, three or five games. It is not the total high score, but the games won, that determines the Winner of each match,

pg. 226

Hop Scotch, 253

These rules were written by Dr. L. R. Burnett and adopted by the interstate committee of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
The game is played in various forms in many countries. Its popularity has been continuous through many generations and it has several advantages to commend it for use in sidewalk play. I. The equipment costs nothing. 2. The space needed is only 5 ft. x 15 ft. 3. Two to ten players may play in turn,
The game requires concentration on certain fine movements but also exercises the large muscle groups, placing a premium on coordination while furnishing an outlet for the competitive desire.
The object of the game is to perform a number of stunts in the fewest trials. It consists in tossing a small object called a Puck into well defined spaces marked to form a court, following a certain order of progression. The puck is then retrieved by means of kicking it beyond a line while performing a series of hops, jumps or steps.


I. Puck. The Championship Committee will provide an assortment of rubber shoe heels as pucks but players may provide their own pucks which may be of any material or size.
2. Court. The court shall be outlined according to accompanying diagram, lines being of uniform width approximating fiveeighths inch chalked or painted upon a smooth and level cement surface.


A State Tournament is open to boys and girls of 14 years or under. One who will not be 15 until July 1st or after is eligible. One who has a 15th birthday before July 1st cannot compete.
Each municipal unit (borough, town, city or country recreation

pg. 227

system) shall have but one entry in the State or Interstate tournament.
Previous annual champions may enter if qualified.
A Tournament Match consists of two rounds of the eleven stunts. The Winner is the player who goes through this series with the fewest misses or turns.

Starting Position. Contestant shall stand in hopping pose on one foot beyond the baseline of court with puck in one hand.
Stunt No. I. a. Toss or drop puck into square No. I.
b. Hop into square No. I.
c. Take any number of hops in square without touching any line with hopping foot or any other part of body, before, during or after touching puck in square with hopping foot only. d. Kick puck out of square over and beyond baseline.
e. Finally, hop out of square over and beyond baseline. Don't step out. If no error has been made, proceed to Stunt No. 2.
Stunt No. 2. a. From starting position, toss puck into square No. 2.
b. Hop into square No. I and then into square No. 2.
c. Take any number of hops and kick puck in square or directly out beyond baseline.
d. Finally, retrace course outward by hopping to square No. I, then hopping beyond baseline. If no error, proceed to \
Stunt No. 3. a. From starting position, toss puck into triangle No. 3.
b. From this position standing on one foot, leap into squares landing with right foot in No. I and left foot in No. a at the same instant.
c. Jump from both feet and land on either foot in triangle.
d. When ready, after pushing or sliding puck with hopping foot,
kick puck toward or beyond baseline. If it stops in a square of smaller number without resting on a line it must be retrieved as follows :
e. Return by leaping into squares I and a with right foot in No. 2 and

pg. 228

left foot in No. I at the same time. If puck has only reached one of these squares raise either foot and, while hopping kick puck out. Then hop beyond baseline. If no error, proceed to
Stunt No. 4. a. From starting position, toss puck into triangle No. 4.
b. Advance as in Stunt 3 to triangle 3 and hop into triangle q. c; Retrieve puck as in Stunt 3.
d. Hop into 3 and return as in Stunt 3 If no error, proceed to
Stunt No. 5 a. From starting position, toss puck into triangle No. 5.
b. Advance as in Stunt 4 and hop into triangle No. 5.
c. Retrieve puck and return as before. If no error, proceed to
Stunt No. 6. a. From starting position, toss puck into triangle No. 6. b. Advance as in Stunt 3 to No. 3.
c. Leap to alight with right foot in triangle 4 and left foot in 5 at same time and jump from both feet to land on one foot in triangle 6. d. Retrieve puck as before.
e. Return by leaping to alight with right foot in 5 and left foot in 4 at the same time, jump into 3 with one foot only, leap into 2 and I with right foot in 2 and left foot in r at the same time and jump out beyond baseline to land on one foot. If no error, proceed to
Stunt No. 7. a. From starting position, toss puck into rectangle No. 7.
b. Advance as in Stunt No. 6 and leap to land on both feet at same time in rectangle 7.
c. Walk about in: 7, moving puck with foot or feet alone until
in position to retrieve it by kicking it out over baseline Or into a
space of smaller number,

pg. 229

d. Return by raising one foot and hopping into triangle 6, and continue out as before. If no error, proceed to
Stunt No. 8. a. From starting position, toss puck into semicircle No. 8.
b. Advance as before to 7 and when ready to progress to space 8, raise either foot and hop out of rectangle into semicircle, landing on one foot.
c. Retrieve puck as before.
d. Return by leaping to land on both feet at the same time in rectangle 7 and when ready continue as in Stunt 7. If no error, proceed to
Stunt No. 9. a. From starting position, toss puck into are No. 9.
b. Advance as in Stunt No. 8.
c. Retrieve while in hopping position in semicircle by picking up the puck by hand from are No. 9.
d. Return as in Stunt No. 8 carrying puck in hand.
Stunt No. 10. a. From starting position, toss puck into are No. 10.
b. Advance as in Stunt No. 9 and hop into are 9. c. Retrieve as in Stunt No. 9.
d. Hop into semicircle 8 and return as before, stopping for a few seconds' rest in No. 7 if desired.
Stunt No. 11. a. From starting position, without tossing or carrying puck, advance as in Stunt 8 to semicircle.
b. Leap to land on both feet at the same time with right in are 9 and left in are to.
c. About face and reverse position of feet by a leaping half turn.
d. Return by jumping to land on one foot in semicircle and continue out according to Stunt No. 8.

Fouls, Errors or Misses

The following are penalized by loss of turns:
1. Tossing puck while not in proper hopping position back of baseline. Leaning over is allowable.

pg. 230

2. Puck, on throw, does not come to rest entirely within designated space so that a vertical line dropped from any edge of puck intersects one of the court lines.
3. Puck, on kick, comes to rest so that a vertical line dropped through any part of it touches a court line.
4. Puck, on kick, passes out of court over a side line, not the baseline.
5. Touching any court line with footwear or coming to rest on a foot so that a vertical line dropped through the footwear would touch a line.
6. Any irregularity iii progression as judged by the umpire.

Jackstones, 254

These rules were arranged by Chairman L. R. Burnett and adopted for intercity tournaments by a Committee of Recreation Executives from New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
The Game. Jackstones is a game of ancient origin played with small stones or their modern metal substitutes. The coordination of hand movements and sight constitutes its principal educational value. It not only develops manual dexterity but an accurate judgment of space and distance. It combines many of the elements needed in an ideal quiet game: simple equipment, small space, competitive interest for groups and improvement by practice.
Players take turns in trying to pick up the jacks from a smooth surface, gathering increasing numbers on each turn while tossing and catching one jack during most plays.
The Winner is the player who goes-through the series with the fewest misses.
Tournaments . An intercity or interstate tournament shall consist of five rounds played with ten (10) jacks.
When two or more players finish with the same number of turns they shall each have an additional turn and the one who plays the longest series without a miss shall be declared the Winner. In preliminary contests there shall be four players in each group. In semi-finals and final contests there shall be only two contestants

pg. 231

. All contestants awaiting their turn must stand at least three feet from playing surface.
Eligibility . The tournament is open to boys and girls of 14 years or under. A boy or girl who becomes 15 on or after July I is eligible to play, and one who becomes 15 any time before July I is not eligible to play.
Each municipal unit (borough, town, city or county recreation system) shall have but one entry in state or interstate tournaments. Equipment. The tournament managers shall provide:
I. Sufficient jacks each having perfect prongs and standing approximately 5-8 inch high.
2. Sufficient playing surfaces for all contestants. These shall be smooth topped rigid tables not over 30 inches high for players who wish to stand and also smooth boards at least to inches square which shall be placed on the ground for those contestants who prefer a sitting position. 3. A judge for each contest.
Order of Playing. Contestants shall toss for honor of starting. Lagging for Lead is derided by giving each player a turn at tossing all jacks from the palm to the back of the hand and returning them to the palm by a second toss. The one who performs this stunt the greatest number of times in succession wins and starts the game. If no one performs the stunt once, that player leads who caught the most jacks.
One hand only may be used (except to gather or hold jacks not in play).
Method of Play. "Ones"-Scatter all jacks upon playing surface by a single movement of the hand. Player must then select one jack as a Tosser and remove it from surface without touching or moving any other jack. Then toss jack in air, pick up one jack and catch Tosser as it descends. Player continues to pick up the remaining jacks one at a time In like manner.
"Twos"-Scatter jacks as in Ones. Select Tosser and gather jacks by groups of two and then in final one.
"Threes"-Proceed as in Ones but grab jacks in groups of three.
"Fours"-Grab jacks in groups of four, four and one.
"Fives" Grab five and then four,

pg. 232

"Sixes"--Grab six and then three.
"Sevens"-Grab seven and then two.
"Eights"--Grab eight and then one.
"Nines"--Hold nine jacks in palm with the tenth between thumb and finger as a Tosser. Throw Tosser upward, place nine jacks on surface and catch Tosser on descent. Again toss jack, grab nine and catch Tosser on descent.
"Tens'?--Toss all jacks from palm of hand upward and catch them on back of hand. Toss all that are caught on back of hand upward and catch again in palm. If no jack falls to surface in either toss the Tens are completed. It is not a miss to drop one or more jacks on these two tosses, but any which fell must be picked up one at a time, using all the other jacks combined as a Tosser on each grab.
Definitions . A "Scatter" is the act of throwing the jacks upon the playing surface with a continuous hand and arm motion. If one or more jacks fall off playing surface they must be placed one inch from edge and at least three inches apart by the judge.
A "Toss" is the act of throwing one jack upward and catching it again before it touches something.
A "Grab" is the act of gathering and picking up the proper number of jacks while the tossed jack is still in the air.
A "Turn" is the time of play for one contestant. The order of turn passes clockwise around the playing surface (to next player on left).
Fouls or Misses. Find list below: 1. Failing to catch the Tosser on descent. 2. Failing to pick up the proper number during toss.
3. During toss, allowing Tosser to touch playing surface, clothing or body (except the hand used in tossing and catching).
4. Touching any other jack while attempting to grab a certain one or group of jacks.
5. Using both hands in play. (The other hand may be used as a receptacle for jacks out of play and for arranging jacks in palm before tossing, as in Tens.)
6. Moving the feet appreciably in the opinion of the judge to gain a better stance at the table or changing sitting position after a scatter.

pg. 233

7. In Tens or Lagging, failing to catch in palm ail jacks that were tossed from palm when several must be tossed together.
8. Failing to begin a Turn with the proper stunt (which is the one on which the contestant previously missed).

pg. 234

Recess and School Playground Games

AN ideal attitude of mind conducive to the success of a classroom teacher in the conduct of recess periods has been well defined in Recreation for Teachers. Dr. Curtis says in part:

It is also necessary that the teacher should love those things that children ought to love, and do those things that children ought to do. The teacher with an enthusiasm for outdoor life will be, on that account, a more wholesome model to set before children. She will be more popular and more copied.
Teachers as a body should resist any tendency to place the organization of play, especially at recess time, under physical directors. The teacher who can play with her children should find the recess no less relief than they.

Preference has been given in this chapter to simple games that will succeed under the direction of boy and girl leaders, who receive

pg. 235

guidance and support from classroom teachers. The Preparation of the material has sought to make clear both the games and their leadership to teachers whose training, in either recreational leadership or physical education, has been limited.
After School Play. Athletic games of higher organization which boys and girls generally prefer require long play periods. Games suitable for such play appear in various sections of this book, but those in Chapter V, Ball Games, are most desirable. Wherever possible athletic games should be given preference. See Recreative Athletics for additional activities.
Leadership Develops Organization. The difference between two school recreations or recess periods--one in which all are enjoying worth-while games, and the other which shows the majority restlessly idle--supplies a testimonial for well-conducted recess play not too highly organized. Where there is efficient leadership there is a degree of organization. The teacher or principal confronted for the first time by the organization of a recess period need not hesitate on that account, for such a students' organization can be effected with surprising ease. (See Chapter IV.)
Student Cooperation. To secure student cooperation in recess organization it has been found expedient to allow students t elect their own captains with power to recall them at the end

pg. 236
of one month. This month becomes a trial period during which the captains so selected are systematically coached by teachers; and the invariable result is success, whether or not the teachers so engaged have themselves had previous expert training in recreation.
Captain System a Success. Conclusive evidence of the success of the "Captain System," as conducted some time ago in the Detroit Public Schools, may be found in Health by Stunts. Additional proof of the leadership ability of boys and girls is furnished by the Patrol System of the Boy and Girl Scouts. Admitting the merits of the Patrol System, certainly, school teachers have the ability to produce results that are equally praiseworthy. When considering effectiveness of Scouting we must not overlook the most important factors which contribute so largely to that success, namely: (a) a definite program, (b) just enough, and not too much, adult supervision, and (c) graded training courses for leaders,
For generations we have recognized the play leadership ability of boys, but some people have been rather slow to appreciate that trained girl leaders are equally successful. A precise statement of this apparent fact is found in Health by Stunts:

The method used so successfully with the boys--that of introducing and teaching the selected activities by means of the captain and squad system--was adopted for the Detroit girls also. The leaders are chosen and sent to regular training meetings and then given the responsibility of carrying out the program just as the boys are. There was some doubt about finding in girls of this elementary school age the quality of leadership, and the results were therefore all the more encouraging, for they showed that they could rise to the occasion equally as well as the boys.
The development of leadership, initiative, and selfconfidence in the girls who are to have the tremendously increased responsibilities that women must carry in another generation is surely of vast importance. If they can be encouraged to think, judge, and act on their own responsibility, they gain an asset that should prove of great future value.

pg. 237

Training Boy and Girl Leaders

1. Establish an official organization, such as a Play Leaders' Club. (See description of such club in Chapter IV.) 2. A leaders' club can afford three adult advisers, each responsible for one of three periods:
(a) Recess periods during school hours.
(b) The period before the morning and afternoon sessions. (c) The period immediately after school.
3. Play leaders may be recognized and encouraged by the award of a distinct insignia such as an arm band or ribbon.
4. Meetings called for the express purpose of training leaders should be held regularly throughout the year, and quite frequently at the beginning, preferably once a week.
5. In the early stages of training, leaders need more encouragement than criticism. Later on criticism will be accepted in the spirit in which it is given.
6. The program for a leaders' training meeting may consist of three parts:
Part I Very brief discussion of business matters.
Part II Brief check-up on games and contests conducted since the last meeting.
Part III Greater portion of meeting devoted to actual practice and coaching in games to be played during next period of days or weeks.

7. The entire school might adopt a Code of Sportsmanship, which should be stressed and explained to make 'effective the character-influencing value of games. Since an important step in character training is the development of ability to differentiate between right and wrong, it is very important for each school to adopt its own code of sportsmanship upon which teachers can base their teaching and preaching.


1. Play fair and square.
2. Play hard to the end of the game. Be cheerful, don't quit in the middle of a game just because things seem to go wrong.

pg. 238

3. Never lose your temper, even though you think you are treated unfairly.
4. Be loyal to your team and your captain. 5. Respect all officials, even though their decisions are against you.
6. Never show disappointment. Congratulate the Winners.
7. Win or lose, have a lot of fun.
8. Victory by deceit is loss of character.
Recess Program Making. Before selecting games for recess programs, the leader might ask:
1. Will the activity require more time than the period permits! 2. Does it have sufficient range to be playable by players of varying ages and abilities 3. Does it engage all of the players practically all of the time! 4. Is it seasonable!
5. Is it so intense that the players may become overheated! 6. Is it so inactive that players may get cold while waiting for their turns!
7. Will it succeed under boy or girl leadership with but little adult supervision!
8. Is it so rough that players may tear or ruin clothing! 9. Is it a game of sufficient elasticity so that players may enter or leave at will!
Oversupervision . If very simple games are selected for recess periods, there will be less tendency toward over-supervision. The leader of free-play periods should be reminded that children should 'be given opportunity to develop initiative through wholesome recreation of their own choosing.
Overorganization and Precision. The leader whose experience :has been limited to schoolroom or indoor party games of the less physically active type must change tactics when leading recreation on the playground. Here one of the principal factors of success Is vigorous and continuous play. Sufficient rest during the short recess period is provided by forming and reforming teams

pg. 239

and necessary explanations. New recess games should be explained briefly by the demonstrational method and carried on with all possible speed, every word of unnecessary discussion being omitted. To make the most of the short time, the instructor should, with enthusiasm and gusto, constantly stimulate the players to greater physical effort together with all consistent speed.
Secure Confidence of Children. The inexperienced teacher who plays with children during recess periods may be shocked at some of their impulsive remarks and Actions. This should not prove alarming, for when allowed freedom of expression or when undertense conditions, children reveal their true selves and naturally imitate their elders in their lesser strained moments. When the teacher catches children off-guard, this if ever, is the time to exercise forbearance, appreciate the situation, and rebuke them quietly and reasonably whenever the offense is serious. Be a companion.

Puss in a Corner, 255
(Pussy Wants a Corner, Corner Puss)
GAME OF Low organization

The fact that this game has been played in back yards for generations and is a prime favorite with Lounger boys and girls makes it readily adaptable to the school yard. Adult leadership, beyond a period or two of instruction and guidance, should be unnecessary.
One player is chosen to be "Puss." The others secure either regular building corners or corners made by drawing two lines at nearly right angles on the ground. Puss goes to the players, begging, "Pussy wants a corner." They answer, "Try and get it." Puss tries. In the meantime, by sly winks and beckonings, the others arrange to change places. Puss observes this from the corner of her eye and tries to slip into a corner during such exchanges. If Puss fails to get a corner after a reasonable time, she is privileged to take a position in the center and call, "All change!" During the scramble that follows Puss invariably finds a corner, but if she

pg. 240

fails, she has the right to call again, "All change!" until she does get a corner. The cornerless player then becomes the new Puss.
Notes for Teachers. The teacher who objects to the rather rude statement, "Try and get it," may prefer to teach the game, as she no doubt played it, by having the players say, "See my next door neighbor."
Players should be taught that in order to make the game lively, and at the same time give Puss a fair chance, they should not hesitate to exchange corners frequently,' and sometimes before her very eyes.

Ball Puss, 256.
In this variation of Puss in a Corner, 255, Puss is provided with a very soft ball. Instead of tagging a player out of his corner Puss bits him with the ball. It is advisable to forbid hitting above the waist.

Twelve O'Clock, Midnight, 257
(Fox and Chickens)

This game is designed for children in the lower grades. Until they learn it well, the game requires an older leader.
One player is chosen "Fox," and is stationed in the "Fox's Den" -a circle large enough to surround all the players. The others, the "Chickens," choose as their leader a "Mother Hen," who makes a "Chicken Coop" (circle drawn on the ground) large enough to contain her entire brood. The two circles should be drawn about thirty feet apart.
The Mother Hen starts the game by leading her family, all holding hands, toward the Fox's Den. She stops every five or six feet and asks, "What time is it, Fox!" He replies, naming any hour but twelve o'clock, midnight. The Mother Hen leads her brood still nearer and repeats the question. Finally, when the Chickens are quite near, the Fox suddenly replies, "Twelve o'clock, midnight," and chases them. They scatter and run for the Chicken Coop. All Chickens tagged by the Fox before they reach their

pg. 241

Chicken Coop must go with him to his den and help him capture the remaining Chickens. The last Chicken caught becomes the Mother Hen and the former Mother Hen becomes the Fox.
Notes for Teachers. The dramatic possibilities of this game
should not be overlooked. The Mother Hen may be coached to call her children by clucking while the Chicks pitter-patter along and respond by peeping.
The Fox must be coached to be a good sport and give the Chickens a fair chance to escape by calling "Midnight" and opening chase before they get too close.

Wolf and Sheep, 258
(Wolf, The Shepherd and the Wolf)

Select one player to act as "Wolf," another as "Shepherd," and the remainder are the "Sheep." The Shepherd marks out a "Sheepfold" and drives his flock into it while the Wolf finds a hiding place. When the Wolf is ready he sets up a dismal howl. The Shepherd moves slowly and cautiously toward the spot from which the howl emanates, with the hock close at his heels. When he catches sight of the Wolf the Shepherd cries, "I spy a Wolf." The Sheep bleat as though panic stricken and run for the fold. If the Wolf tags a Sheep before it is safely in the fold, the two change places.

Lion Hunt, 259
(Red Lion)

This game is comparatively simple when learned, but it should not be included in a recess program Unless it is expected that a leader will be present. When learned it requires a leader only for grades one and two.

pg. 242

One player is chosen to act as the "Chief Lion." The leader of the game acts as the "Lion Keeper." (After the players learn the game the Chief Lion chooses his own keeper.) The "Lion's Den," a circle large enough to circumscribe all the players, is drawn at one end of the playing-area.
To start the chase the Lion takes his position in his den and the "Hunters" gather around him calling:

"Big lion, Big lion, come out of your den,
Whomever you catch will help you then!"

When the Lion thinks the moment is opportune he chases the Hunters. To capture a Hunter he must hold him long enough to call "Caught" three times. Then the Chief Lion and his prey, now called a "Little Lion," rush separately for the den to avoid a beating from the rest of the Hunters who are permitted to hit them with their caps or to spank them below the waist with open hands. When the Lions reach their den the Hunters gather around it again taunting them by calling out the rime.
The next time the Lions leave their den they do so with joined hands. To capture a player they must encircle and hold him until they call "Caught" three times. Then they drop hands and run for the den to avoid a spanking.
Again the Hunters gather about the den and taunt the Lions. But, henceforth, the Lions leave their den by one of two methods as directed by the Lion Keeper: (a) At the command, "LionsDouble" they go hand in hand by pairs; (b) If "Lion-Chain" is called, they all hold hands, forming a chain.
Notes for Teachers. The Chief Lion should be coached to pair players in advance so that they will be ready to chase the instant the Keeper calls "Lions--Double."
To add an element of expectancy the leader may occasionally blow a whistle for Lions to drop hands and run for their den, chased by the free players.
Fifth and sixth grade pupils seem to prefer to omit what they call "the baby rime."

pg. 243

Catch of Fish, 260
(Fish Net)

The players are divided into two teams of approximately equal number, the "Fish" and the "Fishermen." The Fish scatter and the Fishermen line up at one end of the "Fish Pond" (playing-area), clasp hands, and move forward. The Fishermen seize an opportunity when the Fish are !east aware, and encircle as many Fish as possible. The end players suddenly clasp hands and close the net. A count is made of the number of Fish captured in the haul, and the teams change parts, the Fish becoming Fishermen. At the conclusion of an even number of hauls the team with the greater total wins.
Notes 107 Teachers. If the game is played in a small yard, the Fish should be permitted to escape by crawling under or over clasped hands while the end Fishermen are closing the net. Otherwise, it would be very easy for the Fishermen to move forward slowly, keeping their line spread, and catch almost all the Fish at one time.
Older boys find the game more interesting if a rough element is added by allowing them to charge the line in an effort to break the net.
For long recess periods it is preferable to continue playing until all Fish are caught. Those caught in the early hauls are necessarily out of the game for a short time.
Catch of Fish readily lends itself to close competition, since it is not essential that the teams be exactly equal in either number or ability. Furthermore, boys and girls may play together on the same team or on opposing teams.

Chain Tag, 261
(Bound Hands, Link Tag)

This game follows Catch of Fish, 260, in a progressive program of games. A superior player, chosen as "Chain Captain," acts as

pg. 244

the first "It." He tags another player, and the two join hands to capture a third. Each player clasps the hand of the player who tagged him; thus, only the end players are free to tag others. When all players have been caught the chain is complete.
Notes for Teachers. When first teaching this game the teacher may take a pivotal position and act as Chain Captain, since it is easier to coach from this position than from the side lines.
An element of secrecy may be introduced by coaching the "Chain Gang" to huddle together while they decide upon their next catch.
If the playground is large, it is better to use only a portion of it, indicating the area to be used by marked or imagined boundary lines. Players who run beyond these boundaries must join the chain.
When played with boys only, chain breaking is an interesting feature. Boys enjoy rushing the line and trying to break it as the ends close in upon them. They may also attempt to crawl under or hurdle over the line. This method is rough for girls, but boys imagine themselves football heroes, and seem to think charging and hurdling "half the game," as they put it.
For short recess periods instead of starting the game with one .player "It,)' let one-half of the players form a chain and start thus.

Hook On, 262

This variation of Chain Tag, 261, introduced by Dr. Emmett D. Angell, is here presented by permission, just as it appears in letter in Real Games for Real Kids.
"We had a game called Hook On that all the kids could play at Ice. It's a rough-house game all right and pulls your cork, I'11 tell the world. The way you play it is to pick out four kids and they go to the end of the gym. All the others line up along the wall at the other end of the gym.
"The physical director blows a whistle and all of the kids rush

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at the four who are loose. You try to hook on to one of the four loose guys. When you hook on, that makes two. You try not to let any one else hook on, but if some one does, then he is part Of your chain. When all of the kids have hooked on, the line that has the fewest fellows on it wins and the first four of that line are picked to be the next loose ones.
"The trick of the game is to keep the back end of your line away from the kids trying to hook on, for then the back end of your line is far away. You have to move fast to do this. After you have played a few times you know you have been doing something for it takes your pep.

Keep Away, 263
(Keep Ball, Chase Ball)

This popular recess team game, which has been played for ages, requires no detailed description. It is played on nearly every playground in the country, especially during the baseball season. It is particularly valuable for recess because it plays itself, that is, it needs no leader. Boys are so fond of the game that they use a cap if no ball is available.
Although Keep Ball is a team game, sides are rarely chosen. A few boys or girls start passing a ball, as in a game of catch, and a few others try to get it away from them. Gradually, others join, until there are as many as a dozen on each team.

Pull Away, 264
(Hill Dill, Pom Pom Pull Away)

It seems safe to venture the statement that Pull Away is ranked near the top of the list, the country over, as a favorite recess game. Its age and popularity give rise to its numerous variations.

pg. 246

The selected "It" takes his place in the center of the playing space. The others line up about twenty-five feet or more away from him against a fence, wall, or line, immediately in front of him. There should be a similar goal behind "It" on the opposite end of the field. Side boundaries should also be drawn at varying distances apart, depending upon the number of players. If there are as few as ten or twelve players, the field must be narrow, or the game will not succeed well.
In the simplest form of the game when "It" calls, "Pom Pom pull away, run away, catch away," every player must leave his own goal line and run for the one opposite. Any player tagged by "It" becomes his assistant. Any player running beyond the side boundaries is considered caught. Players caught wait until all runners reach the opposite goal, then, under the leadership of the original "It," they yell the starting rime in unison. Last one caught is "It" for the next game.
Notes for Teachers. Different rimes are used in different parts of the country. Older boys prefer simply to call, "Run away, Catch away." When playing on ice they call, "Skate away." When Pull Away is played under the name of Dill Dill the following rime is used:

Hill Dill, come over the hill,
Or else I'11 catch you standing still.

This game should be carefully supervised during football season, when boys revel in tackling runners, downing them, tagging them three times on the back and finally, before they are Considered caught, butting them with their heads. Among other evils this has never been known to improve clothing.

Dam, Chicken, Bacon, 265.
In some sections of the country Pull Away is called, Ham, Chicken, Bacon. The original "It'' calls, "Bacon" whenever he pleases, which is the signal for the others to run. However, it seems better to have a rime which all players caught can yell.

Red Rover, 266.
City boys play this variation of Pull Away by running across the street from curb to curb. They call, "Red Rover, come over, or I'11 pull you over."

pg. 247

Cautions. Varieties of Pull Away in which players run across the field from both directions should be discouraged, because of the danger of players colliding.
In games No. 264, 265,266, players are liable to injury when walls or fences are used for goals. It is better to draw goal or safety lines about six feet from and parallel to walls or fences.

Holding the Line, 267

This is a team variety of Pull Away,264, in which players are held instead of being tagged. It is popular during football season, but should be played only when boys are appropriately dressed in roughing clothes. It is more suitable for after-school play than for short recess periods, as it requires even sides and does not permit players to leave and enter at will.
The playing field is marked out the same as in Pull Away. The players are divided into two teams of equal number. One team lines up across the center of the field and the other lines up behind a goal line at the end of the field. At the signal the team behind the goal line charges leisurely across the field in an attempt to reach the opposite goal within thirty seconds. The players in the center of the field rush at them, trying to catch and hold them to prevent their reaching the goal within the thirty seconds allowed. Time is called and the teams change places every one-half minute. At the end of an even number of innings the team wins with the greater total of players who have reached their goal within thirty seconds.
Notes for Teachers. The person who acts as timer may also keep score. Score should be announced at the end of each inning.
Several boys sometimes join forces and concentrate upon the capture of some superior player who is their hero. If, for this reason,it becomes necessary to modify the element of roughness, it may be done by forbidding more than two players to hold an opponent.

pg. 248

Smugglers Over the Line, 268
(Smuggling the Loot)

Players in the third, fourth and fifth grades may find this game more interesting than the more vigorous similar one, Holding the Line, 267. Some of the players act as part-time spectators during Smugglers Over the Line, hence it provides less constant activity and is less suitable for cool weather.
There are two teams, the "Smugglers" and the "Revenuers." One person serves both teams as scorer and timer. The Smugglers gather around their Chief, who passes to one of them a small object such as a coin or pebble, the "Loot." The Revenuers also hold a conference with their Chief to conjecture which of the Smugglers most likely holds the Loot and accordingly should be captured as soon as possible. Then the Revenuers line up along the center of the field and the Smugglers form at one end. Upon signal from the timer, the Smugglers attempt to cross over to the other side of the field. The Revenuers bar their progress by catching, driving, and holding them back until time is called at the end of thirty seconds. Each Revenuer says to the Smuggler he captures, "Surrender the Loot," which the guilty Smuggler must do. Smugglers who are captured must retire from the game until their side becomes Revenuers. The first half is continued until the one who holds the Loot is captured. Then the teams change sides. The team wins that held its Loot the longer time.

Holding the Fort, 269

The fighting element in this game appeals to boys. It should be played only when boys are dressed: in old play suits or gymnasium clothes.
The players are divided into two armies, the "Attackers" and the "Defenders." The Defenders station themselves inside their

pg. 249

"Prison," a circle drawn on the ground. The Attackers stationed anywhere outside of the free-for-all battle area.
On the word "Charge," the Attackers try to pull, push, or carry Defenders over their boundary, while the Defenders try to do the same thing to the Attackers, forcing them within their Prison.
When both feet touch territory over the prison line, an Attacker becomes a prisoner. Similarly, Defenders are prisoners when they touch territory beyond their circle.
Time should be called at the end of two or three minutes and the prisoners counted, after which the armies change territory and a second round is played. The team that has captured the greatest number of prisoners at the end of an even number of rounds wins.

Spud, 270
Low Organization

A recreation or indoor baseball that has been batted until soft is ideal for Spud. A soft rubber ball is suitable: but a semi-hard ball, such as a tennis ball, should never be used.
Who has not watched boys during a recreation period and pondered at their delight in throwing at each other soft mud balls, burrs, and even stones! Because Spud provides a legitimate outlet for this primitive desire, it is extremely popular. It is quite as popular with young men, and may be used successfully with high school girls skilled in throwing.
All players assemble in the center of the playing space. The game is started by a player who extends his arm shoulder high, and from that height drops (not throws) the ball to the ground or floor, at the same time calling the name or number of one of the

pg. 250

players; for example, George. The others scatter. George grabs the ball and commands loudly, "Everybody-Halt!" Then without moving from the spot from where he picked up the ball, he tries to hit one of the standing players, who may dodge in any way he pleases. If George's aim is true, the player whom he hits rushes for the ball, secures it and commands, "Everybody--Halt!" and tries to hit any one including George, since hitting back is permissible. The throwing is continued until some one misses and has a "Spud" scored against him. Then the players reassemble in the center of the field and the one who missed drops the ball and calls another name. As soon as a player misses three times he becomes ';Mark Spud." Now, for all except Mark, the fun begins. He huddles against a wall or fence to make himself as small a target as possible. The others each take one shot at him from a throwing line at least fifteen feet from the wall.
Notes for Teachers. This game meets its best success in a gymnasium or comparatively small inclosed school yard or playground, rather than on a large field.
As an interesting method of determining the firing line, allow Mark to locate it by taking six paces (as long as he can possibly step) from the wall.
To hasten the game during short recess periods, a Spud may be scored against both those who miss and those who are hit. Under this method of scoring, three Spuds are soon charged against one of the players, who then faces the "Firing Squad." When players become expert in dodging, the game is prolonged. To adjust this during short recess periods, have the first one who misses twice face the Firing Squad.
When played for long periods it adds to the sport if Mark Spud is allowed to shoot back at every player who misses him. Mark then has as much fun out of the hitting feature as the others.
At the beginning of a school year when players are not well acquainted, give each player a number, and any newcomer who wishes to join the game is given the next higher number, and one Spud is scored against him.

Crack About, 271.
In this variation of Spud, 270, the play is continuous, which makes it especially good for a short indoor or

pg. 251

252 outdoor recess period in a small yard or gymnasium. No time is lost in assembling each time a player misses. Instead, every one makes a grand rush to get the ball and hit some one else, whereas in Spud, only the one who is hit recovers the ball. Just as in Spud, however, when a player misses three times he goes before the Firing Squad.
Note for Teachers. . Lacking adult leadership, players prefer Crack About to Spud. It is also preferable when boys are unfamiliar with one another's names.

Buddy Spud, 272
(Partner Spud)

This variation of Spud is recommended after players have learned Spud. When it is impossible to secure a very soft indoor baseball Buddy Spud is preferable to the original game, since it succeeds with an air-filled ball.
Each player secures a partner, known as his "Buddy." All players assemble around the leader and the game proceeds just as in Spud, with this exception: If a player's name is called, or, if he is hit by the ball, he may throw it at another player or to his Buddy, who may be located in a better position to hit an opponent. It is not permissible, however, to make more than one pass. If the Buddy "muffs" (fails to catch) his partner's throw or fails to hit another player, a "Spud'' is scored against the pair. Whenever Buddies have a total of two misses, they are both required to stand against the wall, just as in regular Spud, while the other players in turn each take one shot at them.

Mounted Spud, 273
(Bronco Spud)

This team form of Spud, 270, is recommended only for older boys, who should be strong enough to carry each other on their backs as they pair off as "Bronco" and "Rider."

pg. 252

The players are divided into two teams. The captains toss to decide which team shall act as Riders and which as Broncos. This done, the Riders select their Broncos, mount, and form circular fashion, with players eight to ten feet apart, facing inward. The Riders are provided with a soft ball, which they throw back and forth to one another. The Broncos keep their places on the circle, rearing, and kicking, in an effort to make their Riders fumble the ball. Whenever a Rider drops the ball, all his team mates dismount and rush for it, while the Broncos scatter. The Rider who secures the ball tries to hit a Bronco; if he fails, one Spud is scored against his team. Any Bronco whom he hits tries likewise to hit a Rider; if he fails, a Spud is scored against his team. The first team that has three Spuds must line up against the wall just as in regular Spud. The opponents act as the Firing Squad, and each one takes a shot at the players against the wall.
Note for Teachers. . Players may line up against the wall either individually or collectively. The throwers prefer the latter method, which is recommended, since Mounted Spud is a team game.

One Out, 274
(Rob and Run)

EQUIPMENT: Indian clubs, bean bags, stones, sticks, etc. (one less
than number of players)

The elimination of one player after each race makes One Out inferior to its parent game, Circle Snatch Grab, 167, but it has the advantage of permitting the weaker ones to drop out and rest while the continued running is done by stronger persons. It should be used for only a short time as part of a long recess period.
The players line up on one end of the playground on line A-B, and the objects (one less than players) are placed on the line 1-2. At the word "Go" all players race to grab an object and transfer

pg. 253

it to the line 3-4, eight or more feet distant from line 1-2. The player who fails to get an object drops out of the game, and one object is removed preparatory to the next race. The remaining players leisurely advance to line C-D, from which they race to secure one of the objects now on line 3-4 This procedure is continued until one player, the Winner, remains.
Notes for Teachers. To avoid collisions provide at least three feet between the objects located on the center lines.
If there are many players, it excessively prolongs the game to continue until only one player remains. Under such conditions it is quite satisfactory to play until one side loses about ten men.
As soon as four or five players have been eliminated they should be kept active by some other game of low organization, such as tag.

Follow the Leader, 275
(Stump the Leader)

Even so simple a game as Follow the Leader can be much improved by just a little adult guidance. As usually played, this game provides little opportunity for any one but the most skillful

pg. 254

individual of the group to show his superior abilities. In the modification described here everybody has a chance.

One of the less skillful players should be chosen for the first leader. He starts the game by demonstrating one of the most difficult gymnastic feats he can perform. He then stands by while the others try it, sending those who fail to the end of the line. The second player in line then tries to "stump" the leader by performing a feat which he thinks the leader cannot duplicate. If the leader succeeds, the "Stumper," having failed to outdo the leader, goes to the end of the line. If the leader fails, he goes to the end of the line, and the Stumper becomes the new leader.

Prisoner's Base, 276
(Country Base, Chivy Chase)

A study of game literature indicates that some form of Prisoner's Base has been played for centuries by boys and girls throughout the world. Its vigorous and wholesome activities, including as they do, the spirit of chase, capture, prison, freedom, rout, rally, triumph or despair, make it justly popular among both boys and girls of the intermediate and upper grades, who prefer team to individual play. Prisoner's Base might well be taught in every school yard, because, once having learned it, children play it quite well under their own leadership.
Before reading the description of the game, carefully study the diagram of the field.
The field is divided into three parts. Each end division comprises one-fourth of the entire area and the remaining half in the center is neutral territory--"No Man's Land." Prisons are marked off in diagonally opposite corners. A small objective goal, called a base, is marked off along the outside boundary line of each division. The "Prison Guard'' of each team is stationed near the corner of his prison and remains there throughout the game.
Suppose the White team loses the toss, one of the Whites opens

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the play by crossing his Starting Line and venturing into and beyond the center of No Man's Land. Suddenly, a Black chases him and the White retreats to his end of the field or even back of his Starting Line. As soon as the first Black enters No Man's Land a second White is privileged to go out and tag him. A second Black may go after the second White, etc. Thus, any player is privileged to tag any opponent, provided that the player tags an individual who crossed his Starting Line before he did. Briefly, a player may go after and capture any opponent who has preceded him into No Man's Land. When a player is captured his opponent conducts him to prison and he is not subject to capture while doing so.
Unaided, a Prisoner has no escape from Prison. A team mate may release him, however, by venturing far enough into No Man' Land to tag him and then escort him back to his own territory.
The game is concluded when all players of one team are captured or when a player succeeds in advancing from his own territory to the opponent's goal or base at the extreme opposite end of the field. In short recess periods the Winner may be determine by simply counting Prisoners.
Notes for Teachers. The success of the game depends largely upon the size of the field. The field should be almost square, and dimensions of approximately 60x60 feet are recommended for small recess groups, while a larger field may be found better for after-school play.
For playing the game in cool weather when the children should

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be kept moving about, it is expedient to make the releasing of Prisoners easy. Instead of keeping them in Prison, let them join hands and stretch out as far as possible toward their team mates. Under these conditions no Prison Guard is used and each newly caught Prisoner takes his place on the enemy's Starting Line. The Prisoner tagged by a free comrade is released and returns with his comrade to their Starting Line.
When players are learning the game the leader should be prepared for frequent arguments as to who crossed his Starting Line last, and if the leader takes upon himself the unhappy task of peacemaker, it behooves him to watch this closely.

Every Man in His Own Corner, 277

This game combines an elementary form of Prisoner's Base, 276, and an advanced form of Puss in a Corner, 255. Aside from being
attractive to both boys and girls of the intermediate grades, it has the added advantage of being played equally well by large or small groups.
Everybody selects a corner, just as in Puss in a Corner. if there are not enough corners or trees, players can make corners by drawing two lines at right angles on the ground. Any player may start the game by leaving his corner. A second player chases him and a third may chase them both, and a fourth may chase the three, etc. In other words, a player may tag any one who preceded him in leaving a corner, but cannot tag a player who left after he did.
When a player is caught his "Captor" leads him by the arm to the "Captor's Corner," and while doing so he is not subject to capture. When the two players reach the corner they become team mates and work together to capture others. At the termination of the game the player who has the greatest number of Captives is the Winner.
Notes for Teachers. When there is a scarcity of corners and more than twelve players it is advisable to start the game with two or more players in each corner.

pg. 257

Among children who have played few team games and have not learned team spirit, a leader may expect some difficulty. Their wavering loyalty may prompt them to permit their first team to recapture them.
This game is a good introduction to team games such as Stealing Sticks, 247, and Prisoner's Base, 276.

Fox and Geese, 278
(Cut the Pie, Half Bushel, Wheel Pursuit)

Wherever heavy snowfalls occur this game is well known. It may also be played in the sand on a beach. This form of Fox and Geese is less suitable for younger players than game No. 279, because there is no provision for resting places.
The players tramp down, in either sand or snow, a figure resembling a wagon wheel with a very large hub. The larger the wheel the better.
The player selected as the first "Fox" takes his place on the center of the hub, and the "Geese" scatter, on the run. The game proceeds just like the simplest game of tag, the only restriction being that players must travel only on the trodden paths of the wheel. Tagging back is allowed.

pg. 258

Double Fox and Geese, 279

This game is played by boys and girls of all ages. Younger players seem to enjoy tramping down the snow quite as much as the game itself. The diagram shows a rather elaborate ring.
There are several methods of using this ring. The most common way is to play tag, much as in Fox and Geese, 278 with this difference-no one may be tagged while in a safety zone, an enlarged intersection on the outer rim.

Snowball Fight, 280.
The wisdom and soundness of school rules against the promiscuous throwing of snowballs is admitted; but if we wish to teach children to do in a better way the activities they are going to do anyway, we can appreciate the point of view of the principal or teacher who gives leadership to an occasional or annual snowball fight. It seems unnecessary to describe such events in detail, but a few suggestions may not be amiss.

pg. 259

Make the event an annual affair worth the effort expended, by organizing armies with Generals, Captains, Corporals, etc. Let each army carry out its own ideas about snow fortifications.
The army occupying a fortification should be outnumbered at least two to one by the attackers.
If a man is hit once he is declared injured, and can no longer throw, though he may assist by making snowballs. Any one hit twice is dead, and must retire to a warm place indoors.
Recess Tag Games. By all means, include many tag games in a recess program. Ascertain the tag games the children already know and teach them better forms of those games involving more team work. All the tag games in Chapter VI should be studied.

Schoolroom Recreations

To BE sure, a successful teacher must have a thorough understanding of her appointed subject, but such academic superiority alone is not sufficient to reach the hearts of children. A teacher's social qualities more largely influence character than does didactic teaching. The teacher who is interested in both character training and subject-matter should ask herself this question: "Where can 1 find better opportunity to use and develop companionableness and sociability than by playing in the classroom or on the playground ?"
Catching the Point of View of Youth. Dr. Fretwell's comments in Extra-Curricular Activities in Secondary Schools, page 279, apply to all who lead and sponsor play and recreation:

Acting as an adviser can help keep a teacher human, or to humanize those teachers who for some terrifying reason

pg. 260

Buzz Hide in Sight, 283

This adaptation of the popular party game Hide the Thimble is a favorite with children.
While one of the pupils, the "Hunter," is out of the room a small. object, such as a coin or rubber eraser, is "hidden in sight"; that is, placed in full view, but in an out-of-the-way place where it can be seen without the removal of any object in the room. The Hunter is asked to return to the room to find the object.
As the Hunter conducts his search the pupils buzz to tell him whether he is "hot') (near the object) or "cold" (far away from it), buzzing louder and louder as he draws closer and softer as he moves away. When he locates the object he chooses the next Hunter.
Notes for Teachers. Instead of buzzing, the children may help the Hunter by singing softer or louder, whichever may be necessary as a signal. First and second grade children enjoy hand clapping.
So that both sexes participate equally, sometimes it is advisable to ask the boys to choose girls to succeed them as Hunters and to let the girls choose boys.

Hide in Sight, 284
(Huckle, Buckle, Beanstalk)

This game should appeal to the teacher who wishes to provide interesting recreation for her children without loss of time from her regular program on a rainy day.
Before the pupils are dismissed at noon the teacher explains the game and shows the object she will hide before they return from lunch.
The teacher partially conceals the object in a rather conspicuous place as described in Buzz Hide in Sight, 283. When the

pg. 268

pupils return they each immediately start without signal on an individual search for the object. When a player spies it, he returns to his seat and cries, "I Spy," just as he sits down.
Notes for Teachers. This hunting game ordinarily provides sufficient recreation to make team competition unnecessary. However, any one who wishes may play it as a team game, regarding each row as a team and declaring as Winner the row which has the greatest number of successful Hunters to its credit.
Young children must be cautioned against inadvertently showing others the location of object by either word or glance. When played the, first time some excited youngsters invariably forget and call out joyously, "Here it is." Let the children pretend to hunt a moment or so after locating the object.

Mary Sunshine, 285

A game providing a more restful form of relaxation than Mary Sunshine would be difficult to find.
A boy chosen to be "Sandman" starts the game. He walks leisurely up and down the aisles, touching each child, saying as he walks, "I)m the Sandman. Go to sleep." In this manner he supposedly puts all the players to sleep, except one girl. This girl then plays the part of "Mary Sunshine" and walks about the room, repeating:

The clock strikes nine,
Here's Mary Sunshine.
My friends and neighbors lie abed,
But I get up, up.

And then without warning she touches a boy, saying, "Wake up, sleepy head!" This is the signal for all the sleepy heads to look up and for the boy touched to chase Mary Sunshine. If he fails to catch her before she reaches her seat, as invariably happens,

pg. 269

he becomes the new Sandman and puts all the players to sleep,
except the new Mary Sunshine.

How Do You Do? 286
QUIET GET-ACQUAINTED GAME Ordinarily, we do not consider a get-acquainted game necessary for school children. Nevertheless, the learning of names at the beginning of a term is indispensable to both pupils and teacher. To that end this game makes the necessity a pleasure.
The pupil selected to be "It" takes his place at the center of the front blackboard. He blinds just as in Hide and Seek. Then the teacher points out a member of the class who says in his natural tone of voice, "How do you do! -" (supplying the name of the one at the board). "It" replies, "How do you do! --" (mentioning the name of the pupil he believes addressed him). This is repeated until "It" fails to identify the person who addressed him, with whom he then changes places.
Notes for Teachers. This game is popular at any time. If played when pupils know each other, they exchange seats after "It" blinds so that the location of the voice will be confusing instead of a help.
In another way of playing this game "It" goes from the room, while one of the other players goes to the door and knocks. "It" calls out, "Who is it!" and the player who rapped replies, "It is I."

Button Up Jenkins, 287

This is a combination of the two children's party games, Button, Button, and Up Jenkins.
Each half of the room constitutes a team one called the "Guessers," the other, the "Jenkins)' team. Each team selects a Captain, who stands in front of his team. The Jenkins Captain is

pg. 270

provided with a coin, which he holds between his palms, just as the button is held in the well-known game of Button, Button. All other Jenkinses sit with hands on tops of desks in front of them, palms together.
Captain Jenkins passes quickly up and down his aisles, sliding his hands between the palms of each player. Finally, he slips the coin into the hands of one of them.
Captain of the Guessers now takes charge of the game. He commands, "Up Jenkins," and all members of the Jenkins team close hands and raise fists, facing their opponents. The Guessers are given time to observe the upraised fists and their Captain commands, "Down Jenkins," whereupon the Jenkinses slap their open palms on desks.
Now the guessing begins. Captain Guesser asks his team mates, who are reasonably sure they have located the coin, to stand. Captain Guesser calls on one of his players, sap, John, to locate the coin. John replies, "It's under Mary's right hand." Mary raises her right hand. If the coin is not there, she places the hand in her lap and the guessing is continued until the coin is located. The Guessers then become Jenkinses and the performance is repeated. The side that requires the least number of guesses to locate the coin wins.
Note for Teachers. In the upper grades, instead of dividing the class into two teams, let rows compete against each other under the leadership of the Row Captains.

Numbers Act, 288

Since most children quite naturally enjoy mimetic exercises, they will appreciate both participation in and observation of the interesting poses and Actions which may be used in this game. The teacher of health education will find this an excellent playway of stimulating interest in mimetic exercises.
Instruct the class in the exercises or poses to be used in the game. A list of suggestions follows:
1. A soldier standing at attention,

pg. 271

fence, polishing windows, and loading a truck are some of the many Actions that will suggest others.
Teachers can use this game in connection with nature study in sowing seed, raking, hoeing and watering a garden, picking vegetables, gathering fruit from trees, etc.

Do This, Do That, 291

The teacher illustrates and explains that when she or the leader gives the command, "Do this," accompanied by a natural of formal movement, the pupils must instantly imitate the Action to the best of their ability. If, however, the movement is preceded by the command, "Do that," they must remain motionless. Any one who moves at the wrong time or fails to move at the proper time is required to sit down momentarily.
Notes for Teachers. The serious objection to requiring a player to drop out of the game the first time he misses is occasioned by the fact that the pupils who most need the practice in mental and muscle coordination are the very ones who are thus deprived of it. Suggestions for overcoming this problem include having players drop out after missing three times; letting players sit down after each failure and then immediately reenter the game.
Fewer mistakes are made when formal gymnastics are used instead of the more interesting natural gymnastics or imitations which distract attention; therefore, the latter would better be reserved for the second half of the game to catch the better players.
Formal Actions might include trunk twisting, bending of knee and body, arm and leg raising or thrusting, etc.
Natural Actions include jumping, dancing, hiking, striking, climbing, imitation of familiar Actions, chopping, sawing, snow shoveling, tennis, baseball, football, etc.
It should be realized that the competition in this game is between teacher and pupils; therefore, they stay in the game until she sees them make a mistake and asks them to sit down momentarily. This is a necessary rule because children move at the


wrong time without realizing it. To place them upon their honor would be an extreme moral test.

Drum Corps, 292

Before starting this game the class should be taught to drum on the desks with their fingers in marching rhythm. This learned, the teacher commences drumming or playing the piano, and the pupils start marching around the room. When the teacher stops playing or calls "Sit," all players rush for their seats. The first one (or two) to get into his seat becomes a drummer and helps the teacher. The marching is continued and whenever the music or drumming stops or a command is heard, there is a grand rush and the first one seated becomes a member of the Drum Corps. This may be played until the majority of the players are members of the Corps.
Notes for Teachers. For marching formations see diagram on page 276.
If the teacher finds that she can also judge second place without too many arguments, two members may be added to the Corps each round.

Pad Balancing March, 293

Each row constitutes a team. The pupils stand with a pad or notebook balanced on top of their heads, and, in this position, march around the room. If a pupil touches his pad to prevent it from falling, or, if the pad falls, he continues marching but carries the pad in his hand. Each pad touched with hand or hands scores one point, a pad dropped scores two points. The row with the lowest score wins.
Notes for Teachers. The diagram suggests a marching forma-

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have the players change position after having passed the objects.
When the game includes shifting from right to left make clear to players in the last seats that they also must turn to the left before passing.

Object Passing Relay, 297

Each row constitutes a team. The teams stand and face right' or left, as directed. The first player in each row is given three or four objects, such as, a book, pencil, piece of paper, and pin, which he places on his desk. At the signal he picks up the objects, one at a time, in any order convenient, and passes them to the pupil behind. When the last player in each row receives the objects he places them on his desk, and when he has them all he starts passing them back to the front. The first team that has all its objects returned to its front desk wins.
Notes for Teachers. Be sure to include among the objects a small article such as a pen point, or better, a pin.
Avoid rules which specify the hand with which and the manner and order in which objects shall be passed. They are too difficult to enforce and only cause confusion.
If there is no objection to noise, let the players in the end seats. keep count and call out the number of each object, as received.

Pencil Eraser Passing Relay, 298.
Seat the teams in rows, with an equal number of players in each row. The last players each hold a pencil eraser. At the signal they jump up and run to the front seat. All the other players shift one seat to the rear just after the last players pass. Upon reaching the front seats, the runners stop, wait until they have been vacated, seat themselves and pass the erasers to the players immediately behind them. Each eraser is passed down the entire row until it reaches the last player, who rises and repeats the Action of the first runner. The first team with all players back in original seats wins.

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Catch, Throw, Sit, 299
(File Ball Relay)

One player, called the "Starter," in each row or team is provided with a soft ball or bean bag, and stationed about ten feet directly in front of his team. The other players stand beside their desks.
Each Starter throws his ball or bean bag to the player at the head of his row. This player catches the ball, throws it back to the Starter, and sits down. The Starter continues in regular order to throw the ball to all members of his team. The first team with all players seated wins.
Notes for Teachers. Obviously, it is advisable for each row to choose one of its better players to act as Starter.
Younger players, especially girls, prefer bean bags; while older players prefer balls. Boys of all ages prefer balls. If only two balls are available, this game may be played by lining up half of the class on one side of the room and the other half on the opposite side.

Catch and Throw, 300.
A variation of No. 299 might be descriptively called Catch and Throw, as it omits the sitting feature. The players are organized in two teams of equal number and lined up along opposite walls. Each Starter stands in front of his team and throws the ball to each player in turn, who throws It back to the Starter.

Posture Relay, 301

This game may be used as a recreational method of stimulating good posture. A valuable feature of this relay is that it does lot require an equal number of players in each row.
The teacher may act as Starter, Scorer, and Judge. In the

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fourth and fifth grades, children may be used to act as official Each row constitutes a team. The first and last seats must be occupied but some of the intervening seats may be vacant.
The Starter claps his hands and the players in the last seats in each row go (run or walk) down the right aisle to the front seat All other players shift back one seat as soon as the runners pass The first player who reaches the front and sits in good posture wins the first round, and scores one point for his team, provided the other members of his team are seated in good posture. A complete game consists of as many rounds as there are pupils in a row.
Notes for Teachers. To stimulate good posture, encourage all pupils to assume the best posture possible throughout the game. To avoid disputes allow limited time between rounds.

Shift Back Relay, 302

This rapid-Action race is recommended only for classrooms having wide aisles.
Each row constitutes a relay team. At the outset all players are seated. Upon signal the last player in each row runs up the aisle and the others shift back one seat as he passes. The runner slaps the outstretched hand of his team mate in the first seat. The slap is passed back to the player in the last seat who repeats the performance of the first. The relay is continued until all players have run.
Note for Teachers. In races of this type it is advisable to continue until all players in each row complete the Action. Under these conditions indicate before the start of the race--"We shall see which row finishes last."

Row Encircling Relay, 303

In this game only half of the class plays at a time; so it will only appeal to the teacher who has considerable time for play.

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Number the rows and divide the class into the "Odds)' and Evens." All players are seated. Upon signal the last player in each row of the Odds (odd numbered rows) rises and starts circling his row, walking or running up the aisle on the right and down on the left. As he comes down the aisle he touches the outstretched palm of the second player, who then runs up the aisle ,, the right, while the first player takes his seat. In this way the game is continued. The row whose last player is first to circle his row and return to his seat wins.
The winning row of the Evens is next determined and the Winners race the Winners of the Odds for the room championship.
Note for Teachers. If the players show a tendency to stair running before being touched, have the first runner of each team carry and pass a ruler, just as a baton is used in an official relay race.

Book Depositing and Retrieving Relay, 304

The pupils should be instructed to place a certain text-book upon their desks and examine the outside of it for identification marks. The race is conducted in two distinct marts.
Part I--Depositing Books on Front Desks. The signal is given and the last child in each row passes his book to the one immediately in front of him, who passes it on until it finally reaches the player in the first seat, who places it on his desk. The second last player, immediately after passing the book, which he receives from the last player, passes his own to the player in front of him, and so the passing is continued by each child, in turn, until all of the books, one by one, have been deposited on the front desk. The first team that deposits all books on front desk wins Part I.
Part II Retrieving Books. -When all rows have completed the above Action the players in the front seats mix the books so that

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the original order is thoroughly disarranged. This done, the signal is given and the last player in each row walks or runs to the front desk and selects from the pile, without opening any of the books, the one he believes to be his own, and returns with it to his seat The second last player rises when the last passes him and repeats the procedure.
Notes for Teachers. Ordinarily, the simpler the method of scoring the better. A simple system follows: I point for the row winning Part I, and I point for each player who retrieves his own book.
The teacher who has read Studies in Deceit will not be surprised. to discover some of her pupils yielding to temptation by secretly marking their books.

Tent Pitching Relay, 305

Each row constitutes a team. Each team has a book (an imaginary pup tent) which players erect and take down.
Before starting the game a sheet of paper (ground cloth) should be placed on: the floor in front of each aisle and a closed book laid flat on the paper.
Players No. I in the first seats start the game by running up and erecting the tent on the ground cloth (paper). As soon as they return to their seats, Nos. 2 run up, take the tent down, and place it on the ground cloth. Thus, alternate players erect and take down the tent. The team whose last player is seated first wins.
Notes for Teachers. The paper is used for a ground cloth to make sure that each team travels the same distance. It is advisable to fasten the paper to the floor with a thumb-tack.
In event of an unequal number of players in the different rows, the players behind vacant seats must run twice so that each team runs the same number of players.
The teacher who, for valid reason, objects to using books for tents, may substitute folded papers.

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Schoolroom Action Songs, 306
(Singing Games)

Many so-called singing games are nothing more than songs with Action. As described in game books, unfortunately, such activities require more space than is available in a room with fixed desks. Why not change the Action of these games so that it can be performed in a schoolroom? For example, in Looby Loo* (the story of the child taking a bath on a Saturday night) instead of skip-

ping around a circle, move forward and backward. The children may grasp hands across desks while moving forward, and drop hands while going through the maneuvers of the bath. Similarly, in Little Ball 66 East or West, instead of passing the ball around a circle, pass it in any direction, and instead of standing in the center of the circle, "It" may stand in front of the room. Then, again, some Action songs, such as, John Brown's Baby, Alouette, The Rehearsal, and The Smoke Went up the Chimney, can be used quite as well in a schoolroom as anywhere.
The following games, all of which are described in Twice 55 Games with Music with corresponding numbers, may be used in rooms with fixed desks.

The Duke of York (35), Buff (36), The Old Dame (41), Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush, (42) Rabbit in the Hollow (44), Looby Loo (47), The Muffin Man (48), Roman Soldiers (49), Hickory, Dickory, Dock (51), Little Ball Go East or West(57)

Notefor Teachers. Teachers who think that Action songs are appreciated only by children in the lower grades might be surprised to Note their reception at summer camps or even at business men's clubs.

*"All songs listed in this game may be found in Twice 55 Games with Music, obtainable from the National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Ave., New York City.

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final announcement was accepted without a particle of enthusiasm.
How to Conduct Relays. It is important that every one know exactly what to do in relays, otherwise, one or two players may make mistakes, thereby making it necessary to disqualify the entire team or teams, much to the chagrin of those who erred and to the disappointment of the other team members. Until the class is thoroughly familiar with the relay idea, it is recommended that the captains of each row be taught the relays in advance and that they be used as a demonstration team when the game is taught to the entire class.
The Play-Way not a Cureall. In considering the claims of the play-way, the discontented, unfitted and unhappy teacher may assume too much, for, as Dr. Fretwell puts it: "To require a pupil to associate intimately with an adult who does not like what he is doing, who is sour and physically or emotionally dyspeptic, makes the work of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals look primitive. If teachers do not like their jobs, they should get out; children suffer enough as it is. This business of thinking clearly, of being happy, of believing it can be done, of being creative is absolutely necessary."

Name Writing Relay, 309

This simple relay is valuable both to teacher and pupils at the beginning of a school term to facilitate learning the names of pupils.
Each row, from the front to rear, constitutes a team. When played the first time each pupil will, in relay fashion, write his name on the board. Before the names are erased, the teacher should explain that the next time the game is played each player will be required to write, instead of his own name, the first name of a pupil in his row. It is pointed out further that each pupil in the room should not only know the first name of each pupil in his row, but must also know how to spell that name in order to score.
Notes for Teachers. No one should be permitted to duplicate a

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name unless two persons of the same name happen to be in the same row.
If time permits, the second time the Name Writing Relay is played, it may be conducted in two parts. After all first names are written on the board the players run to the board a second time and write their last names after their first.

What's Gone? 310

This very simple game for lower grades may be described with corresponding brevity. Each row, from front to rear, constitutes a team. Players are numbered from front to rear so that each team has a player No. I, No. 2, etc., to the end of the row. The teacher provides a set of flash cards upon which numbers I to 20 are printed. She arranges the cards in miscellaneous order on the chalk tray across the front of the room, and all is in readiness to start the game.
The teacher requests all the NO. r players to stand and face the rear of the room. Then she removes one of the cards and suddenly calls "Look." The No. I pupils turn and study the cards, the one who first calls out the missing number scores one point for his team. The game continues until each pupil has had an opportunity to identify a missing number.
Note to Teachers. Letters of the alphabet and words may be substituted for numbers.

Fizz, 311

This is an English form of a well-known American play-way called Buzz.
The pupil in the first seat in the first row counts "One," the next "Two," the third "Three," the fourth "Four," the fifth, instead of counting "Five," says "Fizz." The next pupil counts

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"Six," etc., until the tenth pupil calls "Fizz" instead of "Ten." The counting continues until sixty is reached, the word "Fizz" being substituted for any number in which five or any multiple of five occurs. When fifty is reached the word "Fizz" is substituted thus: "Fizz-one" for fifty-one, "Fizz-two" for fifty-two, etc. "FizzFizz" is substituted for fifty-five. When sixty is reached the counting begins again with one.
The counting continues until each pupil has had two or more turns. Rows or halves of the room may constitute teams. The team wins that makes fewest mistakes.
Notes for Teachers. When the term "multiple" is unfamiliar, the teacher should explain by illustration. Count aloud to sixty with the entire class substituting the word "Fizz" wherever required.
Ordinarily, the determination of a winning team is neither important nor necessary to satisfy lower grade children. They will be satisfied if, at the conclusion, all who did not miss are asked to stand.

Buzz, 312

This variation of Fizz, 311, is suitable for the intermediate grades when learning the table of sevens. The counting starts just as in Fizz, but when five is reached the counter calls "Five." When the count reaches seven, any multiple of seven, or any number containing seven, such as twenty-seven, thirty-seven, etc., the word "Buzz" is substituted. Similarly, "Buzz-one" is substituted for seventy-one, "Buzz-two" for seventy-two, etc. "Buzz-buzz" is called for seventy-seven, at which point the counting begins again with one.

Fizz-Buzz, 313

This difficult combination of the games Fizz and Buzz will be recognized as a party game used by adults. In counting, the expression "Fizz" is substituted for five and its multiples, and "Buzz"

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is substituted for seven and multiples thereof. Thirty-five being a multiple of five and seven is either "Fizz-Buzz" or "Buzz-Fizz." Fifty-seven also contains five and seven and is also "Fizz-Buzz;" seventy-five is "Buzz-Fizz."

Obeying Arithmetic Orders, 314

The plan of this recreational method of review can be adapted to most school subjects. It is described here as an arithmetic study-help.
Each row, front to rear, constitutes a team. The pupils in each row are numbered consecutively. In case there are more pupils in some rows than in others one or more are given two numbers. Under the direction of the teacher, a few more simple arithmetic problems than there are pupils in the longest row are written on the board in the front of the room. Each problem is numbered.
To start the first round the teacher calls the number of a problem, pauses a second and calls any number from I to 8 (if there are eight players in a row). Suppose she calls, "Problem No. & No. 3" The No. 3 pupil in each row hastens to the blackboard and solves problem No. 6. The one who is first to return to his seat scores one point for speed and each No. 3 pupil who writes the correct answer receives one point. The contest continues until each pupil has solved at least one problem. The row wins that has the highest combined score for speed and accuracy.
Notes for Teachers. The teacher should keep a written record of the numbers called to be sure that each pupil is given a problem.
Occasionally, mental arithmetic problems may be dictated instead of written.
It will slow up the contest if a problem is discussed at the end of each round. Save all discussion for the conclusion.
It is good practice to keep students alert by calling one or two numbers twice.

Obeying History Orders, 315.
This game is played just as is the parent, game No. 314. Suggestions for questions follow;

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Team A a question. If he answers correctly, he remains in his position and asks his opponent a question. The other players, in turn, repeat this operation, asking and answering questions back and forth. The team wins that has the most opposing players on its chain after every player has had a turn.

Alphabetical Chain Quiz, 331

This is a schoolroom adaptation of The Minister's Cat, 68, a well-known party game. The pupils are divided into two teams and lined up shoulder-to-shoulder facing each other. Suppose the game is applied to cities, the first player of one of the teams starts by naming a city beginning with the first letter of the alphabet. The player directly opposite on the other team names, if he can, another city beginning with "A." Thus the play continues until the player whose turn it is to answer cannot think of another city beginning with "A." Now the game stops, and the teacher asks any member of the opposing team, who can, to name a city beginning with "A." If any one names a city, the member of the opposing team who failed to do so is required to go to the end of the line of his opponents. Next, cities beginning with "B" are used, etc. The team wins that captures the greatest number of opponents.
Notes for Teachers. Notice that as this game progresses some of the players will be required to name cities, while on the end of the line of their opponents. Even though such a player names a city correctly he remains a captive, if he fails, the player at the head of his original team must go to the end of the line of his opponents. This rule will encourage the captive to do his best, even though he is an the opposing side.
Rarely is it advisable to continue this game throughout the alphabet. As soon as interest wanes the game should be stopped.
For various subjects to which an Alphabetical Chain Quiz may be applied see Notes in Scouting for Words, 332.

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Scouting for Words, 332

The teacher provides herself with two dozen flash cards, at least five by seven inches in size. On one side of them she prints the letters of the alphabet, omitting the seldom used "X" and "Z.') On the other side of the cards she writes questions pertaining to various subjects or to the single subject to which she intends to apply Scouting for Words. Each question must be answerable in one word, the first letter of which appears on the reverse side of the card.
Suggestions for subjects in which this word hunt may be used are listed below:
Geography: Names of cities, states, countries, lakes, rivers, capes, islands, and mountains. Also manufactured products, industries, etc.
Grammar: Parts of speech, correct usage of words, completion of sentences, etc.
History: Important events, celebrated characters, soldiers, battles, statesmen, presidents, governors, kings, queens, etc. Literature: Names of authors, poets, famous novels, poems, Bible characters, books, etc.
Music: Name of songs, hymns, composers, musical Notes and terms, musical instruments, etc.
Natural History: Birds, trees, fruits, flowers, vegetables, animals, insects, fish, etc,
Each row constitutes a team. Pupils in each row are numbered consecutively from front to rear. No. I pupil in each row acts as Captain. The teacher sits at her desk and acts as the leader and inquirer.
When all is ready the teacher reads a question or states a problem, and flashes a letter indicating that the answer must start with the letter on the card flashed. The teacher pauses long enough to

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allow every one in the room to write an answer, then she calls a number. Suppose she says, "Name a State Capital in the United States beginning with "C." After pausing long enough for every one to write at least one Capital, she suddenly calls, "No. 5" Instantly the No. 5 pupil in each row hastens to the front of his row and places his paper in front of his Captain. Next, the teacher reads, "Carson City, Charleston, Cheyenne, Columbia, Columbus, and Concord." The Captains score one point provided their team mates have written any one of the six capitals above. The row wins that has the largest score after the number of each pupil has been called at least once.
Notes for Teachers. In addition to flashing the card call the letter so that the visually handicapped children have an equal opportunity.
When a question has more than one answer, such as the one illustrated, it is good practice to pause longer than usual before calling a number, and then score one point for each correct answer.

Letters Fore and Aft, 333

This game is considered quite difficult for adults, but experiments indicate that it succeeds in upper grades when introduced in its simplest form. It was found that children were so interested in the activity itself that it was unnecessary to motivate it with complicated scoring systems.
The object of this individual contest is to form words by placing letters either fore or aft of two given letters. Suppose the assigned letters were or; by prefixing w and adding d the word, word may be formed, or by prefixing n the word nor may be formed, or by adding e, ore may be formed, etc.
In the usual way of playing this game with adults, ten or more difficult two-letter combinations are dictated at the outset of the

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game and the players try, without help of any kind, to complete the words, using as few letters as possible. It was found that children enjoy the game much better when played as follows:
Dictate two letters, one of which is a vowel, and allow the pupils at least one minute to form as many words as they can, by prefixing and adding letters. Then allow pupils to read and check their lists, and score one point for each word formed, regardless of how many or how few letters are used.
Notes for Teachers. The teacher may refer to the dictionary for easy consonant combinations. If, for special reasons, difficult combinations such as, cd, ht, sb, and tb are used without clews, the pupils will lose interest quickly. Suppose the teacher had in mind the words catbird, catboat, hotbed, and flatboat; she would assign the letters tb, and tell the pupils to think of words like hotbed, composed of two syllables, each of which is a word in itself.
To use this game in connection with subjects other than spelling, the teacher simply opens up a text book and dictates two letters which appear in important words; in history, characters and incidents; in geography, industries, places; etc. In addition to giving the pupils clews there is no objection to giving them three or even four letters of the words in question.
For other word forming games see Anagrams, Go; Flower Anagrams, 61; Anagramatics, 62; Word Forming from Letters, 67; Concealed Words, 477; Word Changing by Adding One Letter, 478; Word Doublets, 479; Synonym Golf, 480

Peter Piper's Perfect Pronouncing Play, 334

Those of us who remember the fun we had trying to repeat perfectly, "Theophilus Thistle the great thistle sifter sifted three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb," etc. Can appreciate the fun that school children may derive from this game. Unfortunately, credit for this splendid material cannot be given since the source is not known. The method described for using the verses will Probably suggest additional play-ways.

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write a date, the second player would write opposite it, in one words if possible, an important historical happening on that date. The second player would write, in addition, another date, the happening of which would be supplied by No. 3, etc.

Missing Cities, 343. This is played just like its predecessors; Team mates alternately write states and capitals, or capitals and states. Still another possibility relates to groups of states and in dustries.

Missing Verbs, 344. This game, played like those preceding, may be applied to many forms of verbs. It is described here for use in drill in the past tense of irregular verbs.
Each pupil writes a missing irregular verb of the past tense in the incompleted sentence "I -- it." Examples follow: I saw it; I did it; I heard it; I took it.

Kim's Game, 345

This is a very ancient indoor and outdoor game that can be adapted to many subjects. Due to the Preparation required it is advisable to play it at the beginning of a morning or afternoon session, or after a recess Period.
While the children are out of the room the teacher arranges upon her desk, in more or less orderly fashion, twenty objects. (Fewer for lower grades.)
When all the children are, assembled in the classroom the game is started. Rows No. r and No. 2 assemble around the desk, and study the objects in absolute silence for sixty seconds, and, still maintaining silence, each player returns to his desk and writes the names of as many of the objects as he can remember. The remaining rows, two at a time, repeat the performance of rows No. 1 and 2. Each row constitutes a team. Teams exchange papers

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and correct their lists as the teacher names the twenty objects. The row wins that has the highest average.
Notes for Teachers. Every teacher can think of interesting ways in which the members of the class can be induced to collect objects-nature objects for nature classes; manufactured objects for the study of industries; objects representing individual hobbies, etc.
Usually, when played at parties, a heterogeneous collection of objects is used. Such miscellaneous material may make the game more interesting, but it is not as advisable when the object of the game is teaching subject-matter rather than memory testing.

Riming Dates, 346
(Date Song)

This interesting play-way of fixing dates by rime and song is suggested as a party game in The Book of Games and Parties. When played the first time the teacher may read the lines and allow the pupils to supply the missing dates which are printed in black face type. After this paper and pencil contest the words may be memorized and fitted to music. The music below is adapted from Oats and Beans and Barley Grows. The music for the popular camp railroad song, In Eighteen Hundred and Forty-Two, may also be used.

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A Rider from London Town, 349

This excellent play story appeared in The Girl Scout Leader magazine. It was especially prepared for Brown Owls, the leaders of Brownies, the junior movement of the Girl Scouts.
Directed exercise is too often left out of Brownie meetings. Activity is never lacking, as any Brown Owl will testify, but frequently the same restricted set of muscles is used over and over as in running; Unless one is a trained physical director it is no; always safe to give "setting up exercises" but of one's head. Girls, even at the Brownie age, can be easily strained, and faulty exercises are worse than none. But a few simple exercise games are safest, planned on the general rule of starting with easy movements, then controlled movements, then active but not so controlled (running, skipping), then balance, then races, and allowing a relaxed moment for breathing between the most active movements.
Here is an example of an English exercise game. The Pack forms in single file behind Brown Owl, with plenty of spare between. The Brownies copy Brown Owl's Actions, but not her words which follow:

I see a rider from London Town. (Look out under hand)
He walks. (Walk) He trots. (Trot)
He gallops. (Gallops high and fast) He halts. (Stand still)
I am the Rider from London Town.
I see some children skipping rope. (Skip imaginary rope, being sure rhythm of arms is timed right) I see the blue sky overhead. (Stand and look up. Teach bending back at shoulder blades and neck, never at waist so that abdomen is strained) I bear the wind sighing in the treetops. (Breathe deeply through nose, out through mouth with loud sigh) I see the windmills waving in the breeze. (Windmill alternate arm motion) I see the rabbits listening to my hoof-beats. (Squat

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and bunny-hop, knees well apart and springy, Fingers at sides of head for ears) I see the maidens drawing water from the wells. (Bend touching toe with opposite hand) I hear the drums sounding. (Lie on "tummy" on poor and drum palms of hands) I must return to London Town. (Trot) Follow the rider over the hedges. (Jump) Follow the rider over the ditches. (Spring) Hark to the sound of the horse's neigh. (Breathe in and release breath in a neigh) Here is the rider, at London Town.

The Miller Play Story, 350.
A brief play story more suitable for the classroom, also taken from The Girl Scout Leader, follows:

The Miller stands by the door; the windmill goes round and round. (Arm movements) The wind whistles through the sails. (Breathe deep and whistle or sigh) The Miller stands by the door, the machinery grinds the wheat. (Run with knees high) The bread rises in the oven. (Curtsy three times, quickly down, slowly up) The family sits down for breakfast. (Sit in circle)

Nature Identification Contest, 351

This is a recreational method of conducting an examination. The class, is divided into two or more teams. Six or more nature specimens must be provided for each team. When enough specimens can readily be procured it is ideal to consider each row as a team.
Suppose each row is a team. Numbered specimens are placed on the front desks. The pupil in each front seat picks up any one of the specimens, Notes its number and opposite that number, on a sheet of paper, writes the name of the specimen, if he knows it, and then passes it to the pupil behind. Then player No. I picks up another specimen while player No. 2 tries to identify his specimen. In this manner all the specimens are studied and passed

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back to the pupils in the last seats. The row having the highest average of the specimens named correctly wins.
Note for Teachers. . The teacher who has never tried having children gather and label specimens, motivated by a recreational
study-help, may be surprised at the fine results it is possible to obtain.

Twenty Questions, 352

This is one of the best play-way devices. It is described with more than usual detail with the hope that many teachers will see fit to try it. Twenty Questions can readily be adapted to history, science, nature study, geography, literature, and many other subjects. It is described here in simple form as applied to geography. It can be explained best in much the same language that teachers
would use in explaining it to a class.
Before starting the game the teacher might say, "I shall leave the room. Mary will have charge during my absence. With her help decide upon any large city in the United States. When you have made a selection, call me and I shall try to discover the name of the city. if I ask no more than twenty questions, I win; if I ask more than twenty, you win. You answer either 'Yes,' or 'No,'
or 'I don't know.' "
Before leaving the room, the teacher might continue, "Take all the time you need to select the city. Let those who know tell about
it so that you may all answer my questions correctly, for when any one answers incorrectly or says, 'I don't know,' that question does not count as one of my twenty."
At this point the teacher might read a suggestive list of questions before retiring from the room. Note the list of sample questions:

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Is it a very large city! Is it a state capital! Is it a metropolis!
Is it west of the Mississippi River! Is it on the Pacific Coast! Is it in the state of California!
Is it the center of the motion picture industry!

When the teacher is called into the room she should have but little difficulty in ascertaining the city the children had selected in her absence in much less than twenty questions. However, the wise teacher will do her best to teach by means of questions and will, if possible, ask twenty questions, and then name the city.
When the teacher either succeeds or fails in naming the correct city, she may see fit to have Mary leave the room while she acts as class leader in selecting another city.
The teacher need have no reluctance about asking very difficult questions. If at any time the class is divided as to whether the answer is either "No') or "Yes," it may be suggested that every one refer to his text-book to find the correct answer.
It is predicted that after the game is played once or twice the children may suggest that they select any subject in the geography that they please. When this request is granted the individual who does the questioning should be permitted to use the class textbook.
If Twenty Questions is played often it is recommended that instead of an individual doing the questioning, an entire row be granted that privilege.

Twenty Tree Questions, 353

This play-way game is one of the author's favorites. It is described with great detail in the fulfillment of a promise made to

pg. 323

Of What Are You Thinking? 354

It is decidedly advisable to precede this game with Twenty Questions, 352. In the game, Of What Are You Thinking, the pupils ask the questions and the teacher answers them. Each row! across the room from right to left, acts as a team. )

Suppose the game is played during a geography period. The teacher secretly chooses the name of a city, state, river, or anything she pleases related to geography, and announces that she is ready. The object of the game is for the pupils to determine the subject the teacher has in mind by asking indirect questions which she can answer by either "no" or "yes." After the teacher answers about twenty such questions the game actually begins.

The first member of each team writes, at the very top of a sheet of paper, the name of the thing he believes the teacher has in mind. He then folds down the paper so that his answer cannot be seen and passes the paper to his team mate on his left. In this manner the writing, folding, and passing continues until the last member of each team writes his answer. When this is done the teacher names the subject she had in mind. The team that finished its writing first receives one point. Each team receives one point for each correct answer. The team having the highest total wins.

Notes for Teachers. To speed up the writing it may be advisable to award three places for the order of finish.

If the pupils have difficulty in getting on the track of the subject the teacher has in mind, she should naively suggest questions which will prove helpful.

Under no circumstances should the teacher answer a direct question, such as, "Is it Atlantic City!"

pg. 326

Tree Identification Contest, 355

This contest is of value only to the teacher who conducts field trips. It is an excellent method of introducing pupils to nature subjects and, at the same time, exposing them to nature books and pamphlets.
Divide the class into small groups of four to six, and provide each with a guide book or manual containing accurate illustrations, colored if possible. Let each group select a leader to report upon group findings and to keep score.
Group leaders assemble their teams and the teacher points out the tree (or any other nature object) to be studied. Each leader, with the members of his group looking on, thumbs the pages of the book to find an illustration of the specimen. When the illustration is found the actual thing is compared with the picture and the written description of it. After approximately three minutes of such study the teacher calls time and asks each group leader to ascertain the majority opinion of his group. After a brief wait she asks for group reports. One point is scored for naming the correct genus, and one additional for the species. Suppose the tree in question is a red maple, any team reporting this receives two points. Teams not positive of the species, should be coached to report "maple," and for a partially correct answer score one point. If a group were uncertain of the species, but took a chance and reported Norway maple, it should receive no score.
Notes for Teachers. Notice that in the game as described the teacher plays only a small part and does no lecturing whatsoever. Certainly, the teacher may take time after all group reports are in, to comment further on the tree. Experience indicates that it is extremely wise to lecture only a minute or two and confine remarks to the particular tree that is being studied. The teacher who dares will ask one of the pupils to hold the watch and call time at the expiration of sixty seconds. Then she must be a good sport and stop her lecture when time is called. Remember, there will be

pg. 327

many hours to come for lecture in the classroom.
It will take at least one hour to study ten trees by this method. The pupils study each of the ten trees three minutes and it requires twenty minutes for the teacher's reports and comments, leaving but ten minutes for travel.
After the teacher has selected one or two trees she might allow groups to make the selections.
Occasionally point out trees that have outstanding characteristics that can be identified from a considerable distance. Draw a line and permit no one to go over the line. Note, for example, the straight black trunk of the tulip tree; the beautiful shape of the crown of the Lombardy poplar; the drooping lower branches of the pin oak; the unusually heavy main branches of the elm; the graceful drooping branches of some of the birches and willows; the peculiar spotted bark of the sycamore.
Occasionally, offer extra points for naming commercial, medicinal, or woodcraft uses of any part of a tree being identified.
If Boy or Girl Scouts are in the group they will be interested, if, occasionally, they are requested to estimate the height of or the distance to a tree.

Holding the Front, 356.
This simple hike game may be used after a Tree Identification Contest. It is an excellent scheme to keep the children in either a single or a double line while on a hike of any kind.
At long or short intervals, depending upon the length of the hike, the leader halts the players, whereupon the line closes forward. The leader points out a tree or nature object, and without assistance of any kind, the individual or couple at the head of the line must quickly identify it. Any one who fails must go to the end of the line.

Question Baseball, 357

This game should appeal to school club leaders because it can be applied to many subjects and can be played with a group of

pg. 328

boys and girls. Fortunately, Question Baseball succeeds better on a very small field than on a large one. It may be played indoors on a cleared space considerably smaller than an indoor baseball diamond.
One player acts both as pitcher and catcher. He takes his position in front of the batter at home plate; The pitcher-catcher tosses a very soft ball to the batter who hits it with either his hand or fist. The game is different from all other baseball games in that a player is given what is called a "Second Life." When the umpire declares a player out he is given a chance to save himself by asking the person who put him out a question on a specified subject. If, in the judgment of the umpire, the answer is correct, the player who asked the question loses his Second Life; that is, he is finally put out. But, if the answer is incorrect, he is declared safe.
Notes for Teachers. The rules of Hand Baseball, 114 are recommended for Question Baseball. When boys and girls play together that part of the following rule which is printed in italics should be omitted:
"The batter may be put out by any baseball method, also by being hit with the ball."
When boys and girls play together establish the rule: Boys are permitted only one Second Life per inning; no limit for girls.
When there are less than seven players on a team it is advisable to establish the base line between second and third a few feet in front of a building, thus preventing long hits into left field.
The umpire will positively spoil the game if he fails to give decisions relative to questions very quickly. In case of doubt or dispute, he should declare the question void' and permit the batter to bat again, or, if the dispute involves a base runner, permit him to return to the base he left. Save disputes and discussions for the classroom.
The author has had remarkable success in correlating Question Baseball with nature study in the manner described. Just before playing the game each team was sent out on a specimen hunt. Instead of asking questions players presented nature specimens. If the player who put the batter or runner out failed to identify the

pg. 329

specimen presented, the latter player was declared safe. It was indeed surprising to Note the way in which the players spent their spare time studying specimens.

Question Imitation Baseball, 358

Certainly, no one would prefer this indoor imitation of the more active game of Question Baseball, 357, if he had sufficient space to play the latter.
Each half of the room constitutes a team; players retain their regular seats, Captains toss for "Ins" and "Outs." To start the game the Captain of the Outs pitches a question at the Captain of the Ins. If, in the opinion of the teacher, who acts as the umpire, the answer is correct, the Captain of the Ins goes to the front of the room and sits on a chair that represents first base; if the answer is incorrect, he is considered "put out." Next, player No. 2 of the Outs pitches a question at No. 2 of the Ins, and his answer is judged just as that of No. I. If he is safe, he sits on first base and thus forces his Captain to second base. In this manner players are forced from first to second and to third. Finally, when a player is forced from third to home a point (run) is scored for his team.
Members of the Outs take turns pitching to members of the Ins until three players are declared "out," whereupon, the process of asking questions and answering them is reversed; that is, the Outs become Ins and vice versa.
Notes for Teachers. There is little to recommend this game, at least from the point of view of teaching, unless the teacher comments freely upon both questions and answers.
There is a much more interesting way to play this game, which, unfortunately, can be used only when both the teacher and all of the pupils are conversant with baseball terms. The umpire allows anything from a "single" to a "home run" for correct answers, depending upon the mental effort and ability required.

pg. 330

A correct answer to a very simple question merits only a "single," while a difficult problem might warrant a "home run." A base runner may try to "steal" by commenting intelligently upon the answer of a team mate, ii his remarks are either childish or incorrect, he is considered "out--caught stealing." If a player fails to start his answer by the time the teacher slowly counts three, he is considered "struck out."
If a pitcher fails to ask a question, not previously presented, by the time the teacher counts four, the "batter" is allowed a "base on balls."

Guess My Name, 359

The play-way method of lecturing used in Guess My Name can be applied to geography, history, and science. The excellent material presented here on twenty-eight nature subjects was prepared by Dr. E. E. Bowen. It will be noted that the 'eight ingenious items used to describe each subject are in reality lecture outlines, should any one care to develop them.
There are several play-ways of using Dr. Bowen's outlines. The one described here has been used very successfully. Before studying the description of the game read the eight items relating to a common house cat.

8. I am an animal. I have four feet but my track would lead you to think I have but two.
7. I can move through the woods more quietly than any other animal, excepting other members of my own family.
6. I am normally carnivorous, but often learn to eat other things.
5. I have no distinct markings, but am most often black or white or gray, though I sometimes shade to tan.
4. My tail almost equals the length of my body.
3. I feed whenever food comes my way, but especially delight to prowl at night.

pg. 331

2. I have been domesticated, but my veneer of domesticity is always very thin.
1. My call is distinctive, and is often heard on the back fence at night.
I am a House Cat.

pg. 332

Before the game is started each pupil is requested to write 8,

7, 6, 5, 4, 3,",' in column form. Then the teacher reads the first statement relative to tracking, and the pupils write opposite No. 8 the name of: an animal to which they think the statement refers. It is predicted that children will be no different than adults, and that the majority will write "Kangaroo." When the teacher reads
statement No. 2, which describes the way the animal moves through the woods, most of the pupils will know their first guess was incorrect so they will write opposite No. 7 the name of another animal--usually a wild one. In this manner the teacher reads and the pupils think, guess, and write. A number of them will write "Cat" opposite No. 4. Many will laugh at the last statement; some will lose control and call out "Cat!"
Method of Scoring. Each pupil receives a score equal to the sum of the numbers opposite which the word "cat" is written. Should any one be fortunate enough to write "cat" opposite the Nos. 8 to I, inclusive, be would receive 42 points. Ordinarily, Guess My Name provides sufficient recreation played as an individual game. Under these conditions but little time need be spent in forming teams or keeping score. At the end of the game each player may total his score and see for himself where he stands.
Notes for Teachers. The teacher who has a sense of humor can put a lot of fun into Guess My Name. Take the description of the Cat again for example. After a number of the players have written "Kangaroo" as the answer to the first statement, a laugh may be created by saying in a pleasant manner, "I guess I fooled some of you, you think I'm a kangaroo. Now listen to the next statement and see if you think you are right." Then again, after reading statement No. 5, "I have no distinct markings, but am most often black or white or gray, though sometimes ! shade to tan,"


the majority will write "rabbit," and another laugh will be created when the teacher says, "Fooled again, listen! My tail almost equals the length of my body." As a means of notifying the children that they may laugh the teacher need only smile while reading the high-sounding statement No. 2 concerning domesticity.
When explaining Guess My Name the author always reads first the statements describing the Crow, 363, because, of all the twentyfive outlines, this is the easiest to solve.
It is advisable to alternate a difficult series of statements with either a series less difficult, or a frivolous one; for example, alternate the Crow with Poison Ivy, 383.
To insure learning, all statements must be read a second time. For example, when the interesting facts about poison ivy are read the second time, after the children know the particular species of vine to which they refer, they will remember some of them, and, what is more important, they will be intensely interested in the second reading.
When statements are read the first time they should not be elucidated, but at the second reading questions should be encouraged and all deceptive statements should be clarified.

Common or Red Bat, 360

8. I am an animal. My body when full grown is about four inches long.
7. I have four feet, but very seldom walk.
6. My habits are nocturnal, though I may come out just before sunset.
5. When feeding I carry my young with me, often until their weight is greater than my own.
4. I migrate like a bird, going south in September or October and returning in May.
5. I am insectivorous, and especially fond of mosquitoes.
2. During the day I like to hang, often head down, from some projecting limb.
1. I have wings with a spread of about It inches, and may annoy you by flying about your heads in the evenings. I am the common, or Red Bat.

pg. 332

Cottontail Rabbit, 361

8. I am an animal. My color is brown and white and I weigh from two to three pounds.
7.I like to live around the bushy borders of cultivated fields.
6. I may live in a burrow or in a home, made in a dense clump of grass.
5. I line my nest with fur pulled from my own body. 4. When greatly terrified I utter a shriek, which is often mistaken for that of a human being. 3. I am a strict vegetarian, 2. My front feet track close together and my hind feet wide apart.
1. My tail is short and white on its under side.
I am the Cottontail Rabbit.

Common Skunk, 362

8. I am an animal. I am an important fur-bearing animal;'
7. I am distinguished by the disproportionately large size of the posterior half of my body and by my long bushy tail.
6. I am most commonly found in areas of mixed woodland and fields, and generally live in holes in the ground.
5. I am omnivorous, but live mainly upon insects or rodents.
4. Differing from most animals, I walk upon the soles of my feet instead of upon my toes.
3. I am gentle, readily become domesticated, and make a delightful pet.
2. My color is black, striped with white, and I sometimes weigh to pounds.
1. In spite of all of the above, I am probably the most unpopular of all animals because of my method of defense. I am the Common Skunk.

Crow, 363

8. I am a bird. I am larger than a humming bird and smaller than an ostrich.
7. I am larger than a robin and smaller than an eagle.
6. The Indians named one month, or moon as they call it,
after me. It is the same as our March, sometimes called the wakening moon.
5. My nest is of sticks in tall trees.
4. I am fond of fresh sprouted corn, and am wary of men with guns.
3. I am a permanent resident of the rural section of northeastern United States. 2. I am black in color.
1. I call "Caw ! caw! caw!" I am a Crow.

pg. 334

Owl 364

8. I am a bird. Some say I gave Ford the idea of headlights.
7. Others say I suggested the luminous watch dial.
6. The Indians call me Gitch-e-o-kok-o-hoo.
5. I hunt at night.
4. I consider rodents a great delicacy.
3. My flight is noiseless.
2. About a mile away my call sounds like o-o-o-o-o. I. But close up it sounds like Hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo-oh.
I am an Owl.

Rouse Wren, 365

8.I am a bird. I am less than five inches long.
7. My nest is of sticks and other materials, in a hole in a tree or bird box.
6. If you make a bird house for me, please have the hole about the size of a quarter.
5. My upper parts are of a warm brown color.
4. My song is an effervescent musical trill about three seconds long, but I have been known to sing ten songs a minute and keep it up for two hours.
3. When I start courting and housekeeping, I sing most of the time from early daylight till night-fall.
2. When scolding an intruder, my tail is cocked over my back, but when I sing my love song my tail points downward.
1. For a short pet name they call me Jenny, because I hang around the house, I suppose. I am a House Wren.

pg. 335

Teeter, Tip-Up, or Spotted Sandpiper, 366

8. I am a bird. I am about six inches long, and have many names.
7. Unlike most of my kin, I never assemble in a flock. 6. I am found along the shores of both fresh and salt water. 5. I am probably more widely known than any other shore bird.
4. I am the only shore bird which habitually nests in cornfields and pastures.
3. My upper parts are brownish gray, my lower parts are white and spotted.
2. I have no song, but a distinctive call of "weet, weet, weet." 1. My body is always on the move, my teetering motion gives me one of my names.
I am the Teeter, Tip-Up, or Spotted Sandpiper.

Whippoorwill, 367

8. 1 am a bird. I am about ten inches long with white spots on my tail.
7. Some believe that a visit from me presages misfortune.
6. I fly only by night, and stick rather close to the woodland.
5. I build no nest but lay two eggs on leaves on the ground.
4. I sleep in the daytime, squatted on the ground.
3. When quiet I will not move until you are about to tread upon me.
2. My whiskers are conspicuous.
1. No boy whose name is William enjoys hearing my call.
I am the Whippoorwill.

White-Throated Sparrow, 368

8. I am a bird. My summer home is Canada or New England, but I am a common migrant in New Jersey during late April or early May.
7. I am about seven inches long.
6. My crown is black with a white stripe through the center.
5. 1 have a broad white stripe over each eye.
4. My song probably has had more words put to it than that of any other bird.
3.In Canada they say that I sing: "Hard times in Canada, Canada, Canada." In Maine they interpret my song as "Oh, how I pity you, pity you"; some say I sing, "Sow wheat Peaverly, Peaverly, Peaverly," and others: "Old Sam Peabody, Peabody, Peabody"; and still others: "All's well in the wilderness, wilderness, wilderness."
2. A square white patch is on my throat.
1. I am a member of the sparrow family.
I am the White-Throated Sparrow.

pg. 336

Chimney-Swift, 369

8. I am a bird. My body is about one inch shorter than that of an English sparrow though my wings are longer.
7. My body is a dark gray with a lighter gray throat.
6. I feed entirely upon insects.
5. I cannot perch on a limb, but I can cling with my feet to a perpendicular wall for hours.
4. When away from my roosting place I am always on the wing.
3. My chicks are capacious, and when I feed them I often pack them full of insects.
2. No other bird can surpass and few equal my speed in the air, often 250 miles an hour.
1. I am often called a swallow, but I belong to an entirely different family.
I am a Chimney-Swift.

Bluet or Quaker Lady, 370

8. I am a flower. I have at least three different names. 7. I grow erect, from four to five inches high.
6. I grow in patches in the grass, and prefer fields somewhat wet.
5. My leaves are very small.
4. I bloom about May first.
3. My blossoms are about one-half inch in diameter.
2. I am a delicate blue, nearly white, with a yellowish eye.
1. My corolla is four-lobed.
I am the Bluet or Quaker Lady.

pg. 337

Blue Flag, 371

8. I am a flower. You can find me everywhere in America east of the Rockies.
7. I grow from one to three feet high and bloom in May and June.
6. Look for me in rich wet meadows.
5. My flower has six petals, which shade from light blue to purple.
4. My leaf is shaped like a sword. 3. I have been called the flower of chivalry. 2. I am the national flower of France. I. My scientific name is Iris Versicolor.
I am the Blue Flag.

Black-Eyed Susan, 372

8. I am a flower. I am one of the very few flowers which have traveled from West to East across the United States.
7. I grow from one to two feet high, usually with a single, simple, tough stem.
6. Though very beautiful, many farmers call me a weed.
4. Look for me in dry fields and open sunny places.
4. You can find me in bloom all summer, from May to September.
3. I am covered all over with short bristly hairs.
2. Each of my stems bears but one flower, which is a composite.
1. My head is a brownish black, my rays are a deep orange.
I am the Black-Eyed Susan.

Columbine, 373

8. I am a flower. I am strictly an American flower, not imported from Europe or elsewhere.
7. I live in stony ground in the woods, and grow from ten to twenty inches high.
6. Many think me the most graceful flower that blooms.
5. I not only love shady places, but also do not like the sun to shine in my face, so I look at the ground.
4. But that none may think me ashamed, after my petals fall, I turn my seed pod erect.
2. My five sepals are of the same color as my five petals.
2. My petals are of a delicate red, tipped with yellow at their throats.
1. You will know me because my petals are tubular and project backward like hollow spurs.
I am the Columbine.

pg. 338

Jack-in-the-Pulpit, 374

8.I am a flower. I am seldom more than a foot high, and bloom from April to June.
7.I seldom venture out of the woods.
6. I like to keep my feet wet, and I always carry an umbrella. 5. My leaves are divided into three parts, and I seldom have more than one leaf.
4. That which many people call my Flower is not a flower at all. My flowers are many in number.
3. My fruit is a cluster of bright scarlet berries which are good to eat when cooked.
2. I grow a bulb which has an acrid bitter taste when raw, but, like my berries, is good to eat when cooked. 1. I get my name from my resemblance to an old-time pulpit with its hood.
I am Jack-in-the-Pulpit.

Common Milkweed, 375

8. I am a flower. I am a perennial, upright herb, three to five feet tall, and bloom from June to September.
7. I prefer to grow along roadsides, fields, and waste places, where the sun shines.
6. My oblong opposite leaves have short stems and are minutely downy beneath.
5. My young shoots, until six to seven inches high, are good to eat.
4. Each of my seeds has its own bit of dawn by which it is carried by the wind.
3. My flowers grow in clusters, thick and fragrant.
2. My flowers, pink in color, are so formed that insects visiting me carry away with them a saddle-bag full of pollen.
1. If my stem is broken a sticky, milky juice exudes, which contains about eight per cent of rubber.
I am the common Milkweed.

pg. 339

Maidenhair Fern, 376

8. I am a fern. The Indians of the eastern United States used me in all cases of difficult breathing.
7. Almost every one recognizes me, even though they know no other fern.
6. I produce new fronds all summer long.
5. I live in moist shady spots in low woods.
3. My very young stems are covered with a bluish bloom, and my immature leaves are of a dull red color.
3. My stalk divides into two parts which curve away from each other.
2. When I reach my full growth, my stems are smooth, shiny and almost black.
1. My pinnules are peculiar for being one-sided, the midrib running along the lower margin.
I am a Maidenhair Fern.

Bayberry, 377

8. I am a shrub. I will grow in almost sterile soil, and I range from three to eight feet high.
7. My bark and roots are said to have medicinal properties.
6. I bloom in the spring, and my flowers are small catkins which appear without stems on last year's branches.
5. My fruit will sometimes stick on the branches for two to three years.
4. Leaves from a cousin of mine, with part of my name, are often used in cooking.
3. My own leaf is shiny, oblong, and fragrant.
2. My fruit is a small globular nut, covered with wax.
1. From this wax candles may be made.
I am the Bayberry.

pg. 340

Mapleleaf, Arrow-wood, or Dockmackie, 378

8. I am a shrub. I am a member of the honeysuckle family.
7. I grow three to six feet high.
6. I prefer woodland thickets with rocky soil to damp places.
5. I am often mistaken for a young specimen of a common tree.
4. My fruit is a dark purplish berry, the size of a pea.
3. My flowers have five petals which are small, white, scentless, and grow in clusters.
2. My leaf has three points, closely resembling those of the red apple.
1. My scientific name is Viburnum Averifolium.
I am the Mapleleaf, Arrow-wood, or Dockmackie.

Witch-Hazel, 379

8. I am a tall shrub. The fragrance of my blossom is elusive and faintly aromatic.
7. The Indians use my bark for medicinal purposes.
6. The white man makes valuable extract from my bark.
5. Four long narrow petals form my corolla.
4. My seeds are thrown several feet in the air when the nut flies open.
3. My blossoms come later than others, even later than the fringed gentian or the fall aster.
2. My forked branches are sometimes used as divining rods in searching for water.
1. The doctor and the druggist call me Hamamelis.
I am the Witch-Hazel.

Red Cedar, 380
8. I am a tree. My foliage stays green through the year.
7. My leaves are very small.
6. My wood is handled more than any other wood.
5. I am a great help to the thrifty housewife when winter wraps are stored.
4. My wood has an aromatic odor.
3. My scientific name is Juniperus Virginiana.
2. I am used for bean poles, fence posts, and the like, for my wood is very durable in wet soil.
1."When the humid showers hover over all the starry spheres; And the melancholy darkness gently weeps in rainy tears; 'Tis a joy to press the pillow of a cottage chamber bed, And to listen to the patter of the soft rain overhead" On the shingles made of my wood.
I am the Red Cedar.

pg. 341

Sweet Gum, 381
8. I am a tree. I am from thirty to seventy feet high.
7. My bark is deeply furrowed.
6. My leaves are alternate, simple, and palmately cleft.
5. My twigs are often covered with corky ridges.
4. My leaves are star-shaped, usually five cleft.
3. My foliage turns a beautiful purplish red in autumn.
2. My scientific name is Liquidamber Styraciflum.
1. My fruit is a globular, long stalked, dry and rough catkin, hanging on the tree through the winter.
I am the Sweet Gum.

Chestnut Oak, 382
8. I am a tree. I am deciduous and grow from fifty to one hundred feet high.
7. My bark is dark brown, deeply furrowed, and rich in tannic acid.
6. My leaves are alternate, obovate with coarse teeth, and are five to ten inches long.
5. My fruit was much prized by the Indians for food, and it can easily be made into bread.
4. Squirrels gather my fruit as readily as they do nuts for winter food because it is so sweet.
3 My fruit often sprouts before it falls, though it matures in a single season.
2. My wood is heavy, very hard and strong, and quite durable in soil and water.
I. I receive my name because my leaves resemble those of another tree, formerly common but now killed by a blight.
I am the Chestnut Oak.

pg. 342

Poison Ivy, 383

8. f am a vine. I am a perennial, climbing by rootlets.
7 1 bloom in June, and my flowers are small, fragrant, greenish white.
6. My berries, which come in the fall, are smooth, white, and and wax-like.
5 My stems carry a milky, acrid juice. 4 1 belong to the sumac family.
3 My leaves, in clusters of threes, are short-stemmed and oval-pointed.
2. My leaves never seem dirty, but are always a shiny green.
I. I am poisonous to the touch.
I am Poison Ivy.

Snapping Turtle, 384

8. I am a reptile. I wear my bones outside my body.
7 I pump air into my body by stretching and retracting my neck and legs; part of this oxygen is stored in my muscles until needed.
6. I may reach a weight of 40 pounds.
5 My tail is almost as long as my body and has an alligatorlike crest along its whole length.
4 My huge powerful head is characteristic of my whole family.
3 r am persistently aquatic, seldom leaving the water except to make a nest and lay my eggs.
2. My upper shell is dark with little or no markings and my lower is dull yellow and quite small.
I. If I am large and in my prime, I can easily cut off your whole hand by one snap of my powerful jaws.
I am a Snapping Turtle.

pg. 343

Bald-Faced Hornet, 385
8. I am an insect. I have two kinds of eyes, three small ones on the top of my head and two large marvelous compound ones on the sides of my face.
7. My bit jaws are like jagged shears but are used for crushing.
6. I hunt my food from daylight till dark--am very fond of flies.
5. I paralyze my prey by poisoning them.
4. In the fall all of our family die, excepting our queen.
3. No other wild creature will cause a man to run away so quickly as I.
2. You will recognize me by my black body and the white spots on my face.
1. I build a paper nest, which begins very small in the spring, but by fall will be ten to twelve inches in diameter.
I am the Bald-Faced Hornet.

Anthracite Coal, 386
8. I am a mineral. I am hard, with a high lustre, and I break with a conchoidal fracture.
7. Formerly I was a vegetable which decomposed under water.
6. Then pressure was applied to me and I was sealed from the air for millions of years.
5. Then heat was applied to me, but not enough to melt me or the adjoining rock.
4. Then I became one of the most useful articles of commerce.
3. Railroads were built and boat lines established to carry me from one end of the world to another.
2. I am more abundant in Pennsylvania than in all the rest of the world together.
1. As you shovel me into the furnace you seldom think of my interesting history.
I am Anthracite Coal.

pg. 344

CHAPTER XIV The Leadership of Social Recreation

SINCE this chapter is for leaders of socials and parties for people of all ages, it is necessary to consider briefly some of the significant differences of various age groups. Fortunately, sex differences are less important in party games than in most other recreations. The chief consideration in designing a party to be attended

by people of varying ages and of both sexes is to make a balanced program in the hope of satisfying everybody in so far as possible.
Group Differences. The inexperienced leader may be surprised at the extent to which mature people enjoy almost any party game which demands neither great mental nor physical skill and

which is not overstrenuous. It is also gratifying to know that children are very easy to manage, for they enter whole-heartedly into almost any party game that the leader's good judgment may suggest. Boys and girls of the senior high school age compose the

group most difficult to handle. It is of the utmost importance to

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decorations taken by permission from Community Activity Manual make one feel the spirit of Halloween by just reading suggestions.
Decorations make the guests feel the spirit of the party at once and they should, therefore, be as unconventional as possible. The general effect should be one of weirdness with the feeling that spooks and hobgoblins are apt to appear out of unexpected nooks

Hang orange fringe at the window sides and use straight strips of decorated crepe paper across the top. Grotesque crepe paper flowers can be made and placed in flower-pots or window-boxes.
Arrange to have tick-tacks on the windows, piercing shrieks which come from nowhere, alarm clocks that go off at unexpected times, and various other noises that will add to the spirit of the affair.
If there is a dark entry through which the guests may pass, suspend a few thin strips of crepe paper from the ceiling, cutting them off about five feet from the floor. The free ends of these strips will then be on a level with the faces of those who enter. On the ends of these strips will be attached paper spiders, bats, bugs and animals of various kinds. This should be planned only if there is another entrance, as nobody should be forced to go through the passage way suggested above.
Tack branches above the balcony, stage, or orchestra platform and hang from them strips of finely cut crepe paper. Use black and white striped paper on the front of the place to be decorated to suggest a fence, and here and there, on light trellises, use sunflowers or poppies made of crepe-paper. A vine of pumpkins and their blossoms will look well running along the bottom edge of the fence, or corn-stalks can be used to fill in the spaces.

pg. 354

CHAPTER XV Stunts for Leaders

FOR want of a more dignified title the recreational activities in this chapter have been termed stunts for leaders. The activities include humorous forms of dramatics, tricks, romantic stories,

mock intelligence tests, and other nonsensical recreations ;a which the leader does practically all of the work with the audience taking a minor part, but nevertheless enjoying itself heartily. Every recreation leader has need for humorous stunts when suddenly called upon to enliven the crowd at various dull moments preceding lectures, between speeches, at parties before the "ice is broken," at camp on rainy days, and frequently at dinners and banquets. The recreation leader who takes his responsibility seriously should read this chapter hastily and then turn Pack to the stunts that seem most useful, revamp them to fit his personality and the occasions when he may use them. Then he will not figuratively feel like sinking through the floor the next time

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he attends a gathering and some one says, "Oh, we are so glad you came, now you just must liven the crowd up a bit." The leader who attempts to entertain an audience by allowing them to sit passively and observe, much as a vaudeville entertainer does, will soon find himself a failure. Success in group work means constant cooperation between the leader and his group. Governed, by this principle, experienced song leaders, themselves able soloists, when called upon for a solo, prefer to sing at the outset the better known melodies, inviting the crowd to join in the chorus. By thus firing the audience with enthusiasm, if called upon for an encore, they have paved the way to sing their favorite solos unaided, but With the same sympathetic approval of the listeners.
Pave the Way. The experienced leader, by paving the way for individual performance, avoids the possibility of being accused of "showing off." The following examples illustrate this point:
1. The singer who has a favorite solo has a friend suggest that he sing it.
2. Before reading dramatic selections, such as "Casey at the Bat," the reader may drill the crowd in special hand signals upon which they either cheer, whistle in awe, or grunt in disgust. They seem to enjoy responding to the signals as much as listening to the recitation.
3. The party leader who wishes to initiate candidates into the Royal Order of Slam, 397, or the I No Club, 396, should do so only upon urgent request of a few supposed members, who boast of their membership, telling the others that the leader is one of a few chiefs who has the authority to initiate candidates.

The Laughing Ball, 387
(Contagious Laughter)

EQUIPMENT: A bouncing ball of any type whatever. A knotted
handkerchief, pocketknife, coin, etc, are rather poor substitutes but may be used in case of necessity.

pg. 356

While this simple game may have rather a limited value, if it serves its purpose to arouse play spirit and create laughter, it justifies its place on a program.
The leader instructs the crowd to start laughing the instant the ball leaves his hand. He throws the ball into the air, commanding them to continue laughing until the ball is caught by him, after which the players are warned to keep absolutely quiet. The leader spurs them on to alertness by an occasional makebelieve catch.
Note. The leader will defeat the object of this game by requiring those who fail to stop laughing or those who laugh at the wrong time to pay a forfeit, as is sometimes done. This delays the game and makes the crowd serious--the more laughter, the better.

My Paw Said So, 388

The leader who has reading ability will find that younger boys and girls will be delighted with "My Paw Said So." Similar material by Edgar Guest mat be found in A Heap o' Livin' from which this poem is taken by permission. Each time the reader comes to the oft-repeated words, "My Paw said so," he should give a signal for all to join him.

My Paw Said So

Foxes can talk if you know how to listen,
My Paw said so.
Owls have big eyes that sparkle and glisten,
My Paw said so.
Bears can turn flip-flaps an' climb ellum trees,
An' steal all the honey away from the bees,
An' they never mind winter becoz they don't freeze;
My Paw said so.

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Girls is a-scared of a snake, but boys ain't,
My Paw said so.
They holler an' run; an' sometimes they faint,
My Paw said so.
But boys would be 'shamed to be frightened that way
When all the snake wants to do is to play;
You've got to believe every word that I say,
My Paw said so.

Wolves ain't so bad if you treat' em all right,
My Paw said so.
They're as fond of a game as they are of a fight,
My Paw said so.
An' all of the animals found in the wood
Ain't always ferocious. Most times they are good.
The trouble is mostly they're misunderstood,
My Paw said so.
You can think what you like, but I stick to it when
My Paw said so.
An' I'll keep right on saying, again an' again,
My Paw said so;
Maybe foxes don't talk to such people as you,
An' bears never show you the tricks they can do,
But I know that the stories I'm tellin' are true,
My Paw said so.

Edgar Guest

Modern Conveniences, 389

The twenty-seven clever verses below, taken by permission from The Book of Games and Parties, may be used in the schoolroom or home in an individual guessing or writing contest. As described here it is a leader's stunt which may be used at a children's party.
The children are divided into two groups. The leader reads a verse slowly and clearly. The individual who is first to call the

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name of the object described by the verse earns one point for his team. Ordinarily, it is difficult to keep the children from calling out before the verse is concluded, due to the fact that many of the verses tell their story too soon. To avoid interruption the reader may raise his hand while reading and insist that all remain quiet until he drops his hand at the conclusion of the reading. For further suggestions see Notes for Leaders following Tree Love Story, 399.

1. You need no coal, you need no wood To have a fire hot and good.
Gas or Electric Stove I

2. Though pens and pencils flee away You still may write a ream each day.

3. A thing of wheels and frightful noise That scares the girls, and pleases boys.

4. A whirring sound and off it flies To sweep the cobwebs from the skies.

5. When it's fastened to a wire You may "press" without a fire.
Electric Iron

6. Its daily help we cannot measure, Used for business and for pleasure.

7. A box that tells you o'er and o'er How much you purchase at the store.
Cash Register

8. Up and down it goes all day And helps the climber on his way.

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9. It's not a hose, it's not a broom And yet it's used to clean a room.
Vacuum Cleaner

10. A friend that brings us all together Just to chat, despite the weather.

11. A messenger that's never seen Yet carries news the lands between.

12. It entertains with unconcern, With greatest artists in their turn.
Phonograph ;

13. You do not need a helping hand To play this instrument so grand.

14. The quickest writing ever known Within the century has grown.

15. Whatever it is asked to hold It keeps it hot or icy cold.
Thermos Bottle

16. It has no head nor legs nor tail And yet goes riding on a rail.
Locomotive .

17. Babel's tower was a mite To something that is now in sight.

18. A "candle" that will never burn Yet lights the way where e'er you turn.

pg. 360

19. Adding is its special feature Does its sums without a teacher.
Adding Machine

20. NO more jogging, no more wear On the ground and yet on air.
Pneumatic Tires

21. Just a harmless little gun Made to shoot you, all in fun.
Snap-Shot Camera

22. No seals nor bolts, nor fastenings tight, Can hide things from its eagle sight.

23. Pay the price to touch a button You may eat just like a glutton.

24. Suppose you name a kind of tub That cleans your clothes without a rub.
Washing Machine

25. A wire and a guiding pole Will take you daily to your goal.
Trolley Car

26. No matter how intense the night Its hands are always plain in sight.
Illuminated Clock Face

27. A little boat without a sail That swims below just like a whale.,

pg. 361

Compass Facing, 390

This is a simple leader's stunt that affords good training for the beginner, as it can be successfully conducted by even an inexperienced leader. It requires only standing room.
The leader points out the four major points of the compass and requests every one to stand and face north. In quick succession thereafter he calls other points, which the players face instantly upon command.
It requires no experience as a story-teller for the leader to make the game more interesting by telling a story with repeated reference to points of the compass. Perhaps he might use a story something like this:

I moved from the Southwest to Chicago where I met a girl from New Orleans. She was born in the far West. I married her and we went from Chicago to New Orleans. Then we travelled around the world, and returned to this town and settled down.

Whenever the leader calls a direction or a city, the players face in that direction. When he talks of going around the world, they turn completely around.
Note. When playing with children, the leader should face, as he proceeds with the story, the correct direction each time so that the players may imitate him.

The Story of Barry, 391

The well-known war story of Harry is an amusing leader's stunt of value when it is desired to get every one to stand and go through absurd motions.
The leader tells the group he will first relate to them a story without motions, then he will add the motions. He does this and then asks every one to stand and tell the story with him without motions and then with motions. In this manner the story below is repeated four times:

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"Say (hand placed to side of mouth) have you heard (hand behind ear) the story of Harry (rub hair)! He just (hand on chest) came back (touch back) from the front (point to stomach). They had need (hand on knee) of his feats (point to feet) in the army (touch arm). I (point to eye) know it, you (point at people) know it, everybody knows (hold nose) it. Hip, hip, (pat hip twice) hooray ! (wave hand over head)

After the crowd tells the story with motions, the leader tells them to be careful when they tell the story to their friends not to get it confused the way the Englishman did when he told a friend: "I say there, have you received the information about Henry! He recently returned from the trenches. They required the use of his pedal extremities in the militia, a fact with which every one is familiar."
When the leader tells this, using the same motions as in the correct version, concluding by patting his hip and saying, "Cheerio ! Cheerio! Ain't it great!" he can be sure of a laugh.

Blowing Out the Candles, 392
(The Value of a College Education)

The leader may see fit to use this entertaining act merely to amuse a crowd without allowing them to participate. Ordinarily, it is advisable to let the people join the leader when he takes off the various characters blowing out the candles. The leader must practice repeatedly before attempting to tell the story in public, since he is required to twist his mouth into three different shapes every time he tells of an attempt to blow out the candles.
With enough elaboration paint the picture of a family seated around a Christmas tree in a country home. Finally, the father agrees to put out the cat, wind the clock, and blow out the candles, so he sends the others upstairs.
His mouth is twisted so that he talks out of the right corner

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of his mouth. Therefore he fails to blow out the candles and calls Ma, forgetting that her mouth is twisted to the left. Now, with rapid mouth twisting the leader proceeds about as follows: "Ma, I can't blow out these candles. You came down an' do it." Ma says, "I'm comin'." Pa: "Hurry! Hurry!" Ma arrives and says, "Here I am." She tries to blow out the candles but fails.
Ma forgets Sallie's lower jaw recedes and calls: "Sallie, I can't blow out these candles. You come down and do it." (Now continue using the same words Pa used in the paragraph above.) Sallie fails, and forgetting that the lower jaw of the hired man, Ed, protrudes, she calls him. He fails and calls the son, Cy, just home from college.
Ed and Cy carry on the same conversation, with Cy talking in a perfectly natural voice. With one hard blow, he blows out all the candles. Pa closes the act saying, "By heck! a college education is good fer somthin'."

Guess Who, 393

The leader informs the gathering that he has recently acquired great magic power. To demonstrate he leaves the room and his accomplice touches some one in the room. The leader, without even entering the room, names the person touched. Wonderful!
By some laugh-provoking method, evident to all, the accomplice reveals to the leader the name of the person touched. To illustrate: If he touched William Jones, be may say, "You Will have to concentrate, this will be difficult, but I think with your magical art, you will get it." Or should he touch Anna Brown, he may say, "This is a hard one, an' you will have to guess, an' guess, an' guess." It requires ingenuity to devise fitting remarks, therefore they should be worked out in advance and rehearsed by the leader and his accomplice. In some instances the last name may more readily lend itself to tell-tale comments. For example, if a Mr.

pg. 364

Cole were pointed out, reference might be made to the nursery rime, "Old King Cole."
After the leader, by prearranged clews, has named two or three of the people touched, he may feign a sudden seriousness and state that he would prefer to work without any further comment from his accomplice. After he leaves the room the assistant touches the person before whom he was standing when the leader went from the room. Of course, the leader has no difficulty whatsoever, as this method of identification was previously agreed upon.
At about this time some one invariably proposes that the leader perform the trick while some one other than the accomplice touches the person. The leader at first appears to object, and then, with feigned reluctance, gives his consent.
When the leader is again summoned to the room, without making it obvious to the others, he studies the position of the accomplice, who assumes the exact posture, with every changing move, of the person selected. Finally, to the mystification of the assemblage, he names the correct person.

The Three Handshakes, 394

At the outset of a social evening or during a lull at an informal dinner or lecture, some activity to get people to move about is often useful. As the first number of an informal program, this simple get-acquainted method has been found to create an excellent spirit of good fellowship.
Ask every one to stand, look about the room, search out three people unknown to him, shake hands with them, and tell them his name, business, address, etc. Allow the people about three minutes for getting acquainted, then, when they are seated, try the Hand Prophecy, 395.
Note. Before asking the crowd to stand, give firm and definite instructions for every one to take a seat instantly when the prearranged signal is given, otherwise the crowd may get out of control.

pg. 365

The Hand Clasp Prophecy, 395

After every one is seated following The Three Handshakes, 394, this bit of hocus-pocus, which takes less than two minutes to perform, seems especially appropriate.
The leader jokes the crowd about the previous handshaking and suggests that now they shake hands with themselves by clasping their hands with fingers interlocked. He then asks them to look at their hands and read their fortunes. Those who have the thumb of the right hand on top are requested to stand. With an overserious tone of voice, the leader condoles ;with those seated, upon their hard lot, informing them that scientific experiments have proved those standing will have the right of way through life with all the accompanying success, while the others must resign themselves to sad fate.

The I No Club, 396

The "No I" Club is a more descriptive name of this stunt, suggesting that the candidate has a word in his mind which does not contain the letter "i." However, if it were so called the players would catch on too quickly and there would be all too few candidates for the companion organization, the Royal Order of Slam, 397.
The leader announces that all who are not already members may join the I No Club, on the condition that they know certain things. He starts in by saying, "I know games, so that admits me.'' Then in turn he asks each candidate, "What do you know!" When a candidate states that he knows something which contains the letter "i," he is told that he cannot join, and is asked to stand. After every one has had his say, the secret of eligibility

pg. 366

is explained, and the failures who are standing are then given an opportunity to work their way into the Royal Order of Slam.

Royal Order of Slam, 397
(Chinese Prayer)

This stunt should always be played with comparatively few while others act as spectators. The onlookers supposedly do not laugh at their friends, they laugh with them, for when an entire crowd feels itself "sold," it rarely laughs enthusiastically at itself.
First, by the imitation method, the leader teaches the Siamese salute--bow slowly, then while rising, raise hands over head, and then bow a second time. Secondly, teach the words that accompany the salute. Timed with the first bow say, "Oh, Wha," then while rising say, "Tagoo," and on the final bow repeat the name of the country, "Slam." After at least one rehearsal lead the candidates in their final test, singing while bowing and rising, to the tune of "America,"

Oh, what a goose I am,
Oh, what a goose I am,
Oh, what a goose.

Mock Intelligence Test, 398

In the author's experience this test has never failed to produce hearty laughs when conducted with a group of men.
The leader states some reason which demands that the assembled group be tested. For example, "Before proceeding with our program we must know something about your intelligence, so if Mr. A and Mr. B (generally choosing the most prominent persons

pg. 367

present) will act as judges, we will conduct a simple examination which I am quite sure every one will pass with honors." Below is an outline of one way of conducting such an examination, which leaders may vary to fit each special group:


1. Leader raises his right hand asking the question, "This is my what hand!"
Very few will answer "Right." Then explain that the question was the first part of the test to see how many knew left from right.
2. The leader then raises his left hand and asks, "This is my what band!" (A laugh.) Nearly all answer "Left," and the leader replies, "That's right." 3. This is repeated, requiring every one to call out as either the right or left hand is raised.
4. Call the attention of both the judges to the ability of the crowd and compliment the members upon their good work. Then tell them to prepare for the next part of the test-Muscle coordination.


Instruct every one to place his right hand on top of his left when you raise your right fist, and then ask every one to clap hands in perfect rhythm, with the right on top, when you snap open your raised fist. (Give similar instruction for the left fist and hand.) Practice clapping until every one claps in nearly perfect rhythm. Now call the judges' attention to the fact that every one has passed the first two parts of the test, and tell them that you will next give the most difficult part of the test-Vocal c0brdination.

Instruct those taking the test as follows: "Now I'll be the animal and you be the noise. When I put my hands to my ears,

pg. 368

so (illustrating), you know what animal I represent. When I wiggle my hands, so (illustrating), you make a noise like a jackass." Practice this and then give every one the final examination, repeating the test of Muscle Coordination and Vocal Coordination At the conclusion of the test turn to the judges and ask them what they think of their friends. Instruct the judges beforehand to compliment the crowd, concluding with the word "perfect" repeated at least twice. Then very quickly say to the judges, "Fine ! Then outside of yourselves, you admit that we are a bunch of perfect jackasses."
Note. There will be no point to this stunt and it will surely fail if the judges fail to respond as instructed.

Love Story of the Trees, 399

Divide the audience into two teams of approximately equal numbers. Read, or better, tell the Tree Story outlined below, and when the name of a tree (printed in black face type) occurs, pause to let the players call out the missing word. The player who is first to yell out the name of the tree scores one point for his team.


This is a sentimental love story, and like most stories of that type, it starts with the first meeting of the lovers. They met one day on a sandy beech and from that date on they cared not a fig about anything except each other. Strange to say, in this story of trees, the girl's last name was Wood and her first name was Rose. Stranger still, his name was Wood also, and since he pursued Rose so persistently his friends named him Dogwood. Rose certainly was a peach with cheeks as rosy as an apple. The day they met she wore a fir coat. Together they made a charming pear. Dogwood usually wore a redbud in his buttonhole, and he surely looked like a spruce young man.

pg. 369

One day while sitting on the beech, Dogwood took Rose's hand in his palm and said, "I love yew, dear." Being something of a coquette and having heard that expression before, Rose gave him the haw-haw and replied, "That's an old chestnut. Many an old lemon has told me that." Then, suddenly, they heard a noise on the water, and they both started to rubber around, and whom did they see approaching in a birch canoe but the elder Mr. Wood, Rose's papaw. He was angry, and had evidently gone plum crazy. Rose was frightened, her face became very pale, resembling the ash of a camp fire, tears streamed down both cheeks and she surely did balsam.
They ran away from the old crab and found a secluded spot where Rose too became sentimental and did with a cypress her hand to her heart and say, "I love you, too, Dogwood. Willow always love me!" Finally, the psychological moment arrived and tulips met tulips, and they lived happily ever afterwards.
Notes for Leaders. When the players have difficulty in supplying a missing word or words, the leader should help them by giving them clews, or better still, by acting out the word. For example, he might pantomime "spruce" by pretending to spruce up, brushing his clothing and slicking his hair; for "haw-haw," he might laugh uproariously; for "rubber," turn his head and stretch his neck as much as possible; for "cypress," utter a deep sigh and press his hand to his breast.
The leader should keep instantaneous score and call it occasionally. When there is the slightest doubt as to which side called the correct tree first, give each side a point. Let the score be a minor part of the game.

The Flowery Wedding, 400

The story below may be used as the second part of the preceding story. It should never be told before the Love Story of the Trees, 399. The names of flowers and plants printed in black face type may be used in the same manner as the trees in game No. 399.

pg. 370

Before consenting to the wedding, following the proposal on the beach, Rose consulted her Papaw who, upon learning that Dogwood was wealthy, said, "Certainly, marry him; here is your chance to marigold."
Dogwood's parents hesitated and asked, "Are you sure she loves you'" He replied, "Of course I am because I as-ter." So in due thyme the wedding day arrived.
Rose was beautiful with her lily-white gown, pink cheeks and natural rose-colored lips. Her feet were encased in neat lady slippers and on her arms and lady fingers she wore fox gloves. Her bridesmaid's name was Rose also, but she was so prim with a touch-me-not air that you wanted to call her Primrose. Sue, the dark-eyed flower girl, certainly looked like a black-eyed Susan.
When the appointed hour of four o'clock arrived, the wedding guests were shocked when the bridgroom failed to appear. But just as the clock finished striking the hour, who strutted down the aisle but a ragged sailor, wearing Dutchman's breeches, and smoking a Dutchman's pipe, At the pulpit he brushed the minister aside and there he stood, a regular jack-in-the-pulpit. He boldly announced in a trumpet-like voice, "The groom's father says there'll be no wedding today, but the groom says to tell his would-be bride, Forget-me-not, we'll meet again." So ended the romance of the trees and the proposed wedding of the flowers, and thus ends our story.
Notes. Even in groups quite familiar with flowers, it will be necessary to suggest numerous clews, so that the story does not drag. It will rarely be necessary to tell more than the first part of the name of the flower, since most of the names are hyphenated.
The leader who first tries the Love Story of the Trees may be tempted, because of its success, to try The Flowery Wedding at an inopportune time. It is recommended principally for a nature program or for a group particularly interested in flowers.

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A College Romance, 401

A College Romance will succeed only with groups of older people who are familiar with names of American Colleges. The person who tells the romance must be sufficiently familiar with the colleges included in the story so that he can provide clews when no one can think of the correct name. Before using this romance read the introduction and Notes to Leaders of the Love Story of the Trees, 399.
John Smith, in a neat Brown suit which matched his Auburn hair, Drew near a charming young girl, Miss Hopkins, who was walking down the street. He had just quarreled with Etta Curl about the political principles of Washington and Jefferson. Miss Hopkins was just starting for a day's outing in the Northwestern corner of the State.
As love Wells up in his heart he asks for her hand. "Why don't you marry Miss Ouri?" Miss Hopkins asked. "Is she rich!" He replied, ('I would not Marietta (marry Etta) if she were as rich as Vanderbilt."
They fish, and as he Bates his hook he urges her to go with him to the parson's. "Oh," she replied, "You lost a fish ! He came near the hook, but I saw him Dart mouth downward away!" Instead of fishing, next they decided to climb Mount Holyoke. She wished to walk on the path, but he liked the Swarth more. In going across lots he tripped over one of the Tufts of grass. Continuing their walk they reached a brook which he intended to Haverford (have her ford), but her foot slipped and she fell into the stream. Soon after she was rescued she saw an Ox ford the brook without difficulty.
At the zoo the animals interested her, but she was terrified by the battle between the Yale bulldog and the Princeton tiger. Being wearied with the trip, they rested, under Ann Arbor of roses and there she consented to become Johns Hopkins. They were married at Trinity Church and took a trip to the battlefield of Gettysburg. They proved a congenial couple and their Union was a happy one.

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Romance of a Lawyer and Carpenter, 402

This variation of The Love Story of the Trees, 399, is taken from The Book of Games and Parties. The words in black type must be supplied by the contestants.
He was a lawyer in our town, a nephew of old Deacon Brown. He put his papers all on file and went to spend a little while with sweet and pretty Letty Moore, a girl he really did a door (adore). He hoped to find her awl (all) alone, but feared to hear his rival's tone. He must brace up and smile and smile, though hatred filled his heart the while. Now Jim was plane (plain) with shingled hair; beside the other's curly locks, who'd care for short and broad, square-shouldered Jim! Why, goodness me, just look at him! When standing on the level floor his measure was six feet or more. He saw the two beneath a tree, but truly hoped they would not see the pane (pain) he felt that they might trace in every feature of his face, She looked her best; both thought so, too; her dress was white, her sash was blue. "I wish he'd board the evening train for foreign parts and there remain." He screwed up his courage for the ordeal; they should not know what he did feel. He got there just in time, however, to hear her say, "I'm thine forever." After the ceiling (sealing) of their vow he disappeared, but wondered how his feet could move in such a plot, for he seemed nailed right to the spot.

Can You Tell Me? 403

This leader's stunt is an adaptation of the Love Story of the Trees, 399, which should be studied before this game is tried. In

pg. 373

Can You Tell Me!, questions are asked which can be answered in one or two words. The person who answers first scores one point for his team. It is best to have only two teams.
The questions below will suggest others which may be more appropriate:

I. With the name of a bird, can you tell me why burglars are sent to prison! (Robin)
2. Can you tell me with the name of a bird what young ladies feel like doing when they capture their ideal! (Crow)
3. With the name of a bird tell me what some hen-pecked husband you know would do to his wife if he could. (Woodpecker)
4. With the name of a bird tell what bachelors look like because they have no wives to press their clothes. (Jays)
5. With the two-word name of a flower tell what it is that bachelors are more unfortunate in losing than married men. (Bachelor Buttons)
6. With the name of a flower tell me what the young man did immediately before the young lady said, "Yes." (Aster)
7. Of what fresh fruit do young couples remind you! (Pears)
8. What fish do some men either go on or put on when winter freezes over the ponds! (Skate)
9. What letter in the alphabet is the name of a vegetable! (P)
10. What two letters make the name of an automobile! (SX) 11. Which weighs more, a pound of feathers or a pound of gold! (Feathers)
(For additional material for this game see games No. gel, 473, 474, 521)

Notes. Like most leader's stunts the success of this one depends upon the cleverness of the leader. Ask appropriate questions. Be prepared to give clews to every question when the correct answer is not forthcoming in about 10 to 15 seconds. The funnier the clews the better. Comment upon funny answers. Squelch "smarties." Have the scorer announce scores frequently. Allow the Winners to sing a song.

pg. 374

Musical Love Story, 404

A Musical Love Story is the same in principle as the Love Story of the Trees, 399. In view of the fact that the former includes music, it is superior to the latter. It is not expected that any leader will tell the story just as it is written. Certainly, every leader will permit his pianist to make suggestions and substitutions. In the story below the names of the songs are printed in black face type followed by a number which refers to the page on which the song will be found in the inexpensive edition of Twice 55 Community Songs, The Rose Book, C, C. Birchard & Co., Boston.
The story I am about to tell you happened on a Deep River (101). First, I must inform you that this boyhood courtship took place in My Old Kentucky Home (24) My sweetheart was none other than the famous Juanita (39) 0" a beautiful moonlight Silent Night (8) we were out Sailing (19). We sighted a camp fire on the shore, investigated, and what did we discover but a dilapidated band of Wraggle Taggle Gypsies (18). Juanita and I agreed that the gypsies were singing Sweet and Low (14) There certainly was Music in the Air (36), so we tied the sailboat to the dock and strolled hand in hand toward the camp. Suddenly, Juanita spied what she called a beautiful black and white kitty. She ran for it calling, Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat (54) I smelled something wrong, ran to stop her and called loudly, Come, Follow! (77) Alas! She refused to follow. The inevitable happened, so I kept my distance and said, Good-Bye, My Lover, Good-Bye (75)
A way in which to use the above story can be explained best in the manner a leader might explain it to his audience.
"With the assistance of my pianist I will tell you a love story of my boyhood days. Whenever I pause and say 'blank,' the pianist will play part of the music of a song, the title of which supplies the missing words in my story."
Turning to the pianist, he says, "Suppose we illustrate." Then

pg. 375

he reads from the story, "The story I am about to tell you happened on a blank." At the word "blank" the pianist, without further signal, plays Deep River.
At the conclusion of the music the leader might demonstrate and explain: "Now when I drop my raised hand those of you who are sure you know the correct title of that song stand up and call it out loudly; those of you who are not absolutely certain of the title applaud even louder than your neighbors shout." Then the leader demonstrates, and explains further that each half of the room will constitute a team. A team receives one point for each song named correctly. (Notice, each song, not each member.) Notes. When reading the story always repeat enough of it so that the listeners have the entire picture in mind. For the fun of it, at least on one occasion, have the pianist play a discordant tune of his own making. Invariably, this will inveigle some of the audience into calling out comical names. The leader who uses this stunt even occasionally can well afford to invest in the large edition of the "Rose Book," and stick numbered tabs on the pages to be used consecutively, so that the musician can quickly find the necessary songs. When telling a musical story it may be difficult to controls jubilant crowd, due to the fact that those who know the songs are tempted to sing each one. To avoid extending the game beyond the interest point, permit the audience to sing only the last few songs. Instruct the pianist to use the one-finger method when playing the first few songs. Ask him to play with enthusiasm only the last few numbers.

pg. 376

Pre-Opening Party Activities and Social Mixer Games

WOULDN'T it be wonderful if, when a party was scheduled to start at 8 P.M., every guest stepped up to the door at 7:59 P.M.? Never heard of such a thing! Unfortunately, guests take their time in arriving, thus creating the problem, "What shall we do while guests are arriving!"
The easiest but most pernicious thing to do is to tune the radio to an interesting program, then, as the later guests arrive they cannot even say, "How do you do!" for fear of interrupting the program. In days past a similar erroneous practice was common. Some one played a popular tune on the piano hoping that as guests arrived they would Sing lustily. Of course, those who could not sing did not, those who could sing did not for fear the others would accuse them of showing off. To be sure, this practice is still common and it is successful in groups that are in the habit

pg. 377

of singing together, provided, also, that a song leader is present Pre-Opening Essentials. Successful pre-opening activities require simple organization. Team games requiring an even number of players in each group are taboo. Games or stunts must be so simple that new-comers can catch on to them by either watching or by hearing a brief explanation from the person who receives them at the door. If the explanation is not absolutely clear invariably, they say, "Oh, don't worry about me, I'I1 just sit down; and wait until it's over."
The leader may be tempted to discard well-known games for fear of criticism. Concerning pre-opening games, it should be remembered that late comers will more readily enter an activity with which they are familiar. The leader who entertains the same group often need have no hesitation in repeating activities that have proven successful.
Social Mixer Games. "Social Mixers," also called "Ice Breakers," might be termed "Play Spirit Producers," for they are designed to get people acquainted, break down anti-social reserve; and to create a happy esprit de corps. Almost every party program should include at least one social mixer to develop play spirit, for without it a degree of formality is present. Two very good games of this type, The Millionaire Couple, 637 and The Lucky Seventh, 638 will be found in Chapter XXIII.

Forbidden Words, 405
(Yes and No; I, My, or Me)

This is a fine example of a simple pre-opening game of low organization. It may be started as soon as eight or more people arrive.
Each player is given six beans or similar counters. When the signal is given each player engages another of his own choice in a brief question-and-answer conversation. Of course, unacquainted players will first introduce themselves. Should either detect the

pg. 378

other using a forbidden word, such as, "Yes" or "No," he will receive, upon demand, one bean for each offense. At intervals of one minute or less the signal to change is given, whereupon players change partners. At the conclusion of the game the person having the greatest number of beans is the Winner.
Notes for Leaders. Some one should be stationed at the entrance to explain the game to new arrivals.
"I,,, "my," and "me," may be substituted for "yes" and "no," for either the whole or part of the game. The words "I," "you," and "we" make another difficult combination.
A wise leader will give the signal to change at longer or shorter intervals, depending upon how well the conversations seem to be progressing. Coach the players to break off instantly when the change signal is given.
Suggest that players do not duplicate partners until they have gone the rounds.

Informal Dialog, 406

As the guests arrive give each lady an even numbered card and each man an odd, the first line of which might read, "You are number six. Please carry out the instructions below." This might be followed by two or more of the items similar to those below: Find No. 7 and introduce him to No. 11.
Find No. 4 and ask her to help you make an inventory of blue eyes.
Find No. 3 and ask him to help you find out how many people have a middle name beginning with a vowel.
Find No. 9 and swap stories with him--true or otherwise.
Get No. 73 to help you find out how many people like to listen to radio lectures.
Talk with No. I about your favorite newspaper. Ask No. 2 what moving pictures she has seen lately. Talk with No. 5 about his favorite sports.
Notes for Leaders. For additional subjects of conversation see game No. 407

pg. 379

one a number and, after I have numbered you, I will ask each of you, beginning with number one, to step out and tell your name and recite a couplet to rime with your number. For example number one might say,

"''My name is John Brown.
I am number one,
I hope to have some fun.' "

The leader might illustrate further saying, "Number two might say, after giving his name,

"'I am number two,
A strong man through and through.' "

If the leader wished the players to enact their lines, he might set the pattern by skipping while repeating the fast line of the first couplet, and for the second illustration, crook his right arm, and, with the left hand, stroke his supposedly large biceps.

Who Are You? 413

This social-mixer game may be correlated with advertisements, proverbs, nursery rimes, songs, names of automobiles, states, countries, cities, etc.
The leader whispers to each person his identity and hands him something which he must pin upon his chest to assist others to learn who he is. As guests approach each other they say, "How do you do! Who are you!" After exchanging real names, they try to solve the enigma pinned on each other's chests.
Notes for Leaders. Probably advertisements will be easier for the leader to obtain than anything else. If an old nursery book is available, pictures which illustrate nursery rimes may be secured. Maps of states and countries may be traced from geographies.
The above game lends itself readily to a nature party, thus: use drawings or prints of nature objects; write names of various

pg. 386

things in jumbled order, Fish--Yell Powcher (Yellow Perch).

What Am I? 414.
In this variation of Who Are You! the leader pins something upon the back of each player who tries to learn his identity by questioning others. As soon as he learns it, he is permitted to remove the object from his back and pin it upon his chest.

Animal Mating, 415
(Animals of the Ark, Farmyard)

The leader divides the players into two groups of equal number and whispers the name of a different animal or bird to each member of the first group, and then whispers the same name to the members of the other group. It is important that the names of animals and birds that are used have calls or cries that can readily be imitated.
When the signal is given the players scatter and give their calls as a means of locating their partners. When Animal Mating is played as a competitive game, the last pair to find mates are the losers.
Note for Leaders. The practice of tricking two children by naming one a worm and the other a donkey is not recommended. Admittedly, amusement is created when the innocent "donkey" runs around braying for a mate that does not exist. Such tricks would never be played on children by considerate leaders if we realized the embarrassment they cause sensitive boys and girls. On the other hand, if an adult with a real sense of humor who likes to act-up were selected as the "donkey," it might be the making of the game.

Simple Feats as Social Mixers

Ordinarily, we do not think of using simple feats as social mixers for a large gathering, but they were used very successfully during

pg. 387

a play hour at a National Recreation Congress. The six activities described were under the direction of Arthur T. Noren of the National Recreation Association and are described by him just as he used them.

Six Feats

By Arthur T. Noren

First an exhilarating simple grand march was conducted to stimulate mass play spirit, and lively march music was used to kindle in all a desire to get in line and march along. All formal commands were omitted, in step or out, everybody either whistled, sang, or clapped to the rhythm of the music. The grand march concluded with partners facing each other in a double circle. Then the fun began. The six feats used required only simple skills and coordinations. They were successfully used to break down anti-social resistance. Invariably, the difficulty of solving seemingly simple acts produced laughter from both the participants and the onlookers. Reversing the situation added to the merriment. Moving one place to the right brought new people face to face for a new stunt. Those used offered reasonable assurance of success, created a comic picture, and retained the double circle formation.

Nose and Far, 416.
The nose was grasped with the right hand, the right ear with the left. When the signal to change was given the nose was grasped with the left hand and the left ear with the right. The positions were taken alternately by those on each circle upon command of the leader.

Pat and Rub, 417.
With the right hand a clockwise, circular movement was made on the stomach, and with the left hand an attempt was made to pat the top of the head. These movements were made simultaneously. The Actions were first performed by those on the outer circle and then by those on the inner. At the command, "Change!" the opposite Action with each hand was attempted, and at the command, "Faster, faster!" the Action was supposedly speeded.

Moving Fingers with Hands Inverted, 418.
Crossing the hands in front of the body, the fingers of both hands were interlocked.

pg. 388

The hands were then brought toward the body and turned insideout, SO to speak, so-that the backs of the fingers were uppermost After every one had practiced the position, those on the inner circle took it. Opposite partners on the outer circle pointed (being careful not to touch) to a finger which the other one tried to move. This was done several rimes. and, upon the signal to change, those on the outer circle interlocked fingers and the process was versed. Usually the finger opposite the one pointed at (not touched) moved.

Elk Sign and Violin, 419.
Those on the inner circle placed the thumbs of the right and left hands in the right and left ears respectively. The fingers of each hand were spread to form the so-called "elk sign," Those on the outer circle pantomimed the playing of a violin. The Action was started by those on the inner circle. Any time they wished they started to play the violin as a signal for partners to become elks. These changes were made quickly, causing considerable amusement and confusion.

Knocking off Fists, 420.
Closing the fists of each hand, the right fist was placed above the left. The elbows were extended. After every one had learned the position those on the inner circle assumed it. Partners on the outer circle attempted to knock off their opponent's upper fist using the index finger of the right hand. Then players on the inner and outer circle reversed operations. If the blow is struck at the point of contact of the two fists, it is not especially difficult to separate them.

Leg and Hand Circling, 421.
Those on the inner circle swing the left leg in a circular motion clockwise, at the same time outlining a large figure six with the right hand. Those on the outer circle watch and judge until the order to change is given. Then the judges become actors.

Matching Proverbs, 422

This is a superior matching method for securing partners. It provokes considerable semi-humorous conversation and is suf-

pg. 389

2. The Poppy, Lithuanian Singing Game (20991)
3. Norin Mugo, Lithuanian folk dance
4. Gustaf's Skaal, Swedish folk dance (20988)
5. The Wheat, Czechoslovak singing game (20992)
6. Hey, Thumbs Up, Swedish singing game
7. Walking in a Ring, Swedish singing game
8. Come Let Us Be Joyful, German (20448)
9. Martin Wapper, Finnish
10. Broom Dance, German (20449)
11. Seven Jumps, Danish
12. Old Dan Tucker, American (20447)
13 Virginia Reel, American (20447)
14. The Hatter, Danish (20499)
15 The Circle, American (20639) 16. The Haymakers, American (20592)
17. Portland Fancy Makers (20592)
18. Uncle Steve's Quadrille (20638)
19. Three old American Quadrilles (20638)
20. Sweet Kate, English (20444)
21. Brummel Shottische, German (20448)

pg. 422

CHAPTER XVIII Social Relays for Parties

Vigorous party games, such as relays, are popular with all ages, but, unfortunately, do not lend themselves readily to social game rooms and, what is more important, they are not universally popular in a mixed crowd containing men, women, and children. However, it is possible to adapt gymnasium types of relays to parties and to remove the objectionable features.
Divide the players into either two or four teams. When two teams are used arrange them on opposite sides of the room. Seat four teams as illustrated. Furniture may be placed anywhere within the dotted lines. At the starting signal each Captain.

pg. 423

marked "C," hastens to the spot marked "O" directly in front of his team, and there he performs as directed. While the Captains are doing this all players shift one seat to the right. When a Captain finishes his performance, he runs to the empty seat at the end of his line and touches the last player. This touch is passed along until it reaches the person at the head of the line, whereupon, he repeats the performance of his Captain. The team wins that is first to have all its players bark in their original seats.

Model Dressing Relay, 458.
Teams are seated as illustrated on page 423. Each team selects one member to act as its model and stations him upon the spot marked "O." Each player is provided with a real or improvised piece of wearing apparel with which to dress his team model. In relay fashion each player places his particular piece of apparel upon the model. The team to get its model dressed first wins the first part of the relay.
Before starting the second part of the race-undressing the models--they should be paraded around the room, so that all players may participate in judging the one dressed best.
Notes for Leaders. In the second part of the race each player, in turn, takes any piece of apparel off the model.
;The more grotesque and old-fashioned the items of dress the better they are. Easily obtained items suggest themselves, such as, sashes, aprons, hats, neckties, belts, rubbers, bathrobes, scarfs, gloves. It is surprising what the players can make out of paper; even without allowing extra time for construction of improvised articles. The players near the end of the line can make them while waiting for their turn.
Instruct the models to act as dummies, making it neither too easy nor too difficult for team mates to dress them. Much of the success of this game depends upon the ability of the models to act clownish.
When time is limited or clothing scarce, allow one-half of each team to dress its model, while the other half undresses him, Wait until all models have been dressed and paraded before the undressing operation is begun simultaneously by all teams.

Eating Relays, 459.
Line up the teams in formation illustrated on page 423. At "O," in front of each team, place a lunch counter;

pg. 424

that is, a receptacle containing something to be eaten. In relay fashion each player takes his turn at the lunch counter.
Notes for Leaders. Food suggestions follow: Cracked nuts, to be shelled ; fruit, to be peeled; best of all, candy, to be unwrapped.
The time-honored custom of eating dried crackers and whistling is not recommended. Invariably, some one, intentionally or otherwise, litters the room with cracker crumbs.

Singing and Reciting Relay, 460.
Each player goes to the marked spot ('O," page 423, where he sings or recites as directed.
Notes for Leaders. When lines are to be read or recited they should be numbered. A better way, however, is to type the lines on a sheet of paper, placing a continuous line of dots between them to facilitate tearing. Each player may then read or sing that which appears above the dotted line and tear it off before handing it to his team mate, or provide each team with a pair of scissors and let each player cut off his lines.
The lines below (original source not known) have been used in this game very successfully. Each player reads two lines (four for small teams), omitting the last word, which must be supplied by one or more members of his team before he is permitted to tear or cut off his lines.


Alice and her Beau, one day
Went riding in his Chevrolet

Her beau was fat, his name was Frank,
And he was somewhat of a crank

It was too bad he wasn't smarter,
Because he couldn't work the starter.

She showed him how, the little dear,
And also how to shift the gear.

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Away they went--but something broke
'Twas just a measly little spoke.

He fixed it with a piece of wire,
Then something popped--it was the tire.

'Twas mended soon, but next ker-flop,
They struck a branch, and smashed the top.

"Dear me," cried Alice, "that's too much."
Then something happened to the clutch.

And next, poor Frank, unlucky dub,
Just grazed a rock, and smashed the hub.

They crossed a brook, but missed the ford,
And sank down to the running board.

"Oh, Frank," cried Alice, with a squeal,
"I think we're going to lose a wheel."

They climbed the hill, and then 'twas seen,
The tank contained no gasoline.

They coasted downward toward the lake,
But Frankie couldn't work the brake.

And struck a tree a moment later
That almost wrecked the radiator.

So both climbed out, and poor old Frank
Bought gasoline and filled the tank,

And gathered up, from road to field,
The fragments of the broken shield.

pg. 426

He fixed the engine, tight and snug,
But had to use a new spark plug.

Just then he slapped at a mosquito,
And dropped a wrench on the magneto.

'Twas useless then to sweat and toil,
Nothing would run except the oil.

They journey home with Frankie pushin',
While Alice sobbed upon a cushion.

She'd not forgive, she vowed with scorn,
Till Angel Gabriel blew his horn.

So poor Frank's hopes were doomed to blight,
And Alice married Willys Knight.

Bottle Change Relay, 461
This is a party adaptation of the universally popular gymnasium game; All Up Relay,174. Draw two small tangent circles on the floor or place two pieces of circular paper on the floor at "O" (Diagram, page 423) Runners alternate in placing one or more bottles from one circle to the other.
Note for Leaders. Of course, all bottles must be stood upright. Stand milk bottles upside down.

Chair Relay, 462.
It is difficult to understand the popularity of this game. It may be that every one anticipates a fall, with the same pitiless attitude that we have for the fellow who slips on a banana peel.
Before the relay is started a folding chair is laid flat on the floor on the spot "O" in the diagram, page 423. Each player in turn opens the chair, sits upon it, lifts both feet from the floor, then stands, closes the chair, places it on the spot, and touches off the next player.
Note for Leaders. This may be run as a double relay. Couples run to the chair, the man does all the work.

pg. 427

Playing-Card Relay, 463.
A deck of regular playing-cards is provided for each team and laid on a chair or card table, placed at "O." Suppose each team is to lay out a run of all the Diamonds beginning with the two spot. The first player on each team sons the pack and lays out the two spot of Diamonds, the second player lays out the three spot, etc. The team wins that completes its run first.
Note for Leaders. Contestants may remain seated throughout this race and pass the deck down the line.

Pencil Passing Race, 464.
Notice that the players remain seated throughout this relay. It is very similar to Object Passing Race, 297.
The player at the head of each line is provided with four lead pencils or four clothes pins. At the signal "Go" No. I of each team places three of the pencils between No. 2's four fingers and the fourth between the thumb and index finger of either hand. No. z takes the pencils from his own hand and places them between the fingers and the thumb and index finger of No. 3; in this fashion the pencils are passed to the end of the line, whereupon, they are returned to the head of the line.

Touch, Taste, Smell, Hear, 465

EQUIPMENT: Miscellaneous objects to be touched, tasted, smelled,
and heard

This should be played only where there can be no objection to noise. It is especially appropriate for a New Year's Party.
Arrange players in a circular formation so that objects may be easily passed from player to player. With all but one of the lights extinguished the leader creates an air of mystery by whispering instructions something as follows: "Everybody whisper after me, 'touch, taste, smell, hear."' After they whisper the leader says, "Now we will repeat those words softly until we are

pg. 428

sure of the order." Very softly he explains that twelve mysterious objects will be passed around the circle in three series, each to contain four objects, the first of each series to be identified by touch, second by taste, third by smell, and fourth by ear. He cautions the players to maintain absolute silence throughout the game, concentrate, and try to remember the names of the twelve objects.
With all lights extinguished, the leader starts the game, passing first an object to be identified by touch, such as a match-box, followed by something to be tasted, next, by something to be smelled. The fun begins when he passes the fourth object, preferably an old-fashioned dinner bell. He continues passing objects in the order indicated. The leader may conclude the game by firing a cap pistol.
Notes for Leaders. Easily obtainable objects to be identified by touch include, a match-box, button, thread, thimble, pencil, etc. For Halloween include the old stand by--a wet stuffed rubber glove.
In selecting objects to be identified by taste the leader must protect himself against criticism by using such objects as individually wrapped pieces of candy, nuts, crackers, or fruit. On Hallowe'en or April Fool the leader who dares may use horse radish on the tenth pass.
Objects to smell include sachet powder, flowers, mint leaves, camphor, etc. NO one will be foolish enough to pass liquids in the dark. Rags may be soaked in liquids.

Match-Box Relay, 466
(Goodness Nose Race)

EQUIPMENT: Provide for each team the outside of a safety match-
box or make a small cardboard box with both ends open.
Divide the guests into teams of not more than eight each. Have each team compete against one other; that is, teams carry on

pg. 429

in pairs. The players of these opposing teams stand facing each other. Player No. I at the end of each team forces the box on the end of his nose.
At the starting signal No. I turns to No. z and puts the open end of the box on No. 2's nose. Each player is permitted to use his hands only as he withdraws his nose, allowing the box to remain on that of the next player. In this manner, the box is passed from nose to nose to the end of the line.
Note for Leaders. This game is also played with a rule which forbids any one to touch the box with his hands under any conditions. Even if it falls to the floor, the person who drops it is supposed to get down on his hands and knees, and in some manner, which the leader never demonstrates, secure the box to his nose. When this rule is established the competitive feature is a farce, because each team gives up before they succeed in passing the box to the end of the line. Nevertheless, the players enjoy watching the futile attempts of their mates and competitors.

Couple Relays

When nearly an equal number of boys and girls is present, allow couples to perform together in relays. Couple relays appeal to most boys and girls because they provide for holding hands, assuming that partners will be required to hold hands while running back and forth. It is scarcely necessary to point out how couples might be used in the majority of the relays described in this chapter.
For rural community affairs and church socials, include combinations of father and son, mother and daughter, husband and wife, and free-for-ails, in which men select ladies.

Bag Bursting Relay, 467.
Together, couples run to a pile of paper bags. The fellow inflates a bag, twists the top, and hands it to girl, who bursts it upon his back.

Pillow-Case Slipping Relay, 468.
The man (husband) takes the pillow out of the case, hands both case and pillow to the girl (wife), who slips the pillow back into the case.

pg. 430

Paper and Pencil Games

A STUDY Of party programs indicates that often more time is given to paper and pencil games than they merit, particularly when the games are little better than individual intelligence tests. From the point of view of sociability it is difficult to see how individual paper and pencil games deserve a place on a program for a social gathering. People go to parties to play together rather than to sit alone to work out puzzles. To be sure, paper and pencil games have a legitimate place when space does not permit of active games. Then, too, simple paper and pencil games are useful while waiting for refreshments or musicians, just as they fill in at camp or on the playground on rainy days. Possibly, some of us come to false conclusions about paper and pencil

pg. 431

games, because of the fact that thousands upon thousands scan their newspapers and amuse themselves daily with word puzzles
The paper and pencil enthusiast might well try an experiment. Find eight or ten people who are victims of the charms of the, black and white squares and suggest to them that they get together occasionally for an evening's competition in solving crossword puzzles, so that they may learn how they compare with their fellow "cross-worders." Ah! Now it is a different story, These individuals thoroughly enjoy testing their own ability privately with no time limit, but even they will admit that difficult paper and pencil competitions with their accompanying mental strains are little better than intelligence tests.
Try a second experiment. Suggest to the same group a crossword puzzle team competition, in which a number of four-men teams get together to work upon difficult cross-word puzzles. They brighten up at this idea. You have put an element of fun into solving puzzles. You have made a game of it, instead of a struggle of individual wits. The leader should bear in mind that paper and pencil games are not solemn affairs. The players are supposed to get as much fun out of them as out of any other kind of game.
Based On the preceding considerations practical suggestions offer themselves.
1. Avoid individual competitions. If the number of guests is not sufficient to form teams, have at least two people work together. Do not permit two of the most clever guests to work as a team.
2. In checking results let each team correct its own paper. After scores are compiled, do not call roll or issue booby prizes.
3. Unless a mimeograph is available, avoid games which require long written statements for each team. Find a way to eliminate both mimeographing and tedious writing. Read aloud the required material and let the players write the answers.
4. Paper and pencil games deceive us when we read the questions and answers simultaneously. To test a game ask a friend to read the questions and see how well you can supply the answers.

pg. 432

Telegrams, 469

The players, working in pairs, compose a telegram of ten words beginning with ten assigned letters. The fun of the game consists in hearing the telegrams read. One award may be made for the funniest and another for the most serious telegram. Each pair of players may enter two telegrams.
Notes for Leaders. Dictate the ten letters or have ten players each call a letter, or take the name and initials of a guest.

Give the players concrete ideas of types of telegrams desired before starting the game. Here are two that were actually produced in a game. The letters used were contained in the name and initials, Charlie C.F.S.
At special parties suggest special telegrams. For example, at a Christmas party ask every one to write a telegram to Santa Claus.

The Blind Pig, 470
(A Pig in the Dark)

It is easy to imagine readers, who have never tried a game of this type, characterizing Blind Pig with one word; "silly." Such people will be surprised at the number of genuine laughs this one creates.
Players are divided into pairs or groups, preferably groups of a size that can conveniently sit around a table. Each player is provided with pencil and card. At a starting signal every one is trusted to close his eyes and draw a blind pig. Thus, it will not be necessary to draw his eyes, but, he must have ears, legs, and a tail. When the players open their eyes the laughing begins. It

pg. 433

continues as each team judges its best looking pig.
Note for Leaders. This game can readily be adapted to Seasonal parties, thus: draw pigs for St. Patrick's Day; hearts a St. Valentine Party; Jack-o-Lanterns for Hallowe'en; Santas for Christmas; hatchets for George Washington's Birthday; Father Time for New Year's.
Dark Horse, 471. In this variation of Blind Pig, 470, the players draw a horse feeding from a bag, hung from his neck.
Notes for Leaders. It will add to the fun if the players are told first to draw a horse. When that is completed, tell them to hang the feed bag; when that is completed, they are told to print O-A-T-S on the bag.
When either Dark Horse or Blind Pig are played at night put out all the lights in addition to requesting the players to close their eyes.

Cooperative Poetry, 472
(Add a Rime)

This is a type of game, only one of which should be included in a party program, and then, only for a rather select crowd. To produce Cooperative Poetry provide each guest with a sheet of paper and pencil. Instruct every one to write a line of poetry at the top of his sheet and fold it back, to conceal the line. Just as a player passes the paper to his neighbor (right or left), he tells him the last word of the line he just wrote. The second person writes the second line of the poem to be, to rime with the word given, etc.
Notes for Leaders. Do not continue this game until it becomes irksome. It should be sufficient if each person writes four lines. If a large number of poems are produced, read only the better ones.
Players wish to know in advance the nature of the lines they are to write. Shall it be serious or comical! Before the writing is started create the attitude of mind desired. If the leader wants

pg. 434

funny stuff, let him recite a line and ask any one to volunteer a second funny line, next call for a third line, etc.
Cooperative Art, 473. This is similar to Cooperative Poetry, 471 Each player is instructed to draw an animal; for example, first a head is drawn and the paper is folded in such a manner that only the neck shows. Next, each player would draw a body; next, the legs, etc.
Note for Leaders. It adds to the fun to ask each player who completes the drawing to unfold his paper and write the name of the animal before he passes it along for final inspection.

What Number? 474

This is an exceptional paper and pencil game in that it is so easy that adults enjoy playing it even as individuals, although they enjoy it still better when couples work together.
When convenient the leader provides each player with a copy of the material below, leaving blank spaces for the numerals which are printed in black face type. If it is difficult to provide mimeograph papers, the leader may read the items. The players number their answers, and supply correct numerals or numbers where they can, and put a dash opposite the number of the item in instances when they fail.
The 18th is the prohibition amendment.
The house of 7 gables.
The spirit of '76.
Friday the 10th.
The first 100 years are the hardest.
The first 1,000 dollars are the hardest.
He ran like 60.
She was one of the 400 of society.
Everything was at 6's and 7's.
Ho! Ho! 14 men on a dead man's chest!
12 men good and true.
She is a perfect 36.
Possession is 9 points in law.

pg. 435

The press is the 4th estate.
In England a cab is called a 4 wheeler.
The 7 ages of man. The 4th dimension.
'Twas the I8th of April in 1775.
20,000 Leagues under the Sea.
40 fathoms deep.
Come 7 come 11
Over the top at the o hour.
He arrived at the 11th hour.
The 6th sense.
A 1st nighter.
10 nights in a barroom.
Come I, come all.
The animals went in 2 by 2.
2's company, 3's a crowd.
It's a 10 to 1 shot.
1, 2 buckle my shoe.
3, 4 shut the door.

All About Rate, 475

This game is recommended only for well-educated adults, who might enjoy testing their vocabularies. The leader dictates the series of sentences below, each of which contains a missing word which is printed in black face type. The players try to supply the missing words all of which end in "Gate."
1. Kate fails to indicate changes of direction when she is driving a car.
2. Kate gets confused when indicating the predicate of a sentence.
3. Kate learned to masticate her food thoroughly.
4. Kate can prognosticate the weather.
5. Kate was involved in a business syndicate.
6. Kate's everlasting denials indicate that she will fabricate.
7. Rate will fabricate because she has the ability to extricate herself when caught.

pg. 436

8. Kate will fabricate (prevaricate) and then try to implicate others
9. When the teacher was looking Kate would not communicate.
10. Kate is inclined to complicate simple things.
11. Kate insisted that the mechanic lubricate her car.
12. Kate can eradicate ink spots.
13 Kate is an excellent goiter, she has such a delicate touch.
14. Rate can dislocate her finger joints without pain.
15 Having been known to defalcate, Kate lost her job in a bank.
16. Kate is the type of teacher who can educate the young.
17 Kate can solve intricate mathematical problems.
Notes for Leaders. It is not expected that any leader will burden a group with all of the above sentences. A number of them should be used to illustrate the game.
Regardless of the supposed intelligence of the group, this game should always be played as a team game.

Game of Stings, 476.
This is a variation of game No. 475.
1. A sting that tries. Testing
2. A sting that adapts. Adjusting
3. A sting that cures hunger. Feasting
4. A sting that cures fatigue. Resting
5. A sting that tidies our rooms.: Dusting
6. A sting that makes you laugh. Jesting
7. A sting that cooks your chicken. Roasting
8. A sting that ruins sharp tools. Rusting
9. A sting that browns your bread. Toasting
10.A sting which shop-keepers avoid. Trusting
11. A sting in which foolish people indulge. Boasting It. A sting that makes you read an entire book. Interesting

Concealed Words, 477

This is an individual game in which everybody lists all the words he discovers concealed in sentences submitted. To explain

pg. 437

the game let all players write the sentence, "There is nothing so royal as truth," and then point out the nineteen words concealed in the sentence as follows:
The, he, her, here, ere, re, snot, no, not, thin, thing, things, in, Roy, alas, last, strut, rut, Ruth.
Explain that single-letter words are not permitted and that the words formed include proper nouns. Make clear that acceptable words are those whose letters occur in the exact order in which they appear in the sentence quoted. Additional sentences follow:
Doing well depends upon doing completely. (18 words) Do, in, we, ell, de, depend, pen, pend, pends, en, end, ends, sup, up, on, pond, complete, let.
Pleasure comes through toil. (14 words) Plea, pleas, lea, leas, as, sure, re, come, me, rough, ugh, ought, to, oil.
Books are friends that never fail. (13 words) Book, re, friend, en, end, ends, ha, hat, at, ever, eve, fa, ail.
There is no time like the present. (13 words) The, he, her, here, re, ere, snot, not, me, pre, sen, en, sent.
All words are pegs to hang ideas on. (13 words) Word, or, re, rep, peg, ha, an, ide, de, idea, as, so, son.

Word Changing by Adding One Letter, 478
(Word Changing by Addition)

In this variation of Anagrams, 60, the players are asked to write down a complete word and an extra letter, which combination of letters they must transpose into another word. To illustrate, with an additional "e," "rats" can be changed into tears, tares, aster, stare, and rates.
The following list was selected by permission from The Junior Anagraln Book:

1. Barn + o -- Baron
2. Bleat + t -- Battle
3. Choir + d -- Orchid
4. Clear + e -- Cereal
5. Cows + l- Scowl
6. Eagle + u -- League
7. Fine + k -- Knife
8. Grand + o -- Dragon
9. Kings $- a - Asking
10. Lame + c -- Camel
11. Lands + i-- Island
12. Lady + i -- Daily
13. Lead + b -- Blade
14. Less + a -- Seals
15. Olives + t -- Violets
16. Paid + r -- Rapid
17. Said + y _ Daisy
18. Sent + s - Nests
19. Slash + p -- Splash
20. Skirt + c - Tricks
21. Sob + y -- Boys
22. Spy + a - Pays
23. Stone + h -- Honest
24. Tire + g -- Tiger

Word Doublets, 479
(Word Ladder or chain)

This interesting, though difficult, word puzzle may be used at a literary party or as a pre-opening game for couples at a social gathering. It is described here as a party game for first-comers. At home or in school it may be used as an individual game.
As soon as a majority of the guests arrive they may be arranged in couples and the game may be started while the others are arriving. Late arrivals may be assigned to help others, but there should be no more than three on any team.

Rain Rail Hail

Boy Bay May Man

Cot Lot Let Bet Bed

Soup Sous Sets Rots Ruts Nuts

Flour Floor Flood Blood Brood Broad Bread

Brown Crown Croon Crook Brook Brood Broad Bread

Black Clack Crack Track Trace Trice Trite Write White

Study the above list of words; notice that they are increasingly difficult, due to the fact that each column contains an additional word. Ordinarily, the above list of wards will keep the guests busy for as long a time as their interest lasts.

pg. 438

The leader might explain Synonym Golf by saying, "Take, for example, the word 'observe,' whose synonyms 'watch,' 'study,' and 'view,' each have five letters and count as a bogey. Par would be scored for the four-letter words 'look' and 'heed,' similarly, a birdie is scored for the three-letter word 'see,' and if you are clever

pg. 442

you can make a 'hole' in one,'C.' "
Golfers will be interested to know that the game consists of eighteen "holes:' (words), and that it is a 72 par course, but it is so easy that it can be played in 55 strokes, provided players will use their wits and score at least three two-letter eagles.
Notes for Leaders. Do not imitate newspaper and radio contests and forbid the use of slang and colloquial words. Give the players all the freedom they wish--the funnier the words the better. Do not argue long as to whether or not a word is a real synonym. Let the players decide-majority rules.
Instead of dictating the eighteen words all at once, announce them one at a time, and then tell the correct answers, so that the players may know their scores "hole by hole." When all eighteen words are discussed at one time the discussions become tiresome.
When players fail to write any synonym whatsoever, they must score one point more than bogey for each failure.
A few players will prolong the game if they are allowed as much time as they please before they announce that they are ready to give up. Call time when the majority is ready to hear the report.

Salve, 481
(Sinking Ships)

The combination of chance and intelligence required for Salve make it an extremely popular contest for two people, in spite of the fact that considerable time and concentration are required to play it. During the height of its popularity the forms used for playing Salve were obtainable in novelty and department stores. It proved so popular in our home that we tired of drawing the necessary forms, so we had a quantity mimeographed.
The diagram illustrates two forms just as they appeared at the conclusion of a game. They should be studied before the description of the game is read. Notice, battle-ships occupy four squares; cruisers, three squares; and destroyers, two.

pg. 443

At the start of the game illustrated each player, seated at a separate table, sketched one battle-ship, one cruiser, and two destroyers on the port side of his sheet. A started the battle by calling J-I, I-2, 11-3, and G-4, or, as stated in the parlance of the game, he "fired four shots." As A "fired" each shot he wrote "I" in the corresponding spaces on the starboard side of his sheet while B indicated them by L'I" On the port side of his sheet. (See illustration.) B then said to A, "You hit one of my destroyers once," whereupon, A placed "I" in the first of the two squares opposite the word "Destroyer" on the bottom of the starboard side of his sheet, and his opponent wrote "I" at the bottom of the port side of his sheet. Following this B fired a round of four shots, namely, C-2, E-4, G-6, and 1-1-8. Both players indicated the position of the shots by "2" and A informed B that he had failed to make a hit. Next A fired the four No. 3 shots and again struck B'S destroyer, sinking it. Next B, since one of his ships had been sunk, was permitted to fire a round of only three No. 4 shots. Thus, in turn, the players fired back and forth, until finally B lost the game when all his ships were sunk. Notice: B failed to hit his opponent's second destroyer.
Note for Leaders. It must be made clear that each time a ship is sunk the owner of that ship is permitted one shot less on succeeding rounds. At the outset each player fires four shots per round. After one ship is sunk he fires three shots per round, after two are sunk he fires but two shots, etc. Notice in the illustration that the Winner fired sixty-three shots, while the loser fired but forty.

pg. 446

Rotative Party Games

ROTATIVE parties, erroneously called progressive parties, are growing in popularity, especially in camps on rainy days. In progressive parties only Winners progress; in rotative parties, at the end of each five-minute period, the two losers and the two Winners rotate from game to game. A rotative party is a combination of individual and team competition in which players compete against their team mates only in an endeavor to secure as many points as possible for their respective teams. Usually, four people constitute a team and they remain together throughout the party;
The success of a rotative party is assured for players of all ages if suitable games are selected. These games should be very simple, should utilize skills already acquired, and be very easy to understand, yet interesting enough to be enjoyed for five minutes. Rotative games succeed best when the director can secure

pg. 447

H for head, L for legs, E for eyes, A for antennae, T for tail.
Provide a pencil and score card for each player, and a cup contain the cube. Players take turns in rolling the cube out of the cup onto the table or floor. As soon as a player rolls the letter B, he draws upon his card a sort of an ellipse to represent the body of the Cootie. This entitles him to a second turn. If he rolls the letter E or A, he must pass the cube to the next player because he cannot use an eye or antenna, since his Cootie has as yet no head. On the other hand, if he were to throw any other letter, he would have another chance, because he could join a head, tail or leg to the body. The person who is first to construct his Cootie scores 13 points, the others score a number of points depending upon the extent to which their Cootie has been completed.
Note. It must be made clear to the players that, to complete the Cootie, "L" must be thrown six times because there are six legs; "E" twice, for two eyes; "A" twice, for two antennae. Of course, the letters B, H, and T must be thrown but once.

Card Toss, 486.
If this sounds too easy, try it! Place a hat or similar small receptacle on the floor behind a high-back chair. Stand in front of the chair and try to drop, one at a time, ten cards into the hat without touching the chair with either hand, body or clothing. This has been found so tantalizing that players need to be chased away from it at the end of the five-minute period. Score I point for each card dropped into the hat.
Note for Leaders. Substitute peanuts for cards and try to drop them into a bowl or cup, or try to drop beans into a milk bottle.

Muffin Pan Coin Toss, 487.
Provide a muffin pan and a penny, nickle, dime, quarter, and half-dollar. Fit cardboard disks into each compartment of the pan and number the disks. Put the pan on the floor against a book which should be placed against the wall. Draw a line on the floor about five feet from the pan. Players take turns in trying to toss the coins into the pan, and receive a number of points determined by the numbered compartments in which the coins remain.

Bull-Board Penny Pitching, 488.
Lay out a "Bull-Board" with chalk on the floor next to a wall. Draw a line six to eight feet from

pg. 452

the wall. Each player in turn pitches, from behind the line, three or more pennies. Players receive a score equal to the sum of the numerals in which the greater portion of their pennies lie. For example, if more of a penny were in the square 3 than 4, the player would receive 3 points. If a penny lands in a "bull" square, the player receives no score for that round. At the conclusion of the time-limit each player receives a score equal to his total number of points. Of course, each player must be allowed an equal number of pitches.
Note for Leaders. Notice that the numbers on the Bull-Board total fifteen in all directions with the exception of the center column with 10 on top.

Peanut Picking, 489.
Provide a pound of peanuts and color about one-tenth of them red and blue; two-tenths, blue; threetenths, red, and leave the remainder uncolored. Color the peanuts by dipping them in ink. Place the peanuts in a bowl and place the bowl on the center of a card table. Provide each player with two toothpicks.
At the starting signal, in go-as-you-please fashion, the players remove peanuts from the bowl by using the toothpicks for fingers and picking up peanuts one at a time. Score 5 points for each red and blue peanut, 3 points for a blue, 2 points for a red, and I point for each uncolored peanut.

Toothpick Mumblety Peg, 490.
Each member of the team takes his turn in attempting to drop a toothpick into a cup placed upon a chair. Just as in regular mumblety peg the toothpick must be in contact with a part of the body when it is dropped. Start by standing erect and holding the toothpick between the thumb and index finger with the latter in contact with the chin, then release the pick and try to drop it into the cup on the chair. After chin comes mouth and next in this order, nose, cheeks, eyes, ears, forehead, and conclude with over the head. Score I point each time a toothpick drops into the cup and remains there. Each player continues until

pg. 453

he misses; when his turn comes around again he starts where he left off, just as in the game of mumblety peg.

Basket Throwing, 491.
It goes without saying that if an official basket ball and baskets are available, basket throwing will be popular among those who have played basket ball. However, to give inexperienced players an equal opportunity, the real game is not recommended. Instead, put a waste-basket in a corner of the room and let players take three turns in either throwing or bouncing a ball into the basket. Score I point for each time the ball is thrown into the basket.

Ball in "U," 492.
To form a wooden letter U, nail together three pieces of wood, each about one inch square by twelve inches long Lay the wooden form on the floor and place the open end against the wall. Provide three different kinds of balls, such as, a golf ball, tennis ball, and baseball. Players take turns in throwing, rolling, or bouncing the balls into the "U," from behind a line at least eight feet from the wall. Score I point each time a ball re-~ mains in the wooden form.
Note for Leaders. A hoop is even better than the U-shaped form.

Rope Coiling and Throwing, 493.
Provide a piece of rope (one piece not knotted) about twenty feet long. Make a target upon the floor by drawing three concentric circles, about one, two and three feet in diameter. About eighteen feet from the target draw a line behind which the contestants must stand when throwing. Each person is allowed three throws. If any part of the free end of the rope lies within the center circle, score 3 points; 2 points for the middle circle; I point for the outer circle.
Note for Leaders. Players must be taught to coil the rope into the hand from which it is to be thrown. A right-handed thrower should use the left hand to coil the rope into the right hand.

Button Stringing, 494.
Provide each player with an assortment of about two dozen buttons, and a piece of string about eighteen inches long with a button secured to one end to serve as a stopper. At the word "Go" the players start stringing the buttons. Each player receives a number of points equal to the number of buttons he strings before time is called.
Note for Leaders. It should be made clear to the players that, as

pg. 454

soon as they string all their buttons, they are to take them off and restring them as often as possible within the allotted time.
Paper and Pencil Games. Many paper and pencil games can be used to advantage as rotative games when the director has access to a mimeograph or similar reproducing machine. In most such games it is advisable to provide each player with a written copy of the game. When very difficult games are used, such as, All About Kate, 475, or the Game of Stings, 476, it is sufficient to provide only one copy for each team of four players and let all of them work together. Additional paper and pencil games follow:

Anagrams, 60
Word Forming from Words, 67
Letters Fore and Aft, 333
What Number? 474
Concealed Words, 477

Word Changing by Addition, 478
Word Doublets, 479
Synonym Golf, 480
Letters Equal to Words, 521

Additional Action Games. A list of miscellaneous games, all of which may be used at a Rotative Party, follows:

Bean Bag Toss, 71
Bean Bag Target, 73
Chair Quoits, 75
Disk Pitching, 76
Rice Picking, 77

Checker Spinning, 78
Table Baseball, 79
Mason Jar Ring Toss, 80
Triangle Ring Toss, 82
Penny Putting, 84

pg. 455

in the program. At most camp meets a part of the program consists of serious events which need no description. The event described will bring to the mind of the inventive leader other which will no doubt be better, for the simple reason that they a the leader's own.

One Hundred Yard Dash, 502.
For each entrant, one piece of string, 100 inches long, is secured to a wall or other fixed object. At the word "Go" each contestant winds the string around his index finger. The one first touching the object to which the string is secured wins.

Hurdle Race, 503.
This traditional event is a rather mean trick which is justified because of the amusement it provides the spectators. It is a fake hurdle race over piles of books, chairs, or similar objects. The hurdles are actually placed in lanes and the contestants are permitted to practice with their eyes open. For the actual race they are blindfolded and told that the race is not a speed contest but one of accuracy in hurdling. The one who knocks over fewest hurdles, while journeying to the goal line, is supposed to be the Winner. After the players are blindfolded the objects are removed and, to the amusement of the crowd, the racers vault the non-existent hurdles. The race is even more successful when each hurdler is provided with a guide who tells him when and how high to jump.

Standing High Jump, 504.
This is an adaptation of a Hallowe'en game. Contestants are required to eat a doughnut or apple suspended on a string at a height just a little above their mouths.

Running High Event, 505.
This is a lung capacity testing event in which the one who blows his whistle the longest wins.

Potato Race, 506.
Each contestant pushes a potato across a line with the use of a toothpick or match. When players are dressed in suitable clothing the men may push the potato across the line with their noses.

Shot Put, 507.
An inflated bag, balloon, or dry sponge is thrown for distance. Just as in regular shot putting, the contestants must stand within a ring and put the bag or balloon from the shoulder. Have contestants stand on small foot stools, if obtainable.

Hammer Throw, 508.
This is very similar to a shot put. A light

pg. 462

weight, such as, a bag, balloon, or ball of cotton, is attached to a string about six feet long, and thrown as in a regular hammer throw.

Discus Throw, 509.
Make a discus out of two paper plates fastened together with adhesive tape. Where little space is available, paste together pieces of ordinary paper.

Javelin Throw, 510.
Throw feathered darts at a target, or throw soda-fountain straws for distance.

Swimming Match, 511.
Each entrant swims (blows) a match across a pool (large receptacle of water).
Notes for Leaders. Conclude an Athletic Meet with a grand march of the victors.
Comical relay races described in Chapter XXIII, Picnics, may be used to advantage at a fake track meet.

Mother Nature Track Meet


The ten events following are most appropriate for a meeting of nature students, but they may also be used at an ordinary gathering.

Ant Kill C0ntest, 512.
Put beans into a bottle having a small neck. any one who spills a single bean is disqualified.

Blind Bat Batting, 513.
Blindfolded entrants attempt to run a gauntlet of objects without knocking any of them down. When the last one tries all objects are secretly removed after he is blindfolded.

Bumblebee Contest, 514.
See who can buz-z-z-z-z longest without drawing a breath.

Elephant Pull-Over, 515.
In tournament elimination fashion, see who can resist: efforts of individuals to pull him over a line.

Firefly Destruction Contest, 516.
See who can blow out the most candles at one breath. Start with three and add one for each additional try.

Grasshopper Race, 517.
Time event to see who can hop across a room quickest.

pg. 463

His vertebrae, once needed much,
You now shall have within your touch.
(Pass empty spools strung on thread.)

Now harken, while midst dreadful groans
You hear the clank of poor Smith's bones.

(Chains jangle amid moans which grow fainter and fainter until they Finally die away into a deep silence.)

Notes for Leaders. If it seems necessary to make this an actual contest, after all articles have been passed, the players may be quickly arranged in teams or groups and assembled in corners of the room, to write out a list of the objects that were passed during the reading of the verses. It will take more time than it is worth to require that objects be listed in the order in which they were passed.
For suggestions on Hallowe'en decorations see Decorations Create Atmosphere, page 353.

Jacob and Rachel, 529
(Ruth and Jacob)

It is difficult to explain why Jacob and Rachel continues to be popular with adolescents when its playing value seems so limited.
A boy acts as Jacob and a girl as Rachel. The remaining players form a circle by clasping hands, with boys and girls alternating. Rachel and Jacob take their places within the circle. Jacob is blindfolded.
Jacob starts the game saying, "Rachel, where art thou!" Rachel, a supposedly shy little girl, replies softly, "Here, Jacob." Jacob rushes to the part of the circle from which the voice came and attempts to catch Rachel, who, of course, will have left the spot in the meantime. Again, Jacob asks Rachel her whereabouts and she replies as usual

pg. 470

In the better way of playing this game, it is not necessary for Jacob to identify Rachel after he catches her. After he secures ,firm hold, he is permitted to remove his blindfold and take a place on the ring, while Rachel catches a new Jacob. This time Rachel is blindfolded and she must catch the new Jacob.
Notes for Leaders. When the ring is large a player may be considered caught when he is tagged. For small circles it is better to insist that a player be actually caught.
To make a blindfold fasten cotton batting to a wide piece of bandage. A white handkerchief makes a very poor blindfold.

Wink, 530

The girls are seated in a circle which contains one empty chair. A boy is stationed behind each chair. The odd boy behind the vacant chair is the "Winker." He attempts to get a girl to sit in his vacant chair. He signals for her to come, in only one way, namely, winking.
The Winker continues winking at individual girls, until, finally, one succeeds in eluding her guardian. A boy prevents his protege from escaping by placing both hands on her shoulders. When a Winker captures a girl the player behind the chair she vacated becomes the next Winker.
Notes for Leaders. A boy must not even touch the chair of the girl he is guarding, except when she actually attempts to escape.
If the rule, "both hands on shoulders," is established, there should be no torn dresses. Notice that this prevents boys from reaching out and grasping a girl's dress and accidentally tearing it.
This game is popular at unchaperoned parties attended by adolescents. Every time a Winker captures a girl he kisses her; every time a girl fails to escape, the boy standing behind her is privileged to kiss her.

pg. 471

Predicaments and Remedies, 531

Players are divided into two groups and seated on opposite sides of the room. Each player on the Predicament team whispers to the one on his right a predicament, the members of the Remedy team whisper remedies to the left. Now all is in readiness. The player at the head of the Predicament team names the predicament that was whispered to him; for example, he might say, "What would you do if you ran out of gas!" The player opposite at the head of the Remedy team tells the remedy that was told to him. This continues until each player has related a predicament and received the prescribed remedy from the opposite side.
Notes for Leaders. It is advisable to prefix the phrase "What would you do if," to all predicaments. But it is inadvisable to insist that the words "I would" be prefixed to all remedies.
This is one of those games in which one unfortunately meets the individual who introduces comments which are, as the saying goes, "off color." Of course, the leader cannot anticipate this, but the first time it arises, he might suggest that, for good reasons, players may change either a predicament or a remedy even though the rules require each player to state exactly what was told to him.
When this game is used with players, the majority of whom have never played it before, the leader should suggest a number of predicaments and remedies before starting the game.

Ailments and Remedies, 532

This variation of Predicaments and Remedies, 531, may be played with any group, but it will appeal particularly to first aid students, who will better appreciate the absurdity of many of the remedies which arise in the game.
One side names ailments or cases which one meets in first aid and the other side suggests remedies for similar cases.

pg. 472

Notes for Leaders. Often students will suggest rather long remedies, but there is no objection to this.
There is a paper and pencil form of Ailments and Remedies in which players are required to write opposite ailments correct remedies. This is a so called play-way game which should not be confused with a party game played for fun.

Beast, Bird, Fish, 533

Divide the players into teams A and B. Seat teams opposite each other in any convenient manner, parallel lines are best. An A member starts the game by throwing an object, such as, a knotted handkerchief, soft ball, or bean bag, to any B member, calling, as he throws, one of the words Beast, Bird, or Fish. The instant after calling he starts to count ten. Before he reaches ten, the B player who received the object must name either a beast, bird, or fish, depending upon what the A player called. If the B player fails to name a correct object before the thrower counts ten, one point is scored for A team. Similarly, a point is scored if an object that was previously named is mentioned a second time. The teams throw alternately; the one wins that has the most points at the end of a time limit.
Notes for Leaders. It adds to the fun to permit a player who cannot think of a name quickly to throw the handkerchief to a team mate at least two players distant. He calls "Help" while throwing.
A variation of this game is used by Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts in which they substitute either tenderfoot, second class, or first class requirements for beast, bird, or fish. Camp Fire Girls might substitute names of their honors.
Individual Beast, Bird, Fish, 534 In this better-known type of Bird, Beast, Fish, a person in the center acts as "It" and tosses an object to any one in the circle. He continues to do this until

pg. 473

one of the players fails to name a required beast, bird, or fish, whereupon they exchange places.

Runter, Gun, Rabbit, 535

Just reading this game one might pronounce it "Just another silly kid game." Actually, players of all ages enjoy it and laugh enthusiastically when both teams decide to represent the same thing--hunter, gun, or rabbit.
The leader divides the players into two teams and asks them to select their leader and secretly decide to represent and portray, in any way they please, any one of the following: hunter, gun, rabbit. When both teams are ready they assemble and line up facing each other. When the leader gives the signal "Go" both teams instantly take positions or call out as they previously agreed. For example, "Hunters" may pretend to hold a gun to their shoulder. "Guns" just call out "Bang," while "Rabbits" squat and hold hands to ears.
Not until after the players perform does the leader explains that Guns defeat Rabbits, because a gun can kill a rabbit; Rabbits defeat Hunters, because an unarmed hunter cannot catch a rabbit; Hunters defeat Guns, because of the superiority of man over inanimate objects.
After the leader's explanation the game actually begins. Each team quickly huddles around its captain, makes its decision, and faces its opponent. One point is scored for each victory; the first team to score five points wins.
Notes for Leaders. The novelty of a laugh producing game of this kind wears off very quickly. Under ordinary circumstances it is better to play it only once on any occasion, although some players will ask for a repetition.
Leaders should memorize who defeats whom so that they can declare Winners instantly.
This is an excellent home game because it requires only three to play it--one starter and two players.

pg. 474

Ghost, 536

The players seat themselves in any convenient formation, preferably circular. The game can be well played around the banquet or dining-room table. The first player begins spelling a word of more than two letters by naming a letter of the alphabet. The second player, using that letter, names the second letter of a word that he has in mind. Players, in turn, continue to add letters, each one endeavoring not to complete the spelling of a word. Suppose the first player calls "C," the second "R," the third "O." These three letters partially spell a number of words, but the fourth player may only be able to think of "W" to complete the word "Crow," so he pays the penalty by becoming a "Half-Ghost." Any one who speaks to a Half-Ghost becomes a Half-Ghost. The next player begins a new word and the spelling continues. Upon second violation of a rule a Half-Ghost becomes a Ghost. Any one becomes a Ghost who speaks to a Ghost. The rules are summarized as follows:
1. Each player must have in mind a complete word of more than two letters.
2. A player who adds the last letter which completes a word becomes a Half-Ghost.
3. Any one who speaks to a Half-Ghost becomes a Half-Ghost. 4. Any one who is twice a Half-Ghost becomes a Ghost, and cannot further participate in the game. 5. Any one who speaks to a Ghost becomes a Ghost.
Notes for Leaders. In this game the fun begins when several players become Half-Ghosts or Ghosts, and attempt conversation with unpenalized players.
It is advisable for the leader to act as director rather than as a player. He should be alert and write down the letters as they are called. If he thinks a player has added an incorrect letter, either by mistake or to avoid completing a word, immediately, he should require the player to name the word he has in mind. If the player fails to meet the test, he becomes a Half-Ghost.

pg. 475

If played at a party which is organized on a team basis, this game may be played in spell-down fashion. At the conclusion the team having fewer Ghosts is declared Winner.
When played at special parties, the Ghosts may be called b] different names; for example, at a St. Patrick's Day Party, Snakes on Thanksgiving Day, Indians; on St. Valentine's Day, Broker Hearts; at Easter Parties, Bad Eggs, etc.

Slipper Slap, 537
(Swat the Fly)


EQUIPMENT: Soft slipper or rolled newspaper to use as a swatter

One person is selected to be the "Center Man." He takes his place in the center of a small compact circle, formed by the other players standing shoulder to shoulder around him. The players put their hands behind them and the leader secretly places a swatter in the hands of one of them.
The player who has the swatter either slyly passes it on or swats the Center Man, if his back is turned. When hit, the Center Man turns and tries to point out, not the player who hit him, but the player who is then holding the swatter. The player who did the striking will have instantly passed the swatter either right or left. When the Center Man points out a person who is either holding, touching, or passing the swatter they change places.
Notes for Leaders. Players should be coached to be very guarded in their movements so that they may swat the Center Man as often as possible before he succeeds in locating the swatter.
It must be made clear that the Center Man is permitted to point out one player only for each time he is hit.
It adds to the interest of the game to insist that after being hit, the Center Man count to ten before he points out a player. This provides ample time for the player who did the hitting to get rid of the swatter.

pg. 476

Under no circumstances should the leader permit the formation of an alliance against the Center Man to keep him in the center even after he has pointed out the individual who holds the swatter.

Spot the Whistler, 538
This is played quire the same as Slipper Slap, 537. Supposedly, the player's in the compact circle have a whistle, but, as a matter of fact, the whistle is secured to the back of the "Center Man." Of course, he has a very difficult time to locate the person who holds the whistle.
Notes for Leaders. This is an especially appropriate game for April Fool Party.
This game will not succeed unless it is played with a very light whistle. Try to get one made of celluloid.

Who is the Leader? 539
A reader may assume that this game is so simple that it will fail to hold interest. Such is not the case.
While the player selected to act as "It" is out of the room the others select one of their number to secretly lead them. "It" then reenters and takes his place in the center of a semi-circle. The one selected to lead, unseen by "It," starts some motion, such as, winking, making faces, or moving hands, arms or legs in some definite way. The others imitate this leader, while "It" looks sharply out of the corner of his eye in an effort to detect the one who is starting things. Note for Leaders. To allow a number of players to contribute, call for volunteers to suggest Actions to the one who secretly leads them. Even take time to practice any that are complicated, while "It" is out of the room.

Going to Europe, 540

Suppose a Miss Brown were leading this game. She might start by saying, "I'm going to Europe, and I'll take a book." She continues

pg. 477

saying, "I will take some of you along with me, if you catch on to the kind of thing that you must take. Notice, I shall take a book."
Now all is ready to start the game. After each guest names an object Miss Brown tells whether he may go. Those who name objects which begin with the first letter of their last name are the only ones permitted to go.
Notes for Leaders. If desired, all who fail the first time may be given a second chance.
It is customary to forbid a player to mention any article which was previously named.
In one way of playing this game those who fail are required to pay a forfeit. Ordinarily, the game provides sufficient fun without forfeits. For suggestions on forfeits see Game of Forfeits, 587

Going to camp, 541

This is a variation of Going to Europe, 540, which is useful in boy and girl organizations that do summer camping. The leader starts the game with the expression, "I'm going to camp and I'll take," etc. Others join him provided they name a useful camp article which begins with the initial of their last name. Those who fail perform an individual camp fire stunt, or, together, all who failed may put on a group stunt.

Sight and Sit, 542
(Hide in Sight)

This is little different from the schoolroom game Hide in Sight, 284 Unseen by the players, some one partially hides an object (small when indoors, large outdoors) so that it can be easily seen by any one who stands in just the right place. While hunting for

pg. 478

the object the searchers are not permitted to touch or handle objects in the room or field, As soon as a player spies the object he sits down.

Notes for Leaders. If a song leader is available, have him lead the sitters in singing.
Occasionally hide the object on the back of one of the players and instruct him to keep moving on the outskirts of the crowd.

Postage Stamp Punt, 543

This game is very much like its parent, Sight and Sit, 542 The leader invites the gathering to assemble around him. He says, "I will hide this postage stamp in sight by sticking it on some one's clothing. When I tell you to open your eyes, start the hunt. As soon as you spy the stamp, say not a word, just quietly sit down." While the players: have their eyes closed the leader sticks the stamp in a place where he believes it will be difficult to find, then he commands, "Open your eyes and hunt."
Notes for Leaders. The leader should coach the person upon whom he intends to place the stamp to circulate on the outer edge of the group.
It is decidedly better to stick the stamp on some one before ever explaining the game, then, after the explanation, the leader may make believe he is putting the stamp on several other people. The peekers will thus be thrown off the track.

Couple Slap Jack, 544

This game and the one following are very simple, but, nevertheless, they appeal to boys and girls of the "hand-holding age." Boys and girls alternate and hold hands to form a circle. Previously, one couple is chosen to be "It." They go leisurely arm-in-arm

pg. 479

around the outside of the circle and suddenly touch the clasped hands of another couple. The touch is a signal for that couple to race the "It" couple around the circle to the starting point. Of course, couples must run in opposite directions. The couple which first reaches the opening is safe and the other couple is "It."
Notes for Leaders. In this game and all others in which players run around a circle in opposite directions, something should be done upon meeting to cause them to stop, thus avoiding collision Couples might be required to pat each other on the back, shake hands, or the "It" couple might hand the other couple some object to be carried.
It is difficult to understand why players like this type of game, but they do. Really there is no element of competition because invariably the "It" couple can beat the other couple to the opening in the circle.

Pass the Squeeze, 545

One player who is selected to be the "Detective" leaves the room. The others stand, shoulder to shoulder, on one side of the room, or they may form in the shape of a letter "U." They decide: whether the hand squeeze shall be started at the right end, the left' end, or in the center of the formation. After deciding, they recall; the Detective, who observes their hands in an effort to discover a player passing the squeeze. A squeeze must be passed with no uncertainty; that is, a very light pressure of the thumb and finger is not sufficient. If the players succeed in passing the squeeze the complete length of the line without being detected, they win, and send the unfortunate Detective out of the room, while they again decide upon the place from which the squeeze shall start. When the Detective observes a player passing the squeeze, that unlucky one changes places with him.
Notes for Leaders. Of course, the leader will arrange boys and girls alternately on the line.
If a squeeze is started in the middle of the line, it must return there before the Detective is sent out of the room a second time.

pg. 480

Ring on a String, 546
(Pass the Ring)

Much of the success of this game depends upon getting the ring on a string which is neither too long nor too short. Form the players in a compact circle, have them extend hands with about six inches between them. Now instruct the players to grasp the string containing the ring, then join the ends of the string with a square knot. "It" takes his place in the center of the circle, closes his eyes for a short period so that the players can get the ring started. When he opens his eyes he observes carefully and touches the hand which be thinks conceals the ring. When he locates it the person who held the ring exchanges places with him and becomes "It."
Notes for Leaders. Just as soon as a clever "It" discovers that he can locate the ring quickly by running around the circle and touching every hand, it is necessary to establish a rule something like the following: When "It" cries "Halt" the player who holds the ring cannot pass it. "It" is then permitted to touch one hand; should it be the incorrect one he calls, "Pass," and again the ring is passed until he again commands, "Halt."
This is a game in which children enjoy being "It." To prevent any one from retaining that position too long, should he covet it, establish a rule to the effect that failure to guess after three trials gives the person who has the ring on the fourth trial the position Of "It"

Variety Passing Race, 547

EQUIPMENT: Provide for each team one each of at least three articles of varying size and weight, such as, balls, magazines, spools of thread, toothpicks, pots, and pans.

pg. 481

Guests are divided into two or more teams. When space permits form each team in a circle; otherwise form them on straight lines in relay fashion. Place at least three articles on the floor in front of the captain of each team.
At the starting signal each captain picks up the articles, in any order he pleases, one at a time, and passes them to the second player, who passes to the third, etc. The last player of each team upon receipt of each article, places it upon the floor. The instant he lays down the last article, he repeats the performance of the first player; that is, he picks them up one at a time and passes them to the next player. The team wins whose captain is first to place all the articles on the floor in front of him.
Note for Leaders. Do not announce penalties for unintentional violation of the rule forbidding players to pass more than one object at a time, because it is almost impossible to enforce it. Objects of varying weight and size are supposed to prevent the passing of more than one object at a time.
Clasped Hand Passing Race, 548. In this variation of No, 547, the players line up shoulder to shoulder, and each one grasps, with his left hand, the right wrist of the one on hid left. In this position the objects are passed from the head of the line to the foot, and then back to the head. Persons are not allowed to unclasp their grips at any time. If any one drops an object, practically the entire line must stoop, so that the object may be picked up without unclasping.
Note for Leaders. A complicated event of this kind should be reserved for a skillful gymnasium or playground class. Even then it is advisable to precede the complicated with the simple.

Unwinding and Winding Race, 549

Divide the players into two or more teams. If space permits, fore each team in a circle, otherwise, line up competing pairs of teams in parallel files facing each other. Provide each team with

pg. 482

ball of string or spool of thread. Instruct the first player to secure the end by winding it around his finger. Now all is in readiness to start.
At the word "Go" the first player of each team passes the ball of string to the second. Succeeding players repeat the unwinding and passing, until, finally, the diminished ball reaches the last player, who rewinds the string and passes the ball back. This passing and rewinding continues until the ball is completely rewound by the first player, who holds the ball over his head and joins with his team mates in a cheer. Each team competes only against the one directly in front of it.
Notes for Leaders. If time permits, or if the players suggest it, run the race a second time between winning teams and select the grand champion when four or more teams compete.
This is a game in which it is extremely difficult to avoid some unfairness. Unquestionably, the team that skips players will have an advantage. Explain this and appeal to the honor of the group, but do not assume that they will play fair without being cautioned. The leader who cannot control his crowd should never attempt this game.

All Around String Race, 550.
In this variation of game No. 549, a ball of string is passed around the body before it is passed to the next player. Line up the teams in either lines or circles, and conduct a race without giving the players definite instruction as to how each one may best wind the string once around his body before passing the ball to the next player.
Note for Leaders. It is predicted that confusion as to the best method of winding and unwinding the string will result, and the players will wish to try the race a second time. Let them.

pg. 483

Informal Dramatics and Stunts for Parties, Clubs and Camps

IT is believed that no form of social recreation is increasing in popularity more than informal dramatics. As used in this chapter the term "Informal Dramatics" refers to dramatic stunts, impromptu sketches, short skits, takeoffs, pantomimes, charades, and similar activities which require no extended rehearsals, and which call forth some initiative and originality from the participants. To-day we are heeding a plea made years ago by Dr. G. Stanley Hall, when he wrote, "The number of motor activities that are both inspired and unified by this form of play, and that can also be given wholesome direction, is almost incredible and has too long been neglected both by psychologists and teachers." (See Play In Education, Book III, The Dramatic Age.) The party or club leader of a few decades ago can imagine the look of perplexity that would have enshrouded the faces of the

pg. 484

guests if they had been instructed to prepare an original playlette in ten minutes, stage it without a rehearsal, and use only the properties at hand.
Overleading--Caution !
Observation indicates that there is a rather alarming tendency of both writers and leaders to overemphasize leadership of informal dramatics. Some writers are making a mistake in publishing all the details and lines of very simple stunts; leaders are making a more serious mistake (particularly camp leaders) in providing boys and girls with printed details, in coaching the actors, and even in providing properties. The fun we all derive from very simple activities comes from using our own initiative, our own imagination, and putting our own selves into the game. We need both leaders and books to give us just skeleton plots and practical ideas. (See Producing Amateur Entertainments.)

Suggestions for Leading Informal Dramatics

I. Give people just enough time to work out and rehearse only the important details and provide only essential properties. Leave something to the imagination!
2. Circulate among groups while they are preparing stunts or pantomimes and offer suggestions and then move on to the next group. Let each group do exactly as it pleases concerning your suggestions.
3. Never conduct informal dramatics on a serious competitive basis. Who can honestly say which group performs best or second best? To be sure, people prepare more thoroughly when they think they are going to be judged, so, if desired, appoint judges and coach them to burlesque their judgments and announcements. They may award each group first place for something; for example, endurance (the one most difficult for the audience to endure), perseverance (the one that made the most serious effort), perspicacity (the one produced clearly without misunderstanding), and finally, quality.
4. The leader must tactfully squelch the first sign of so-called "razzing" or "ragging." When this is permitted it increases so

pg. 485

rapidly that the last group to perform is, figuratively speaking driven off the stage.
5. People who are inexperienced in stunt production need to know about many things before they retire by groups to prepare. Briefly tell them about the following: (a) Shall there be many spoken lines?
No, the fewer the better. Reserve spoken parts for one or two. people, and be sure they know their cues. The more Action the better.
(b) Must all members of the group participate?
Yes, single or two-man acts are wanted only for vaudeville night at camp or club. If such acts are extremely appropriate, well and good, then use the remainder of group to provide an audience, or act as human properties. The point is, have every member of the group take part.
(c) What are some ideas we might try to put into the form of stunts?
Anything that fits the time, place, and occasion; preferably humorous, but not necessarily so; jolly, but not silly; absolutely, nothing bordering the obscene. At this point the leader should tell about stunts he has seen portrayed on a similar occasion.
(d) Do people under-act or overact various parts of a stunt?
They tend to overact simple ideas which will carry themselves if portrayed naturally; they forget that too many motions blur the picture. Similarly, they under-act important features. If there is an element of suspense, prolong it; if there is a bit of romance, make it intense; if lines are highly romantic, fairly croon them; if there is an expression of fear, make it fearful.
(e) How simple may the costumes be?
The simpler the better. Blankets, sheets, scarfs, colored paper, wrapping paper, and even newspaper can be used to produce striking effects. Wigs, masks, beards, animal heads, etc, can be made quickly with hemp rope, cloth, paper, and wire. Finally, many stunts can be presented perfectly without special costumes.
(f) Are improvised simple properties effective?
Yes indeed. Scenic effects may be produced by making very rough sketches on wrapping paper with colored chalk, or supers may parade printed signs as substitutes for scenery.

pg. 486

(g) How much time should a group be allowed to put on a stunt?
That depends--pantomimes can be staged successfully in twenty seconds; with rare exceptions, stunts require no more than three minutes. To hold the interest of the spectators as long as five minutes requires an unusually good stunt, good acting, and considerable time for Preparation .
Formal Plays. The recreation leader who meets club members often has need for both informal dramatics, and carefully rehearsed plays and pageants. The Drama Service of the National Recreation Association will, upon request, help such leaders. When writing for help state the age and sex of the group, type of play desired, length of production, stage facilities, and previous experience.

One Way to Introduce Informal Dramatics

When introducing informal dramatics as part of a recreation period something must be done to overcome gradually the initial embarrassment of performers and to reduce to a minimum their natural self-consciousness. One way to do this is described below in four steps, which require less time to do than to describe:
1. Line up the entire group across one end of the room. Demonstrate one way that Robinson Crusoe might have carried on when he discovered Friday's footprints. Do it a second time with everybody doing it with you. The third time give a signal and let everybody move forward and show the way he thinks Robinson might have acted. Note: So far there have been no spectators.
2. Compliment the performers (don't coach) upon the way in which they carried out step No. I. Get suggestions from individuals as to what they think a superstitious person might do while walking through a cemetery at midnight. After getting suggestions let the line move forward upon signal and let every one demonstrate the way in which he thinks the person might act. Note: So far there has been only one spectator, the leader.
3. Divide the party into groups of six or eight individuals each.

pg. 487


Tell a story and let each group select one of its members and help him portray the story in pantomime. A story that the author has used successfully many times follows:
"Imagine an experienced woodsman out on an overnight hike, strolling along a running stream of water, when he suddenly comes upon a rattlesnake. That ends the story."
After telling the episode call distinct attention to the facts, namely: this was an experienced woodsman, and the actor must show this; the hike was an overnight affair; the woodsman walked beside a running stream, not a lake, river, or pond; the snake was a poisonous snake, a rattlesnake. Let the groups meet separately and ask every one who has an idea to tell it to the member of his group who will represent the group in enacting the story in pantomime, first before the small group, and then before the entire group. Note: The actors first perform before a small sympathetic group and then before a larger and less sympathetic group.
4. Following the pantomimes of the group representatives, the leader need have no fear in asking each group to work out a stunt involving every member, for, as the saying goes, the ice has been broken. If the leader is prepared to give concrete ideas of the types of stunts he wishes the groups to perform he may be quite sure that his introduction of informal dramatics will be a complete success.


Either individual or group pantomimes, in which all meaning is conveyed by Actions and facial expressions, might better precede informal dramatics or stunts which include spoken lines. The brief suggestions No. 551 to 554, readily lend themselves to pantomiming.

History Episodes, 551.
If only important episodes in either local or national history are produced, spoken words will be unnecessary. (See History Dramatizations, 347, for instructions on production.)

Current Events, 552.
These may be confined to events which

pg. 488

find a place on the front page of newspapers. Many of these are improved by a few spoken lines, unless they are portrayed in a guessing contest, when not a single word may be uttered.

Embarrassing Occurrences, 553.
These may be confined to either real or imagined occurrences, such as:
A person learning to drive an automobile stalls in traffic. A "newly-wed" burns the dinner after the guests arrive. A dandy hustles to a party and forgets to put on a necktie.
A young lady entertains her first beau with the entire family present to the finish.

Mother Goose Pantomimes, 554.
Mother Goose stories provide ready-made plots that are usually produced in pantomime for the observers to guess. Ordinarily, it is better to forbid the use of properties with the suggestion that members of the group serve as properties.

Musical Numbers

Musical numbers of all kinds are popular whether or not the performers have musical ability. Do not hesitate to give groups numerous ideas in brief form similar to suggestions No. 555 to 561 inclusive.

Popular Song Titles, 555.
Enact titles to popular songs, and let others guess, as in charades.

Kitchen Orchestra, 556.
A kitchen orchestra may produce real or imaginary music on kitchen utensils, combs, pipes, etc., while the director, dressed in a cook's costume, makes frantic efforts to lead.

Improvised Operas, 557.
In an opera number the singers improvise and adapt both music and words from well-known operas, comedies, etc.

Silent Chorus, 558.
In a presentation by a silent chorus the performers utter not a sound. They go through rehearsed miscellaneous motions, while the leader beats time and forms his lips correctly to utter the words of the song which never come forth, and as soon as an observer recognizes the song he joins the chorus.

Organ-Grinder Act, 559.
An organ-grinder uses the members of his group as singing and dancing monkeys while he grinds out the tunes and directs.

pg. 489

The Seven Ages, 560.
In the musical presentation of the seven ages of man, a group presents, with songs accompanied by Action and gestures, the "Wee)' age, with a lullaby; the "Knee" age, with nursery songs; the "School" age, with "School Days;" the "Romantic" or "She" age with romantic love songs; marriage with the "Wedding March;" "Parentage," with songs to the children; concluding with "Dotage," and "Silver Threads Among the Gold."

Minstrels, 561.
Minstrels provide opportunity for songs, jokes, and individual acts. If only one member of a group has a good voice, a minstrel may be presented without a rehearsal. Localized jokes succeed even though they are only mediocre. Excellent ideas for musical acts and for special minstrels, including Newspaper, Summer, Baseball, Athletics, Hallowe'en, and Christmas, are described in Producing Amateur Entertainments.

Informal Dramatic Briefs

Items No. 562 to 525, inclusive, are described very briefly and are intended for leaders who have had some experience in the leadership of such activities. It is expected that ideas similar to those described are all that a leader would want to pass out to groups that have had experience in producing similar sketches. They are of value principally to club and camp leaders who meet groups often. It is expected that the ideas would be either read or copied and passed out to the boy and girl leaders of groups about a week before they were to be produced before other members of the club or camp. The party leader who needs more detailed descriptions and instruction should read items No. 576 to No. 583, inclusive.

Vaudeville Booking Office, 562.
Individuals and groups appear before an artistic vaudeville booking agent and a group of critical theater managers to demonstrate their abilities in an effort to secure engagements. The agent praises all the acts and attempts to get the managers to engage the actors. The managers, in none too kind terms, criticize the actors. This act furnishes a theme

pg. 490

for an evening camp fire, or an entertainment for a club.

Tall Story Club Initiation, 553.
Members of a group apply for admission into a so-called Tall Story Club. After telling highly imaginative stories the successful candidates are admitted and initiated into the club.
The Saleswoman (Salesman), 564. Either a man or lade acts as an impudent sales person at a notion counter, and loses his job. The customers include a newly-wed shopping for his wife and a bride shopping for her husband.

Special Days, 565.
Clever people can work out special days very effectively. A day at a camp or a circus may be told and demonstrated by the various members of a group who tell and show the happenings to interested listeners. Other days include a trip to the city or country, a sightseeing tour, a visit to a zoo, an automobile trip, etc.

The Driving Lesson, 566.
The members of a group carry on as though they were a family out with Mother taking her first lesson in driving a car, with Father acting as instructor and the children as observers and assistant instructors on the back seat.

The Successful Speech, 567.
Before the one who takes the part of the speaker arrives the audience is coached and drilled in the responses which they are to make upon signals from the leader. The orator is surprised and delighted at his grand reception, for be is unaware that the leader is behind him giving signals. The chief can devise his own signals which may include touching lips for "Sh," raising hand for "Ah," swinging hand across body for a whistle, and waving arms for "Hurrah!"

The Traveling Smoker, 568.
The act opens with a gentleman sitting in a passenger coach blowing clouds of smoke from a cigar. Various types of ladies enter and leave when told by the very polite gentleman, "I'm indeed sorry to inform you that you are trespassing in the gentleman's smoker." When the brakeman arrives he informs the gentleman in positive terms to get out and go to the smoker. The indignant ladies meet and mob the gentleman at the door.

Basket Ball de Lure, 569.
Each player is attended by a servant. French maids primp and powder the girls and valets

pg. 491

straighten ties and trouser creases of the men. When time is taken out all players are fanned and coddled. Players walk about wearily handing the ball to anybody, but all are too tired to attempt a goal. To conclude the game the servants bring in a ladder and assist one of the players to climb it and make a goal, but it does not count because the referee went to sleep and failed to see it.

Mock Trials, 570.
Mock trials require many actors including, offenders, accusers, judges, attorneys, and jury members. Since the lines of all the actors must be spontaneous, a mock trial succeeds best when the attorneys are quick-witted and humorous.

The Burial of Old Man Grouch, 571.
This is a serious camp: play described in detail in Games and Recreational Methods. Both the good and bad spirits of Old Man Grouch appear before the campers. The good ones inform the campers of the good camp traditions, while the evil spirits warn them of the evils and dangers which lurk about the camp ready to seize unsuspecting victims. In conclusion all campers accompany the funeral procession headed by the pallbearers who carry the coffin to a grave, where each camper solemnly throws one handful of soil on the coffin as he passes by.

Take-Offs, 572.
Impersonations or take-offs are both popular and dangerous-hurt feelings last much longer than laughs. Instead of impersonating individuals, it is better to take-off wellknown types, such as, a radio announcer, a telephone operator, would-be detectives, both city and country "rubes," boarding house characters, collectors, etc.

Camper Staff, 573.
This is an effective camp play in which campers portray a meeting of the camp director and his staff. The campers, acting as staff members, bring before the meeting absurd charges against fellow campers. The director always defends the campers and finally, in disgust, dismisses his entire staff.

Judgment Day, 574.
Members of the cast impersonate various people present, appearing before Saint Peter at the Judgment Seat. After being questioned, applicants are escorted away either by angels or devils. Groans and smoke emanate from Hell.

A Talkie, 575.
Under the leadership of a boisterous director a talking picture is filmed and recorded. It is first reproduced in

pg. 492

slow motion, with the motions occasionally lagging behind the accompanying sounds. The show is concluded with very rapid Action.

Detailed Informal Dramatics

Items No. 576 to No. 583, inclusive, are described with enough detail and explanation to make them intelligent to groups that have had but little experience in informal dramatics. The leader may see fit to copy those which will appeal to his guests with the suggestion that they expand and improve them. In extremely few instances should groups be asked to produce them just as they are described. The camp or club leader who needs less detailed descriptions will be interested in Items No. 562 to 575, inclusive.

The Pullman Comedy of Errors, 576

Two men, one a dignified gentleman, the other a blusterer, inform the porter of the stations at which they wish to get off on the following morning before daylight. The blusterer tells the porter that he will, as usual, be very cranky, and will possibly refuse to get up and off, so he tips the porter liberally with the instruction to use violence if necessary.
The gentleman instructs the porter to awaken him gradually and gently. The porter gets confused and puts the gentleman off at the wrong station with anything but gentleness. He discovers his error when trying to eject the blusterer. The first act takes place in the smoking compartment. The second is carried on in the dark, with comments from the other passengers.

A Medical Operation, 577
(First Aid Stunt)

This is a type of stunt that bears annual repetition when well done. A nurse bemoans the fact that she cannot put her training

pg. 493

into practice, when suddenly, an apparently injured man stumbles into the doctor's office and faints. The nurse gets out her first aid book, but finds in it no remedy, and then calls a doctor. The physician arrives with a suitcase full of carpenter's tools. He covers the patient with a sheet, operates upon him, and removes from various parts of his body miscellaneous items; for Instance from the back of his neck, his spinal column (empty spools strung together); from his leg, a foot (shoe stuffed with a red rag); front the left side of his body, a big heart. When about ready to give up, he removes from the patient's stomach a great number of things, concluding with a tin can and the remark, "Ah, discovered, here we are, you had a can sir (cancer)." The patient praises the; doctor as he walks out, declaring he never felt better in his life.
Notes for Leaders. The operation is even funnier when produced as a shadowgraph,
Scouts and first aid students are fond of the first part of this act in which the nurse tries absurd things which she reads from the first aid manual.

The One-Room School, 578

Schoolroom scenes in which pupils play tricks on each other and on the teacher are always effective. Such acts usually include questions and answers similar to those below which are quoted from Troop Stunts.

Teacher: Johnny, decline "father."
Johnny: Far, father, grandfather.

Teacher: Which is correct, 5 and 3 are 9, or 5 and 3 is 9!
Morris: Neither, 5 and 3 is or are 8.

Teacher: If your father had $10 and I asked him for 85, how much would he have left! Sandy: $10.
Teacher: No, you don't know this example.
Sandy : Hoot mon, you don't know my father.

pg. 494

Teacher: Bill, spell "Schenectady."
Bill: You spell it, Teacher. I can't.
Teacher: Never mind, we'll make it Boston.

Notes for Leaders. Another popular type of comedy follows:

Teacher: (reviewing class before schoolboard) James, who wrote "Julius Ceasar!" James: I don't know, teacher. I didn't.
Member of Board: The little rascal, I'11 bet he did.

It is common practice to include in schoolroom acts the reading of compositions. Funny stories may be rewritten in school boy style for this purpose. The story below was produced and read in one of the author's classes in recreation. It is reproduced with apologies for the English.


First you gotta know the main classes of trees. They come wholesale and retail. They come wholesale in the woods and retail in yards.
Trees are all different from one another-but only in the summer when they got leaves. In the winter when they are naked they all look the same.
My father says some smart nature studiers can tell trees apart by their ears, that is they tell them by their bark, but I don't believe it.
I think the easiest trees to tell is the oaks. All you have to do is look around on the ground until you find an acorn and you know, like the poets say, "A mighty oak is she." Books says that birches are the easiest to tell by sight because they got white bark. But that isn't so hot because where I live the bark of a lot of trees is white, 'cause they whitewash' em. Why I think birches is easy to recognize is because Indians make birch bark canoes out of them.
I can tell maples easy because in the spring they have little tin spouts coming out of them, and then too, they are the trees that maple sugar grows on.
The nut trees are dead easy. There's the Hick, the Pig, the

pg. 495

Wall, the Butter, and the Chest. The way you tell them apart is by tasting the nut. At the seasons when there aint no nuts who cares what they are!
We boys can tell the fruit tree from away off. They always grow behind fences with signs on "Keep Out." When they aint got no signs we know the farmer's got a gun.
An ornamental tree that's easy to know is the catalpa. You can tell 'em by the way they are pruned. My father says the closer to the ground you prune them the better.
Of all the evergreen trees the hemlocks can be positively identified because they look nearly exactly like the pine and the spruce. To tell a pine from a spruce all you got to do is to sit down and lean your head back against it. If your hair is stuck tight when you try to get up you guessed right, it's a hemlock.
After all I think that when you get right down to it it's a lot easier to identify trees than the books say.

The Dumb Coal Dealers, 579

This illustrates a way in which an arithmetical enigma can be developed into a dramatic stunt which requires only chalk and a blackboard. The story is told about four ignorant coal merchants who were getting ready to dissolve their business. They had on hand twenty-eight tons of coal which they were to dispose of in equal quantities to seven customers. One of them declared he could not solve it, because he knew only addition. Another claimed it was too much for him, because he could only subtract. The third one was no better off, because he could only multiply. This made it necessary to call in the fourth member of the company, the president. He boastfully claimed the problem was very easy, because he could divide. He worked out the problem as illustrated:

pg. 496

He decided 7 would not go into 2 but it would go into 8 once. Then, with the assistance of the member of the firm who claimed ability to subtract, the remainder, 21, was obtained, and it was agreed that, since 7 was contained in 21 three times, the correct quotient was 13. It Was further agreed that each of the seven customers would receive thirteen tons of coal.
When the president left the other members doubted the answer and suggested that they prove it. Accordingly, the man who claimed proficiency in multiplication, multiplied 13 by 7 as follows:

Thus it seemed that the president was correct; but still they doubted. Next, the expert adder proved 13 to be correct by writing '3 in column form 7 times. He added the seven 3's and wrote 21. Next he added the column of seven I's and placed 7 under 21, and sure enough, he too proved the president's division to be correct.
The act is concluded by the three mathematicians walking off the stage passing complimentary remarks about their president. They agreed that figures do not lie, even though liars figure.

Buying a Ticket for Franklin, 580
(A Ticket for Florence)

This welcome variation of the overworked stunt about Hiram and Mirandy crossing the railroad track can better be described in detail. Just as in the older stunt, a family, the Pens, arrive at a railroad station, and the mother opens the act with the inquiry, "Any trains east to-day?"
As in the Hiram and Mirandy act, the agent replies, "No, none east to-day." Then to the surprise of those who know the old stunt the mother asks, "Any trains east to-morrow!"

pg. 497

Agent: Yes, four-thirty milk train in the morning.
Mother: Very well, give me a ticket for Franklin.
The ticket agent who is hard of hearing replies, "Where is he going?"
The parent who is also hard of hearing replies sharply, "I said I want a ticket for Franklin."
Agent: Franklin, what?
Mother: No, not Franklin Watt, Franklin Pen.
Agent: Oh ! Franklin, Pennsylvania?
Mother: (Sharply) No.
Agent: Franklin, Kentucky!
Mother: (Indignantly) Franklin, he's going away.
The agent gets out his railroad guide and in turn asks about other cities by the name of Franklin, which actually exist in the states of Massachusetts, Ohio, New York, New Jersey, Louisiania and Indiana. The conversation about these various cities is amusing to the audience because it is apparent that neither the agent nor the parent knows what the other wants. When the agent giver up in disgust the mother lifts her son to the ticket window and says, "Here, you stupid, this is the Franklin. I wanted a ticket but never mind now, we'll walk."
Note for Leaders. When this stunt is used with girls the mother might ask for a ticket for Florence.

The Echo, 581

A person taking the part of a real estate agent secretly selects an assistant to act as the "Echo." He instructs the Echo to conceal himself while he acts as an enthusiastic real estate agent and tries to sell the surrounding property to the audience. He extols the wonders of the property and demonstrates its echo as follows:
Agent: Hello! Echo: Hello !
Agent: Great weather we are having.
Echo: Great weather we are having.
Agent: Wonderful property, eh!

pg. 498

Echo: Wonderful property, yes I
Agent: (Disgusted at evident error) Oh' You're a sap.
Echo: And you're a big bluff.

Mind Reading Acts, 582.
Mock magician and mind reading acts are popular. Any group can work them out if given a few clews such as:
The magician asks his blindfolded accomplice, "What have I in my hand?" He rings a bell or blows a whistle while asking.
The magician, while standing on right foot, says, "I hope you get this right--on what foot am I standing.)"
The magician writes numbers on blackboard and signals them by most obvious ways, such as, patting the accomplice on the head; writing the figure 5 and telling his partner he will give him just five seconds to answer.
The magician asks self-evident questions, such as, "What is the color of this orange or lemon!" He asks the name of an object and lets his accomplice smell an onion.
The magician names a person in the audience and asks him to stand, etc.

Story of Clothier, Baker, and Villain, 583

The leader reads, or better, tells the unfinished story below and the groups reproduce it in a play. Stories of this type may be brief with a single dramatic, romantic, or funny point left to the imagination of the listeners. The fun is in seeing how each group will enact the finish. An example that the author has used with success follows, written much as it might be told:
"I shall tell a brief story, at the conclusion of which each group will retire for fifteen minutes to work out the conclusion, and prepare at least three members to present the entire episode, with whatever properties you can secure.
"Imagine in Act I a clever crook who reveals in a soliloquy that he is very much in need of a suit but without funds.
"In Act II we find this villain in a baker's shop. He orders two hundred cream puffs. The baker does not have that many, but

pg. 499

agrees to bake them and have them ready at three o'clock in the afternoon.
"In Act III, at two o'clock, we discover the crook in a second hand clothing store next door to the baker's shop. Here we find him apparently buying the best suit in the store, but, remember he has no money. He argues about the price and finally agrees to pay twenty-five dollars for the suit, and then walks out without paying. The clothier chases him and he goes into the baker's shop The crook says to the baker, 'Got that zoo ready yet.' The baker replies, 'No, but don't worry, ready at three o'clock.' The villain replies, 'Good, -- ---- ----! and then he walks out with the suit!" E At this point the leader repeats his preliminary instruction, answers questions, and the groups retire to prepare the play. It ii advisable to repeat the last part of the story so that all may gather that the crook said in conclusion, "Good, give him (the clothier) twenty-five."

Informal Dramatic Games and Charades

The remainder of this chapter is devoted to informal dramatic games and charades. Activities of this kind may be used to advantage as introductory or preliminary material for training people in activities requiring more initiative and ingenuity.

Riming Verbs, 584
(numb Crambo)

This game, for some unknown reason, is generally called Dumb Crambo, but the name Riming Verbs is certainly more descriptive.
Players are divided into two teams, the "Actors" and the "Audience." Each team selects a captain. The Actors leave the room while the Audience decides upon a verb to be enacted. A messenger informs the Actors of the verb indirectly by telling them another verb which rimes with the one selected. Suppose the verb "haul" is selected, the messenger might inform the Actors, that the verb

pg. 500

rimes with "crawl." Suppose the Actors assume it to be "bawl." While still out of the room, they decide upon a pantomime to depict "bawling," and then they enter the room and enact it. At the conclusion of the act, the captain of the Audience signals his team mates saying, "What do we think of that act!" His team mates respond by jeering. Again the Actors retire, and, under the direction of their captain, decide upon another pantomime. When they finally depict "haul" they are informed of their success by applause from the Audience. The teams then change parts, and the Audience become the Actors.
Notes for Leaders. Select captains who have ability to coach pantomimes.
Coach guests to make every effort possible to control themselves and to refrain from either jeering or applauding before the signal is given. This is absolutely necessary in order to permit the Actors to carry on their pantomime without interruption.

Game of Charades, 585

Although charades are used less than formerly, no doubt they will continue to be popular at small gatherings. For larger gatherings informal dramatics and stunts are replacing charades. The club or camp leader can use charades to advantage as a lead-up activity to informal dramatics.
In one way of conducting charades as a game the players are divided into two groups of even numbers. Group A, the performers, retire and select a word of more than one syllable. They decide upon a way in which the syllables may be depicted either with or without properties, in either tableaux, pantomimes, or Action accompanied by dialog. It is customary to present one act for each syllable and a final act for the complete word. The players rehearse no more than once before appearing before Group B, the guessers.
After Group A presents its final act, Group B is given three guesses to name the word that was enacted, or, if there are but few players allow each one to guess. If any member of the group

pg. 501

guesses correctly, that group retires and prepares a charade to be presented before Group A. However, if no one guesses correctly, Group A enacts another charade, and this time Group B may have as many guesses as it pleases. If Group B fails to guess, it scores zero points, if it guesses correctly the first time, it receives two points, if it guesses right the second time, it scores only one point. The team having most points after an even number of innings wins.
Notes for Leaders. In the old-fashioned method of conducting charades players were encouraged to select very difficult words. In the modern method players should be encouraged to select comparatively easy words, particularly so, should their opponents fail to guess the first word.
If the Game of Charades is to occupy a considerable portion of a recreational program, words of increasing difficulty may be selected; but, if the game is to occupy only a limited time, it is better to select words of two syllables. A list of simple words follows :

Airplane Antarctic Anti-climax Automobile Backbite Backslider Bandage Bandbox Blockade Breakneck Buccaneer Carpet Chestnut Clearing Command Commute Compare Complain Darkened

Dipper Downfall Drumstick Eardrum Eyelash Football Forbid Forefinger Forgive Handicap Handmade Handsome Heartbreak Heartburn Heartsick Infancy Ingratiate Inside Kidnap

Kidney Kingfish Kingdom Lacing Libel Message Necklace Outcast Outcry Outjump Outlie Pilgrimage Robust Roughrider Runabout Sausage Schoolbook Stiletto Tennessee

pg. 502

Bible Charades, 586

Bible Charades have a place on programs for church and Sunday-school gatherings. Before attempting charades the leader should read the instruction for conducting charades described in Game of Charades, 585. A number of charades based upon the names of well-known Bible characters are described below in detail:

Able. the leader of the group presenting the charade asks a general question, such as, "Who can name the books of the Old Testament!" Then he asks several members, "Can you!" The universal reply is, "I can."

Daniel (Dan-yell). Under the leadership of one member of the group the others yell, "Dan, rah, rah, rah, Dan!') Solomon (Solo-man). The members of the group arrange a platform (chair) for their male soloist, while they act as the applauding audience.

Matthew (Mathhue). This is a more difficult charade which is depicted in two acts. In the first act the members of the group converse about mathematics, using the abbreviated expression "math." In the second act one person takes the part of a dressgoods saleslady. Her customers complain about the color of her goods being the wrong hue.
Note for Leaders. When teaching charades to groups unfamiliar with this form of recreation, give them concrete ideas by reading aloud several of the above descriptions. Then organize teams, let each select its captain and work out an original Bible charade. It is advisable to suggest names of Bible characters to children.

The Game of Forfeits, 587

A formerly common practice of playing games and requiring all who failed to pay a forfeit (perform a novel, skillful, or silly act)

pg. 503

is no longer in vogue. Modern leaders have a sufficiently large repertoire of games so that they need not prolong a game beyond a point of interest, as is sometimes done by the addition of forfeits.
In another form of forfeits for children still in vogue, two people recite a traditional dialog about "Heavy, heavy hangs over thy head," etc. Finally, without knowing the owner of the "fine" or "superfine" object, one of the dialogues orders the owner to perform a more or less absurd thing in order to redeem his forfeit.
This practice is not recommended for people over twelve years of age, most of whom are instantly embarrassed when asked to perform before an audience, without a moment of Preparation . It is true, nevertheless, that adolescent boys and girls are not disturbed by the embarrassment of the one who performs, in fact, the more embarrassment the better they enjoy it, and, to the dismay of chaperons, many forfeits are paid in the form of kisses.
For the modern Game of Forfeits the leader selects from the stunts which follow, those that may appeal to his guests, and copiers one for each player. He should try to select for each guest a stunt which he thinks that guest will be able to perform quite successfully. The leader should also provide the properties required.
The leader explains the idea of the game, passes out the written instructions, and requests all to remain silent while every one studies his card for a brief period. Then a five-minute recess is declared, during which time those who understand their instructions may prepare or rehearse, while those who wish further help or a different card of instruction may consult the leader. There is no serious objection to guests trading cards or using their own ingenuity in revising written instruction.
Descriptions of feats, stunts and forfeits will be found in activities No. 588 to No. 632, inclusive.

Three Nice Things, 588.
Tell the audience, "I'11 first briefly describe a person in the room and then say three nice things about him. You guess who he is." Describe yourself.

Poetry, 589.
This is very much like No. 588. Compose a poem (2 lines at least) about some one present and recite it.

pg. 504

Animated Speech, 590.
Give an animated short speech with gestures about reducing, matrimony, prunes, cheese, or any other fool thing.

A Pantomime Song, 591.
Select a very popular song, or better, the chorus, and to the rhythm of the music, while beating time, form the words with your lips without uttering a sound. Then ask those who think they know it to raise hands. For the benefit of those who fail to guess the first time, repeat the pantomime a second time with Actions to depict the words. The third time ask those who claimed to know the song to join you in singing it.

The Siamese Yell -a trick-, 592.
Select four or five victims and offer to teach them the National Yell of Slam. With hand outstretched sideways, stand erect and say, "Oh wha" and then repeat it and have victims join you. Next, with arms outstretched bow and carry arms forward and say emphatically "Tagoo." Finally, fling arms sideward and name the country, "Slam." After the victims learn the above, sing the words without motions to the first part of the tune, America, thus:
Oh, what a goose I am,
Oh, what a goose I am,
Oh, what a goose!

Drawing the Moon -A catchy imitation-, 593.
Ask every one to do exactly as you do, and tell them that you are going to outline on the floor an imaginary moon with eyes, nose, and mouth. To trick the people you use your left hand. You will be surprised to see how many of them will use their right hands.

Talking Contest, 594.
Select a person who has ability to talk and challenge him to a talking contest on a subject of your choice such as matrimony, sports, politics, prohibition, the superior sex, etc. Both of you must talk at the same time loudly and clearly on the same subject for sixty seconds. The crowd wilt judge the Winner. Should your opponent stop before the expiration of time, you continue until time is called.

Complicated Conversation, 595.
Select an individual to act as your opponent. Have him sit on a chair in the center of the room and you sit opposite him. Provide a hat for yourself and one for your opponent. Instruct him as follows: "You carry on a

pg. 505

conversation with me and answer my questions, and when I sit down, you stand up; when I stand up, you sit down; when I take my hat off, you put yours on."

The Laughing Handkerchief, 596.
The equipment needed is a knotted handkerchief. You throw the handkerchief in the air and instruct the crowd to laugh while the handkerchief is in the air, and instruct all to remain absolutely silent the instant it strikes the floor or ground. To try to catch people you start laughing the instant it strikes.

The Proverbial Typist, 597.
Imitate the proverbial typist who primps, chews gum, gossips, and flirts, and whose typing is largely a matter of erasing. (For other imitations see Nos. 553, 564, 572, 582.)

Overnight Hike, 598.
Either with or without assistance demonstrate a camp or club leader in charge of a group of rookies on their first overnight camp.

An Astronomy Lesson, 599.
Select a partner of the opposite sex, have the lights turned off, and, in the dark, impersonate a fellow taking an astronomy lesson from his best girl. Be sure to talk about at least a few of the better known constellations.

Robinson Crusoe, 600.
Pantomime the Actions of Robinson Crusoe when he discovers Friday's footprints in the sand. Do not forget the umbrella and the parrot. After the performance let the spectators guess the pantomime.

Nursery Rimes, 601.
Without properties pantomime Old Mother Hubbard going to the cupboard, or Tom the piper's son, or any other nursery rime. Let the spectators name your pantomime.

An Imaginary Conversation, 602.
Carry on an imaginary conversation with a person of your own choice. Some suggestions follow :
A new mother extolling the greatness of her first child.
An old man (or woman) explaining to a grandchild the way things used to be. Close this act by playing or singing, "The Old Gray Mare She Ain't What She Used To Be."
A radio salesman trying to sell a bride a radio. If possible train an assistant outside the room to make appropriate utterances as

pg. 506

you tune the radio.
A person talking to himself as he walks past a cemetery. End the act with a scream as an imaginary ghost attacks the person.

Stunts for Children

The activities that follow are intended for the use of children in the Game of Forfeits, 587. Of course, many of them may be used for adults.

Rick Paper Ball, 603.
Make a large paper ball, place it on the floor a few feet away from a partially open door, and then stand three times the distance of your own foot from the ball and try to kick it through the door.

Whirl and Race, 604.
Select a partner. Brace your feet against his and together whirl as fast as you can until, at the end of about a minute, the leader tells you to slow down, whereupon, you slowly come to a standstill. Then race your opponent in a walk (no running) across the room on a line on the rug or a crack in the floorboards.

Dizzy Izzy Race, 605.
Select your opponent, and secure two umbrellas. Each one places his umbrella upon the floor, puts hands on the top of it and places his forehead upon his hands. At the word "Go" race your opponent in making three complete turns around the umbrella. Then race him in walking a designated line.

"Gimme" Race, 606.
Select your opponent and let him collect objects from the people in one-half of the room while you collect from the other half. Go to each person and say, "Please give me something." After you have secured something (the more cumbersome the better) from one-half of the guests you race your opponent around the room and then return the objects to the correct owners. The one who is first to return all objects wins.

The Theophilus Thistle Race, 607.
Select a partner and together learn the following:
"If Theophilus Thistle, the great thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb, where are the three thousand thistles Theophilus

pg. 507

Thistle the great thistle sifter thrust through the thick of his thumb!"
After you each learn it you see who can first recite it three times without a single error. The Winner may teach the question to the other guests provided they want to learn it. After they learn it everybody gets into a race repeating it three times.

The Blind Handshake, 608.
Put on a blindfold and start from one end of the room to shake hands with another blindfolded person starting from the other end of the room.

Banana Feeding, 609.
Get a partner. While blindfolded you must feed each other a banana. You are each advised to tuck a napkin under your chin.

Hand on Elbow, 610.
Place one hand where the other cannot touch it. (On the elbow.)

Inside and Outside Touch, 611.
Touch a book inside and outside without opening it. (Touch it inside and outside of the room.)

Doughnut Race, 612.
Select a partner, and, with hands clasped behind body, conduct a race in eating a doughnut suspended from a string.

Duel Forfeits, 613.
Any of the comical duel contests provide interesting forfeits. See duels No. 217, 218, 219, 221, 227, 228.

Individual Stunts for Boys

The leader who is working with skillful boys will find detailed descriptions of individual stunts in the Handbook of Stunts and in Health by Stunts. The well-known individual stunts that follow are described with all possible brevity for use in the Game of Forfeits, 587.

Three Chair Layout, 614.
(Removing center chair.)

Simple Wand Twist, 615.
(Winding, holding with forward grasp.)

Chair Backward Bend, 616.
(Picking up paper with mouth.)

Chair Creeper, 617.
(Crawling around chair for handkerchief.)

Long Reach, 618.
(Chalk floor as illustrated on following page.)

Front Dip, 619.
On knees, picking up paper with teeth.)

pg. 508

Elbow Dip, 620.
(Picking up paper with mouth, body extended.)

One Leg Squat, 621.
(Balancing and bending one knee deeply.)

Stand the Stiff, 622.
(Lifting companion, lying rigidly.)

Back Foot Throw, 623.
(Kicking object placed between feet, overhead and catch in front.)

Broom Raise, 624.
(Raising broom between thumb and index finger.)

Ankle Throw, 625.
(Kicking basket ball upward and catching.)

Seal Slap, 626.
(Body extended, push up from floor and slap hands.)

Dead Man's Fall, 627.
(Palling with hands stiff to mat.)

Coin Snap, 628.
(Snap card from under dime, both placed on finger tip.)

Blow Out Candle, 629.
(Blindfolded, blow out candle on center of table.)

Knee Bend Touch, 630.
(Touch floor with knee, grasping foot behind body.)

Get Up, 631.
(Arms folded on chest, arise without use of elbows or without rolling over.)

Balance Pick Up, 632.
(Stand against wall, pick up handkerchief without bending knees.)

Murder in Your Home, 633

In the book, Murder in Your Home, the authors tell us, "Last summer a new form of game swept like an epidemic over the beach and country club colonies of Long Island. It was a game of enacting a murder before an audience and having in each murder a number of obvious clews, and then having the members of the audience test their intellect and observation by seeing how high a score each could register in answering twenty questions about those clews. You would be surprised at the low scores of some of the leading lights of the artistic, literary and social sets, but before you get scornful about those low scores try it out yourself."

pg. 509

One of the twenty plays in Murder in Your Home is reproduced with permission of the publishers, Ray S. Long and Richard R. Smith.
For a week-end party the three guests who are to be the actors should come to the party with their lines learned. For one night parties or camps the characters may read their lines, but they must rehearse the Action and know it well. When the observers know that they are going to be quizzed about the play they are very attentive. Fortunately, they are not critical about the acting.


HARRY CARSoN, her lover
PROPS: Hand mirror, implement for making noise like tick-tack on windowpane (a knife-handle will do), chairs, table, newspaper, book.
SCENE: Living room in BENJAMIN REDFIELD'S house in the country. Door left, window center; window is closed and curtains drawn over it.
TIME: Hallowe'en.
As the curtain rises, LAURA is walking slowly backwards across stage, smiling a little, and looking into hand mirror she holds in right hand. Occasionally, she looks over her shoulder at window, where the recurrent, monotonous sound of a tick-tack can be heard against the pane.
Door, left, opens stealthily and HARRY CARSON enters.
(Starting and placing mirror on table.) Harry! You mustn't come here--Uncle would kill you if be ever found us together!
(She crosses stage as she speaks and lays hand anxiously on his arm.)
(Closing door quietly behind him.) Where is he!

pg. 510

He's up in his room. That terrible tick-tack on the window (Indicating it.) drove him upstairs. He's been out three times since dinner looking for the kids in the neighborhood who put it there, but he can't seem to find anybody. Won't you sit down.

The kids in the neighborhood didn't put the tick-tack on that window. I put it there.

You, Harry! What on earth for!

(Sitting down and looking at her earnestly.) Listen, Laura, I've been trying for two years to marry you, and your uncle won't hear of it, won't even let me speak to him-

Oh, Harry, I know it. He's a dreadful old man, and I've hated him ever since I came to live with him, when I was six years old and mother died. But he thinks he has a good reason for objecting to our marriage.

(Bitterly.) I know--and I suppose you can't blame him for not wanting his niece to marry a jail-bird--

Oh, Harry, I know you were innocent! I know you shot that man in self-defence, even If they did call it manslaughter and \ make you spend three years in San Quentin. But I wish you had never done it-

I've wished that often in the five years since I was pardoned. But I did kill that man and, Laura, it's a funny thing--once you've killed a man, the thought of killing a second isn't as horrible as it might be.

You don't mean--

No, I haven't killed anybody else...yet.

pg. 511

Avoid preparing a longer list of events than can be run off in the allotted time.
Select events which will enlist the activity of men, women, boys, and girls. People enjoy themselves most when they are making their own fun.
Avoid a lengthy speaking or literary program.
The object of the picnic is recreation and better fellowship. Don't allow too much formality, but at the same time maintain order.
Many experienced picnickers believe in the cafeteria lunch where every family puts its lunch on the common table. This method stimulates general sociability and discourages gathering in small groups or cliques.
Better have a photographer on hand to take snapshots of the various events during the day. You will need these another year in working up interest, and no doubt your farm paper would be glad to use some of them.
Attend to organization details in advance and save yourself much useless running about during the picnic. Every important feature should have some one in charge of it and give such person responsibility. This presupposes that he is appointed in advance and given fully to understand what is expected.
The organization of the picnic may be divided into the following divisions, each of which should have a leader:
Entertainment . The chairman of the games committee should be some one with athletic experience to take charge of baseball, horseshoes, and other games for boys and men. He may appoint a leader for each game. Games may be run off simultaneously. Field events should be run one at a time with a starter in charge. Do not permit games to begin before the proper time if you do not wish your crowd to scatter.
The stunts are a part of the social program, but, since they require some advance Preparation , should be put in charge of a special leader.
The program committee will look after band, orchestra, or other music, secure a leader for the community singing, and arrange the general social program.
Refreshments . The usual picnic places a large burden on the mothers who plan the dinners several days in advance, who spend the day before in cooking, and on the day of the

pg. 522

picnic get very little recreation from the occasion. The following is suggested: The refreshment committee may make a list of families and assign one thing to be brought by each family. It is much easier for the housewife to specialize in preparing one item than to scatter her energies throughout a whole menu. For instance, one group of families could supply all the bread and butter; another group could supply all the salad or mashed potatoes, and so on. (Have a sub-committee which will take charge of the food as it is brought and see to arranging it on tables for serving.)
By buying a supply of paper plates, paper saucers, paraffin paper cups and paper ice cream spoons, you can get rid of a lot of the after-picnic scramble and clean-up. These supplies may be obtained in wholesale quantity through your local dealers.
Supply about twice as much good drinking water as you think will be necessary.
Grounds . The grounds committee will make arrangements for exclusive use of the ground; see that they are free from rubbish; arrange platform for program; supply a rest tent for mothers with small children; mark off baseball diamond and other grounds for games; and detail two or three persons to see that cars are suitably parked.
Large boxes should be set at Convenient places for. disposition of garbage, used paper plates, and other trash. Urge the crowd to keep the grounds clean.
Attendance . The attendance committee will attend to the advance publicity for the picnic; make visitors feel at home during the day, and, if possible, take an accurate record of attendance.

Additional Suggestions

Here is a forewarning for the inexperienced director--watch the "clean up squad," or it will walk off and let you do the job alone.
The director must check up each committee several times, but be sure to check up the day before the picnic. If day meetings

pg. 523

are impossible, check up two nights before; the night before is too late.
The director of an annual picnic who looks a year ahead will have a committee appointed to browse around this year's picnic to get first-hand opinions along with suggestions for next year Those who make constructive suggestions earn a place on a committee and should be given an opportunity to serve.
When picnics involve large crowds get in touch with local Boy Scout leaders and offer them an opportunity to "Do a Good Turn" by providing a first aid tent.
Remember to give the photographer leadership and suggestions in advance. If you forget, don't blame him for interrupting at just the wrong time. A photograph of the entire gathering can be secured easiest at the very outset of the program when everybody assembles for general instruction.
Picnic Clowns. If all picnic leaders could observe just one picnic at which clowns perform, they would no more think of running such an affair without clowns, than would the manager of a circus. Theoretically, the chief function of clowns is to pro vide amusement for children, but, as a matter of fact, adults enjoy subtle take-offs even more than children.
Clowns need very specific coaching. They must know the details of the program, and know just which events will best lend themselves to take-offs. The program director must confer with them when he lists the order of events, interspersing those which lend themselves best to clown acts in such a manner that the clowns will have an opportunity to change costumes and prepare equipment. When possible secure four clowns and have them work in pairs, Then, while two are performing the other two may be preparing. Unfortunately, it is impossible to describe clown acts without knowing the exact details of the program. Furthermore, were any one to hand clowns written instructions he would kill their spontaneity. Many of the best clown acts are actually worked out on the spur of the moment following funny unforeseen happenings. For example, some one falls down in a previous race; the announcer issues a confused announcement; some one tears his clothing; etc.

pg. 524

Clown Dressing Race, 634

This race serves as an effective way to introduce clowns. An item might appear on the program such as, "Big Feature Race." When the event is called the two clowns appear in civilian clothing with suitcases and large umbrellas. With considerable hokum and a lot of meaningless words an announcer introduces the two gentlemen as wonderful somethings.
For the first part of the race the clowns act seriously. They do their best in beating each other to a spot, in the open, away from the crowd. There they open their umbrellas, erect them to form a screen, and as quickly as possible change costumes. When dressed they come out from behind their screens and conclude the race with appropriate clownish Actions.
Note for Leaders. The leader can add to the excitement by restraining the adults from going to observe what is happening behind the umbrellas, but, at the same time, permitting the children to go to see.

Name Writing Contest, 635

EQUIPMENT: Paper and pencil for each pair of players

This Name Writing Contest is valuable to get people acquainted when picnickers travel long distances in railroad cars or buses.
The players on one side of the car compete with those on the other. Upon signals at intervals of one minute, players sitting next to the aisle move one seat forward. Each time the one at the extreme front moves to the last seat. During the period when players are seated they try to memorize each others' names. The moving continues until all the players have been seated on every

pg. 525

to the starting line. The leader takes out three objects and distributes the remainder on the line. The running and removing objects continues until either one, two, or three final Winners remain.

Balloon Kicking and Bursting Race, 645

Each girl is provided with a balloon, inflated to about half its maximum size, and secured with a rubber band. The girls line up behind the starting line and place their balloons on the line. A short distance in front of, and parallel to this starting line, is a finish line.
At the signal each girl kicks her balloon toward the finish line. As soon as it goes over the line she picks it up, removes the rubber band and blows it up until it bursts. The girl wins who is first to burst her balloon.
Note for Leaders. Confusion will result unless different colored balloons are used.

Ball Throwing Contest, 646

This is more interesting than throwing contests as conducted in official athletic meets. The first person to throw goes to the: exact spot where his ball lands, as indicated by a judge. Should the next thrower out-distance him, the first one leaves the field, and the second one stands on the spot where his throw landed. However, if the second throw is shorter, the first contestant main. rains his position until some one throws beyond him. After all players have had a trial the individual then standing on the field is the Winner.
Note for Leaders. The leader should ask some one who knows the entrants to try to call them out in such a manner that the poorer throwers throw first.

pg. 532

Sir Welter Race, 647
(Newspaper Race)
NOVELTY RACE EQUIPMENT: TWO pieces of heavy cardboard for each couple

Each lady selects a male assistant who takes his position in front of her and imitates the reputed Action of Sir Waiter Raleigh. At the word "Go" each man places two pieces of cardboard on the ground in the position he expects his lady to take in stepping forward. At each step forward the lady's knight quickly removes the rear cardboard and places it forward in position for her next step. In this manner the lady advances for a comparatively short distance to a goal line. The couple that crosses the line first wins, provided the lady did not touch the ground at any time during the race.
Notes for Leaders. This is an excellent indoor rainy day race. Newspapers may be used indoors, but outdoors they are not practical, because women still wear high heel shoes, even at picnics.
Some professional recreational leaders think so much of this race that they include in their picnic kit pieces of wood as substitutes for cardboard.

Father and Son Leap Frog Race, 648

First call out the boys between the ages of ten and twenty-one. Insist that all boys who have a father present use him as a partner. Boys who have no father present may adopt one. Arrange fathers and sons in relay fashion with four pairs (8 contestants) on each team. Line them up so that fathers and sons alternate. At the word "Go" the player at the end of each line starts jumping over the backs in his line. When he reaches the head he gets down and makes a back so that his team mates may jump over him. As soon as the last player jumps over the second last player,

pg. 533

that individual rises and jumps over the third last, and thus the race continues until the players are back in their original relative positions.

Passing the Buck, 649

This game is guaranteed to create excellent esprit de corps. It has been used several times at outings of over one thousand dignified school teachers and professors.
Without knowing just what is going to happen every man takes his place in a long line. The teams are lined up relay fashion in parallel lines. Each man is requested to inspect the hip pockets of the one in front of him and remove anything hard therefrom; Then a demonstration is given by a trained demonstration team as follows: At the word "Go" the man on the rear of the team paddles vigorously with both hands the seat of the pants of the man in front of him. The second last man, upon receipt of "the buck" (the slap), passes it forward. The game proceeds until the man at the head of the line gets his.
Following the demonstration Part I of the race is started. (Never inform the players of Part II before concluding Part I.) The first part of the race is nothing more than a relay race in passing the buck to the head of the line. After this is concluded everybody does an about-face and the men are instructed to give just as liberally as they received. At the word "Go" the buck is returned to the end of the line.

Tomato Passing Contest, 650

EQUIPMENT: Tomatoes and paper plates

To start this race partners line up facing each other on parallel lines about ten feet apart. All the men on one of the lines are provided

pg. 534

with tomatoes. At the word "Go" each man tosses his tomato to his partner on the opposite line. Invariably, they will all make a clean catch on the first pass. Next, the leader instructs all players to take one long step backwards. At the word "GO" the tomatoes are tossed back to the players who first threw them. Should any one fail to catch his tomato he not only must drop out of the game, but he is also required to clean up the mess with a paper plate, which the leader provides. For the third throw again the men take one long step backward. In this manner the contest continues until only the pair of Winners remains.
Notes for Leaders. If time permits, it will add to the fun to provide newspaper and string for partners to dress each other in improvised aprons.
In case the picnickers are dressed in their best the leader might substitute hard boiled eggs for ripe tomatoes. He should not announce that the eggs are boiled. He might even arrange to drop a raw egg while explaining the game to give the impression that all eggs are raw.

Firecracker-Cigar Race, 651
Equipment: For each entrant, one cigar, a match, two small firecrackers, and a paper cup

Before the race starts place on a finish line, at intervals of about four feet, two firecrackers with their fuses twisted together. Cover the firecrackers with a paper cup and allow the fuses to protrude. Twist a rubber band around each cigar exactly one inch from the end to be lighted.
At the word "Go" each entrant, while moving forward, lights his cigar. Should his first match go out, he must return to get a second. Each contestant goes forward about twenty-five feet to the line on which his firecrackers and cup are placed. He smokes his cigar as rapidly as possible until the rubber band snaps off. Without touching either the cup or the firecracker he lights the

pg. 535

Before starting the race the Nurses are lined up on the starting line and taught a chair carry. This can easily be taught by instructing the Nurses to grasp their left wrist with their right hand, with palms facing the ground. Next, by means of demonstration, the leader shows the Nurses how to complete a chair by facing each other and grasping the disengaged wrists.
After the Nurses learn to form the chair they stand on the starting line with their Patient between them. At the word "Go" the Nurses form the chair. The Patient sits in the chair and holds on with an arm around the shoulders of each Nurse. In this position he is transported to the finish line.
Notes for Leaders. In gatherings in which men and women are reluctant to enter contests, run this contest first with boys and girls.
Nurses may be allowed to select their own Patient; the only proviso being that Patients must weigh at least one hundred pounds.

Balloon Blowing Contest, 656.
This contest provides so much fun for the spectators that it is certainly worth the price of a few balloons. At the word "Blow" all the contestants blow up their balloons. The one who bursts his first wins.
Note for Leaders. Parents should be informed that, as a matter of fact, bursting balloons will cause no harm to their children, otherwise some may strongly object to this contest.

Coin Hunt, 657.
Provide for each entrant a pie plate containing a sterilized coin and flour. Contestants, with their hands tied behind their backs, try to get the coins out of the pan with their mouths.
Note for Leaders. Have the contestants, after removing the coin, run over a finish line toward the spectators, so that they may have the satisfAction of seeing the whitened faces.

Picnic Treasure Hunt, 658.
The man who is popular with children would enjoy arranging for them a dessert Treasure Hunt, 679
Note for Leaders. If the person who lays the trail is inexperienced, caution him about making it difficult--too easy is better than too hard.

pg. 538

Eating Contests, 659
No doubt, watermelon and pie-eating contests will always be popular at picnics and outings. The leader is mistaken who believes that such contests are better when big pies and large watermelons are used. The spectators with finer senses appreciate that the contestants are gorging themselves. Most spectators are interested in only one feature--seeing the smeared faces.

Horseshoe Pitching, 660
Horseshoe Pitching is a standard informal picnic event. Horseshoes are preferable to the less scientific quoits.
Husband and Wife Necktie Race, 661.
Husband runs to wife. She ties his necktie and they race, arm in arm, to the finish line.

Clock Golf, 662.
A Clock Golf contest may be an all day affair. Each contestant places his score card in a box. At the end of a fixed hour the individual having the lowest score wins.

Hoop Rolling, 663.
With hoops increasingly more difficult to obtain, hoop events are less used than formerly. Races may be rolled either in singles, doubles, or relays.
Sack Race, 664.
This is a universally popular picnic race. It can be improved by reserving the sack feature for the last portion of an Obstacle Race.

Clothes-Pin Races, 665.
Probably, a Clothes-Pin Race is popular because it is easy to get women to enter it. They run a short distance and secure miscellaneous items on a line with clothes-pins.

Tug-of-War Rush, 666.
Tugs-of-War seem to be decreasing in popularity. They can be improved by having contestants rush to the rope, pick it up, and try to pull it over to their side before their opponents get set. This is called a Tug-of-War Rush.

Picnic Auctions, 667.
Suppose the first bidder offers twenty cents for a rake, and the next bids twenty-five. The first one pays nothing, but the second one pays the difference between twenty and twentyfive, provided some one raises his bid. Suppose the next one bids thirty-three cents. If no one raises his bid, he takes the cake for thirty-three cents, but if some one were to bid thirty-five cents, he gets nothing and pays two cents.

pg. 539

Water Games

At picnic sites where swimming is available an interesting water sport program should be arranged, including a few official events for expert divers and swimmers, water games, and novelty events which furnish amusement for spectators. It is advisable to conduct water events shortly before lunch, and include events for all age groups.

Tub Race, 668.
Two or more contestants, each seated in a tub, race a short distance to a goal line, propelling themselves with their hands.

Hand-Paddle Boat Race, 669.
Two or more boats are entered. Each is manned with four or more bathers who propel the boat, paddling with their hands only.

Umbrella Race, 670.
Swimmers race a short distance swimming on their backs and carrying open umbrellas.
Notes for Leaders. Avoid accidents by instructing entrants to hold umbrellas as high above the water as possible. Establish a rule that any one will be disqualified who allows the cloth top of his umbrella to touch the water.

pg. 540

Spoon-Ball Race, 671.
Provide for each entrant a spoon and rubber ball. Contestants line up a short distance from the water's edge. At the starting signal they put the spoons in their mouths, place the balls in the bowls, run to the water and swim a short distance holding the spoons in their mouths all the while.
Note for Leaders. If a sloping bottom is available, non-swimmers may enter this race provided the finish line is at a point where the water is about waist-deep.

Run, Swim, Paddle Race, 672.
Contestants run to the water's edge, walk or swim to a canoe or rowboat, climb into it and paddle, with their hands, to a finish line.

Holding the Float, 673.
Contestants line up on a float. At the word "Go" they jump into the water and then try to get back onto the float. The first one to succeed tries to keep the others off. The one who holds the fort at the end of a time limit is the Winner.
Note for Leaders. Boys enjoy this event. Never tell them bow long this fight is to last. Just state that it will be brief, so that they will work fast and furiously. The leader may stop the race whenever it begins to lose interest, which will be in three or four minutes.

Sea-Horse and Rider, 674.
This is an excellent father and son event. Sons are mounted on their fathers' backs. In this position the contest is started in water waist-deep. In a free-for-all fight sons try to dismount each other. As soon as a horse falls, or when a rider is dismounted, both must go ashore.

Water Tug-of-War Rush, 675.
Two teams line up on the shore. At the word "Go" they rush to a rope, the center of which is secured with string to a stake in water knee-deep. Teams attempt to pull each other beyond the stake.

Water Scrambles, 676.
Conduct scrambles for coins for the children in shallow water.
Release a greased watermelon in water shoulder-deep Release a live duck in deep water.

pg. 541

Treasure Hunts and Trails

TREASURE HUNTING, the great outdoor adult game of England, would be in all probability just as popular in this country if our recreational leaders gave it a fair try-out. To the question, "What is a Treasure Hunt)" we must reply, "There are many kinds." They range from the simple hunt of children to find Captain Kidd's buried gold, to the intricate and ultra-modern automobile hunt for adults.
It is predicted that Treasure Hunts will meet with success if the trail-layers do not overrate the ability of the hunters. Children will often display more alertness and ingenuity in following trails than their more staid and unimaginative elders. In all cases trails should be quite obvious, whereas trail-layers frequently seem to think it necessary to invent clews which only a proverbial Sherlock Holmes could solve.

pg. 542

It does not require great ingenuity to lay a trail, but it does require forethought and the experience born of patient experimentation to make clews sufficiently difficult to be tantalizing and easy enough so that the majority of the hunters succeed. Trails should be laid out long enough in advance of the Hunt so that two people, accompanied by the trail-layers, can readily follow it and arrive at its termination in a reasonable amount of time. A Treasure Hunt should never become a "wild goose chase," a guide should keep the trailers on the track. It is worth repeating-test the trail to make sure that the clews are not misleading, that they are neither too easy, too difficult, nor too long for the people for whom they are designed.

A Community Treasure Hunt, 677

To make clear the possibilities of community treasure hunting, the details of one that actually occurred are described.
Preliminaries . Some one in the neighborhood suggested to the leader that it would be good fun to have the parents join the children in a Treasure Hunt. Happy to grasp the opportunity, the leader promptly arranged with two neighbors to lay a trail. One woman who enjoyed writing was induced to write a thrilling introduction to the Hunt. This was read just before the Hunt began.
Testing the Clews. Two adults were found who were willing to forego the fun of the Hunt to help conduct it and test the trail. It was time well spent for, sure enough, regardless of the care taken in laying the trail, an error was discovered.
Getting Started. The six families invited were instructed to wear rough clothing, simulating pirates' costumes in some form or other, and to appear at the appointed place when the bugle was sounded. Arrive they did, but with two additional families, to the momentary discomfiture of the leader whose plans were for six. The uninvited families were separated and intermingled with the families for whom plans had been made.
Forty-five minutes before dark the motley crowd of ruffians and

pg. 543

pirates assembled for the grand parade. They were paraded through the neighborhood to a yard and packed into a small space to await the coming of the fairy. The introductory story previously referred to was then read. The rules of the contest were cleverly interspersed in the story of the imaginary pirates who lived on that very spot hundreds of years ago. The thrilled youngsters promised to obey the rules implicitly. The story concluded with instructions for the children to find the first station. They scattered and finally found the first station where some one was waiting to instruct them verbally to find the next station. In a sort of cave at the third and last station the children found a pirate who rushed them back to the starting place, where, during the absence of the children, the parents had received instructions as to the procedure for the real hunt.
Everything was then in readiness for the first car to leave, to be followed in five minutes by the second, etc. By this arrangement, the six cars left at five minute intervals. Those who wished: played Dodge Ball, 97, while waiting.
Five minutes before each car started the leader of the group was given clew No. I which referred to an ice house.

"Go to the edge of the town,
To a house that's dark brown,
In the summer it's not hot,
So, in winter it is not,
There at the pond's edge a clew
Is patiently awaiting you."

On the reverse side of the sheet the following Note was written:
"If you fail to find the place and wish to check it, go to the first sign at the corner of Second Street and Saunders Road, and find the thirteenth letter, then to sign No. 2, .. ." etc.
The thirteenth letter in sign No. 2 was "I," the letter in No. 2 was "C." Additional letters designated in four different signs Spelled "Ice House."
It is interesting to Note that although the clew to the ice house seemed very simple to those who laid the trail, every group

pg. 544

checked up on the signs and only one group claimed that it was positive of the clew without verifying it.
At the ice house a ghostly voice from within commanded every one to leave flash-lights outside, enter and remain absolutely silent for sixty seconds to learn the whereabouts of the next clew. Spooky clanking and grating of chains, gnawing, scratching, and clattering of debris pierced the one-minute silence. The bloodcurdling voice of Captain Saunder's Ghost then gave instructions for reaching the "Big Rock" (Station No. z). By use of an automobile speedometer and correct right and left turns the Big Rock was easy to find. Even so, one group became lost. One of its selfwilled members was certain he could lead his group to the rock by a short cut.
Carrying out the instructions of Captain Saunder's Ghost, each group in turn assembled and with some difficulty and pretended groaning, knelt on the rock, heads bowed, and sure enough, the information furnished by the Ghost came true. From out of the darkness in the top of a tall tree came the voice of a ghost and a ball of fire. This feat was easily accomplished by stretching a wire from the top of the tree to the base of the rock. Just before giving the cry the boy in the tree lighted a small oil-soaked rag weighted with a stone to which a tin can was attached with a wire. When the hunters spied the flame the boy released the weight and the flaming rag shot toward the rock.
The tin can contained the next clew which was written backwards. The instruction recommended the use of a mirror to decipher the message. Some of the groups seemed helpless but the more resourceful ones thought of the mirrors in their autos. The Note directed them to the main highway.

"To the road six-tenths miles away,
Where Sunday autoists hold sway,
In a crooked tree and rare
Instruction further awaits you there."

In an uncommon gingko tree the next instruction was found, written as follows:

pg. 545

On the reverse side of the card the key was written, as follows:

Upon arriving at 124 West Street some of the hunters found the final instruction in rebus expressed with crude pictures, "Wait till all return."
When all the hunters returned they were instructed to keep with their respective groups and search for the treasure, which was buried somewhere on the premises. One group concluded that the' treasure had been found all too quickly when they discovered loose soil. This was only a ruse. The hunt continued until the teams were ready to give up. Then the leaders spurred the hunters by telling each group whether it was near ("hot") or far ("cold") from the treasure. When at last unearthed, the goodies in the buried box were voted worth the search. The marshmallows it contained were roasted over an open fire, the trinkets and toys distributed among the children, while the older folks enjoyed camp fire songs.
Notes for Leaders. The part which the children contributed toward the success of the evening should not be overlooked. Many parents attended only because the children were welcome. The seriousness of the children as they listened to the introductory.: story and the animation with which they hunted for the preliminary clews, which had been prepared especially for them, aroused the imagination of the parents, and created a universal play spirit.
If the hunt had taken place in daylight, it might have been better to have had intervals of more than five minutes between the departure of cars.
During the first part of the hunt 911 instructions to children were verbal. Some one was hidden at each station to give instructions No instructions were given until all children had assembled. At

pg. 546

the start they were told, "Somewhere back of Thompson's house you'll find a fairy hidden behind a tree." After they found the fairy, they gathered around her and she told them where to find a pirate, who told them to go to Captain Kidd's secret cave as previously described.
Not a single false clew or back trail was used. Experience indicates that it is unwise to use them on short hunts, though it might work out well to use them on an all day hunt. The difficulties adults had in solving simple clews is significant-err on the side of making instructions too easy.
Do not insist that an entire family constitute a team. Allow the hunters to mix and team up as they please, provided all members of a team can pack into (not onto) one car.
One rule that was emphasized but was difficult to enforce forbade motorists traveling faster than thirty miles an hour. Additional suggestions for clews follow: Numbers may be revealed by arithmetical puzzles. Anagrams, 60, contain self-evident suggestions.
International Morse and Semaphore Signal Codes can be portrayed in writing.
If desired, excitement might be created by placing a clew upon a horse and turning him loose in a pasture.

A City Treasure Hunt, 678

A treasure hunt conducted in the city does not have the freedom and appeal that a woodsy hunt quite naturally suggests, but it can be made interesting and crowded with wholesome fun.
The City Hunt of the Boys Club of San Francisco under the sponsorship of the San Francisco Chronicle gives proof that such a hunt can be successfully conducted. It is described below by John C. Neubauer, Managing Director of the Club:

Ten days previous to the date set for the Treasure Hunt, the first story appeared in the paper and, daily until after the affair, a photo and at least a column was run. During this

pg. 547

time boys in the Club were enrolled by filling out an entry blank and as these accumulated the list of entries appeared in the paper.
In the meantime the course was being mapped out. This was probably the most difficult part of the undertaking as it had to be easy enough to complete and yet difficult enough to make it interesting. A section of the city where traffic was the lightest was selected to conduct the Hunt in order to minimize the possibility of accidents. The course was then mapped out and checked by a number of adults to pick out any possible errors and to make sure it could really be solved. During the week previous to the Hunt sample "clews" were published in the paper covering the five districts where we have branches. This gave the boys an opportunity of getting an idea of what was ahead of them.
On the morning of the Treasure Hunt the boys all assembled at the starting point in front of the newspaper office and formed a line of twos. While waiting in line each boy was given a copy of the following rules, so as to be familiar with all details:

CLUB, Inc.
A Contest of Brain and Brawn
Saturday 10:00 A. M. February 18th, I928

Read the following instructions carefully. They will help your chances of winning one of the prizes:
1. Every boy taking part in the contest does so at his own risk and neither the Chronicle nor the San Francisco Boy's Club, Inc., assumes any responsibility in case of accident or injury to any boy taking part. All due precautions have been taken to safeguard the course, and boys must take no unnecessary risks.
25. Remember this is a contest of brain and brawn. It isn't so much speed, as it is using your head. Don't try to rush, for you may overlook a clew and lose out. TAKE YOUR TIME !

pg. 548

3 When you cross streets with signals, go with traffic. Don't try to cut through. On other street crossings, take your time and look carefully in both directions, before crossing,
4 If you get part way through a clew, and it does not work out, go back to the last place where you know you were right, and start out from that point again. If you spot the right signs and markings, you can finish the course successfully.
5 If you get lost and don't know where you are or where to go next, don't get excited. Try to figure out your bearings, or just sit down and wait, for some one will come along who will help you. REMEMBER WE WANT NO WORRIED
6. After you have successfully finished "Clew No. I," be sure to have it stamped on the back, before you get your second one. There are four clews to follow, and each clew must be properly stamped in order to win a prize. Don't lose them, for you must have four stamped clews at the finish to win.
7 Your fourth or last clew will be stamped somewhere along the course. The checking station is kept secret, but if you are following the last clew properly, you will reach it, and your clew maybe properly stamped before you reach the place where the Treasure is located.
8. Boys will have the choice of prizes in the order in which they finish.
9. Although judges will be stationed along the course, boys noting any violation of rules or desiring to enter a protest, must do so immediately at the finish of the contest.
10. Boys are not allowed to secure any help from adults or other boys, and must cover the entire distance on foot, no skates, skooters, street cars, automobiles, or the like are permitted.

Five minutes before the start, the double row was cut and made into three lines of doubles, or six columns. Exactly at the stroke of ten o'clock, as the lines moved over the starting point, each boy was handed an envelope which contained the first clew. It took just about two minutes to pass out the

pg. 549

envelopes to the five hundred boys participating. Their first clew read as follows:
Clew No. I. Stand with your back to the building where you received your clew. Cross the street and walk west, passing three square telephone poles on the same side of the street. Turn to the left at the first corner you reach, go one block, then turn at this corner, and go in the direction of Twin Peaks. Keep going until you pass one fire alarm box, and reach a mail box. Count 64 squares, in the same direction you are going, starting with the square the mail box is on. Stop on the 64th and go to a large palm tree, do an about-face, and travel one block straight ahead, stop at the first fire plug you meet, then walk to the next nearest one. Find an arrow on the top, and walk in the opposite direction from which the arrow points. Stop even with the white entrance of a building painted blue. Then walk in the direction of a yellow sign on the side of a large white building at end of street. Don't cross street, but turn to the left, and stop when you come to a street starting with the 7th letter of the alphabet. Locate a telephone pole with five yellow, seven red, and one green cross-bar. Go to that pole, and starting with the square the pole is in, count 78 squares, going to the north. Face the west and look for a small wooden office. The man in this office will give you the second clew."

It will be noted that no streets were mentioned at any time. When the boys reached the end of the first clew and before they were handed the second one, the completed clew was officially stamped on the back. In order to complete the course successfully the boys had to be checked at control stations or clew points and have their four clews properly stamped. The last clew was checked at a secret control station in order to prevent boys from playing hunches, and figuring the place where the Treasure Hunt would finish. This was a good precaution as almost twenty per cent of the boys to finish did not have their final clew stamped which necessitated the retracing of their fast clew. The entire distance covered was 6.I miles and the first two boys to finish, completed the entire circuit, according to regulations, in one hour and twenty-five minutes. Seventy-five per cent of the boys competing finished the Hunt. Several clews were scattered through the course which made

pg. 550

the youngsters use real headwork to win. For instance, they were told to find an automobile with four numbers on it (not the license) and these four numbers would give them an address to go to. The machine in question was an old Ford with a sign on it reading, "For Sale--$17.28." 1728 was the number.
When they came to a certain city park a block square they had to find a man reading a newspaper of Friday, January 13 Every man in the park, but one, was given a copy of the newspaper of other dates and as one youngster, remarked, he never saw so many men reading the Chronicle at one time before. A Haunted House was also used and a clew put over the entrance, and many a youngster who started to leave the house in discouragement spotted the sign just as he was leaving,
There were a great many interesting happenings during the day, humorous and otherwise, but fortunately no accidents or complaints of any kind. At all points where there was considered the slightest chance of anything happening, special traffic officers were stationed, to see that the boys crossed in safety. All-in-all it was a great day for every one, so much so that the Chronicle has decided to make it an annual event.

Dessert Treasure Hunt, 679

Both old and young enjoy a Treasure Hunt as a means of securing their dessert, provided the leader explains the hunt dramatically with a liberal touch of romance.
The leader might announce excitedly that two escaped convicts were residing nearby and living upon delicacies stolen from neighboring stores. Whereupon, one or two of the hikers or campers, in league with the leader, could elaborate upon the incident, concluding by producing, with an air of mystery, a suspicious looking paper bag upon which is written a message from the supposed convicts, similar to the following:

pg. 551

Shure Shot Dick:
Boy, we hits it swell last nite. Stand on Big Rock. Cast your i north. Beet it strate for hi-est evergreen. Direcshons hiden under her. Hurrie!
The Gang

Organization will be necessary to prevent those who hear the Note from rushing for the tallest evergreen, under which a Note has been previously placed with instructions for finding Note No. I. Unless the leader has organized the players, this hunt will develop into nothing more than a game of Follow the Leader, therefore, give each player a number. Player No. I leads the party in the hunt to the first Note; No. 2 leads in the hunt to the second Note, etc., until the buried treasure (a box of candy) is finally found,
Notes for Leaders. This kind of a hunt should not be attempted unless at least one hour can be taken to lay an interesting trail. Inexperienced leaders err in making instructions too complicated. Exercise your ingenuity and care to lay a fool-proof trail; that is, one that is very easy to follow.
If it is desired to use the play-way of teaching, Notes such as the following may be written:
1. Stand with your back against the white pine evergreen, and face south. Spot the large beech tree with light colored bark about 80 paces away, and find Note No. 2 hidden under the sandstone within a radius of 5 feet from the beech tree.
2. The arrow pointing southeast, marked with charcoal on the sandstone, leads to a shag-bark hickory. Directions are hidden in the outer shell of a hickory nut on the ground northeast from the base of the tree.

Social Treasure Bunt, 680

Possibly the popularity of outdoor treasure hunts carries over to the indoors and accounts for the universal popularity of a

pg. 552

Social Treasure Hunt. This hunt combines the desirable features of a grand march, the game of Follow the Leader, and a treasure hunt.
It is not important that the teams be of equal number, so this hunt may be used as a pre-opening game. The players are organized into any number of teams, each including four members for small parties to twelve members for larger gatherings. The teams assemble in corners, and after learning each others names, they elect a captain, and select a team name.
When all teams are ready they are lined up, and either a grand march or a game of Follow the Leader is started. Suddenly, the music stops, or the leader blows his whistle, as the signal for everybody to scatter and hunt for treasures consisting of nuts, wrapped candy, gum, and small favors, previously hidden throughout the house, room, or over a limited area when in the open.
The guests are not informed about the treasure hunt feature of the game until the grand march is stopped for the first time. Then the leader instructs the crowd in a very firm and positive manner something as follows: "Hereafter, when the whistle blows, you will scatter and hunt for treasures bidden about the room. When you locate one, stand at the spot and give your team call, but under no conditions shall any one except the captain pick up a single treasure. Your captain will hear your call and will come and pick up the treasure. Team-work will help. When you hear a member of your group giving a call assemble around him and help call your captain. Now listen carefully, for It will be very hard for you to obey the instruction I am about to give you, but you must be good sports or the game will degenerate into a farce. Listen! After you have hunted for about a minute I will blow my whistle continuously, and the instant you hear it stop everything and fall in on the sides of the room, in any order you please. When the music starts the grand march continues. Occasionally, we will inject a game of Follow the Leader into the march, so when you see the person in front of you performing some monkey shine, you know that you are to do the same. Now I'll give the signal and away you go."
The hunt continues more or less according to instructions for at

pg. 553

554 least three one-minute hunting periods. When the leader decider that nearly all of the treasures have been found he announces, "Next time I blow the whistle you may go as you please and pick up treasures without calling for your captain. When the whistle blows continuously assemble at the spot where your team first' met and divide up your treasures."
Notes for Leaders. It is essential that no two teams have the same name or call. Make clear to the players that it is to their advantage to select a distinct call, such as, the bark of a dog, the bray of a donkey, the call of a crow, or the whistle of a bobwhite.
Instruct the person who heads the line for the game of Follow the Leader to perform only simple stunts, and do not follow the practice of having those who fail go to the end of the line. The leader might skip, march with an exaggerated, so-called, "goosestep," walk on tiptoes with arms over head to imitate a toe dancer, step over chairs, etc.

Bunt and Trade, 681

The hunting and trading feature of this game will appeal to youngsters, but the game as a whole, with its element of chance, appeals to all ages.
The leader prepares a large quantity of small colored paper squares. About a fourth -of them are lettered, the others are left blank. The squares are partially concealed all about the house, veranda, and lawn. At the starting signal the players scatter and hunt. At the conclusion of the hunt they trade squares, in an effort to secure all those of one letter, in the hope that they will get a "corner" on a valuable letter. After the players have traded as long as they desire, the leader informs them of the value of the various letters and then they compute their scores.
Notes for Leaders. Unlettered white squares--the easiest to find--count least, red next, and blue or black most.

pg. 554

555 Various values may be assigned to the letters:
"L," stands for luck and counts 10; "D" stands for double and counts to; "A" stands for add, add ten; "T" for take, subtract 10.

Trailing City Signs, 682

This type of trail is recommended without qualification to teachers who have facilities for mimeographing or typing. The trail as described was used for two years by fourth, fifth, and sixth grade pupils in the Horace Mann School, Teachers College, Columbia University. When following it the pupils worked together in pairs after school hours. Each pair-was provided with a mimeographed copy of the material below. The numerous parenthetical statements are added to make clear the trail. Each paragraph contained at least one blank space. The answers, which were written on the blank lines by the children while en route, are printed in black face type.
Trailing City Signs provided enough recreation for the Horace Mann School children so that it was unnecessary to provide prizes of any kind. After all the members of a class, working in pairs, followed the trail the correct answers were read by the teacher and the pupils scored one or more points for each correct item.
I. Start from 54' West 120th Street (One of the school entrances, the number of which was difficult to find), go in a westerly direction until you come to a yellow box marked No. 3608. What is it! Box the policeman uses to call headquarters. (A number of children learned this by talking with a policeman who became very friendly,)
2. Go south from the box about 400 feet to the top of the hill. (For purpose of measurement the pupils ascertained in advance the number of natural paces they took in traversing 100 feet. Note that all the distances used in this trail were in even hundreds of feet.) On the left hand side of the street find a bronze tablet erected in memory of the Battle of Harlem Heights, fought on this very spot on the date of June 16, I776.

pg. 555

3. Using the figures in the date on the tablet, divide the day of the month by two and the year by the quotient and subtract twenty-two. What is your answer! zoo
4. Go down Broadway the number of feet in your answer to two trees, one of which has the top cut off. What kind of trees': are they! American elms.
5. Continue down Broadway to two green boxes. What is the most important inscription on the one marked "J Section!" Post Office, 309--311 West 125th Street.
6. Wait for the green light! Stand on the platform of the subway entrance, look around carefully for about five minutes, and write down all the things the City of New York has erected or done for the safety, service, and convenience of its citizens. (The discussion of this item provided excellent civic education. The number of items noticed was astonishing.) Fire plug, fire box, orange light indicating fire box, are light, lamp post, street car signs, safety signs, subway entrance, taxi stand, trash box, street signs, sidewalks, paved road, curb stones, traffic lights, street cleaners, patrolman, traffic officer.
7. Wait for the green light! Cross Broadway and look toward the Hudson River at the red fire alarm box two blacks away. Each of you guess how many feet it is from the corner to the box, and write down your average. Now pace it and write down your answer. 350 feet. (The result of actual pacing was excellent.) 8. Read the instructions on the fire alarm box. What would you do to turn in a fire alarm? Turn the handle until the bell rings.
9. Continue toward the Hudson River until you come to a drinking fountain. Then travel the path in a northerly direction until you come to an iron bench placed there for your convenience by the City Park Department. Sit down, close your eyes for two or three minutes, do not even whisper, just listen. What sounds other than voices and automobiles did you hear! Sparrow, running water, wind, rustling leaves, boat whistle, train, policeman's whistle, baby carriages, footsteps.
10. Go with traffic signals to the Columbia University campus across from the school. Use any book on trees you can get and

pg. 556

list the trees you can identify inside the campus. If you do not have time to finish it do it some other time. (Pupils who wished could secure illustrated tree guides from the library.) Notes for Teachers. If as few as two players work together on a trail, it is recommended that a schedule be worked out, so that groups do not meet while en route. There should be less than six in each group. Note that in this trail the pupils were not required to finish in one afternoon. In fact they were encouraged to carry on tree study in item No. 10 on an additional afternoon.
It is advisable to make this kind of activity entirely optional. It is predicted that there will be very little difficulty in getting nearly all the class to try, if those who follow the trail report upon it without giving away secrets.
The teacher who has not had experience in laying treasure trails should study this one and Note how carefully it was laid out so that no one would get off the track.

A Tree Trail, 683

This is a play-way method of tree study in story form, which may be used in other nature subjects. It is a very popular method in such organizations as Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, camps, and nature clubs in general. It is believed that, without exception, any leader who has used a tree trail will vouch for its excellence. It is presented in this chapter to satisfy the teacher who may be unable to use Trailing City Signs, 682.
A localized form of the trail below was used successfully with a group of boys from twelve to fourteen years of age. Before starting on the trail, they spent about four fifteen-minute periods of indoor book study. Upon returning from the trail, another period was spent in discussing the trees. Following this, every one passed a very creditable tree examination. As will appear, many blank spaces were left in the story to be supplied in the field by the two teams. These have been filled in with black face type.

pg. 557

Many moons ago, before the days of the Revolution, the Delaware Indians pitched their wigwams on this very hill. The chief trained his warriors in the ways of the woods by following trails. He rewarded Winners with a prize or treasure, and thus we have treasure hunts. Below is a translation of the last treasure hunt of this famous tribe:
1. Start from the cabin, get your bearings from the sun and look in a northerly direction at the tall evergreen tree about 200 feet away. Look at it carefully from the cabin. Let every one name it and write the name of the tree the majority think it to be. --- Now go and examine it. What is it! White Pine 2. Follow the trail from this tree in the direction of the rising sun, and stop on the right hand side of the path at the first tree that has distinctly red colored leaves. What is it.' Japanese Maple 3 Continue to the end of the trail and take the path going north. Within the radius of a hundred feet of the turning point, you will find a medicine tree with at least three differently shaped leaves. Let the braves scatter to see who can find the Sassafras Tree. If the Little Chief will cut up a small root, he can bail it and make a fine cup of tea for every member of his tribe. (This was actually done.)
4. Line up the braves across the trail and run a race to the next point which is distinctly marked by a line of stones laid across the road. On the right hand of the line you will find a Flowering Dogwood tree in bloom. On the left you will find a Tulip Tree with a characteristic straight black trunk.
5 Continue along this paleface trail until you come to a side trail marked by a dead Black Oak Tree.
6. Stop at the first large maple tree on the right side of the trail. What is the young tree at the base of the maple! Red Maple Tree. Is it the same as the big maple! Yes
7 Within two hundred feet of the little tree you will find a White Oak tree with two large trunks growing out of one of the stumps.
8. Go back to the maple tree and continue along the path until you come to a white maple tree with a very large decayed cavity in the base. In it find a Note written in the secret code of the

pg. 558

Delawares. Now you must place your left hand over your heart, raise your right hand, and together repeat: "I hereby state that I will never, never, even upon pain of death, to my dying day, reveal the secret code that was used in writing this Note." The Note follows: HP UP CPVMEFS. This is the secret--the actual letter is the one in the alphabet preceding each code letter. The first letter, "H," stands for "G." The entire message is Go to boulder.

Hidden in a container under the only nearby boulder, was a Note instructing the trailers to go to a nearby street and return to the starting point by walking on the sidewalk on the left hand side of the street. Furthermore, the Note stated, "List the species (no two alike) of the trees growing between the sidewalk and the curb."
Notes for Teachers. If the class is to be divided into four groups, the teacher should take four pupils along when laying the trail. Later let each of these pupils act as trail guides or captains in charge of the groups. Instruct these captains to set the groups aright in case they get off the trail.
Before starting on a tree trail pupils should be given very definite verbal instructions, such as:
Leave everything on the trail just as you find it.
If you find Notes hidden in bottles or cans, replace them just as you found them.
Each group will be scored according to the accuracy used in naming trees. Thus, if you write "maple," and that is correct, you receive one point, but if you write "red maple," and that happens to be correct, you receive two points, but if it is a white maple, you receive zero.
Tree books should be provided for each group. Many State Departments of Forestry will furnish tree pamphlets free.
For additional trails of this kind see Games and Recreational Methods.

pg. 559

Woodsy Activities

more and more we feel the urge to get out into the open. This is the impetus for the form of recreation which has found expression in the "back to nature" idea so much in vogue in many countries.
To satisfy this desire, some of the better playgrounds and clubs, unfortunately situated where it is difficult to take groups to the woods, have sought to bring the woods to the playground. On the other hand, some leaders have endeavored, it seems, to take the city to the woods. This error is grotesque to the real outdoor man or woman. Why pack cold lunches, baseball bats, or basket balls when Nature calls young and old alike to give vent to their propensities for observing, hunting, collecting, hiding and chasing, tasting and smelling the good outdoors! The food we cook ourselves over an open fire in this atmosphere tastes so indescribably good. With all this for the mere asking, certainly, every recreational organization should include at least an annual outdoor adventure or outing, commonly called a hike.
It is a mistake to think of a hike as a long walk. Read from the

pg. 560

Handbook for Scoutmasters advice for Scoutmasters:
"Too much time is of ten wasted in walking. If you have a day to spend on out-of-door work, why spend ninety per cent of it going to the woods and coming home! So many Scoutmasters pick out a nice place about seven miles away and spend a large part of the time hiking along the highway, with more or less baggage, going to the place and getting back. The boys become tired, the younger ones lag behind, they are interested in nothing but the next well or a place to rest, and they arrive home worn out with nothing gained but blistered feet.
"A far better way is to get out to the country by trolley or other means. Then a ten minutes' walk takes you into the woods. Now you are ready to do real Scouting, it is early in the day, and you are not tired in the least."

Hike Suggestions

The Pioneer Squad ; A day's outing in the woods proceeds much more smoothly if a Pioneer Squad is used. A few of the better workers in charge of an older person can act in this capacity. Starting about an hour in advance of the main party, they might lay a trail, gather fire-wood, prepare games, etc. They may use chalk to mark a trail from the end of transportation to the outing site. If they know Scouting trail signs, so much the better.
Caution! Paper litters the woods--do not lay a trail with confetti or torn paper unless the trailers who follow pick it up. If chalked arrows are used on the trail, they can be erased. Birds will eat rice.
Hike Preliminaries. Before starting upon a hike the leader should consider the following questions:
1. Was permission obtained for the use of the site! 2. Is the transportation cost within the means of all the hikers!
3 Is the walking distance so great that the hikers will be fatigued when they arrive at the site!
4 Is small down wood available for fire building, or will it be necessary to carry axes and cut wood!

pg. 561

5 Is the place free from dangers, such as, tall cliffs and water hazards!
6. Has the program been put in writing; are several competent people responsible for program details; or, will the leader be so encumbered with details that he will have time for nothing else! 7 Is pure water available!
8. Are adequate toilet facilities available, or must a trench latrine be dug!
9. Were the hikers informed of the exact time and place of leaving; the amount of food and money needed; list of essentials to bring; the time of return?
10. Will some one be at the place of departure to inspect the hikers to ascertain that they are properly clothed and shed, and to send home those who have infectious colds and do not appear well!
11. Will some one bring a simple first aid kit to treat minor cuts and burns which may be incurred!

Hike Games

Irrespective of age, imaginative play is enjoyed by all hikers, who will repeatedly play the same game for a surprisingly long time. The leader whose experience is limited to the city should remember this and carefully select hike games in an attempt to find a favorite. Leaders frequently say, as One did, "My hikers did not enter into the spirit of the game for some time, but when they did I had to force them to quit, and on later hikes they continued to demand the same game." This leader continued with the question, "Now what shall I do to stop the game.)" The reply was, "Why stop it!"

Pioneers and Indians, 684

Divide the players equally into "Pioneers" and "Indians." The Pioneers choose their "Starving Captain," who holds the "Block

pg. 562

House." Each Pioneer is provided with a slip of paper bearing the name of a food supply and its allotted playing value: Flour-25, Baking Powder--to, Dried Beef--15, Hardtack--10, Jam--10, Fruit--5, Sugar-5, Tea-S. The Chief, chosen by the Indians, is allowed about ten minutes to distribute his Braves in the Indian Territory surrounding the Pioneers' Block House. In the meantime the Pioneers quickly surround the Indians, seeking points of vantage to break through and save their Starving Captain.
The object of the Pioneers is to break through and deliver their Food (slips of paper) to their comrade (Captain). The Indians try to capture the Pioneers, search them and confiscate any Food found upon them.
The game starts with the Captain stationed in the Block House, the other Pioneers scattered over their free territory, and the Indians hidden within their own territory, Fifteen minutes or more is allowed for play, at the expiration of which the players assemble and the score is calculated. The Indians total the numerical value of the supplies which they capture from the Pioneers, and the starving Captain totals the numerical value of the supplies that have been delivered to him by the Pioneers. The side with the larger total wins.
Notes for Leaders. The Indian custom of making "Big Medicine" before the start of an adventure can be used similarly by leaders to stir the imaginations of boys and girls before the game begins. During the meal or at its close a game might be described with, perhaps, exaggerated gusto. Then let the sides or teams be chosen, and since every hike program should include free time for

pg. 563

roaming the woods, why not include it now! Suggest that while luncheons are digesting the Indians explore their territory and mark their boundaries, while the Pioneers lay out their Block: House.

A Pioneer may be captured simply by tagging, but any of the following methods of capture increase the interest: (a) Snatching yarn or tissue paper tied to the arm.
(b) Grabbing handkerchief allowed to protrude from pocket or belt.
A Pioneer may be required to surrender his paper immediately upon capture, but the players get more fun out of the game if the Pioneer is permitted to hide his treasure about his person, and the Indian who captures him is then allowed to search while the Pioneer counts slowly to one hundred. If the Indian does not find the paper before the end of the count, he escorts the captive beyond the Indian Territory, and the Pioneer is free to try again. If the Indian finds the paper, he takes it, and the Pioneer holds up both hands to show he has been captured, returns to his territory for another food supply, and enters the game again.
The younger players will enjoy drawing their Food (papers) from a hat.
The Indians are at a disadvantage in a heavily wooded spot, though this is not serious, as the teams take turns at being Indians.

Capture the Flag, 685

Throughout the world this game has been made universally popular by both Boy and Girl Scout organizations, and no collection of woodsy games is complete without it.
The Armies and Officers. Each team, called an "Army," selects a captain, corporal of the prison guard, and corporal of the flag guard. The adult leader acts as the "Generalissimo," umpiring and coaching all officers and soldiers. Each army is marked in some

pg. 564

manner--wearing of a handkerchief, arm-band, cap, head-band, etc.
The BattleFields. The playing area is divided by a road, path, stream, or an imaginary line into two battlefields. Each army selects as a prison a tree or stump 20 paces from the boundary line and stations there a prison guard of one or more men. Within 100 paces of the center of the dividing line each army erects its flag. An inconspicuous spot may be selected for the flagstaff, notwithstanding, it must be planted so that it can be readily seen. The several players acting as flag guards must at all times maintain a distance of 20 paces from the flag, unless an enemy approaches nearer than that distance.
The Battle. When all is in readiness the Generalissimo blows a whistle or bugle. Any player is subject to capture while on enemy territory. A player must be held by one or more opponents until the word "caught" is called three times before a capture is effected. Upon capture one of the players escorts the captive to prison. A prisoner may escape when touched by one of his team mates, provided the prisoner was actually touching the prison

pg. 565

base when his team mate tagged him. One player can rescue only: one prisoner at a time. The prisoner and rescuer hold up a hand and both return to their own territory exempt from capture. Of course, any player attempting a rescue may be captured by the prison guard, whereupon he, too, is put in the guard house.
In order to capture the flag a player must carry it across the border without being caught. When a raider is caught before reaching home, the flag is replanted in its original spot and the game proceeds.
The Victors. The game should continue for a definite time decided upon before the start. At the expiration of that time, if neither army has captured the flag, the one having the greatest number of prisoners wins.
Notes for Leaders. Coach players to be adroit and first reconnoiter to locate the flag and report its whereabouts. Then organize a false attack of the weaker players to engage the attention of the enemy, thereby giving the stronger players a chance to more successfully charge the flag guard from an opposite direction. Prisoners may request permission to hold hands to form a human chain and stretch toward the boundary line, as in the game of Stealing Sticks, 247 This is not advisable, because escape is made so easy that some players deliberately permit themselves to be caught for the fun of escaping.
Improvised flags can be made from handkerchiefs. The flagstaff should be at least 6 feet long. See that it is erected on a dry spot, never in an inaccessible wet place or swamp.
The popularity of Capture of the Flag tempts leaders to concede to the wishes of their charges and permit them to play it at night. This is decidedly inadvisable, due to the danger involved.

Hunting for Diamonds, 686

EQUIPMENT: Bag of small pieces of torn papers, preferably of different colors. About one-fourth of the papers, the "Diamonds," are numbered from 2 to 10.

pg. 566

This is an improvement upon the old-fashioned Paper chase. The automatic method of eliminating the littering of the woods should appeal to all leaders.
Two or three of the players, "Trail Layers," are given, as the children say, a "head-start" of about three minutes to lay a partial trail by dropping Diamonds and "Path Finders," the unnumbered pieces of paper. When the Trail Layers have scattered all the paper they drop the bag, and hide within one hundred paces from the bag. When the Hunters discover the empty bag they scatter to search for the Trail Layers, who are required to remain in their hiding places until caught. The first Hunter who touches a Trail Layer receives twenty points. The player wins who receives most points.
Each Trail Layer tagged .....20 Points
Each Path Finder found ......1 Point
Each Diamond found ....2 to 10 Points
Note for Leaders. When the players at the head of the pack lose the trail they should be instructed to call "Lost Trail!" as the signal for all to scatter and hunt for it. When a player finds a lost trail he should be honor-bound to call repeatedly, "Found trail," before he picks up a single piece of paper.

Sheep Pull Down, 687

This is a simple hiding game which for generations has been enjoyed by players who consider themselves too mature for Hide and Seek.
One player is selected to be "It." A tree is marked as the "Home Goal." A stick about 2 feet long and 2 inches in diameter is placed against the tree. All players gather around the tree and "It" chooses one player to throw the stick. When it lands everybody runs--the players for a hiding place and "It" for the stick, which he must place against the tree before he can start the hunt. If

pg. 567

"It" sees George, for example, he cries, ('I spy George," and rushes to beat him to the tree. Succeeding, he throws the stick and yells, "Sheep pull down for George!" This informs the others that George is now "It," and gives them a chance to find another hiding place while George replaces the stick.
While "It" is out hunting, any player may dart from his hiding place, run to the tree, throw the stick, and so inform the others by yelling "Sheep Pull Down!" "It" must then cease seeking and replace the stick and again continue the hunt.
Note for Leaders. When playing in the woods the stick should always be thrown in the same general direction, toward the most open spot. Otherwise, the game might well be called "Hunt the Stick."

Nature Chase, 688

This is a woodsy adaptation of birds, trees, flowers, etc, to a playground game of chase.
Two captains choose sides and determine which team shall be "Chasers" and which "Runners." Then the playing space, usually a road, is marked as illustrated.
The Runners and Chasers, respectively, retire behind their Safety and Starting Lines. The Runners decide upon the name of either a bird, tree, flower, or plant, which decision is kept secret from the Chasers. To illustrate, if they decide upon a bird, say Woodpecker, the Runners advance to the take-off line and announce to the Chasers that they are "Birds." Now the game actually starts.
Under the direction of their Captain the Chasers huddle in a compact mass and decide upon a number of birds. Each player

pg. 568

is then assigned a certain bird. Now they return to the starting line, three feet from the opponents, who are behind the take-off line, and the active part of the game begins.
The first Chaser calls loudly the name of the bird assigned to him. If it is not the one selected by the Runners they yell in unison, "Wrong." The next Chaser then names a bird, etc. When "Woodpecker" is called the Runners instantly dash for safety behind the safety line, pursued by the Chasers. The Chasers receive one point for each player tagged. The team wins that has most points at the end of an even number of innings.
Notes for Leaders. It is advisable to permit players to select only such nature objects as are indigenous to the part of the country in which they live.
When players fail to name the object selected by their opponents, after each member named one thing, they tend to give up. They should be encouraged to retire and think of more objects and keep trying until successful. A name should be used only once during a game.

Smugglers Over the Border, 689

This is an improved form of the game of Cops and Robbers, which is one of the most popular games among younger boys the world over when they play without an adult leader.
The players are evenly divided into two parties, the "Smugglers" and the "Police," or as the boys call them, the "Cops." One of the Smugglers, unknown to the opponents, is provided with an object such as, a pocketknife, stone or large coin, called the "Plunder," which he conceals wherever he chooses about his person. The object of the Smugglers is to deliver the Plunder to their den, a specified tree, or marked spot in the center of a wooded area.
To start the game the Police conceal themselves within their own territory, and the Smugglers take positions on the surrounding

pg. 569

edges of the wooded territory. When the Police Captain declares his force ready, the Smugglers may cross the border. To capture a Smuggler a Policeman must tag him. When a Policeman captures a player he searches him. If he finds the hidden Plunder, the game ends. If he fails to find the Plunder, he orders the Smuggler to throw up his hands and go back over the border. After returning to the border the Smuggler may again enter the Police Territory.
If the Smuggler who holds the Plunder reaches his den before the expiration of a predetermined time limit, of about ten minutes, his side wins. If the Police capture the one who has the plunder before the end of the time limit, they win. If the Smuggler fails to reach his den with the Plunder but is free in Police Territory, at the end of the time limit, the game is tie.
Notes for Leaders. Players seem to enjoy this game more when the time allowed a Policeman to search a captured Smuggler is limited to about one minute (100 slow counts).
Smugglers who do not have the Plunder should be coached to engage the attention of the Police as much as possible.

Blind Animal Stalking, 690

On a playground normal boys and girls would be interested in this type of game for only a short time because of its slow Action, but, in the woods this very feature makes it quite acceptable shortly after eating.
Select the "Blind Animal," let him select his "Keeper" who blindfolds him. The Keeper leads his charge to the center of a clearing strewn with dry sticks and leaves. The other players, the "Stalkers," gather around them in a rough circle twenty to thirty feet in diameter. When the Keeper announces, "Ready," the game starts.
The Stalkers tiptoe or quietly crawl toward the Blind Animal and try to touch him. When the Animal distinguishes a sound

pg. 570

made by an approaching Stalker, he points to the spot from which he thinks it came. If he points out a Stalker, the Keeper motions that player back to the circumference of the circle, from which he may again advance. When a player succeeds in touching the Blind Animal he exchanges places with the Keeper, who becomes the Blind Animal for the next round.
Notes for Leaders. Under no circumstances are the Stalkers permitted to charge or rush the Blind Animal.
Impress upon the players the necessity for silence throughout the game. Even when a player returns to the circle he must do so very quietly.

String Burning Contest, 691

This contest, a recreational method to teach and practice firebuilding, is very popular among campers, Scouts, and Camp Fire Girls. It has been used successfully as a picnic activity with mixed teams of men, women, and children. The contest consists of two distinct parts.
Part I--Laying the Fire. The leader, with the aid of contestants, should demonstrate the correct way to lay a fast-burning crisscross fire, illustrated on page 580
1. Drive two sticks into the ground. They should protrude 18 inches above the ground and be about 12 inches apart.
2. A heavy cord, securely fastened to each stick, should be stretched across the top. Six inches from the top, that is, twelve inches from the ground, a second cord should be stretched between the two stakes.
3. Erect a fuzz-stick or fuzz-stick substitute between the upright sticks. (For directions to make a fuzz-stick see Not 695.) 4 Lap four foundation sticks, as illustrated in the Crisscross Fire, 699.

pg. 571

5 Upon the foundation sticks pile thin dry sticks in crisscross fashion to the height of the lower string.
At the conclusion of the demonstration divide the players into r teams of from four to eight, each. Let each group select a cleared, perfectly safe spot upon which to build its fire. Allow a few minutes for the teams to decide just what each one shall do in the race; insist that they organize. Caution them to make sure their fires are laid just right before they yell, "Fire laid," and impress upon them that they cannot touch a single stick after the fire is lighted. Emphasize that only I point will be awarded to the team that is ready first, but 5 points will be given to the team that is first to burn both strings. Then give the signal.
Part II--Burning the String. Upon signal the first member of each group proceeds to light his fire, using only one match. If he fails, a second member takes a try with one match, and so on, until the fire is lighted. Once lighted, the fire must not be touched and the blaze must not be fanned, but, if a strong wind is blowing and a windbreak seems desirable, to that end the players may station themselves wherever necessary to cut off the wind.
Notes for Leaders. Help the captains organize their teams. A system similar to the following is good: No. I. Supervise, direct, lead.
No. 2. Get stakes, drive them and tie on the two pieces of string.
No. 3 Make a fuzz-stick or gather a fuzz-stick substitute.
No. 4 Cut and lay four foundation sticks, It inches long and about 2 Or 3 inches in diameter.
No. 5 Gather a bundle of small dry twigs It inches long. No. 6. Pile the twigs crisscross to height of first string.
Note: When a contestant completes his assigned job he may help others.
Do not attempt a String Burning Contest on a very windy day. Always clear a bigger spot than seems necessary, as the wind may shift or blow up quickly.
If wood is plentiful or the party is small, pair the players instead of having teams.

pg. 572

Roadside Cribbage, 692

This is an excellent game to play while hiking along the road or trail. It can be played successfully with only two players. If there are more than eight, they should be divided into groups.
First decide upon a list of objects to be observed. The first person who scores twenty-one points for observing these objects is the Winner. A suggested list of objects and points to be awarded follows :

Each specified make of automobile ... 1 Point
Each wrecked or crippled automobile ...... 2 Points
Each cat or dog ..... 1 Point
Each wild animal ....... 2 Points
Each group of cows or horses in pasture ........ 1 Point
Each horse or team at work on road or in field .... 2
Points Each bird or flock of birds flying ............ I Point
Each bird or flock of birds perching.... 1 Point
Each wild animal ........ 2 Points
Each specified tree........ 1 Point

Notes for Leaders. As an interesting method of keeping score let each player gather twenty-one pebbles and throw one away every time he scores a point. The first one to get rid of his pebbles wins.
The leader or umpire should bring up the rear and permit no one to lag behind or leave the trail.
On long hikes frequent rests should be taken, at which time scores should be announced and new objects for observation added to or subtracted from the list.
In the usual method of scoring only the first player to name an object scores. If this method is changed to permit scoring by every one who whispers to the umpire the name of an object observed, there will be more scoring and sharper observing. This, however, makes travel slower.

pg. 573

Jack, Jack, Show Your Light, 693

This is one of the few games that can be played at night with reasonable safety.
Select one player, preferably a poor runner, to act as "Jack" and provide him with a flash-light, whistle, and watch. Describe the boundaries to all players. Then give Jack one minute, more or less, depending upon the denseness of the woods, to find a hiding place.
At the expiration of the allotted time the leader instructs the players to scatter and hunt for Jack, calling, "Jack, Jack, show your light!" Jack obeys the command swinging his light high overhead in a horizontal circle with light pointing outward. Each player is honor-bound to call, "Go, Jack, Go!" the instant he sees the light. The players call for Jack to show his light constantly, but he is required to do so only once per minute. In case Jack receives no instruction to move on, he first swings his light continuously and then blows his whistle until some one does instruct him to go.
At the end of the time agreed upon (ten to fifteen minutes), in event no one captures Jack, he must stand, blow his whistle at quarter-minute intervals and show the light from his fixed position until captured. The player who touches Jack first takes Jack's place in the next round.
Notes for Leaders. The leader who has never used night games may be surprised to see the enjoyment which even the simplest game furnishes. Running in the dark, however, involves great hazard, and such games should be reserved for twilight and moonlight nights.
Jack, Jack, Show Your Light should be played in a comparatively small area, otherwise Jack will not be captured during the time limit.

pg. 574

Instruct Jack to use comparatively open spots for hiding, and make sure that he understands that he is not permitted to climb a tree or conceal himself in a cave. He must also understand that he must, at all times, remain in place until some one commands "Go, Jack, Go!" Similarly, the chasers must appreciate that they are honor-bound to tell Jack to go whenever they see his light.
Several rounds of this game may be played to tire a group on an overnight camp.

Hunt the Jacks, 694

In this team variation of Jack, Jack, Show Your Light, 693, the players are divided into two teams, the "Jacks" and the "Hunters." If possible, provide each Jack with a Rash-light, at the same time relieving all Hunters of their lights.
The leader Notes the exact time and sends the Jacks to seek hiding places. At the expiration of one and one-half minutes a warning signal is given. At the end of another half minute the leader blows his whistle as a joint signal for the Jacks to halt and for the Hunters to try to find them. Of course, most Jacks will be hidden either singly or in groups before the second whistle. At one-minute intervals the leader sounds his whistle as a signal for the Jacks to swing their lighted flash-lights overhead in a complete horizontal circle. When a Hunter finds a Jack he touches him, whereupon Jack must return to the starting point.
At the end of five or more minutes the leader blows his whistle continuously as a signal for both Hunters and Jacks to return to the starting point. A record is kept of the number of captured Sacks. The same process is then repeated with the Jacks acting as Hunters. The team wins that captures the greatest number of Jacks.
Notes for Leaders. If there is a scarcity of lights, arrange the Jacks into groups and provide each group with a light. Instruct

pg. 575

each group to remain together while in hiding, for the rule, "One caught, all caught," then becomes applicable.
When explaining the game make clear that the Jacks are not permitted to leave their hiding places under any condition. Jacks will be tempted to shift positions when the Hunters approach. Here is a test of moral courage.
Never permit players who are without lamps to throw lighted matches into the air. It may not be dangerous in the late spring, but precedents are thus established.

pg. 576

Fire Building and Cooking

ANY one who leads outdoor cooking intelligently must be able to teach the most important part of cooking, namely, fire building. The fires and recipes in this chapter, intended for the novice who takes only an occasional hike, will be found both simple and practical. The more accomplished leader will be interested in a chapter on fire building and another on outdoor cooking in Games and Recreational Methods.
Teaching the Ways of the Woods. Children, as well as adults, should learn the ways of the woods along with the reasons for their being. It is not enough to teach the "don'ts." Often, adults are to blame when the hike site is left untidy, forbidden flowers are picked, or the woods set on fire. We may expect intelligent obedience and willing cooperation in the ways of the woods when the instruction is positive. Suggestions for the presentation of

pg. 577

precautions follow:
1. It requires Nature scores of years to produce a full-grown tree. In a very few minutes that tree can be destroyed by carelessness, such as, hacking it with an axe, or building a fire against it.
2. Birch bark is very good for starting fires, but what happens to a live tree when you strip it of its bark!
3 Let's get the woodman's habit of breaking every lighted match before throwing it away. Why?
4 In some states it is a punishable crime to go away and leave a camp fire burning.
5 It is dangerous to build a fire on a windy day. There should be fire-extinguishing material at hand, such as, sand, loose soil, or water. Who will bring a shovel?
6. If we bury cans without flattening them they will rust and some day a cave-in will result. We can dispose of cans by putting them on the fire to burn out the liquid contents before flattening and burying them.
Materials for Kindling Fires. Unless you are building a very large fire in a hole, never let dried leaves tempt you. Figuratively speaking, they go up in a puff and invariably fail to get the fire started. Unfortunately, for some of us, the ways of the woods forbid our starting fires with paper, so we must learn to make either a fuzz-stick or a substitute for it.

Fuzz-Stick, 695

Before trying to make a fuzz-stick be sure to have a sharp knife and a piece of soft wood free from knots, about a foot long and an inch thick. If the fuzz-stick is to be erected in hard ground, point one end. When whittling rest the blunt end of the stick against something solid--not your leg, unless your first aid kit is handy-and whittle long thin shavings around the entire stick. The trick in handling the knife so that the shavings

pg. 578

remain on the stick can be accomplished by pulling up on the stick, and cutting a little deeper as you near the end Of the stick.
Note. When using a fuzz-stick drive the pointed end into the ground to such a depth that the bottom of the shavings actually touch the ground.

Fire-Lighters, 696.
A fire-lighter is a small, very fuzzy fuzzstick. Several of them may be used for starting a fire, but their principal use is for lighting fires. A wise scout or woodsman knows that he can light a fire with the use of only one match, with reasonable certainty, by using that single match to light a fire-lighter, which in turn he uses to light the fire in several places. Certainly, a fire-lighter should be used on a windy or wet day.
To make a fire-lighter whittle six or eight very thin shavings about five inches long on the end of a soft wood stick. When whittling the last shaving let the knife pass on through the end of the stick; that is, cut the bunch of six or eight shavings off the stick. It is easy to see that when this bundle of thin shavings is lighted you have the equivalent of six or eight long matches.

Fuzz-Stick Substitute, 697

No whittling is required to make a fuzz-stick substitute. In bouquet fashion gather a large handful of very thin, bone-dry twigs or weed stalks at least a foot long. Break off the scraggly ends leaving a bundle of stalks twelve inches long. Crack (not break) the center of the bundle over your knee. Dig a small depression in the ground with your heel and erect the twigs in wigwam form.

Paper and Leaf Substitute, 698.
Those who insist upon using paper or leaves for starting fires should pack the paper or leaves in wads and lay foundation sticks (see illustration of foundation sticks in Crisscross Fire, page 580) around the wads to hold up the kindling wood so that the fire will not fall into a smoldering heap after the starting material burns up.
Avoid a Pyramid Fire. Observation indicates that the negative

pg. 579

suggestion following will prove valuable to many readers if they will only observe it: Never try to cook on a pyramid or wigwam shaped fire. The center burns out very quickly, causing the fire-wood to fall to the ground into a smoking mass which is useless for rapid cooking.

Crisscross Fire, 699

For general cooking the crisscross fire is excellent. Study the illustration carefully. Note that the entire structure is twelve inches each way; that is, it is a twelve-inch cube. The use of the two-inch foundation sticks is important. They raise the pile of wood from the ground, permitting a free draft.

Hunter or Trapper Fire, 700

This is the most popular American cooking fire. Unfortunately, it requires considerable fuel and a large axe to cut the necessary side logs. It has the advantage of retaining heat longer than a crisscross fire and it can be used without a pot-hanger. The side logs

pg. 580

should be laid at an angle of approximately 45 to the direction of the wind. A damper stick should be placed on the side from which the wind is blowing, in order to hold the end of the log off the ground when starting the fire. After the fire starts burning well, the damper should be closed by pulling, the damper stick.

Evening Camp Fire, 701

To be even partially complete, a leader's repertoire of fires should include a fire to illuminate a council ring and bring cheer to an evening gathering. A log cabin council fire is designed to furnish light rather than heat. Novices build as large a fire as their wood supply will permit, but experienced camp leaders know that they can create a more cheerful and comfortable atmosphere by building a comparatively small bright, blazing fire.
The object of the green side log structure, which is closed in at the top (see illustration), is to hold the fire erect so that it will produce a tall conical flame, stretching up toward the sky.

Single Stick Pot-Hangers, 702

Hanger No. 1. (Hanger on left, page 582) The small end of a stick should be pointed and driven into the ground and a notch cut to hang the bail of the kettle. The log supporting the stick can be moved forward to lower the pot as the fire burns down.
Hanger No. 2. This model is designed for use on the hard ground, where it is difficult to drive a stake.
Hanger No. 3 and 4. These rather complicated hangers are recommended for regular campers, rather than for occasional hikers.

pg. 581

Simple Bike Cooking. The recipes in this chapter may appear difficult to the leader who has not ventured beyond the "hot dog" stage of cooking, but after a trial or two they will seem comparatively easy. The recipes include favorite group dishes, the cooking of which can be organized in such a manner that every one will have the experience of cooking at least part of his own meal. Apparently, the fascination of outdoor cooking is not merely in eating the food. Interest seems to be divided between handiwork, use of knife and axe, fire building and lighting, hunting rustic materials, cooking, and finally, eating the food--even burnt or partially cooked.

General Cooking Suggestions

1. Experiment in your back yard or kitchen.
2. Cook a dish yourself before you try to tell others exactly how to do it.
3 Never do your own cooking on a hike. An efficient leader finds himself fully occupied in leading and helping others.
4 If you depend upon each member to bring a certain article, you may be embarrassed when arriving in the woods to find yourself minus essentials. A more dependable method is to have a purchasing committee buy the food and all share the cost.
5 Ordinarily it is not wise to say, "Bring anything you please to cook." Recommend a menu.
6. When planning a time schedule for a hike double the amount of time it takes to cook at home.

pg. 582

A Meal Without Regular Utensils, 703

The person who conducts a cooking hike infrequently may not care to spend money for cooking and eating equipment; but with tin-can cooking he need not.
Equipment for the Asking. Quantities of No. 10 (I Gallon size) tin cans are discarded daily by restaurants throughout the country and can be had for the asking. If the manager is told a day in advance, he will have them waiting for you.
No Danger in Modern Can. Most food cans are made to-day without solder, so danger from acid soldering flux is a thing of the past. Some cans have an inside finish of bright bronze lacquer. This type can be used only for boiling and then only when the can is filled.
Bails Not Dependable. Some cans have a bail soldered on the outside. Never rely upon such a bail. The heat melts the solder and, alas, the can drops into the fire. Pierce holes in opposite sides of the can, close to the top, and make a wire bail of any length desired.
Tin-Craft Cups. To spare the trouble of carrying cups make them out of filled (not empty) tin cans. The can opener on a large Scout knife is excellent for this purpose. Begin in the middle of the can at one side of the vertical seam and cut completely around the circumference to the other side of the seam. (Never try to cut across the seam.) Break the halves apart by bending. You may fear that the sharp edges will cause cut mouths, but in actual experience with numerous groups not one scratch or cut ever occurred. For use with hot drinks improvised wooden handles may be wired to the tin cups.
Menu Without Utensils. If the party is divided into groups of eight, and if a balanced menu of hike chowder, bread, butter, pickles, dessert, and chocolate peppermint as a beverage is sufficient, no eating utensils will be necessary. Two cups may be made from each succotash can and evaporated milk can, one cup each

pg. 583

may be made from the tomato sauce and condensed milk cans, making eight cups in all. In addition, three No. 10 tin cans will be needed for this menu.

Hike Chowder, 704
From the standpoint of food value, economy and ease of Preparation , hike chowder "fills the bill."

1/2 lb. bacon, cut in very small pieces
1 medium-sized onion
6 medium-sized potatoes
2 Standard size cans of succotash
1 very small can of puree of tomato
1 teaspoonful of pepper
1 tablespoonful of salt

Fry enough fat out of the bacon to float the onion. Cut the onion into very small pieces and cook until both bacon and onion are very dark brown. While two people take care of the bacon and onion in this manner two others should peel and dice the potatoes and boil them until they are soft enough to mash easily. In the meantime another pair should open the cans of succotash and tomatoes so that no time will be lost in mixing them with the hot potatoes, bacon, and onion. Now for the seasoning, and, presto, it is ready to eat. Important notice! Do not put the mixture back on the fire. If you think the complete mixture is not hot enough--well, you don't know hike chowder. It is eaten on bread like a sandwich, only you leave off the top layer of bread.
Notes. To make this dish just right it must be timed so that all the ingredients have finished cooking and are ready for mixing at the same time. If they are started at the same time, they will be finished at the same time.
Insist that no fire be lighted until the potatoes have been hung over the fire and the bacon cut as directed and placed in a pan ready to be cooked.

pg. 584

If any question arises as to the amount of pepper, a level teaspoonful is the minimum amount. Insist upon it.
Sweetcorn is a fair substitute for succotash, but don't let any one tell you it's just as good. Speaking of substitutes, don't use tomatoes instead of the thick sauce, it would be better to omit

the tomatoes.
Be on the lookout to see that no thrifty minded person extends his economies to getting all the contents of the cans by rinsing them all with water. You do get all the contents, but you also thin the chowder. Having the chowder good and thick so that it can be served on bread without utensils is one of the strong points that recommends hike chowder to hikers.

Bacon-Cheese Buns, 705
(Bacon Buns)

Cut a large bun in two and place a slice of cheese between the halves. Clamp the halves together with a split green stick, 2 to 3 feet long and 1/2 inch in diameter. Wind a long thin slice of bacon spirally around the bun and be sure to secure the bacon firmly with plenty (8 or more) of toothpicks, thorns, or slivers. Cook to taste over a bed of glowing coals.
Notes. Omit the cheese and you have Bacon Buns, an excellent breakfast dish.
Long thin buns are best for Bacon Buns, and beefsteak buns can be more conveniently used for Bacon-Cheese Buns.
Be careful to shave the bark and cambium--the wood inside the inner bark--from the split stick, or it will impart its taste to the bun. The cambium of sweet woods is not objectionable, but poisonous or semi-poisonous woods, such as, poison ivy, poison oak, laurel, and rhododendron, must be avoided. In case of doubt taste the stick.
It requires two people to put the bun on the stick securely; one wedges the split by turning the knife blade, while the other slips the bun well back into the split.
Never cut toward yourself! Caution those who split the sticks

pg. 585

to lay them on a stump or cutting block. Have a first aid kit ready for those who do not follow instructions.
Wrapping and securing the bacon to the buns should be entrusted to two members of each group. Be sure this pair has clean hands. While they are preparing the buns let the others gather fire-wood and lay the fire. Everything in readiness, without exception, every one should cook his own bun; otherwise, the sport is lost.
Youngsters, like most hikers, including adult students, have a mistaken notion about searing food and, accordingly, they insist upon cooking over a flame. To prevent this, inspect each fire and insist that all cooking be done over a bed of coals. Furthermore, see to it that all members of a group start at the same time and without undue delay. Unless you use charcoal the fires die down only too soon.
The appetites of some of the hikers may ride roughshod over rules of health. If they clamor to eat before the bacon has been thoroughly cooked, make them wait (you can't persuade them to do it) until the bacon is crisp.
After reading the above any one will agree that a hike leader is busy every minute without building his own fire and doing his own cooking. The leader acts as "Chief Taster," in which capacity he gets plenty to eat.

Kabob, 706

Originally from Persia, the kabob traveled to the Hawaiian Islands and thence, in the company of "Pine Tree Jim" Wilder, to the United States. To-day, it is known throughout the land, and as a distinctly outdoor individual dish, is a prime favorite. It is described below by Mr. James A. Wilder in his own inimitable style:

Here's to the Persians, from whom cometh our delicious kabob-a meal on a stick. After you have tried one you will never cook another "hot dog."
Cut a twig about two feet long, the size of your finger that tastes sweet (not your finger, the wood). When you find your

pg. 586

twig, sever it from its parent bush and whittle the end to a point. Then shave off the bark and growing layer of wood, or, as our friend the professor would say, "Remove the cambium for approximately nine inches."
Now you are ready to gently impale upon said stick a chunk of meat, preferably tender beef, cut about the size of a half dollar--only that's a little too big; but then a quarter is too small; well, make it about the size of thirty cents. Next impale a bit of onion on the stick just to give the beef a delicious flavor. If you like celery or apple better than onion, you may use either or both instead of the onion. I like onion. String alternate layers of meat, vegetable, and fruit to quench that gnawing feeling under your belt.
When to salt--thereby hangs a tale. Some say salt before, others after. The originators of this famous meal salt liberally before cooking, thus drawing juices from the meat and vegetables, all of which blend and flavor the whole kabob. So, I, too, salt before cooking.
Beware ! One tenderfoot starts cooking over a bed of dying coals and eats his quite raw. His partner cooks over a fire big enough to roast a quarter of beef. Still they both say, "Uhm ! It's great!"

Notes. Sirloin steak makes excellent kabobs. If, from a sense of economy, it seems wiser to use round steak, before the butcher cuts it into one-inch cubes have him pound ;t. Anticipate difficulty in persuading the butcher to cut it small enough. Watch him !
For each kabob you will need about one-quarter of a pound of one-inch cubes of steak (fat removed), half an onion, half an apple, and any other raw vegetable desired. Quarter the onion, and, with the leather borer of a Scout knife, bore a hole from the center outward. Then peel off the thin layers. Similarly, holes should be punched in the apple.
Even in removing the cooked kabob from the stick there is a trick. It requires two people; one holds the stick and the other, holding a piece of buttered bread in each hand, clamps the bread tightly around the kabob, while his partner pulls the stick. Each kabob makes two sandwiches.

pg. 587

Maple, beech, and sweet gum are especially good for kabob sticks because they have little taste. Sassafras and sweet birch are good, even though a trifle sweet. Oaks and most nut-bearing trees contain considerable tannic acid which makes them bitter. There is no objection to stringing kabobs on heavy wire.
Those who like kabobs well done should leave space between the meat; others, who prefer them rare, pack tightly.

Baked Potatoes, 707

Scoop out a depression in the ground large enough to place all the potatoes in one layer. Fill the hole with tinder and lay a large pile of sticks over it in crisscross fashion. If all the sticks are dry and about one to one and a half inches thick, they will burn down quickly, filling the hole with glowing coals. Now work rapidly! Scoop half of the coals out of the hole, throw on the potatoes in a single layer and cover them completely with the coals previously removed. Finally, sprinkle with earth to retain all the heat possible. Test the potatoes in about forty minutes. When done remove them and puncture the ends to permit the steam to escape. Don't forget the butter and salt.
Notes. Baked potatoes are very difficult for beginners, nevertheless, whether we will or no, hikers bring potatoes and we must teach them how potatoes should be cooked. It is decidedly advisable to bake all the potatoes in one hole.
When making a bed of coals for potatoes (or any other dish) caution the fire-builders against constantly adding wood. Lay the wood crisscross, making a pile about two feet high, light it and wait for the coals to drop into the hole. Remember that stones hold heat better than bare earth, so, if very small stones are available, dig the hole a little deeper and line it with stones.

Hike Chocolate Peppermint, 708

Hike chocolate is enthusiastically recommended for children. It is very easy to cook and cannot be burned and it is neither

pg. 588

too hot nor too cold. Its food value is very high and the ingredients can be easily carried.

1 can condensed milk (1 1b. size)
1 can evaporated milk (pint size)
4 bars 5-cent chocolate
1 5-cent chocolate peppermint pattie

Boil 3 quarts of water. While it is coming to a boil open the cans, and break the chocolate. Remove the boiling water from the fire, and dissolve the chocolate. Next add the condensed milk, and, lastly, the evaporated milk. Do not put the pot back on the fire. Even in winter, if prepared in this way, the drink will be found comfortably hot.
Notes. Experienced outdoor cooks lay the fire and hang the pot before lighting the fire. (See illustration of crisscross fire ready to light, page 580)
Many parents object to tea or coffee for their children. Cocoa. burns easily when cooked on an open fire. Hike chocolate has the advantage of having all its ingredients pre-cooked and of being less expensive than prepared chocolate drinks.
If paper cups are used, always avoid the waxed variety for hot drinks.
Never litter the woods with tin cans. Flatten the cans and bury them. To avoid being splashed by contents remaining in the cans, put them in the fire before flattening them.

Candled Apples on a Stick, 709

Boil together one standard size can (1 1/2 lbs.) of corn syrup, two pounds of granulated sugar, and one quarter of a pound of butter. Stir constantly and boil until the candy congeals in a soft ball when dropped into cold water. The mixture may seem too thick and some one will be tempted to add water. Do not permit it.
Impale each apple on a stick and dip it into the butter-scotch

pg. 589

syrup. Work rapidly so that the apples are dipped before the syrup hardens. This recipe makes enough syrup for two dozen apples.
Notes. The Preparation of candled apples should begin well in advance of dessert time. After being dipped the apples should be allowed to stand until they cool and the candy partially hardens. It hardens almost too quickly in cold weather. If necessary to hasten the hardening in hot weather, dip the apples in cold water.
An easy way to eat the apples is to hold them with two sticks crossed at right angles.

Toasted Marshmallows, 710

If you wish to make sure of having your marshmallows when you want them, the safest course is to hide them. Hikers, you know, have been known to eat them as their first course. Bring them out when the meal is over and the fires are low. As to the toasting operation, as simple as it seems, a word of instruction may not be altogether amiss.
Use short, straight green sticks and impale the marshmallow on the very end of the stick. Toast the end of the marshmallow last.
Two logs laid parallel in the form of a trapper fire make an excellent fire for the toasting.

Chicken Imu, 711

The imu (pronounced emoo) is the most ancient method of cooking that history records. The author has prepared many imus and has described the method he uses in fulfilment of promises to write full details, so that any one who can follow directions may succeed.
The food is cooked underground on hot rocks or bricks, by a method which combines steam cooking, pressure cooking, and broiling. Before attempting to imu a large carcass, try one chicken with the "fixin's," and here's how to go about it.


1. Secure the following materials or substitutes:
Dressed broiling or roasting chicken (well salted inside and outside). It may be stuffed with a raw pepper which has been, in turn, stuffed with other raw foods. All the "stuffin's" will cook thoroughly.
Potatoes, Irish or sweet (one for each person).
Other vegetables, such as, carrots, beets, sweet corn, parsnips, as desired.
A peck of wet sweet leaves or vegetable tops. (Pack as many leaves as possible into a peck measure and pour about a gallon of water over them.) Vegetable tops, such as, celery, lettuce, cabbage, beets, rhubarb, carrots, etc., are better than tree leaves. Wild grape leaves are good. Leaves from maple, sweet gum, sweet birch, and sycamore trees will not impart too much of their flavor to the food. Sassafras and bay leaves are too strong. Leaves from oaks and nut-bearing trees will taint the food with a bitter acrid taste.
Piece of flat tin, wall-board or wooden board, at least 2 ft. square, to be used to cover the hole.
Enough stones or brick bats (no larger than one-half a brick) to cover a space 18 inches square with two layers; that is, about one-half a bushel of bricks.
A pile of dry fire-wood, 18 inches long, 18 inches wide, and 18 inches high.
Kindling wood and tinder for starting the fire. A spade for digging the hole.
2. Dig a hole 16 inches square by 16 inches deep. If the ground is solid (other than sand), undercut the sides of the hole, making the hole a few inches larger at the bottom. Pile the dirt on the side from which the wind is blowing.
3 Build a false wooden bottom in the hole about six inches from the top. Otherwise, a tremendous amount of tinder will be needed to fill the hole. About six inches from the top drive stakes into the sides of the hole parallel with the bottom. On top of these side-sticks lay a platform of wood or cardboard.

pg. 590

4. Cover the false bottom or platform with a liberal supply of fuzz-sticks and fine quick-burning kindling wood up to the level of the ground. (If you try an imu in your own back yard and have no audience, you may use oil. The same performance in the woods would be disgraceful.)
5 Lay three or four hardwood logs about 4 inches in diameter over the kindling. Between the spaces lay fine softwood. Remember also to allow air space. In the opposite direction lay another layer of logs and kindling. Follow this with a third layer, crisscrossing each layer.
6. On the third layer of logs lay stones. They should be laid evenly, allowing space between them in order that the blaze may circulate around them and hasten the heating.
7 Now pile on alternate layers of wood and stone to make the complete pile neat and solid. If the pile is slovenly laid, it will fall before the stones are hot, and then there is trouble.
8. Light the fire at all four corners. If it is a very windy day, it will be necessary to erect a windbreak to get the fire started evenly.
9. In from three-quarters of an hour to an hour the stones should be extremely hot. Any stone having upon it the least particle of carbon (black deposit) is not hot enough. In another half hour the fire may begin to fall. Some stones will fall into the hole, others will fall along the outer edge. If those that fall on the outside are not hot enough, just push them aside and do not use them. Do not, in any case, throw them on top of the pile and upset it. The trick in cooking an imu is to have all the stones white hot, and while they are in the hole, it is anything but easy to get them hot enough--hence, the extreme carefulness in building up the fire.
10. Once you have all the stones white hot, work rapidly. Break up the fire, shovel the burning wood out of the hole. Do not take time to remove the coals, just level the stones and the coals will intermix with them.
11. Lose no time in covering the stones with the peck of leaves wetted down with water, as previously directed.
12. Put the chicken on top of the leaves in the center of the hole and place the potatoes and other vegetables around the chicken.

pg. 592

13 Still working as fast as possible, cover the hole with the flat wall-board (wet) or tin, and cover the board with a layer of dirt two inches thick. Cover the edges first. Finally, as a protection, cover the entire spot, so that no one tramples it down.
14 Allow one and three-quarters to two hours, depending upon the tenderness of the chicken, then open the hole. Remove all the dirt from the cover before lifting it. Never try to remove the dirt by lifting cover and all, because some of the dirt will surely drop into the hole. And now, be careful about lifting the chicken from the hole. Use two forked sticks and have a plate on the edge of the hole, for if your imu was a success the chicken will fall to pieces.
15 Imued chicken is usually served in sandwich form and no dishes are needed.
16. After a successful one-chicken imu, try several chickens. Perhaps you will then be ready for a real Hawaiian imu with a small pig or lamb and chicken and yams on the side. Yum, yum! (See page 37, Jack Knife Cookery.)

pg. 593

CHAPTER XXVII Games for Scouts

When the logs are burning free, Then the fire is full of glee: When each heart gives out its best, Then the talk is full of zest: Light your fire and never fear, Life was made for love and cheer.

Henry Van Dyke

A very extensive variety of recreational activities is required of a successful Scoutmaster or Scout Captain, as is evidenced by the list which follows:
1. Pre-Opening Period--Indoor and Outdoor Games
2. Opening Period-Mass Games
3. Patrol Recreations and Contests
4. Inter-Patrol Games and Contests
5. Special Social Games for Parents' Nights
6. Camp Fire Games, Contests and Dramatics
7. Hike and Camp Games and Treasure Hunts
8. Water Sports
9. Games for Teaching and Reviewing Subject-Matter

pg. 594

Many Leaders Needed. The wise Scouter will recognize that any individual who has not given recreation special study cannot possibly be thoroughly conversant with all forms of Scouting recreational activities, and, accordingly, he will select and study one or more types of recreation which appeal to him and allow his assistants to do likewise. If each leader will assume the responsibility of perfecting himself in the conduct of at least one type of Troop recreation, a system may be developed whereby the individual tasks will not be burdensome. There need be no scarcity of help if it is remembered that boys and girls have potential leadership ability and most of them are eager to lead in their favorite` plays and games.
Indoor Troop Meeting Programs. Types of games used in Troop Meetings depend so much upon the nature of the meeting and the time devoted to each period that it seems necessary to outline specifically an entire typical program before the games for each period can be intelligently studied.


Period I. Preliminary Assembly 10 to 20 Minutes
Period II. Troop Opening Period 15 to 20 Minutes
Period III. Patrol Meetings 30 to 40 Minutes
Period IV. Troop Meeting 20 to 30 Minutes
Period V. Announcements and Closing 5 to 10 Minutes
Period VI. Patrol Leaders' Council 20 to 30 Minutes

Total 100 to 150 Minutes

Period I-- Preliminary Assembly, 10 to 20 Minutes

a. Immediately after the doors are opened start a simple game of low organization which players may enter any time they arrive. The officers should report to the Scoutmaster or Captain before entering the game, and any officer who is not prepared to carry on his duties during the Troop Meeting should take time to prepare before entering the game.
b. When individual cards or point systems are used each Scout may be required to fill out his card before entering the game.

pg. 595

c. The Troop Leader rarely has time to enter games during this period, since he is constantly occupied interviewing officers and individuals.

Period II--Troop Opening, 15 to 20 Minutes

a. The Scribe, acting as timekeeper, notifies the Troop Leader a few minutes before conclusion of Period I, whereupon the Leader, at his discretion, either brings the game to a complete con-. elusion or ends it abruptly.
b. The Assistant Scoutmaster then calls the meeting to order by whistle, command, or bugle. Formal discipline is recommended, as it is difficult for Scouts to assume a serious attitude of mind instantly after a free play period.
c. The senior officer may then turn the Troop over to a junior officer, preferably the Senior Patrol Leader, who Conducts the opening exercises. Openings should be, varied to include colors, pledge to flag, patriotic songs, installation ceremonies, advancement ceremonies, etc. The Oath, Law, and Promise should be reserved for occasions which will permit them to be repeated thoughtfully and for a specific reason.
d. Following the opening, the Troop Leader, assisted by various officers, conducts one or more morale activities, such as, songs, yells, mass games, Scout drill, mimetic exercises, leaders' stunts, badge awards, etc.
e. Senior officers give brief general instruction in Scout Advancement, reserving specific instruction for Patrol Meetings. The Troop Leader paves the way for organized Patrol Meetings by calling out Patrol Leaders and having the Scribe read the Patrol Meeting Program, which should be previously explained at the Patrol Leaders' Council. It is better to demonstrate Patrol Recreations, such as duel contests and play-ways of teaching than merely to explain them.
f. To conclude Period II the Scribe may briefly report any happenings of previous Patrol Leaders' Council Meetings which concern the entire Troop.

Period III-Patrol Meetings, 30 to 40 Minutes

a. Patrol Business, 5 to 10 minutes. It is advisable to start Patrol Meetings with necessary discussion and business, because the time remaining for discussion Is likely to be inadequate if the meeting is opened with physical activity. A list of business items follows :
Collect dyes, take attendance, record points, check advancement and tests, discuss home Patrol Meetings or Patrol projects, encourage backward members, drive laggards, etc.
b. Oath and Law, 3 to: 5 minutes. Discuss Patrol and individual good turns, solve Oath and Law problems, practice pantomimes and dramatizations of points of the law.
c. Instruction, Practice and Review of Tests, 12 to 15 minutes. Practice and review tests and Scout craft with emphasis on the play-way. Select Patrol "champs" and "champ-nits" in numerous events.
d. Recreation, 10 to 15 minutes. Patrol yells, songs, stunts, dramatics, duel contests, informal dramatics, quiet games, small group active games, puzzles, quizzes, and continuous stories, provide a variety of Patrol recreations.

Period IV--Troop Meeting, 10 to 30 Minutes

a. Inter-Patrol games, relays, contests, competitions, songs, stunts, camp fire activities, selection of Troop "grand champ" and "champ-nit" may be used at the beginning of this period.
b. General instruction and information in miscellaneous subjects interesting to all Scouts, such as, regular Scouting tests, merit badges, nature study, and vocational information conclude Period IV.

Period V--Announcements and Closing Exercises, 5 to 10 Minutes

No recreation is included in this period.

pg. 596

Period VI--Patrol Leaders' Council, 10 to 30 Minutes

From the standpoint of leadership training this is the most important period of a Troop Meeting. In addition to training all officers in the conduct of regular Scouting activities, some time should be devoted to recreational leadership. The "learn by doing" method should be used. Instead of explaining duel contests, charades, puzzles, stunts, dramatics, etc., which may be conducted in Patrol Meetings, it is decidedly better to actually conduct them in abbreviated form at the Council Meeting.
Games for Preliminary Assembly. It might be assumed that when the appointed hour arrives every member of the Troop is in the meeting room and everything is in readiness for an opening ceremony. Unfortunately, that is not the case. It requires time for all members to arrive, and the officers need to get everything in readiness so that the program will proceed without interruption. Junior and senior officers should arrive punctually when the doors are opened. They should report to the Scoutmaster or Captain, who should check up on the responsibilities, special Preparation , and equipment with each officer.
Members other than the officers will arrive when the doors are opened or soon thereafter. Now, what shall these members and officers do while waiting for the leader to complete his Preparation s! One answer is, play games of low organization which members may enter any time they arrive. Certainly, highly organized team or Patrol games should not be played. They should be reserved for later periods.
A study of numerous Troop Meeting Programs submitted by students indicates that there is a general tendency to exaggerate the need for variety in pre-Opening Period games. Ordinarily, no more than four such games are needed for an entire season. Since the object of these games is to encourage members to arrive early, simple vigorous games with continuous Action are desirable. When such a game is discovered it may be played until the players show signs of tiring of it, even though it be for months at a time. Remember, players get more enjoyment and Action by

pg. 598
playing familiar, simple well-liked games than they do when constantly learning new ones.

Individual Dodge Ball, 97
Help Tag, 140
Basket Ball Shooting Contest, 108
Hooked Four Tag, 143
All Around Town, 109
Stand Wall Ball, 115
Guess Ball, 117 Sore Spot Tag, 135
Jump the Shot, 169
Chain Tag, 261
Spud, 270
Buddy Spud, 272

Opening Mass Games. It is customary in many Troops to play at least one mass game shortly after the opening ceremony or just before the Patrol Meeting. Since the object of such a game is to develop Troop morale, it is well to have the players intermingle, even to the extent of disregarding Patrol organization, as they do in O'Grady, 250
It will be observed that the games listed below do not require great skill, nevertheless, the older members enjoy them quite as well as the younger, which is an essential consideration, since the younger Scouts outnumber the older in most Troops.

Three Team Dodge Ball, 100
Progressive Dodge Ball, 101
Four Court Dodge Ball, 102
Kicking Home Runs, 111
Ball Passing Race, 118
Ring Ball, 121
Three Deep, 149
Circle Pursuit Team Race, 154
Object Passing Circle Race, 158
Two Circle Race, 160
Hit the Director (Scoutmaster), 161
Circle Stride Ball, 165

Circle Rush, 166
Circle Snatch Grab, 167
Poison Circle, 168
Spin the Wooden Man, 170
Snatch the Hat, 244
Bombardment, 245
Human Bombardment, 246
Black and Blue, 248
Touch, 249
O'Grady, 250
Unwinding and Winding Race, 549
All around String Race, 550

pg. 599

Patrol Recreations. Observation reveals that many Scout leaders are weaker in this important type of recreation than in any other. This is unfortunate, because recreation periods are very helpful in the conduct of successful home Patrol Meetings. Since Scout leaders do not attend these meetings they must teach Scouts Patrol games in Troop Meetings. Many leaders say, "My Patrol Meetings are not successful, because, after a few minutes of serious business, my Scouts start 'fooling."' Why not let them "fool"! That is, why not let them enjoy themselves by playing worth-while games; conducting duel contests, selecting Scout activity champions or "champ-nits"; establishing Troop records in fire by friction, signaling, knot-tying, bandaging; preparing pantomimes or impromptu playlettes; working out puzzles and charades; or dramatizing a point of the Scout Oath, Promise, or Law!

Swat the Mosquito, 55
Chair Quoits, 75
Disk Pitching, 76
Ring Toss, 80 to 82
Guess Ball, 117
Two Deep Leap Frog, 151
Circle Ball Tag, 162
Circle Stride Ball, 165
Circle Rush, 166
Jump the Shot, 169
Spin the Wooden Man, 170
Indian Hand Wrestling, 207
Indian Leg Wrestling, 208
Cock Fighting, 209
Hand Slap, 211
Under Hand Slap, 212
Stick Pull Up, 213
Rooster Fighting, 214

Dog Fighting, 215
Chinese Get Up, 216
Slap the Duck, 217
Crack the Nut, zig Nimble Jack, 220
friendly Enemies, 221
Bronco Bustin', 225
Buzzing the Bees, 232
Battle Royal, 233
Knocking off Hats, 237
Touch, 249 Nose and Ear, 416
Pat and Rub, 417 Knocking off Fists, 420
What Number,474
Cootie, 485
Card Toss, 486
Bull Board Pitching, 488

Ball in "U," 492
Rope Coiling and Throwing, 493
Brother, I'm Bobbed, 527
Beast, Bird, Fish, 533
Hunter, Gun, Rabbit, 535
Who Is the Leader? 539
Going to Camp, 541
Informal Dramatics, Chap. XXII

pg. 600

Troop Meeting Games. Games and contests selected for Period IV should be a logical outgrowth of events of the preceding Patrol period. For example, if each Patrol selects its champion Hand Wrestler by actual competition in Patrol Meetings, these champions should come together in the Troop Meeting when the Grand Champion may be determined. (See page 190.) If the Patrol Program has included the practice of such tests as knots, signaling, first aid, or compass, Inter-Patrol contests in the same activities may be carried on in the Troop Meeting Period. Similarly, pantomimes, dramatic stunts, songs, yells, etc., may be put on before the entire Troop as Patrol demonstrations. Information regarding such related Inter-Patrol events should be given to leaders one week in advance at the Patrol Leaders' Council, so that they may give their members preliminary instruction at either Home or Troop Patrol Meetings.
Troop games which have no bearing upon Patrol Meetings often have a siege of popularity; this is especially true of relays. The objection to relays is that many of them require an equal number of players for each team. This can be remedied by having the Patrols with fewer members run a sufficient number of contestants twice so that in the end each Patrol will have entered the same number of participants. Occasionally, it is practicable to use the extras as leaders or judges. Then, again, in some races when a Patrol runs as a unit tied together, as in Knot Games, or with arms locked about one another, as in a Centipede Race, 195, no adjustment of numbers is actually required. Whatever the solution, do not ask Scouts to drop out, and do not ask "Bears" to be "Wolves." For some games there is no objection to pitting two Patrols against two others.
Some Inter-Patrol events may be conducted on a time basis regardless of the number of players in each Patrol; for example, the

pg. 601

team boxing the compass the greatest number of times in two minutes wins, or, the Patrol catching the greatest number of sparks in a fire by flint and steel contest within a certain time wins.

Dodge Ball Games, 100 to 102
Basket Ball Contest, 108
All Around Town, 109
Kicking Home Runs, 111
Long Ball, 113
Pursuit Races, 153,154
Circle Races, 158 to 161
Up and Down Relay, 175
Stride Stand Hustle, 180
Jump Stick Relay, 183

Paul Revere Relay, 185
Centipede Races, 195 to 198
Rope Relays, 204
Rescue Relays, 205
Scout Races, 206
Bombardment, 245
Human Bombardment, 246
Touch, 249
Touch, Taste, Smell, Hear, 465
Match-Box Relay, 466

Parents' Night Activities. When planning annual Parents' Nights leaders should remember that parents prefer to see their sons or daughters in Action rather than to listen to formal speeches. Try to get the parents to feel that they are a part of the meeting by having them actually participate in the program. For this purpose so-called "ice-breakers" used at mixed socials are excellent; so are songs. The Leader who has practiced any of the Leaders' Stunts, 387 to 404, may try them on both parents and Scouts. In addition to recreational activities, more serious events which demonstrate Scouting should be included. (See Boy Scout Rally Book, and Games for Boys, Chapter X.)


Talk Fest, 231
The Laughing Ball, 387
The Story of Harry, 391
The Three Handshakes, 394
Love Story of the Trees, 399

Romance of a Lawyer and Carpenter, 402
Forbidden Words, 405
On the Spot, 407
Poisoned Chairs, 452
Variety Passing Race, 547
The Millionaire Couple, 637
The Lucky Seventh Shake, 638
Picnic Events, 640 to 656
Social Relays, 458 to 468
Rotative Party Activities, 482 to 494
Postage Stamp Hunt, 543

pg. 602

Camp Fire Activities. With the increase of Troop Camping, worth-while evening camp fire programs which provide information, inspiration, self-expression, and recreation are an imperative need of Scourers. Experience in camp fire leadership may be gained by occasionally conducting a camp fire program indoors. Furthermore, it is easier to control and coach the individuals and the Patrols indoors than outdoors.


1. Assembly and Grand March to Council Ring.
Patrols follow the leader and upon arriving at a certain spot maintain absolute silence. Sit by Patrols around imitation council fire.
2. Opening Ceremony (Handbook for Leaders of Camp Fire Girls).
Flame produced by fire by friction. Leader recites an ode to fire and then explains camp fire decorum.
3. Camp Fire Songs (See Scout Song Books).
4. Patrol Songs.
Suggest songs at Patrol Leaders' Council and allow Patrols to rehearse in Patrol corners before calling camp fire assembly.
5. Duel Contests, 207 to 238.
Patrols meet in advance and select Patrol Champions. These representatives contest against each other at the camp fire to determine the Grand Champion.
6. Informal Patrol Dramatics, Chapter XXII.
Give Leaders definite suggestions, allowing each Patrol to work out its own ideas, or, give each Patrol the same suggestive title to dramatize, such as Embarrassing Occurrences, 553

pg. 603

7 Story-Telling (Handbook for Scoutmasters, Chap. XXIII).
Either tell complete stories or tell a very brief story to be dramatized, such as The Clothier, Baker, and Villain, 583.
8. Closing Ceremony (Camp Fire Girl's Manual).

The Fire Maker's Desire

As fuel is brought to the fire
So I purpose to bring
My strength
My ambition
My heart's desire
My joy And my sorrow
To the fire
Of Humankind.
For I will tend As my fathers have tended
And my father's fathers
Since time began
The fire that is called
The love of man for man
The love of man for God.

John Collier

Play-Way Games and Methods

The play-way of teaching is a method for teaching subjectmatter in such a way that the learner's aim to have a good time is satisfied, while the leader's aim to teach convincingly is accomplished.
Real Games More Popular Than Play-Way Games. Leaders often complain, "The members of my group do not care for the play-way. They like real games much better." Indeed, we should expect a normal boy or girl to prefer real play to study. This brings us to the importance of properly introducing the play-way method. Children should not be misled at the outset by the leader saying, "Now we are going to play a fine game." Naturally, this makes them expectant of a truly recreational game and they

pg. 604

are immediately disappointed when they hear the explanation of a game involving subject-matter. The leader who makes this mistake should not look for whole-hearted attention to the study of signaling which has been introduced as a game. It is decidedly better to say, "We will have ten minutes of signaling." This gives opportunity to Note that those who at first react to the suggestion unfavorably remark as the play-way progresses, "Well, this isn't so bad; it's a kind of game." The leader should feel gratified to hear such a comment. The most truly play-way games are not what the Scout calls real games, but he is willing and happy to study by a method which does not overlook his desire for fun.
Play-Way Not All-Sufficient. Then, again, some leaders say, "I do not find the play-way sufficiently thorough.') The observation is correct. It should not be assumed that any recreational method is all-sufficient. To master even slightly difficult subjects boys and girls must be encouraged to study. It is the tiresome grind to which children object, and the Scouting world has demonstrated that the play-way takes the irksomeness out of study and motivates Scouting activities so that Scouts voluntarily study intensively outside of regular Troop Meetings.
Play-Way Not Easy. The play-way is less tedious for the learners, but, unfortunately, shifts the burden upon the shoulders of the leaders, for the old-fashioned pouring-in lecture method is easier than the modern Scouting play-way, which is a combination of such methods as play, competition, dramatization, experimentation, recitation, book-study, lecture, and even examination. To use it successfully due consideration must be given to its pedagogy and to the psychology of the participants. Many recreational games almost play themselves, but this is not the case when games are being used to teach specific subjects, for such games and methods require leadership which subserves the purpose of successful teaching coupled with interest and enjoyment.
Thoroughness Necessary . The chief purpose of this theory is to emphiasize the fact that every senior and junior leader using the play-way must be thoroughly familiar with the activity to be taught. Leaders must study and plan in advance, and, without question, time should be taken in Patrol Leaders' Council Meetings

pg. 605

or in Girl Scout Courts of Honor to prepare all officers who are to use the play-way in either Troop or Patrol Meetings.
Types of Play-Ways. Confusion exists regarding the several types of play-ways. A game should not be regarded as a method of teaching simply because it treats of a subject or test; for example, Nature Chase, 688, or the Love Story of the Trees, 399, include nature, but, surely, the player adds very little to his previous knowledge of nature by playing either of the recreational games mentioned. A somewhat higher type of activity, namely, the play-way of review, includes games designed to quiz players in subjects supposedly learned at previous meetings. Probably, the quiz type of play-way is the one most commonly used. The theoretically correct type is the one used to teach new subjectmatter.
A Real Play-Way Example. Suppose it is planned to teach the orthodox first lesson in the International Morse Code, covering letters E, I, S, H, with their opposites T, M, O. (See Games and Recreational Methods, page 362.) It must be taken into consideration that in a normal Troop many members will already know these fetters and the lesson will not be interesting to them. Having this in mind the leader announces with enthusiasm, "With the consent of those who know the code, we Will spend just three minutes reviewing and learning a series of letters." Carrying this into effect, with the Scribe holding the watch, the leader spends exactly three minutes on lesson No. I, just as agreed. Following this, each Patrol will go to its corner and conduct a review in the form of a spell down. To make this interesting it is suggested that the first person in each Patrol who misses three times be required to pay a forfeit or run the gauntlet.
Next (perhaps at the following meeting), the leader would conduct the purely recreational game of Touch, 249, at the conclusion of which he might say, "Now we will have signaling practice using the game of Touch, but instead of naming the objects to be touched we will let First Class Scouts signal them, Before starting to play we will see which Patrol can form the greatest number of names of the things we can touch, using the letters E, I, H, S, T, M, D." Each Patrol will then retire to its corner

pg. 606

for a word forming contest for three or four minutes, after which either individual or Patrol Signal Touch might be played to conclude the real play-way of teaching.

Play-Way References for Scout Leaders

Since Scout leaders possess standard Boy Scout and Girl Scout books, games described in official literature are included in this chapter by reference only, abbreviated as follows: Hb Sm, Handbook for Scoutmasters; GS, Girl Scout Game Book; GRM, Games and Recreational Methods.

1. Captain's Compass, GS, 93
2. Compass Facing, GRM, 403
3 Compass Point Change, GRM, 401
4 Compass Point Place, GS, 90
5 Compass Stage Coach, Hb Sm, 99
6. Compass Swat Tag, GRM, 401; Hb Sm, 339
7 Compass Weave Relay, GS, 89
8. Living Compass, Hb Sm, 99.
9. Patrol Compass Race, GRM, 402
10. Treasure Hunts, GRM, 94-101


1. Flap-Jack Making Contest, Hb Sm, 327
2. Twist Contest, Hb Sm, 106
3 Water Boiling Contest, Hb SM, 322; GRM, 413, 414


1. Fire by Friction, Hb Sm, 321
2. String Burning Contest, GRM, 411
3 Water Boiling Contest, Hb Sm, 322; GRM, 413

pg. 607

First Aid

1. Accident Acting, GS, 72
2. Ailments and Remedies, GRM, 408
3 Bandaging Relay, Hb Sm, 88; GRM, 409
4 Dramatized Accidents, Hb Sm, 110
5 Dramatized Safety First, Hb Sm, 145
6. Emergency, GS, 73
7 First Aid Baseball, Hb Sm, 90; GRM, 405, 406
8. First Aid Chain Quiz, GRM, 407-408
9. First Aid Relay, Hb Sm, 111
10. I11-Fated Camp, GS, 75
11. Keep on, Keep on, GS, 73
12. Official Boy Scout Races, Hb Sm, 320, 328
13 Question Baseball, GRM, 406
14 Train Smash, GS, 73
15 Transportation Relay, GRM 409
16. What would You Do! GS, 74

Knife and Hatchet

1. Carving Paper Knives, Hb Sm, 102
2. Fuzz-Stick Whittling, GRM, 412
3 Water Boiling Contest, GRM, 413,4114 Hb Sm, 322
4 Wood Chopping Contest, Hb Sm, 102
5 Tent Peg Chopping Contest, Hb Sm, 102

Knots and Rope Work

1. Acting Knots, GS, 37
2. Centipede Rope Race, GRM, 399
3 Knot Champ-Nit, GRM, 389
4 Knot Problems, GS, 33
5. Knot Relay Races, GRM, 397-399
6. Knotting Yarns, GS, 35

pg. 608

7 Line Pull Over, GRM, 399
8. Miscellaneous Contests, Hb Sm, 44
9. Official Boy Scout Speed Events, Hb Sm, 320-326
10. One Step Tying Competition, GRM, 932
11. Rings, GS, 32
12. Rope Throwing Contest, GR1LI, 400
13 Spar Lashings, Hb Sm, 325
14 Testing of Tenderfoot Tim, GRM, 393
15 Tie and Run, GS, 38
16. Water Rescue Race, GRM, 390; GS, 34
17 What is it! GS, 34

Judging and Mapping

1 Chalked Maps, GS, 94
2. Conventional Sign Contest, Hb, Sm, 130
3 Distance Judging Contest, GRM, 415
4 Judging Contest, Hb Sm, 131
5 Mapping, GS, 95
6. Night Estimation, GRM, 416
7 Pacing Contest, Hb Sm, 326; GS, 94
8. Patrol Estimation, GRM, 416
9 Patrol Maps, GS, 96
10. Troop Estimation, GRM, 416; GS, 119

Nature Lore

1. Alphabet Birds, GS, 62
2. Animal Notes, GS, 67
3. Bird Habitat, GS, 64
4. Bird Riddles, GRM, 59. 221 , 229; GS, 49, 63
5. Delaware Tree Hunt, GRM, 92
6. Earth, Air, Water, Fire, GRM, 68
7 Finger Sight, GS, 44
8. Guess My Name, GS, 551 GRM, 227

pg. 609

9. Hidden Trees, GRM, 221
10. Holding the Front, GRM, 215
11. I Am a Tree, GS, 55
12. I Am Thinking, GS, 66
13I Saw, GRM, 215
14 Indoor Trail, GS, 46
15 Rim's Nature Race, GRM, 226
16. Magic Circle, GS, 61
17 Matching Leaves, GRM, 225; GS, 52
18. Minerals and Metals, GS, 70
19. Nature Charades, GS, 51
20. Names of Leaves, GS, 53
21. Nature Chase, GRM, 111
22. Nature Hand Baseball, GRM, 224
23 Nature Naming Contest, GRM, 219
24. Nature Sounds, GS, 45
25. Nature Spell Down, GRM, 212; GS, 53
26. Nature Squares, GS, 50
27. Nature Point Race, GRM, 211; GS, 60
28. Night Nature Hunt, GRM, 126; GS, 61
29. Pandora's Box, GS, 46
30 Puzzles, GRM, 59, GS, 49
31 Roadside Cribbage, GS, 43; GRM, 213
32. Rock Discoveries, GS, 69
33 Scouting for Nature, GS, 62; GRM, 218
34 Secret Leaves, GS, 54
35 Seeds of Trees, GS, 60
36. Star Games, GS, 67, 68
37 Treasure Hunts, GS, 48; GRM, 91-102
38. Tree Identification, GRM, 216; GS, 56
39 Tree Scouting, GRM, 212
40 Tree Tag, GS, 57
41 Tree Use Game, GS, 58
42. Twenty Questions, GRM, 221
43 Unconscious Observation, GS, 43
44 Who Are You! GS, 54; GRM, 58
45 Woodcraft Hike, GS, 46

pg. 610

Scout's Pace
1. Inter-Troop Scout Pace Race, GRM, 404
2. Patrol Scout Pace Race, GRM, 403; Hb Sm, 321
3 Scout Pace Window Race, GRM, 404; Hb Sm, 340


1. Capture the Signaler, GRM, 379
2. Code Cards, GS, 81
3 Executing Messages, GRM, 369
4 Executing Word Orders, GRM, 363
5 Exhibition Contest, GRM, 376
6. Individual Touch, GRM, 364, GS, 86
7 Jumbled Towns, GS, 83
8. Letter Race, GRM, 379
9. Message Relay, Hb Sm, 326
10. Numeral, Initial or Name Relay, GRM, 376
11. Passing the Word, GS, 82
12. Patrol Alphabet Relay, GRM, 375
13. Patrol Orders, GRM, 366
14 Patrol Signal Tower Race, Hb Sm, 323
15 Patrol Speed Contest, GRM, 376
16. Patrol Spell Down, GRM, 369
17 Relay Races, GS, 79, 81; GRM, 377
18. Scouting for Answers, GRM, 379
19. Scouting for Letters, GRM, 374
20. Signal Baseball, GRM, 380
21. Signal Chase, GS, 77, 83; GRM, 379
22. Signal Questions, GS, 85
23 Signal Tag, GRM, 380
24. Signaling Competitions, Hb Sm, 117, 118
25 Signaling Numbers, GS, 78
26. Signaling Treasure Hunt, GRM, 380
27. Spelling by Signal, GS, 85
28. Troop Spell Down, GRM, 369
29. Word Forming Contest, GRM, 370

pg. 611

Swimming and Life Saving

1. Life Saving Races, GRM, 182--186
2. Novelty Races and Games, GRM, 177--180
3 Old Clothes Race, Hb Sm, 329
4 Play-way of Teaching Swimming, GRM, 16
5 Throwing the Life Line Race, Hb Sm, 329

Tracking, Stalking, Observing

1. Actions, GS, 42
2. Animal Stalking, GRM, 110
3 Animal Track Races, GRM, 105
4 Capture the Thief, GRM, 107
5 Dessert Treasure Hunt, GRM, 101
6. Feeling, GS, 42
7 Hunting for Diamonds, GRM, 103
8. Jack, Jack, Show Your Light, GRM, 121
9. Listening, GS, 42
10. Look, See, GS, 39
11. Look Sharp, GS, 40
12. Pictures, GS, 41
13. Pioneers & Indians, GRM, 112
14 Quick Sight, GS, 40
15 Sand Track Pantomimes, GRM, 104
16. Shop Window Race, GS, 40
17 Stalking Captain, GS, 99
18. Story of Tracks, GS, 47
19. Tracking with Stories, GS, 101
20. Trailing City Signs, GRM, 97
21. Will-o-the-Wisp, GS, 103
22. Woodcraft Signs, GS, 107


1. Bible Story Dramatizations, GRM, 162-164
2. Capture the Flag, GRM, 118
3 Citizenship Game, GS, 31
4 Day in Camp, GRM, 169

pg. 612

5 Girl Scout Baseball, GS, 118
6. Oath & Law Dramatizations, GRM, 168
7 Patrol Drill Competition, GRM, 419
8. Salute Relay, GS, 119
9. Scout Drill, GRM, 417
10. Sealed Orders, GS, 110, 111
11. Spar Lashing, Hb Sm, 323
12. Table Setting, GS, 118
13 Tent Pitching, Hb Sm, 325; GRM, 415
14. Wall Scaling, Hb Sm, 323
15 Washington Crosses the Delaware, GS, 31
16. Whistle Drill Signals, GS, 39

pg. 613