pg. 0



The bear, who is established in the center of a circle, does his best to climb over or under the clasped hands of those forming the circle, He does not try to break through, however. If he gets out, a chase ensues, and the first one to catch him acts as the bear next time.

Calls for a high degree of observation, and develops this valuable quality. The man in the center of the circle is It, and must be blindfolded. The others circle about until he calls, "Stop" He then tries to locate and identify by sense of feeling, one of the players in the circle. These may twist and stoop, but must not move their feet. If It identifies a man correctly, he is It. If not, the same man is It again.
Variation: When the circle stops, the man who is in the center points at a player and names some animal. The player pointed at must

pg. 1

give the call of that animal correctly, and in his natural voice. The blindman guesses who it is, if he can.
Variation. For Scouts, the man in the center points at a player and names any number from one to twelve. The man pointed at must respond instantly with the corresponding Scout Law. For instance, if the blindman says, " Three," the man at whom he points must respond with, " A Scout is Helpful.": If the player replies with the wrong Law or if the blindman guesses who is speaking, the man pointed out is It. Disguising the voice is not permitted.

A circle is formed two deep, the rear man grasping his partner about the waist. There are two extra men, a runner and a chaser, The runner tries to stop in front of any of the pairs and thus become immune from tagging, and he' is assisted by the front man of each pair who tries to clasp him about the waist. The rear man of each pair, however, does his best to spoil this by swinging his partner to one side or the other so that he cannot catch hold of the runner. .If the runner establishes himself in front. of a couple the third man becomes the runner; as in the game Three Deep.

pg. 2

If the chaser tags his man he quickly gets in front of some one, as he is subject to being tagged back.

The bull tries to break out of a circle of clasped hands, and if successful is chased by all. The man who catches him is the bull next time.
Variation. Only the two through whose hands the break is made do the chasing.
This game differs from Bear in the Pit in that the bear goes over or under the clasped hands, while the bull breaks through.

The players form in a large circle with the one who is It in the middle. He holds a staff vertically and lets go of it, at the same time calling out a number. All the players are numbered, and the one whose number is called must catch the staff before it strikes the ground. If he misses he is It next time, but if he succeeds the same man is It again.
Experiment will show the size of the circle to obtain the best playing value from the game.

All the players are numbered, and form in a circle with a blindfolded man in the center, as in

pg. 3

Blindman's Buff. He calls two numbers and the men named must change places immediately. The blindfolded one tries to tag either as they make the exchange.
It may be decided that the man in the center may call out three or four numbers instead of two. This livens up the game somewhat.

As usual, the man who is It stands inside a circle. Those comprising the circle pass from one to another a basket ball or similar object. The game may even be played with a boy's cap. The man in the center tries to touch the ball, in which case the last one who touched it is It. Those in the circle may not move their feet or break the circle. If the ball goes outside, the director will throw it back again.
Variation. The ball, instead of being thrown indiscriminately, must be passed to the next man on the right or left.
Variation. The ball must be bounded on the floor instead of thrown.

A circle is made and the men pair off with arms locked. There are two odd men, one running, the other chasing. The runner locks arms when

pg. 4

he can, this making the former partner the runner. If the chaser tags his man he must quickly lock arms, as otherwise he may be tagged back.
This game is similar to Lock Tag except for the circle formation, which restricts the game to one section of the field.

Form a circle facing inward and give the command " Right face." This will bring the players in file information. At the word of command all the men will start to run, each man trying to pass the man in front of him, running to the right, outside the circle. If a player passes another and can slap him on the chest, the man who was passed is out of the race.
Suddenly the director calls, "To the rear," when all stop and run the other way. Those who remain in the circle for two minutes are the winners.

A circle is formed, foot against foot, with the feet of each man well spread apart. The man in the middle tries to throw a basketball or volley ball between the legs of the players in the circle. They may not move their feet to prevent this, but may stop the ball with their hands. If one of those in the circle allows the ball to go between

pg. 5

his feet, he is It. Until the ball is thrown the players must keep their hands on their knees. A man who breaks this rule is It.

All players of the circle face in one direction with the feet spread well apart. A large ball is passed from one man to another between the legs, the object being to keep the man in the center, who is It, from touching the ball. If he does touch the ball, the last man who touched it must take his place.

A circle forms, with the blind bear in the center. He is blindfolded, and is armed with a rolled-up newspaper, a boxing glove, or anything to serve as a soft club. The men of the circle try to touch him, calling out, " Blind bear." He vigorously fans the air in an attempt to strike some of his tormentors. When the bear touches a man, that man must act as the bear.

Even sides are chosen, and one side forms a large circle with a yard or more between players. The circle should not be broken. Those on the other team take their places inside the circle and prepare to dodge. The men on the outside try

pg. 6

to hit the others with a basket ball, the men who are hit coming to the outside, being out of the game.
When all have been hit the teams change places, the winning team being the one which it takes the longest to eliminate.
Variation When a man is hit he gets in the outside circle and helps to put out the others. This gives more men a chance to play, but prevents fair team scoring.

A snow game, but may be played in the gymnasium by making the trails with chalk. There are two concentric circles with several diameter

pg. 7

lines crossing these. Each place where the lines touch the outer circle is a goal of safety for the geese. The center is the place from which the fox starts. There is one less goal than there are geese, the extra goose being on the rim at the start of the game. The fox tries to tag a goose while he is off the goal; any goose being so tagged becoming the fox.
Both fox and geese may run anywhere along the lines, whether around the circle or across it.

A circle at least 12 feet in radius is formed, and this is marked by each player drawing a line in front of him. An eighteen inch circle is marked in the center for the man who is It. The object of the game is to hit the man in the center below the knees with a basket ball, or to make him step out of the circle. Any player succeeding in this may act as the center man. Care must be taken not to step inside the boundary of the large circle.
Variation. The center man has a light bat which he holds with the butt down to protect his legs. He may not move his feet to dodge, b6ut bunts the ball with the bat. If the batted ball is caught on the fly the catcher is the center man. Otherwise the above rules hold good.

pg. 8

An interesting jumping game. The players form a circle round a man in the center who swings a rope with a weight on the end, gradually paying out the rope. A bag of sand is suggested as a good type of weight.
As the rope swings around the circle, a foot or two from the floor, the men in the circle try to jump over it, and this is continued until some one misses. He then replaces the man in the center.
Those who miss are out of the game. The last man to miss is the winner.

All the players group themselves together, and a chalk circle is drawn about one yard outside of the group. Each player folds his arms, hops on one leg, and tries to shoulder the others out of the ring. Any man unfolding his arms or putting down his foot is out also. The Master of the Ring is the one who stays in the longest.

For Mount Ball the players pair off by size, there being two equal teams -- horses and riders. They form a circle, the riders being held pick-aback by the horses. A basket ball is tossed around the circle by the riders, the horses doing

pg. 9

everything possible short of moving their feet to prevent the ball being caught.
When the ball is missed, all the riders dismount and run. All the horses stand fast and assume a squatting position except the horse whose rider missed. He gets the ball and shouts, " Halt." He then tries to hit any rider with the ball, the riders being allowed to dodge without moving their feet. If he misses, the game goes on as before, but if he hits a rider, all the horses become riders and the game continues.

Three Indian clubs are arranged on the floor about 18 inches apart. The players farm a circle around these, each man gripping his right-hand neighbor's left wrist' with his right hand. Thus it will be seen that if the circle breaks the director can instantly tell who let go.
The object of the game is to pull and crowd some one onto the clubs so that they will be knocked over. Those who let go or knock down any clubs are out of the game. It is a good plan to start another circle of those who are eliminated, thus keeping every one busy.
Variation. A chalk circle or one large club may be used if desired.

pg. 10

Variation Use one club for each player, and when a man is out he takes a club with him.
Variation For the out-of-doors a stick may be placed in the ground, lightly, so that it may easily be tipped over. This should be three feet or more in height, for if it is low enough to jump over it may cause accidents.

Two odd men run around outside the circle. One is It and the other is the runner. The players stand about a yard apart, and the runners run clockwise. When the runner wants to evade the chaser he simply steps into the circle and then the man at his left becomes the runner. The game is somewhat similar to Whip Tag without the whip.

Players stand in the circle formation while one who is It runs around outside. When he tags a man, that man runs around the circle in the opposite direction from which It travels. Both will arrive at the starting point at about the same time. If It arrives at the open place first, the other man is now It, but if the man who was tagged gets back first, then the same again.

pg. 11

The circle in this game is formed close together, the men standing shoulder to shoulder. A stuffed club, rolled-up newspaper or boxing glove is passed from one to another, always being kept out of sight of the man who is It in the center.
As often as possible the players slap the man in the center with the club, but if a man is tagged when he has the club in his possession he is It. The club must always be passed behind the back.

A circle is formed two deep, that is, each man has another in front of him. There is a man who is It and a runner whom he chases around outside the circle. This runner may at any time step in front of any pair of men, in which case the third or rear man now becomes the runner in his place. Wherever the formation is three deep the third man must run.
When the man who is It tags any one he must quickly station himself in front of some couple, as otherwise he is liable to be tagged back.

The players, after forming a circle, are numbered by threes and a No. 1 No. 2 and No. 3

pg. 12

are selected to go in the circle and be It. The No. 1 man calls out his number, when all the No. I men change places. He tries to get a place when this is done, leaving some other No. 1 in the center. The No. 2 man calls all the No. 2 men to do the same, and the No. 3 man does likewise. The game proceeds; each man who is It calling his number in turn and trying to change places with some one in the circle.

The whip in this game is a handkerchief with a knot tied in one corner. The men stand in a circle with the hands back of them and open, and with the eyes well up so as not to see their neighbors.
The man who is It places the handkerchief in some player's hands as he runs around the outside of the ring. This player, upon receiving the handkerchief, starts to beat his right hand neighbor with it. This man runs all around the ring and back to his former position, the man with the whip following and trying to beat him all the way. The man with the whip is now It and will run outside the circle and give it to some one else.
If any one " peeks " as the handkerchief is being passed out, he is liable to get a slap with it

pg. 13

across the head. Making a large hard knot, soaking same in water, or enclosing in its folds a marble or two should be gently but firmly discouraged.

All sit in a circle side by side with knees well up and feet braced. The Wooden Indian stands stiffly in center with hands at sides. He falls with body absolutely stiff, and is caught and passed on by one of the players. This continues until some one misses and the Indian is not passed on. The man who weakens must be the Indian next time.

pg. 14



There is a Large and excellent group of games where the players form in opposing lines. A good way to set up this formation is to assemble by height, the tall men at the right of line, and to count off by twos. The No. 2 men march across the floor and about face, thus having the tall men opposite others of about the same height.
These Opposing Line Games naturally subdivide into two groups, the Tournament Games, and the Miscellaneous Games. We will describe these in the order mentioned; the games in each group being arranged alphabetically for reference.

The principle of the Tournament Games is simple. The players are in opposing lines by height, and the two tallest men advance to the center and compete. After a decision is given, the loser either drops out or is captured by the winner's side. In the latter case he falls in by

pg. 15

height, but does not have a turn until all the original members of the team have theirs.
The second pair now have their innings, and so on down the line. In a second game the fair procedure is to start at the other end with the shorter players. It might appear that the game would be slow with only two men in action at once, but you need only try it out once to be convinced by the interest with which the game is watched, and the enthusiasm of the rooters for each side, that the Tournament type of game has come to stay, and is a real game.
A number of these Tournament Games are excellent when played en masse, and where this is the case a description of the Mass Variation will be given immediately following. Many of them, however, could not be judged nor handled properly, and would degenerate into a disorganized roughhouse if played by the entire group at once.

The two opponents are placed lying face downward, blindfolded and armed with rolled-up newspapers. Their left hands are both touching the same book, and the newspaper is held in the right hand. The No. I man says, "Are you there, Mike? " The No. 2 man says, "Yes!" and dodges a wild swing of the newspaper wielded by

pg. 16

No. 1. No. 1 in this manner has three tries at his enemy; then the dialogue (and wallop) is reversed. The man scoring the most head hits, or best hits in three tries is the winner.
Variation. An amusing Variation is to use two books, this without the blindfolded men knowing it. Place the books three feet apart and note the surprised look when they realize that they are sold.

The opponents face each other on hands and knees. A chalk line is drawn between them, and two belts or two towels tied together are looped over their heads. With heads well back they each try to pull the other across the line. To add to the enthusiasm the rooters growl like dogs.

Needless to say the spectators miau during each bout. The opponents bend well forward, clasping their knees, and a stick is passed back of the knees and over the forearms. They try to remain on their feet, and shoulder the other man off his balance.

Here the two opponents grasp a staff or broomstick held horizontally between them, and each

pg. 17

tries to twist or otherwise pull the stick entirely away from the other.

The two men grasp ankles with their hands and each tries to shoulder the other so as to make him either let go or fall over. A chorus of " quacks " by the gallery will enliven this stunt.

The staff is held with its center directly over a line, the players each holding one end. At the starting word they try to pull the opponent over the line.
Mass Variation. The entire group forms along the line, facing each other; each man having a partner. A loser must instantly be seated. At the end of one minute the team having the most men standing, wins.

The opponents fold their arms and hop. The object is to upset the other by using the free foot and leg entirely. It is unfair to use the body or shoulders.

Standing close together with toes touching, the players push palm to palm, the hands being on a

pg. 18

level with the chest. The stunt is to make the other fellow step back.

With right feet together and left somewhat back, the two men clasp right hands. Each tries to overbalance the other by pushing and pulling. Moving either foot from place disqualifies.

Each man has a piece of rope one yard long. The object is to tie the other man's feet.
Mass Variation. For a real strenuous time the whole group may get into this game. The ground should be soft, the clothes old, and the team which ties the most hogs in a given time wins.

The players reach over a line and grasp hands. With one foot up they hop and try to pull the other man over the line.
Variation Each man starts from his own line and hops to the middle, where they meet at the line and proceed as before.
Mass Variation. The whole group takes part at once, each man selecting a partner. The team pulling over the most men wins. Or those who get pulled over and have not put down their foot

pg. 19

may turn around and play on the new side, taking anybody thee can get.

The two players stand between two parallel lines, six feet apart, and grasp a staff held horizontally between them. The stunt is to pull the other man outside the lines.

The same as the Staff Pull except that the men try to Push their opponent outside the lines.

The opponents lie on their backs, side by side, with elbows locked and heads pointing in opposite directions. Together they count, "One, two, three !" On the first and second counts they each bring their inside leg up to a vertical position. On the third count they vigorously lock legs and attempt to roll the other man up onto his shoulders and thence completely Over. It isn't always the heaviest man that wins.

Seated with a staff under their knees and with arms clasped over the knees, the two men are placed with toes touching. They try to tip the

pg. 20

opponent over by getting toes underneath and upsetting him.

Instead of playing a Tournament game entirely through in one way, each pair may try a different competition. This lends variety. Thus the first pair may try the Hand Wrestle, the second the Cat Fight, the third Disarming, etc.

The two knights are mounted pickaback on players acting as horses, and each knight tries to unseat the other by pulling and twisting.
Cavalry Charge Variation. Each team doubles up, half the men acting as horses and the rest as knights. The two lines attack one another, trying to unseat the enemy. A dismounted team is out of the game; the side winning which has the most men up in five minutes. Soft ground is desirable for this game.

A line is drawn, and the players approach one another and try to pull the enemy over the line. It is unfair to step over the line.
Mass Variation. This game is better when played by the whole group. A man being pulled

pg. 21

over the line is out of the game. Several men may attack one and pull him bodily over the line. Some prefer to play this so that a captured man stays on and plays for the new side.
This game is very popular, probably because it is death on clean clothes and shirt sleeves.

The players box with open hands and try to slap the other man on the cheek. The man who first does this is the winner.

The representative of team A kneels in a catlike attitude before the team B man and mournfully says, "Miau!" The team B man must stroke his head and say, I' Poor pussy!') This performance is gone through three times. If the team B man smiles he is out, but if not the cat is out. When the next pair come up the positions are reversed so that the team B man acts as the cat.

The jousters balance on the right knee and foot, holding the left foot in the left hand. In the right hand each man has a fork on which is a potato. The stunt is to poke the opponent's po-

pg. 22

tato off without losing your balance. Three falls or loss of potato is one battle.

The opponents grasp the opposite ends of a staff: and try to push the other man back. Another staff is held vertically to mark the original center line.
With arms folded the players hop and try to make the other fellow put his foot down by shouldering and dodging him.

A hat or possibly a beanbag on an Indian club is placed in the center of the field, half-way between the two lines.
The object of the game is to run to the hat and get back to your own line with it before being tagged by the opponent.
It is useless to rush out and try to grab the hat and run back at once, as a man doing this will be tagged as soon as he touches the hat. The game is to circle about the hat warily, and to seize a moment when the opponent is off his guard, to snatch the hat and run. If a man touches the hat he may be tagged and is out of the game. Or if his opponent gets away with the hat he is

pg. 23

also out. Eliminate to a finish, or simply keep score.
This is one of the very best Tournament games, either for outdoor or indoor play.

The two players are seated with toes touching, each grasping a staff, held horizontally. The stunt is to pull the other man up onto his feet.

The opponents hold a staff at full height over their heads, and stand facing one another. The stick is then brought directly down, each man gripping as tightly as he can. Obviously it must turn in one man's grasp. That man is the loser. If necessary the stick may be marked with chalk to indicate which way it was twisted.

Standing on one leg, the players grip hands and try to make the other man put down his foot by pulling or pushing.

Where there is a mat or soft ground, a straight wrestling match may be held; one fall being considered to determine the winner of each couple.

pg. 24

These vary greatly and no general rules are possible. They include some of the very best games known, with some old classics in the game list such as Prisoners' Base and Black and White.
Among them also are several more or less original games, and games adapted to increase their playing-value. Such games are Fire, Brooklyn Bridge and Touchback.
In every case the formation is in opposed lines, with taller men opposite one another.

The lines form rather close together, and a medicine ball is thrown rapidly back and forth by whoever gets it first. The ball is thrown as hard as possible, and if a man misses he is out. If, however, the throw is so poor that the man could not possibly get it, the thrower is out. Eliminate until one team is wiped out, or if desired, losers are captured and play on the other side.

In this game one line is called Blacks and the other Whites. Each line advances to about halfway between their goal line and the center of the field. A stick or disc of cardboard is tossed into the air. This is white on one side and black on

pg. 25

the other, so that when the white side comes uppermost the Whites chase the Blacks, trying to tag them before they can reach the Black goal line.
If the black side comes up the action is reversed, the Blacks doing the chasing. Thus the players never know whether they are chasing or escaping until the disc falls. It is possible to play this by having the director simply call out " Black " or "White " instead of tossing a disc. If a man is tagged he joins the other team.

The players form in opposed lines and each man spreads his legs about 18 inches apart. Each player rolls a basket ball at the other team; the rolling being by turn, and the teams alternating. If a ball goes between a player's legs he is out of the game. He is not allowed to do anything to prevent the ball going " under the bridge."


This game, suggested by Scout Executive William Severance of Quincy, Mass., is similar to Black and White, except that one team is Crows and the other Cranes. The director shouts either " Crows ! " or " Cranes ! " When he calls, " Crows," the Crows chase the Cranes, and vice versa, The similarity of names keeps the players

pg. 26

on their toes all the time. On the whole this is a better game than Black and white.

The idea of this game is to throw a basket ball, tennis ball or indoor baseball at the opposing line. If a player is hit (except on the rebound) he is out of the game. If he catches the ball, however, the thrower is out. Eliminate until one side is wiped out.
The players throw in turn, the teams alternating, beginning with the taller players. The tallest man of each team is the Captain, and it is his duty to shout, " Fire ! " This is the signal for his team to dodge back as far as they can, and for the other team to throw the ball.
After each throw the team which has been dodging re-forms on their goal line. No one may throw or dodge before the Captain shouts " Fire ! " Any man who does this or who shouts " Fire ! " when he is not the Captain is out of the game. The distance between the two goal lines varies with the sort of ball used.

Here one line acts as the fish and the other as the net. The net clasps hands, and the two teams advance toward each other. The net tries to

pg. 27

encircle and catch by tagging, as many fish as possible, in one sweep across the field. The fish try to escape by going around the ends of the net.
Captured fish are out of the game. If the net breaks all fish caught in that sweep are freed. After each sweep the teams change sides. Play until one side is eliminated.

Each side establishes a goal line and the two teams advance toward one another, hopping on one leg, with arms folded. The object of the game for each player, is to get across the enemy's goal line without being forced to put down his foot.
The players attack one another by shouldering and dodging, or may avoid attack and merely make for the goal line. The team which gets the most men across the enemy's goal line, wins.

The tallest man of each team is the King. The players take turns, the teams alternating in trying to run and break through the opponents' line. If a player fails he takes his place again, but if he succeeds all the enemy on the far side of the King, who have been broken loose, are captured,

pg. 28

and go on the other side according to height. The team which has the most men in a given time is the winner.

A basket ball is thrown rapidly back and forth from one team to the other. The ball is thrown either by the man who first gets it, or by some one to whom it has been passed.
If the ball hits a man, that man joins the other side, but if the ball is caught, the thrower is captured. This game is similar to Fire, but the play is more rapid, and there is no Captain, each man playing more or less for himself.

The two lines are drawn up in military formation and at the word of command start marching toward one another in perfect step and alignment. One line is No. I and the other is called line No. 2.
When the lines are close together the Director blows his whistle either once or twice. If he blows once, the No. I line chases the No. 2 line, trying to tag them before they can get to their goal line. If the Director blows twice the sides are reversed, the No. 2 line doing the chasing. Captured men join the other side, falling in by

pg. 29

height. The team with the most men at the end of a given time is the winner.

Each team forms along its goal line, a prison being marked out at the rear of each team's part of the field. The object of the game is to run out into the space between the goal lines and capture the enemy by tagging.
In every case, however, the man who does the tagging must have left his goal later than the man captured. Thus if a man from team A runs out into the field a man may leave the Team B goal line and capture him. The Team A man Will retreat, and one of his team will dash out and put to retreat the Team B man. The man who has last left his goal line has the power, and can force the others to retreat or be tagged.
After each capture the prisoner is put in the prison, and all players go back to their goal line and start again. The director must keep a sharp lookout to note which men have last left their goals.
The prisoners may join hands and stretch toward their friends, who try to free them by tagging the nearest man without being tagged, as they make the rescue. In this case only the man touched is freed; both he and his rescuer being

pg. 30

allowed to return safely. The prisoners line up with the first man caught on the end of the line, and the last man caught being nearest the prison. Play to eliminate the other team, or a time limit may be set if desired.

A heavy rope is placed half-way between and parallel to the two lines, and at the starting word each team rushes forward and tries to pull the rope over their own goal line. At the end of three minutes the team with the most rope over its line, or with the rope nearest their line is the winner.

Played the same as the Rope Pull except that the rope is pushed over the opponents' goal line.

In this throwing game the teams line up, and one line about faces. This line may or may not bend over, as agreed upon. The members of the other team try to hit them with a soft ball. After each throw both teams about face and the other team throws the ball, the men throwing in turn; the teams alternating.
Players who get hit or who miss their throw

pg. 31

are out, The object is to eliminate all players on the opposing team

A goal about ten feet square is marked off adjoining the goal line of each team, and six sticks are placed therein. The object of the game is to run into the enemies' territory and get inside his goal without being captured. To be captured a man must be held while " One, two, three ! " is counted.
If a man is captured he must stay in the prison with the sticks unless released. If a man gets into the enemies' goal he may release one prisoner, both men being allowed to: return safely. If there are no prisoners he is allowed to take away one stick; it being against the rule to take a stick as long as there are any prisoners. The game is won by capturing all the opponents' sticks.

Each team's goal line is considered a trench, the teams alternately attacking and defending.
The defenders advance a few paces in front of their trench and each man picks a partner, or later in the rush several may combine against one. They use hands and arms, endeavoring to hold the enemy and push him back. At the end of two

pg. 32

minutes the men who have gotten through are counted and the sides are reversed. The team getting the most men through wins.

The game is started in the center of the field with the Director tossing up a football between two centers; each center trying to strike the ball into the opponent's territory. The kicking game begins where it is first touched in this territory.
The object is to kick the ball over the goal line the other team. The players kick in turn, the reams alternating. The kick is always made from where it is first touched. If, however, the ball is caught, the catcher may take five paces before making the kick.

This is a gymnasium adaptation of Touchback Football. A volley-ball or basket ball is used. After the centers have struck the ball the man who gets it throws the ball backward over his head, and it is advanced in this manner by each team.
There is an advance of one pace allowed for catching the ball, the object being to get a touchback, that is, advancing the ball to the opponents' wall. Each touchback counts I; the game being

pg. 33



In order to avoid being tagged, the man chased will catch and hold another player by the ankle. This player may be tagged unless he call either break the hold or get hold of another man's ankle. The attempts of those caught to escape are rather amusing.

In this Variation the tagging is done entirely with a soft ball which may be either thrown or held in the hand.

The men who are tagged by the man who is It join hands with him, making a long chain. Only the end men do the tagging, and in order to confine the runners to a reasonable territory and to give the " chain " a chance, a definite set of boundaries should be decided upon before the game starts.

pg. 34

The man who is It selects a man to chase, and must keep after him until caught or until another player dashes between It and the runner. If this is done the man who is It now chases the man who crossed. The game proceeds with the players taking advantage of every opportunity to cross, thus changing the man who must be chased, and giving every one a chance to participate.

Half of the players are Days and the rest Nights. All mingle in any order desired over the playground, the Days being marked by wearing handkerchiefs tied on the arm, or by removing their hats. The director calls "Day" or " Night," sometimes calling the same word several times in succession, and then alternating. When he calls, " Day " the Days try to tag the Nights before the Nights can touch one hand to the ground. when "Night" is called the Nights do the tagging. If a man is tagged he drops out of the game, the object being to eliminate the other side.

When a man is tagged he is Dizzy Izzy, and must put his hands on his knees and turn around

pg. 35

three times before chasing any one. The others may not run, but only hop, when Izzy approaches.

The man who is It is called Hip, and carries a knotted handkerchief. All those who are tagged by him are It and have to help him. They may not tag the other players, but merely hold them and shout, " Hip, Hip " until he comes and tags them with the handkerchief. Thus Hip has to hurry from place to place and do the final tagging for his helpers. The last man caught is Hip next time.

In Japanese Tag the man who is It must hold his hand on the spot where he was tagged until he tags another player.

The players lock arms by twos. There are two odd men, a runner and a man who is It. The runner tries to lock arms wherever he can, thus making the other man of the pair the odd man. This odd man is now the runner and must instantly try to lock with some other pair. The game is similar to Circle Lock Tag.

pg. 36

In order to save themselves the men must take the position of a Mohammedan at prayer. If It retreats 5 yards and returns, a man may be tagged, which prevents leafing.

In order to become safe from the man who is It the players hop on one another's backs, thus making both horse and rider safe. The same horse and rider may not work together twice in succession.

All players who are tagged remain It and assist one another until the game is finished. They pair up by twos with arms locked and must run and tag in this manner. An odd man plays as an individual until he can tag him a partner.

In order to be safe from the man who is It, a player must raise one knee, place arm underneath and grasp his nose. He must not stay in one place but should run at least ten paces between stops. He must run before the man who is It can count ten if so commanded, in which case It must be five yards away as he counts.

pg. 37

The players scatter about the field by twos, facing each other about a yard apart. There are two extra men, a runner and a chaser. The runner to avoid being caught, steps between any two partners, in which case the man back of him now becomes the runner.

In order to be immune from tagging, the players must hang from some object with both feet entirely off the ground. They may not hang from the same object twice in succession, and must run at least 10 yards between stops.

When It approaches, the players to avoid tagging must drop onto their backs with " all fours up." After dropping they must instantly be ready to get up again because if It retreats 5 yards and returns they may be tagged whether up or down. This rule prevents the men staying in one place.

The man who is It must carry some weight in the form of a stone or some bulky article, and when he tags a man he passes on the weight to the new victim.

pg. 38



The players start to number consecutively and continue this until the number seven, any multiple of it, or any number containing it is next In such case the player simply says, "Buzz" and the counting goes on. If a player makes an error he pays a forfeit and the game starts at the beginning again.
For 77 the proper expression is, " Buzz-Buzz."

Place chairs for the infield and outfield, also a row of chairs for the batters' bench. The principle of the game " Buzz " is applied to this baseball Variation. The numbers are started at one end of the batters' bench and pass down this bench and around the bases, then to the outfield, and back again to the batters. The man batting and the base runners do not repeat any numbers. Every time the fielding team makes a mistake in counting or saying "buzz" the batter goes to

pg. 39

first. Runners are advanced entirely by being forced. If the batting bench contingent make a mistake the batter is out, and after three outs they change positions with the " outs." In this game the mystic number is not necessarily seven, but is decided upon at the start of each game, and is often changed. Four is one of the best, as it makes a good fast game.

A11 sit in a semicircle about the director who suddenly points to one and says either, " Earth," " Air," " Fire " or " Water."
If he says, " Earth " the player must quickly say the name of some animal before the director can count ten. For "Air," a bird must be named, and for " Water,') a fish. When " Fire," is given the player must remain wholly silent. In case of a mistake (and some amusing ones are made) or when no bird, etc., is given, the player loses a point. It is also an error to name the same creature the second time in one game. When a player loses five points all unite in giving him three loud, dismal groans, and a new game starts.

The player who is It faces the wall and covers his eyes. A player is assigned by the director to

pg. 40

leave the room, and the others change places slightly. The player who is It then tries to guess who is missing. If successful, the man who left the room is It next time. If the guess is wrong the same man is It again.

An improvement on Hunt the Thimble. Any small object such as a block or ink bottle may be used as the coon. All cover their eyes and, " No fair peeking," while the man who is It hides this object somewhere in the room where it is in plain sight but not readily noticed.
When all is ready he says, " Hunt the Goon," and all begin the search. As soon as any one sees the Goon he says nothing, but quietly sits down. One by one the players will become seated until only one slow one is left. The first man to see the Goon has the honor of hiding it next time,

Played with two teams seated at a table, one on each side. One team puts its hands under the table and passes from one to another a coin the size of a quarter or half dollar. When the player who is to do the guessing thinks the other

pg. 41

side have had plenty of time to distribute the coin, he says, " Jenkins up ! " and all the opposing players quickly bring their hands from under the table and raised high with the fists closed. When he says, " Jenkins down! " all bring their hands down violently and in unison to hide the clink of the coin, the hands being opened.
The guessing now begins. The players of the other team try in turn to guess who holds the coin, and in which hand it is held. The guesser may ask certain hands to be raised, waving them away. This indicates that he thinks the coin is elsewhere. Thus he may eliminate down to the last one or two hands which contain the coin. If he fails to finally locate the coin, the same side hides it again. If he locates it his side gets the coin. While the' guesser is at work others on his side may advise him, but only he has the authority to order hands away or open. If desired, a score may be kept of the number of times each side hides the coin.

Eight or ten players stand in line and are each given the name of some bird, tree, flower, mineral, or animal. The other players memorize
their names and then look away while those in the line change places, mixing up the former order.

pg. 42

The others then try in turn to guess the names of those in line. This will not be as easy as it sounds.
Try it.

The first player says, "The minister's cat is an active cat." The next player says the same, substituting for the word " active " some other word beginning with the same letter. Thus the sentence goes around the circle with a different adjective for the cat by each player, and all starting with " a," until some one can think of none, and must pay a forfeit. Then start with "b" and so on through the whole alphabet.

pg. 43



A very old game, often played from curb to curb in the street. It stands between two goal lines and calls, " All across! )' when all the players must cross from one line to the other. He catches them as they run across; the first man caught being It next time. All who are caught assist until the last elusive lad is captured.
The capture by merely tagging is sometimes made the rule, but real honest-to-goodness boys prefer to be held, at least until "1-2-3" is counted. Any "fraid cat " who won't leave the goal may be forced off by counting to ten. If still on the goal he is considered caught.

The players place their hats on the ground along a fence or building, and a line is established 5 yards away upon which the boys line up. One thrower tries to put a soft ball into any hat. If the ball goes into a hat the owner runs and all the

pg. 44

others chase him. If he is caught he becomes the thrower, but if he can get back to the hat without being held he is safe, and the former thrower tries again.

A strenuous gymnasium game. One Indian club for each player is placed near the back wall of each team. The two teams scatter their men each on their own side of the center line, and so arranged as to protect their Indian Clubs.

The object of the game is to knock over the opponents' clubs with a medicine ball or basketball. Turns are not taken, each man throwing when he can secure the ball. The game lasts for ten minutes, one point being scored for each club

pg. 45

knocked down. Knocking your own clubs down counts against you. Use several balls if desired.

Played in a gymnasium with a basket ball across a center line. The captains toss up for the serve and the server bounds the ball once and slaps it across to the other team. He stands opposite the center of the line and at a point 5 yards back.
Players are scattered to cover the danger points. The object is to keep the ball in play and to send it to the other court so as to make the opponents score errors.
The ball must always be struck from above. It may be returned after striking the floor on your side, or may be bounded once and then returned. A given player may not bound it more than once, however. It is fair to bound it to another player on your side who may in turn either knock it over the line or may bound it once first. It must never be returned" on the fly." Your opponents score one point for the following errors in play: Your failing to serve it over, failing to return it, bounding ball more than once, not striking ball from above, stepping over line, or knocking ball out of bounds. Team scoring the point retains the serve. Game is 15 points.

(Adapted from 'Mind and Body," Vol. I, No. 10.)

pg. 46

Two teams are formed in single file. An Indian club, book, match box or any object which may easily be tipped over is set up about IS yards from the head of each column. The front player of one team steps up to a starting line and rolls a ball at either Indian club. After his turn he goes to the rear of his file. The leading man on the other team does the same, and so on; the boys rolling in turn, and the teams alternating.
If a player rolls at and knocks over his club, the rear man on the other team is out of the game. If, On the other hand, he elects to roll at the other team's club and knocks it over, the last two men on the other team are out. In this case,

pg. 47

however, if he misses, he is out of the game himself.

In this game one team are broncos and the other team riders. The leader of the broncos backs up against a wall or fence, the next bronco bends down clasping him about the waist and each bronco follows suit, making a single file of horses, each grasping the one ahead.
At a given signal the riders run from the horses' left side and each mounts a bronco. The broncos buck and do everything possible to dislodge the riders, except standing up or rolling over. This goes on while the director counts 50. One foot touching the ground counts as bucked off. The broncos count one point for every rider dislodged, after which the teams change sides and the same thing is tried again with the former riders acting as horses.

The following in an adaptation from several similar games, and combines the good points of each. The man who is It throws a soft ball into the air and calls the name of any player. If the player misses the ball he loses one point and is It. If he catches the ball he shouts, " Hold," and the other players who have quickly scattered must

pg. 48

stand fast, while he throws at one. If he hits a man, that man loses one point and is It. If he misses, the thrower loses one point and remains It. When a player is unfortunate enough to lose three points he must bend down against the wall while each player gets a free shot at him. The game then starts anew.

Another game where the players run across from one goal line to another, with one or more men who are It trying to catch them as they run by. The Chinese Wall is a space about 5 yards wide running across the center of the field. Those who are It may not leave this center strip.
In other respects the game is the same as All Across.

Procure a long strip of carpet for your bowling alley, unrolling it on a level floor with a cushion or two for a backing. The balls are of china, the diameter of a baseball, and of several colors for the different teams.
One ball is white, and serves as the target, being placed at the far end of the alley. One player from each team rolls, and so on by turn, the object being to place the balls as close as

pg. 49

possible to the white one. Score one point for every ball nearer to the " kitty " than the nearest one of the opponents. The game is 15 or 21.
If a ball rolls off the carpet it is out of the game unless it has struck the "kitty," in which case it is replaced on the carpet at the point where it went off.
Great interest is developed in trying to knock away the balls of the opponents which have been especially well placed.
Variation. Use cheap (5cents) baseballs with colors marked teams. This is
to distinguish between teams. Use any floor without using a carpet. This is practical, but not conducive to such skilful play.

The player who is It has a soft ball with which he tries to hit another player. After the ball is thrown everybody scrambles for the ball. Whoever gets it throws it and so on, the boys first scrambling for the ball, and then getting as far from it as they feel is safe. A boy who is hit 5 times may be required to face the wall while the others take a free shot with the ball.

Form the boys in Indian file with a good leader in front who starts at a slow trot and going

pg. 50

through various stunts en route. Some suggestions are:

Raising the arms horizontal
Raising the arms overhead
Raising the arms forward
Hands on hips
Raising the knees high
Hopping Fists on chest.

The advantage of such exercises as the above is the fact that the boys get a good work-out with many muscles in play, and have a fine time, not considering it as setting-up work at all. Of course there are endless athletic and grotesque stunts which the leader can try out. The above makes, with maze running, a fine event for exhibition work.

Each player provides himself with a stone or " duck " about the size of a baseball. A flat rock is set up some ten yards from the throwing line, and the players throw at this rock to see who shall be It first, the worst thrower being the victim. He places his duck on the rock and stands beside it.
The others throw at the duck, trying to knock

pg. 51

it off. No particular turns are taken, but it is safer to have only one throw at a time, and to toss the rocks underhand.
After throwing, the players crouch over their ducks but dare not touch them as they are liable to be tagged on their return to the line, in which case they are It.
If the duck is knocked off the rock the man who is It must replace it before he can tag the others. This is therefore a signal for all to grab their ducks and run back to the line where the throwing continues.
When the man who is It tags another he may be "tagged back," so he picks up his duck quickly and runs to the throwing line. The new guard must place his duck on the rock before tagging any one.
If two ducks "kiss" or strike together both players are allowed to return safely to the starting line.
Variation Use tin cans the sort with the pry-off cover. These stand up well, are easy to handle, and much safer than stones.
Variation. For indoors use beanbags and an Indian club, or draw a chalk circle on the floor and use small balls, trying to knock the duck out of the circle.

pg. 52

The poor victim who is It faces the wall with his head bent down. The others form in column of twos, the front two being always on the throwing line. One of the two, designated by the director, throws a soft ball at the man who is down. If he misses he is It and the man who was It takes his place. If he hits, the man who is It tries to guess which of the two threw the ball. Thus he has an even chance; an improvement over the old style of play.
If he guesses correctly the thrower takes his place but if he does not he is still It. After each throw the players go to the rear of the column.

A real out-of-doors game which includes among the apparatus needed a house or barn. The teams station themselves on opposite sides of a barn and one side throws a soft ball over the barn. If no one on the other side catches the ball, the side which missed has to throw the ball, this being a disadvantage.
If the ball is caught, the catcher runs around the barn and tries to hit an opponent with the ball. As the other team doesn't know which side he is coming around, there is a considerable ele-

pg. 53

ment of surprise to it. This is accentuated by the catcher's team, some of which run around each side of the barn to confuse the others. If he hits an opponent that man joins the other side and the original throwers retain the ball. If thrower misses, the ball must be thrown by his side next time. The game ends when all the players are on one side or when everybody gets tired.
What boy has not played this game during the early evening hours? For the sake of completeness this old and popular game is included. The man who is It covers his eyes and shouts," Five Ten Fifteen TwentyTwentyfive ThirtyThirtyfive FortyFortyfive FiftyFiftyfive SixtySixtyfive SeventySeventyfive EightyEightyfive Ninety Ninetyfive One HundredAnyonehidingaroundmygoalisIt!"
The others have hidden, and as the man who is It tries to find them, they try to run in and tag the goal before being seen. If they succeed they are in free. If not they are caught, and the first man caught is It next time.

A line is established from which to roll the ball, and at right angles to this line, starting about

pg. 54

three yards away, a row of holes is made each the size of a baseball. Thus a ball rolled at the first hole may pass over it and possibly roll into the third or fourth. - The players are numbered, and number I takes the first hole, number 2 the second one, etc.
The man who is It rolls the ball. If it goes into hole No. 1 the roller gets 1 point and player No. 1 rolls next. If it goes into hole No. 5, he gets 5 points and player No. 5 gets the ball. If a player rolls into his-own hole, he gets the points and rolls again. Total for game is decided in advance.

Played on a field similar to baseball. The players are divided into two teams, and No. I of Side A comes up to bat. No. I of the other side is pitcher, there being no other in-field. The ball should be a soft one and is thrown underhand and batted with the open hand. There is a catcher stationed in the regular position, but his only duty is to return balls to the pitcher. Pitcher's box is 5 yards from the plate.
When the ball is hit the pitcher fields it and tries to tag the home plate with the ball while ball is held in his hand. If this is done before runner reaches first base the runner is out. If

pg. 55

the ball is caught in the air the batter is retired also.
The play is always for the home plate. Base runners are advanced by forcing. No stealing is allowed. After a man either makes his base or is put out another pitcher is sent out to face the second batter, and so on until all of Team A have batted and all of Team B have pitched. This constituted one inning. The number of innings should be arranged before the game starts. Experiment will show the best size of the diamond and distance between each base.

The hats of the boys are placed in a row about twelve inches apart. The object of the game is as follows: The owner of the first hat hops over each hat, hops back, then hops around each, going to the right of the first hat, the left of the second and so on, making a sort of weaving figure. All this must be done without touching any hat. At the finish the player bends forward, places his hands on the ground, picks up his hat in his teeth and throws it over his head.
If a player misses, his hat is placed at the far end and the next man tries The last one to finish the stunt has to go through the spanking machine.

pg. 56

In the past this game had one defect--the poor man who was " down') didn't have a chance. He was expected to pick the man who had slapped him from an innocent-looking crowd of fifteen or twenty -- a task which would have puzzled Mr. Holmes himself. The following Variation will appeal to lovers of a square deal:
The players form in column of twos and It bends forward with his head against the wall. The first two step up and one of these slaps him. He tries to guess the guilty man. If he guesses correctly the slapper is It, but if he guesses wrong the slapper goes to the rear of the line, another man steps up, and he has to be slapped again.

A game played like baseball, but with the batter kicking a stick instead of hitting a ball. A diamond is laid out and two even teams selected, one team taking the customary positions of "outs" It on the bases and the other sending a man up to the home plate to bat. The pitcher does not throw the stick, but merely acts as' a fielder.
The batter places the stick on his foot and kicks it as far as he can, trying to reach first base before the stick can be thrown to the catcher. The catcher, in order to put a runner out, must

pg. 57

tag the home plate with the stick and call out the runner's name. He may snatch the stick from off the batter's foot in order to catch any man off a base. This makes a fast game and renders stealing bases fairly difficult.
The batter tries to not only kick the stick a good distance, but also avoids a high kick, because a batter is out if the stick is caught on the fly, and since running on a caught fly is not permitted, there is here a good chance for double plays. Considerable skill may be developed in throwing the stick to the catcher so that he may catch it and get into action quickly. In fast games it is a good plan to pad the ends of the stick with burlap.

Each boy mounts another, pick-a-back, pairing the heavier boys together. All knights try to unseat the others by pulling and pushing. The one maintaining his position the longest is the winner of the tournament. A good game for soft turf, but dangerous on hard ground. This game differs from similar games described in other chapters in that this is free for all, and not on a team basis. Care should be taken to prevent accident and strain.

pg. 58

A clean and interesting version of basket ball without the evils of mass play. In general the game is like ordinary basket ball with the following differences:
The field is divided into nine equal courts and numbered around the edge, with number nine in the center. The players of each team are like-

pg. 59

wise numbered and one or more pairs are assigned to their proper court. They may not step over the line In play, so that massing and long runs are impossible. After each goal all players pass to the next numbered court, in order that each may have a chance to play from every position of the field.
In guarding, the arms may be held to block the other man, but it is a foul to touch the other man or the ball. The first man to touch a ball has possession of it. In close decisions the ball is tossed up as in ordinary basket ball.

(Developed by Misses Cora B. Clark and Caroline M. Wollaston of New York.)

A row of holes or the players' hats are set up four yards away from and parallel to a throwing line. The player who is It tosses or rolls a soft ball, trying to put it into one of the holes. Each player has one of the holes as his own and stands behind it. If the ball goes into a hole, all players run away except the one into whose hole it has rolled. He picks it up and shouts, " Halt." The players must then all stand fast, that is, not move their feet. We throws the ball at any man, and if he hits him the man who was hit has a small stone put on his hole known as a "black

pg. 60

baby," and is It. If the thrower misses, he gets a "black baby," and he must be It and throw next time. The first man who gets five "black babies " must stand up against the wall and act as a target.
Variation. For the gymnasium make chalk circles on the floor and keep score with small chalkmarks.

Players pair off by size and scatter about the field. A basket ball is thrown up between two; near the center, and each tries to catch it. The object of the game is to keep the ball away from the opponents and to throw it to your own men. Each time it is so thrown and caught, one point is scored.
It is unfair to touch with the hands another player, or to touch the ball when another has it. For convenience in scoring a scorer should be appointed for each team, and one team should have handkerchiefs tied around their arms. This is a pretty strenuous game, and an occasional rest should be enforced.

In this Variation of captain ball the bases are placed in two semicircles with the base for the

pg. 61

captains (a larger circle) in the center of the floor. The number of bases vary with the number of players. A baseman and a guard are stationed at each base.

The object of the game is as follows:
(a) For the basemen to throw the ball to their captain. Each time the ball is so thrown and caught it counts one point.
(b) For the guards to intercept the ball and throw it to their basemen. This opens the way to a possible score.
The ball is put in play by being thrown up between the two captains, when each tries to knock the ball to one of his own team. The basemen may step one foot out of their bases, but the

pg. 62

guards may not step with either foot into the circles.
Fouls. The breaking of the above rules constitute fouls, also the following: To hold the ball longer than the time it takes to turn around; to kick the ball; or to bound the ball more than three times in succession. In case of fouls the offenders must allow their opponents a free throw from any baseman to their captain. The opposing captain may not try to prevent the catch, but the guard may attempt to block the throw.
The game is played in two or four fifteen-minute periods.

The two teams form in single file, the leading and tallest players face to face and the others behind them according to height. Each one clasps hands around the body of the man in front of him, and the leaders grasp a staff or lock wrists.
The team that gives ground or breaks at the expiration of one minute is the loser.

The boys are divided into two " rifle teams " and form in a rough semicircle, each team by itself and facing the same stump or post. The object

pg. 63

of the game is to throw stones at the stump and eliminate the other team by so doing. Every time the stump is hit the last thrower on the other side is either out of the game or transferred to the side which made the hit, as may be decided beforehand.

Played with a basket ball or volley-ball. The ball is slapped with the open hand. Striking with the fist is not allowed. The rules in general are the same as baseball except that outs may be made by striking a runner with the thrown ball as well as by the usual methods. In this case the ball must not be bounced, however, but must be a clean hit from thrower to runner.

pg. 64

The players gather in a group around the one who is It. He drops a soft ball in the ground and calls the name one of the players. All then scatter except the one whose name was called. He picks up the ball and shouts, " Stop!" This is a signal for all to stop, while the man with the ball throws at one of them. They may dodge by bending, but may not move the feet.
If a miss is made, the man at whom the ball was thrown gets the ball and throws (from where he first touches it) at another player. This throwing proceeds until a miss is made. The player who misses receives one point or " spud " against him and is It next time. When three " spuds " of these must: stand are obtained the possessor up against the wall while the others test their marksmanship

One man makes a back, and a leader is selected who is proficient at the game All boys jump from a line established as a take-off and each tries to do the stunt set by the leader Some of the stunts ordinarily used are:

Jumping with one hand
Jumping without hands used

pg. 65

Knuckles down
Slap the man as you go over
Take a hop before the take-off Hat inverted.
Go over without losing it off
Each man puts his hat on man's back as he goes over
Pick the hats off without spilling the pile

When a man misses he is down in place of the former " back."

for this a rope 1 1/2 inches in diameter should be used and the teams evenly matched as to strength insofar as possible.
With boys it is well not to allow them to pull too long, one minute being enough to determine the winning team. Use a piece of string tied to the center of the rope to coincide with a mark on the floor.

A fort is marked out in the shape of a rectangle 25 x 50, and ten feet outside this a line is drawn which defines the fighting territory. In the center of the fort a small goal is made for prisoners, and another, some distance outside is made for the prisoners taken by the attacking party.
The ten foot border is the fighting ground, and

pg. 66

the besiegers enter this and challenge the defenders to battle. The fighting is done entirely by pairs, one man from each side, each trying to pull the other, the besiegers pulling outside the fighting area, and the defenders pulling into the fort. Men so captured are put in prison, but may be exchanged under a flag of truce. The side that gets the most prisoners in a given time wins, but the besiegers may also win by getting a man inside the enemy's prison without being touched.

The players are divided into two armies, and each army establishes a fort at their end of the floor or field, as follows: A circle fifteen feet in diameter constitutes the fort, and another line

pg. 67

five feet outside this bounds the trench. Back of each fort and attached to the outside of the trench is a rectangular prison ten feet square.
The game alternates between one fort and the other, as the game progresses. A basket ball is used as ammunition, the object of the game being to throw the ball so that it will strike the floor inside the enemy's fort, in which case the battle is won. Several battles constitute a game.
The attacking party surrounds the fort, tossing the ball from one to another, and waiting to get the ball inside; but if they go inside the trench line they may be tagged and put in the prison.
The defenders scatter their men so as to block the throw and catch the ball. If the ball is caught the attempt is a failure and the defenders chase

pg. 68

the attacking party to their own fort tagging all they can, thus making them prisoners before they reach the protection of their fort. Those who gain the safety of their fort are now the defenders, while the former defenders are now conducting the attack. The tagging must be done with the ball, thrown or held.
When a throw is made and the ball strikes the floor of the enemy's fort all prisoners are freed and the ball must be returned to the attackers for another trial, a battle being won.
Each battle won scores a point; the army winning the most battles in a given time being the winners of the war also.

Similar to Hide and Seek except that a yard or stick is placed at the goal with one end resting on a stone. The game is often played in the city streets with the yard resting on the curb.
Whenever one of the hiders can steal up to the goal without being seen he throws the yard as far as possible and cries, "Yard's off." This frees all those who have been caught, who may hide again.
Instead of counting to give the players time to hide, the yard is thrown and the hiding is done while it is being replaced.

pg. 69



In endeavoring to present the subject of races, particularly relay races, we are confronted with two factors, the profusion of material, and a confusion in its arrangement. In an attempt to clarify and- systematize the many types of races now in use, they have been divided into six general groups.
These groups are:
Class 1. Races where contestants run to a point and return, without backward passing of an object.
Class 2. Races where an object is passed backward combined with running to a point and return.
Class 3. Races where an object is passed backward, without distance running.
Class 4· Relays where another man is carried or used which makes an odd formation.
Class 5. Races where all contestants run enmasse.

pg. 70

Class 6. Races where there is miscellaneous or odd formation.

These will be presented in the order outlined above so that a given type of race may be found with ease and definiteness. An earnest effort has been made to make the chapter reasonably complete without " padding " by describing Variations which are obvious.



Teams consisting of from eight to fifteen men form in single file, the front men being on the starting line. These leading men run to a given point and return, touching off their No. 2 men who have stepped up to the line and are ready. Each team proceeds in this manner, the last man wearing a handkerchief tied around his arm in order to distinguish him at the finish.
When touching off the next man the runner should pass to his left of his file, and keep out of the way. Teams whose runners start before they are properly touched off should be disqualified.

pg. 71

A handkerchief, hat, dumb-bell or similar object may be passed instead of merely touching hands. It is suggested that the runners cover their distance and run around a man posted at the far end of the course rather than merely trying to cross a line and return.
STRAIGHT RELAY RACE. Simply run a relay as described above, passing a handkerchief.
SHOE RELAY. At a designated line half way down the course the contestants remove their sneakers. They run to the end, encircle a man, put on their sneakers, and return; touching off the next men. It is well to make sure that all sneakers are of the same general style.
BACKWARD RUN. A Straight relay run backwards. The files face backward at the start and are touched off by slapping on the back.
ALL FOURS. When touched off from a crouching start the runner goes on all fours, bending knees if desired. On the return he must not stand before the line is crossed.
ELEPHANT WALK. Same as All Fours except that the legs and arms are kept stiff.
JUMPING. The contestants jump forward and run back.
HOPPING. Instead of running, the contestants must hop on one leg. If a man puts down the other foot or falls, his team is disqualified.

pg. 72

FROG JUMP The racers must jump a la frog.
SIDEWAY RUN The runners skip sideways.
MEDLEY RELAY. A combination of several of the foregoing. The No. I men do a straight relay. The No. 2 men may go on all fours. The No. 3 men may do the backward run, and so on, thus varying the program.
SET 'EM UP RELAY. At the end of the course an Indian club is set up in a circle, and another circle is drawn two feet to one side of the first. The contestant must run to the club, exchange it from one circle to the other, and return. He may use only one hand, and if the club falls down he must set it up before returning. A Variation sometimes used calls for one circle not far from the starting line, and the other at the far end of the course. More than one club may be used if desired.
GRAB BAG RACE. At the end of the course each file places its sneakers and the piles are well mixed. Each man runs to the pile, finds his sneakers, puts them on and returns to touch off the next man.
POTATO SPOON RELAY. Near the starting point of each file there is a receptacle containing I potato for each man in the file. At the far end of the course there is a similar receptacle, empty. The No. I man has a large spoon, and at the

pg. 73

word " Go " must fish a potato out of the can at the start and run with it to the can at the finish; placing (not throwing) it therein. He then returns, tagging off the next man by passing the spoon. If the potato is dropped it must be picked up with the spoon only, and must never be touched with the hands. It is unfair to spear the potato with the spoon -- it must be carried in the bowl.
BALANCING RACE. The object carried is a gymnasium wand or staff, to be balanced on the right forefinger. When touching off, the staff may be grasped by the left hand and placed on the finger. Otherwise it may not be touched unless it falls. If it falls it may be replaced and the race continued.
KNIFE AND PEANUT RACE. This is run exactly the same as the Potato Spoon Relay, except that peanuts are balanced on the blade of a dinner knife. The knife must: be passed handle first, in order to avoid accidents.
HUMAN OBSTACLE RELAY. Four men are placed in line with each file, and about ten yards apart. The first man is at L' attention," the second in leapfrog position, the third in straddle position, and the fourth also at "attention." The runners must run around the first man, leap over the second, crawl through the legs of the

pg. 74

third, run around the fourth and return. A somersault may be included where the conditions make this possible.
DIZZY IZZY. Each runner sprints to the far end of the course, grasps his knees with his hands and encircles an Indian club five times. He then returns (if he can) and touches off the next man.
OVER THE TOP RELAY. Ten yards in front of each file two tall men hold a staff horizontally above their heads. Each runner passes under this, throwing a basketball or volley ball over the staff and catching it before it touches the ground. Runners sprint to a given point and return, passing under the staff and touching the next man off by passing (not throwing) the ball. If ball is missed or thrown under the staff it must be picked up or properly thrown before proceeding.
SLIPPER RACE. The file leader wears a pair of large slippers. He runs to the far goal and returns, stepping out of the slippers, for the use of the second man. As these slippers are liable to be lost off by the runners the event is rather amusing.
CRAB RACE. Before the starting word the first man assumes the Crab Race position, with back down, and resting on hands and feet. He goes in this fashion across a line at the end of the course and runs back, touching off the next

pg. 75

man who has also assumed the necessary posture, and is ready for his turn. A short distance event.
CHAIR RELAY. Opposite each file, at the far end of the course, a' sturdy chair is placed, facing the file. The first runner has to run to this chair, sit in it, knock his feet together, and return, touching off the second man.



The teams form in files as described for straight relays with this difference: Where the requirements warrant it the men of each file have sufficient space between them for a man to run between or to leap over.
Although almost any small object may be passed backward, we shall consider this object to be a basket ball.
In passing the ball backward each man must touch it. In touching off a man the runner must pass (not throw) the ball.
Other general rules are similar to those for a straight relay. The rear man runs with the ball,

pg. 76

giving it to the front man on his return, and staying in the files.

There are many ways of passing the ball back, and many ways of running with the ball. We will consider first the methods of passing the ball backward, and then take up the methods of running with it. In this manner any one may use such combinations as he may wish. It is merely a matter of putting together these methods as desired in order to have ready at any time scores of different relay races of this type.
PASSING OVERHEAD. Standing close together. Every man must touch the ball.
PASSING BETWEEN LEGS. Straddle. All must touch ball.
PASSING BALL TO SIDE. Right side and left side may be used to alternate.
OVER AND UNDER. The ball is passed alternately over the head and under the legs.
OVER AND UNDER VARIATION. The first time the ball goes entirely overhead. The second time it goes between the legs, and so on, alternating.

pg. 77

STRAIGHT RUN. The rear. man simply runs forward around the designated point and returns, passing the ball to the front man.
IN AND OUT. The men stand further apart, and the last man weaves in and out between them, running to the designated point and returning.
BALL BALANCE. The rear man runs, balancing the ball on the palm of his right hand.
HOPPING PUSH. The rear man hops, pushing (not kicking) the ball with his foot. The front man gets It from the ground as he returns.
OVER AND UNDER. The players stand a few feet apart, and the rear man alternately leaps over and crawls under them. He then runs and returns.
UNDER THE TUNNEL. The rear man crawls under all the others, pushing ball with head and passing between their legs. He then runs with the ball and returns.
LEAPFROG. The rear man leaps over all the others, carrying the ball with him. He then runs to the designated point and returns.
The rear man tucks the ball between his knees and hops to the designated point, carrying the ball in his hands as he returns, and passing it to the front man.

pg. 78

GOAT. The rear man must butt the ball all the way to the end of the course with his head, not using his hands, and run back with it.
BALL ON HEAD. The rear man runs with the ball held on his head by both hands; returning and, passing to the file leader.
BACKWARD RUN. All files face to the rear, that is, with their backs to the starting line and designated point. The ball is passed from the man at the starting line to the man furthest from the starting line. He runs to the end of the course traveling backward. When he rounds the designated point he runs forward for the rest of the race. He passes the ball to the man nearest the starting line, from the back.
STRAIGHT HOP. The rear man carries the ball in his hands, hops to the end of the course and returns, running.
FROG JUMP. This stunt, described under Class I may be done, the ball being carried in the hands.
SIDEWAYS RUN. See Class I also.
OVER THE TOP RELAY. This excellent running method described under Class I is applicable to Class 2 also.

pg. 79


This type of relay is like the Class 2 group with the distance run omitted. The rear man finally receives the ball, runs to the front of the line, all step backward and the ball is passed once more. The race is finished when the original front man arrives at the starting line; throwing up his hands holding the ball, and calling, " Done ! "
All of the passing methods in Class 2 may be used in Class 3, and all of the running methods may be used except the last, namely, Over the Top Relay.
Simply omit the distance run and have the rear man hustle to the front in the required manner and pass the ball back. Of course all men must touch the ball when it is being passed.


Here we have races which would be simple relays of the Class I type except that another man

pg. 80

is carried or used in a manner that necessitates a detailed description of each race.
The same formation of the files is used as in the Class I relays. There is no passing of any object to the rear of the file, but in each the runners must travel over a given course.
Where one man carries another, especial care should be taken to arrange the files by height, and to make the course a short one to prevent undue strain on the runners.
LEAPFROG RELAY. Prior to the start of the race the front man or No. I of each file, takes up a stooping position about half way down the course. At the word " Go " the No. 2 man runs up and leaps over the No. 1 man, immediately thereafter taking a similar stooping position in front of No. 1. The No. 1 man then leaps over No. 2, runs to the end of the course and finishes the race, touching off No. 3. The No. 3 man leaps over No. 2, makes a back, and is in turn leaped over by No. 2 who now runs. Thus the race proceeds, leaving one man in the center of the floor who does not finish. The next to the last man makes the finish for his file, but the finish is a clean one.
OVERMAN RELAY. This is similar to the Leapfrog Relay. Before the start of the race the first man makes a back about five yards in

pg. 81

front of his file. The No. 2 man leaps over him, and No. I completes the run, and returns, tagging off the No. I man who in turn immediately tags off No. 3· In the meantime the No. 2 man has made a back for No. 3; and so the race proceeds. In this race the next to the last man makes the finish; one man being left in the center.
TUNNEL RELAY. Run just the same as the Overman Relay except that the first man gets down on his hands and knees, and the stunt is to crawl under the man rather than leap over him.
HORSEBACK RELAY. At the start the No. 2 man leaps on the back of the No. I man, who carries him pickaback to the far goal. Here the No. 2 man runs back and gets the No. 3 man, and so on. The last man to be carried must run back to the starting line for the finish.
FIREMAN'S LIFT RELAY. At the start the front man of each file about faces, takes the No. 2 man by the fireman's lift, and carries him to the end of the course. The race is carried through similar to the Horseback Relay.
To make the fireman's lift from the standing position, face the other man, grasp his left wrist with your right hand, and holding his hand high, tuck your head under his left armpit, bending so that he will fall well over you. Put your left arm between his legs and put his left hand in your

pg. 82

left, grasping the wrist. If he has been properly adjusted he will now carry easily, and your right hand will be free to grasp the rungs of an imaginary ladder.
RESCUE RELAY. Prior to the start the first man takes a position about half way down the course, lying on his back with his head toward his file; and with his left arm well up. The No. 2 man pulls him up and carries him by the fireman's lift to the far goal. The man who was carried starts back to touch off the next bearer. In the meantime the No. 3 man has run forward and lain down. The No. 4 man is the next to be touched off, and he carries the No. 3 man. Thus the even numbers do the carrying, and the odd numbers act as patients; and the files must have an even number of men. The last burden-bearer finishes at the far goal.
DEAD MAN RELAY. Before the race starts the first man of each file lies on his back, about half way down the course, with his head toward the file. The second man runs and grasps him under the neck, lifting him onto his feet. The patient keeps a stiff back to facilitate this move. No. 2 lies down, No. I finishes and touches off So. 3, etc. The next to the last man finishes, thus leaving one man on the floor at the finish.
WHEELBARROW RELAY. The front man gets

pg. 83

down and has his ankles (not legs) grasped by the No. 2 man before the race starts. They travel over the course as is customary in this race. At the far end, the No. I man runs back and gets the third man who is now lying down in readiness and they proceed as before. The finish is at the far goal, the " wheelbarrow " crossing the line to win.
CHAIR CARRY RELAY. At the word " Go " Nos. I and 2 make a chair with their hands and carry No. 3 to the far goal line. Nos. 2 and 3 return for No. 4, and Nos. 3 and 4 return for No. 5, etc. The finish is at the far goal line.
THREE-LEGGED RELAY. Column Of twos is formed, each couple locking arms. The running must be in step, the inner legs moving together as if they were tied. The first two round a point and return, touching off the second pair. The righthand man of the pairs always does the touching off, the returning runners passing to their left of each file at the finish. The race ends at the original starting line.
CHARIOT RACE. This is the same as the three-legged race except that the runners form in column of fours and lock arms. They need not, however, keep in step unless they so desire.

pg. 84


There are a few races where all the contestants run at once. In one respect these are ideal-there are no spectators, and everybody not only gets in the game, but stays in it throughout the race.
Where the file grasps one another in any way the team is disqualified if any one lets go.
The finish is based on the last man of the file crossing the finish line. Files must not break before this happens.
CENTIPEDE RACE. Each man in the file reaches around the waist of the man in front of him, clasping hands or gripping wrists. Generally before the start they all mark time in order to keep in step.
At the word "Go" they race in lock step around a given object, and return.
ANTELOPE RACE. Why this is called the Antelope Race no one knows. It is run the same as the centipede race except that runners grasp the belt or other clothing of the men in front. This

pg. 85

gives more room, and better speed is attained with less skill needed.
CATERPILLAR RACE. This back-breaking event is similar to the two foregoing except that the runners bend forward, gripping the ankles of the men in front.
RELAY CENTIPEDE RACE. Although this is not really a relay race in one sense of the word, it is similar to one. The runners are posted about ten yards apart in single file. At the word " Go " the last man runs to the man in front of him and grips him about the waist. The two continue and pick UP the third man, and so forth, until all are in a close-gripped file. They run around a given point and return to a finish line as in the Centipede Race.
RELAY ANTELOPE RACE. This is run the same as the Relay Centipede.
RELAY CATERPILLAR. Same method as the Relay Centipede.
MASS RELAY. A thousand men can take part in this race as easily as ten, and all are running at the same time. This is really an outdoor affair, but can be handled on a smaller scale in a hall. The files are formed as for any file relay, a distinguishing mark being placed on the rear man of each file. One hundred yards, say, in front of each file, a, stake is driven in the ground, or a man

pg. 86

may be posted here. Similarly, ten yards back of the rear man of each file another stake is placed. This is the finish stake.
At the start everybody begins to run, but it is against the rules to pass the man in front of you. Each file must run the hundred yards, round the stake, encircle the stake at the rear and come back to the starting position. The file which gets its last man by the rear stake is the winner. A judge should be posted at each rear stake to wave a handkerchief as the last man crosses the line. It will be seen that each file will be held back by its slow runners just as a chain is no stronger than its weakest link.
SKIN THE SNAKE. Each member of the file stoops over, placing the right hand between his legs and grasping the left hand of the man in back. The last man lies down and all straddle

pg. 87

and back up, lying down in turn with hands still gripped. At the start the rear man gets up and thus they return to starting position and run around a given point and return, as in the Antelope Race.



LEAP FROG RACE. Each file stands with a space of five feet between men, and all but the rear man bend over. The rear man leaps over all the others and remains " down." The next to the rear man follows, and so on until the original front man has jumped over all the others. He then sprints across the goal line at the far end of the course for the finish.
TEN TRIPS. A baseball or basket ball is thrown over a certain route from man to man to make a "trip." Three men constitute a team, and their distance apart depends upon the sort of ball used. They stand in this order: 1-2-3, and the ball is thrown as follows: 2-I-3-I-2, this constituting one " trip," Ten trips make one game.
Several teams compete, the object being to see which can complete the ten trips in the shortest time.
CROSS COUNTRY RELAY. The runners are

pg. 88

posted between points several miles apart, each team having the same route, or if desired separate but approximately equal routes may be used. Distances between posts vary with the physical development of the runners. A sealed message should be passed to make the race more interesting.
A Variation is to designate the two points, appoint two captains, and let the captains select their own routes, keeping these secret from the other team.
PASSING THE BUCK. The players of each file stand in a stooping position with hands on hips. At the starting word the rear player comes to a standing position and strikes the seat of the man in front of him sharply with both open palms. The " buck " is thus passed to the front, when the front man runs to and around a given point, returning to the rear of his file and starting the "buck" again. When the original front man finishes his run and crosses the line the race is over.
POTATO RACE. The potatoes are laid on the ground two yards apart, the first one being two yards from the starting line, and all being on line with the file. At the head of each file a receptacle, not over two feet high nor thirty-six inches in circumference is placed, to receive the potatoes.

pg. 89

There are eight potatoes for each file, a number of files contesting with one another.
The first man picks up the potatoes, in any order, one at a time, and places (not throws) them into the receptacle. The No. 2 men all place the potatoes back again, one at a time, and so on; the potatoes being alternately picked up and put out until the last man finishes.
The last man, when he has finished his task, must cross a finish line, five yards to the rear Of the original starting line. This simplifies the matter of picking the winner.
Variation. Beanbags placed upon Indian clubs may be used instead of potatoes, if desired. Especially good for the gymnasium are wooden blocks, as they do not roll, and they last considerably longer than the perishable "spud." For the out of doors, stones are good; this being a fine event for camp.
SCOUT RELAY FORMATION. This relay type was developed by the writer for Scout contest work and has some advantages over the shuttle type, especially where a man, a staff, or some other object is to be carried. It is valuable in restricted quarters because it takes up very little space, and is safer than the shuttle or straight file relay in passing such objects as a staff or flag.
Reference to the sketch will show that in an

pg. 90

eight-man relay where the object is passed seven times, in four of-these times the two men at point of passing are running in the same direction. This is about the closest formation possible to the circular track method, using a rectangular room. It is not susceptible to as Mary Variations as the shuttle relay, however.
SHUTTLE RELAYS. The shuttle relay is becoming very popular on the playground and with school physical directors. It has many merits, may be varied in some interesting ways, and obviates the old run to a goal and return.
Each team or file is divided in half, one half-file being at each end of the course, the two files

pg. 91

facing each other. The No. I man-runs across to his colleague heading the other half-file, touches him off, and drops out. This second man runs back to the first half-file and touches off the second man there, and so on; the men going back and forth like a shuttle. The last man finishes at the original starting line.
Many of the novelty races described under

classes I, 4 and 6 are workable as shuttle relays with a little adaptation. These we will list with a word or two of explanation where changes are necessary.
SLIPPER SHUTTLE RELAY. The No. I man wears the slippers, runs to No. 2, and so on to the finish.
BACKWARD SHUTTLE. When touched off the runner about faces and runs backward. He keeps running until the next man can touch his back.

pg. 92

ALL FOURS SHUTTLE. Same as straight All Fours Relay,
ELEPHANT WALK SHUTTLE. Same as ordinary Elephant Walk Relay.
JUMPING SHUTTLE RELAY. Jump instead of run.
HOPPING SHUTTLE RELAY. No comment necessary.
FROG JUMP SHUTTLE. NO comment necessary.
MEDLEY SHUTTLE. Have odd men run and even men hop. Have one entire half-file jump instead of run. Combine several types in one race.
HAT AND COAT SHUTTLE. The first man of each file wears a large coat and a hat. (The coat is not buttoned during the race.) He runs to No. 2, changes coat and hat, and drops out. No. 2 touches off No. 3 by again changing, and so on to the finish. The coat and hat must be entirely on before a man can run.
SET'EM UP SHUTTLE. TWO circles are drawn half way between each half-file, an Indian club standing in one of these. The runner must change the club from one circle to the other before finishing his run.
POTATO AND SPOON SHUTTLE, Both potato and spoon are passed from man to man in lieu of

pg. 93

touching off. There is no receptacle, the potato being merely carried.
BASKET BALL BALANCE SHUTTLE. The ball is balanced on the palm of the right hand, and only the right hand is used in handing the ball from man to man.
KNIFE AND PEANUT SHUTTLE. Only one peanut is used, No. I dropping the peanut on the ground and passing the knife to No. 2. No. 2 has, to pick the peanut up with the knife and run to No. 3·
DIZZY SHUTTLE. In the center of the course an Indian club is set up. The runner must place his hands on his knees, and encircle this five times before completing his run. If the club is tipped over it must be set up again.
OVER THE TOP SHUTTLE. The crossbar over which the basket ball must be thrown is located half way down the course. The race is described in Class I.
EDUCATIONAL SHUTTLE RELAYS. The first man may be equipped with triangular bandage. Each man is instructed as to the bandage he must apply. Only overhand knots are used, and no pins inserted. The first man may apply a right arm sling to No. 2, who takes it off and puts a head bandage on No. 3, and so on. Or rope may be used and certain knots tied to the arms of

pg. 94

the runners as directed, the next " victim " having to untie the knot from the man who is to tie him. A judge for each half-file will be needed for this type of race.
STOOL SHUTTLE RELAY. Half way down the course a stool, without a back, is placed. Each runner must pause, sit on the stool and knock his feet together before proceeding.
CRAB SHUTTLE. For Short distances only. Same as ordinary Crab Race.
LEAPFROG SHUTTLE RELAY. A man is permanently stationed half way down the course to make a back. Each runner must leap over him.
TUNNEL SHUTTLE RELAY. Same as above except that runners must crawl between a man's legs.
RUN-AROUND SHUTTLE. A man stands at attention half way between the two half-files. Each runner must run around him.
HORSEBACK SHUTTLE. No. I runs across and carries No. 2 back to No. 3. No. 2 carries No. 3 back to No. 4, and so on to the last pair, who finish at the original starting line.
FIREMAN'S LIFT SHUTTLE. Same as Horseback except for the method of carrying.
POTATO SHUTTLE RACE. Half way between the two half-files a receptacle is located contain-

pg. 95

ing six or more potatoes. The first man must take these out, one at a time, and place them at designated points, half of them on his side of the receptacle, and half toward the other half-file. He then touches off No. 2, who puts them back in the pail again, touching off No. 3. The last man, after putting the potatoes in the pail, runs back and crosses the original starting line for the finish.

pg. 96



The boys are divided into two equal groups, the Pioneers, or Wagon Train, and the Indians. The Indians start out ten minutes in advance and set an ambush over the previously agreed trail. The Pioneers follow this trail and may not leave it except for the sending out of two Scouts, one each side of the trail.
If the Pioneers see any of the Indians before the ambush has been sprung, they are the winners, and the teams change sides. If, however, an Indian touches a Scout before the Indian is seen the Scout must sit down and not give the alarm.
In order to spring the ambush the Indian Chief utters a loud warwhoop, whereupon the Indians set upon the settlers and a battle ensues, each party trying to pull off the hats of the others. The Pioneers will wear handkerchiefs on their arms to distinguish them from the bloodthirsty savages.
For one minute after the warwhoop the Pion-

pg. 97

eers may not do anything to defend themselves except dodge about. They may not try to pull off the Indians' hats until this minute is up. An umpire accompanies the Pioneers to enforce this rule. This puts a premium on a prompt and effective attack. As soon as the minute is up the battle for scalps is on in earnest. It is unfair to hold on the hat with the hand, to tie it on, or to use the chin cord. The latter ruse will result in several hats being a total loss, anyway.
The battle lasts for six minutes from the time of the warwhoop; the winners being those who get the most scalps. A scalped man is out of the game, but retains his captured scalps. The Pioneers may win without a battle by seeing an Indian before the warwhoop is sounded.

The players are formed in a line and count fours. The drill master then calls out a number and gives a marching or facing command. All players with that number will execute the command. IT a player is slow or obeys out of turn, or makes any other error, he has to fall out of the game. The last man is the winner.
Variation. The straight Competitive Drill is good to develop mental alertness. The group is drilled; each man making an error falling out

pg. 98

until only one is left, who is the winner and who receives a ribbon or bar pin.

Bill is a dangerous character who alights in an airplane because he is out of gasoline. He thereupon signals his three friends. If by day he uses a smoke signal. If by night he uses a rocket. He must alight, however, within certain clearly defined boundaries.
The police have five to ten minutes start of the three friends (depending on the country) and they throw a cordon of guards between Bill and the common starting place. They may not place a man nearer than 200 yards to either Bill or the starting place. They try to intercept (by touching) the three adventurers who are doing their best to get to the airplane with more gasoline.
The three friends of Bill wear a neckerchief tied on their arms in order to distinguish them, and must carry a tin can filled with pebbles which will rattle. ,It night they must flash a "buglight " at least every minute.
If any one of the three gets through within a given time, they win. If all three are touched the police win. The number of players determines the width of the field used. The type of country governs the length of the game.

pg. 99

The leader names a compass direction, and all the Scouts lay their staves on the ground pointing in the direction named, as accurately as they can estimate. The leader then tests them with a compass and determines the winner.

A jail is established and one-fourth of the players are selected to be the robbers. The robbers hide within certain well agreed boundaries and the cops go out after them, trying to bring them in bodily, regardless of more or less vigorous resistance. A recalcitrant robber may be tied up in order to get him to the jail, but rope should not be left on him, as this may stop circulation.
Robbers must stay in the jail unless an exchange of prisoners is arranged. Cops may be captured and must stay in the robbers' den if tagged by any three robbers at once. Game ends when all the robbers are jailed.

In this unique game suggested by Chief Seascout James A. Wilder, there are two parties, the Army and the Senate. The members of the Senate wear a piece of red yarn tied about their right arms, while the Army wear green yarn.

pg. 100

This yam must hang down at the side of the arm at least three inches.
The Senate believe that the King is a little cracked, or, to quote Mr. Wilder, has " bats in his belfry." This is borne out by the actions of the King. The Army, on the other hand, is loyal, and asserts that the actions of His Majesty, while somewhat erratic, are merely the result of his impulsive disposition.
The King takes up a position in the center of a clearing, while the Army and Senate, armed with paper and pencils, scatter and hide in the woods to watch. The King at one minute intervals goes through a series of absurd stunts, such as standing on his head, jumping up and down, etc. It is customary to pick a natural comedian to act as the King.
The opposing parties each try to see and write down all the antics of the King, and at the same time attack and put out of business their opponents. To do this they pounce upon an opponent and pull off his strip of yarn, which puts him out of the game.
The leaders of the two parties divide their forces into spies and fighters. The spies creep as far forward as they can in order to see well. The fighters are husky, and try to put the other side out of commission.

pg. 101

At the end of a given time the side which has the best description or descriptions of the actions of the King, is the winner. The time must be governed by the amount of good cover on the edge of the clearing and the aggressiveness of the players.
If desired, in the evening around the campfire, a sort of court-martial may be held to decide whether the King really is the way the Senate thinks or not, and a clever pleader for each side is introduced. The actions of the King are discussed frankly, and a jury decides as to his mental status.

There should be two cross country runners, a reader, sender, receiver and writer on each team. A runner from each team is posted with the Scoutmaster. The signal readers and senders of both teams are posted about one eighth of a mile, say, north of the Scoutmaster and at least 10 yards apart. The receiver, writer and runner of one team are located one eighth of a mile west of
the sending station, and in plain sight of it. The corresponding members of the other team take up a similar position to the east.
The Scoutmaster gives a duplicate written message to each runner stationed with him and these

pg. 102

run to the readers of their teams. The message is read, received and written down, turned over to the other runner and brought back to the Scoutmaster, thus making a sort of triangular journey. Additional teams may be added if desired, and more runners may be used by making the running distances greater and using relay half-way stations.

The convict starts from a natural gathering point and hides within a given section of woods. After five minutes all start out after him, no one being permitted to stay nearer than 100 yards from the starting point. The convict may either hide or move from place to place within his ter-

pg. 103

ritory. If he remains unseen or gets back to the starting place without being touched, he wins. If seen he races for the starting point and all raise a hue and cry, trying to intercept him before he gets back. The first man to see him is convict next time.

Before the Scoutmaster hides he gives each patrol a sealed envelope with directions how to find him. Each envelope contains the description of a different route, each about the same length. These directions contain references to the compass and to nature study, such as trees and flowers. A sample direction is as follows:
" From the southeast corner of the lodge, proceed east 50 paces. From here go 120 paces

pg. 104

northeast. From the nearest beech tree go south 30 paces and search for a mullein plant over three feet tall. From there go southeast 100 paces and find a white oak stump. I will be 47 paces south of this point."
The patrol finding the Scoutmaster first is the winner. Of course this is a Variation of the treasure hunt idea, but it is just these different presentations that lend variety to the outdoor program.

To prepare for this game even sides are chosen and the flag stations decided upon. Four or five hundred yards apart is far enough if there is good cover. Any farther will result in too much time being wasted before the two parties get together.
Each player on one side has yarn of a certain color tied on the left arm above the elbow, the ends hanging down at the side at least three inches. The other side uses a different color. Each side go to their respective stations to stick the flag in the ground in the center of a clearing 100 yards wide, and to receive directions from their captain.
The captains divide their men into three groups; scouts, fighters and guards. The guards may not go nearer than 20 paces from their flag,

pg. 105

except when it is definitely attacked by the enemy. The scouts supported by the fighters, go out at once to get in touch with the enemy. Any player who loses his yarn or has it taken from him, is out of the game. He may retain, however, the yarns he captured before he was " killed." If a man is " killed " when he has the flag, he must drop it there.
The object of the game is to get the enemy's flag and plant it at your own station. The first team doing this wins, and the game is over. In case the game is played a long time and no one captures a flag, the director may call "Time," and the side which has lost the least men is the winner.
Variation. Use yarn on both arms. If one is pulled off that hand must be put. in the player's pocket: He is wounded. If both yarns are captured he is dead, and out of the game.
Variation. Pull off hats instead of using yam. One team wears handkerchiefs tied around an arm to distinguish them. It is unfair to use hat cords or to hold the hat on with the hand. If hat is " lost off " the man is out.
Variation. Use several small flags and one big one. Small Bags count 5 points and the large one the total value of the small ones. Set a time limit and score by points. A flag once captured

pg. 106

may not be recaptured, except while being carried to enemy's flag station.
Variation. Play the game at night. Tie white neckers around shoulder of men on one side. The guards may stay within 40 feet of their flags. Use flashlights. To capture a man hold him and say, " One, two, three."

Divide into two parties, one taking five minutes start and leaving a plain trail with at least five notes concealed. These notes are found by arrows with squares attached to their tails, and in the square the number of paces indicated from arrow to note.
The second party follows and tries to find the

pg. 107

hiding place of the trail-makers, which is under cover about one mile from the starting point. A fair time is agreed upon in advance, and the second party must now change sides, the former trailmakers doing the tracking. On the return trip a different route is used and the side wins which does the tracking successfully in the best time.

Three Scout Staves are set up in tripod form and tied at the top. A circle about eight yards in diameter is formed by the players around the staves, and each player, by drawing a line in front of him, helps to establish a circle from which to throw.
The object of the game is to throw a basket ball and hit the tripod. This, the man who is It, tries to prevent by standing close to the staves and batting the thrown ball with hand or fist. The throwers must not step over the line, and generally throw the ball about from one to another in order to confuse the man in the center.
If the staves are hit the thrower is It, it being considered an honor to play in the center. If the ball is batted and caught on the fly, the catcher is It. In hitting the staves a bounded ball does not count.

pg. 108

One group challenges another to a game of Hidden Patrol, and a fair time is established for the completion of the game. The first group scatters and hides in an acre of land with well defined boundaries and good cover. The other group tries to capture and bring into prison the hidden patrol. Any man tagged is captured and is then personally conducted to the prison.
The prisoners may be freed by any man on their side who can get into the prison without being tagged, and all prisoners are allowed time to go and hide again. Where a fair time is hard to decide the two groups may change places and the winners will be those who round up most of the enemy in a definite time.

The Scout is given five minutes to hide himself in a certain well-defined section of woods. The others try to find him, the first man seeing him acting as the hider next time. If the hunting party cannot find the Scout they notify the director, who blows his whistle, and the Scout may hide again, and as often as he can elude his hunters.
This game differs from Escaped Convict in that

pg. 109

the Scout stays in one place and makes no attempt to return to his starting point.

Specimens of tree leaves, shrubs, wood, minerals, ferns and flowers are displayed, and each numbered. The players have scratch pads or cards and endeavor to write according to number the names of the specimens. The one with the best list is the winner. Don't forget to have a booby prize also.

The boys are lined up to drill, using either military or gymnastic commands--sometimes both. When the command is preceded by the words "Kelly says," the command must be obeyed, otherwise not. When a man obeys the command which has not been preceded by " Kelly says," or when a man makes any other mistake he must fall out. The one who stays up the longest wins. This game is one of the best developers of mental alertness ever invented.

A number of miscellaneous objects are arranged on a table and covered with a cloth. The players are brought to the table in convenient groups

pg. 110

and the cloth removed for one minute, by a stop watch. The players must then retire beyond sight of the table and write a careful description of the objects and their arrangement. The man with the best description wins.

The lion carries a limited amount of torn paper and must hide when this trail-making material is exhausted and within twenty paces of the last paper. He has colored yarn tied around wrists, knees, ankles and above elbows. This yarn must hang down at least three inches.
The hunters have similar yam tied above right elbows, only. When they locate the lion they may attack him only two at a time, and try to kill him by pulling off all his yarn. If they can do this without losing four men they are the winners, but if he can kill four men by pulling off their yarn, he is the winner and is allowed to escape with honor.
The lion should pick a soft spot for the final struggle, as it is apt to be pretty strenuous and a menace to shirt sleeves, collars and suspender buttons.

The players are in open formation and stand with one arm extended in front. The leader

pg. 111

names any of the 16 principal points of the compass and all face in that direction. If any one makes an error he must fall out; the last man being the winner. In case of argument a compass will be desirable to check the accuracy of the directions indicated.

Two even teams or armies are selected, one side wearing pennants of red yarn above the left elbow, and the other wearing green. These must hang down on the side three inches. The game Is played in a clearing surrounded by cover, with a goal in the center of the clearing.
One group goes out and hides in the woods within certain well-defined boundaries, leaving one man as a spy in the clearing with the enemy. His only function is to mislead the enemy with false signals and to call in his comrades if he thinks the conditions are favorable, He may not be captured, nor may he score for his side.
The home army divides its forces, some going out to hunt for the lost battalion (which must hide in a group and stay there), and the rest being scattered to defend the goal. If the lost battalion is sighted the finder shouts, "Lost battalion," and the defenders take a defensive position as quickly as they can. The battalion

pg. 112

charges for the goal, either in a group or singly, as soon as the call is made, trying to get inside the goal before being captured by losing their yarn, The defenders each pick out a man and try to down him and get the yarn without losing their own. To win, the lost battalion must get one-third of their men safely inside the goal. They may also win by remaining safely hidden for thirty minutes.
The spy tries to mislead the hunters and send them all in the wrong direction. He continually sends prearranged whistle signals to his party; and if he deems it wise he gives out the call, " Lost battalion," whereupon his men charge for the goal. This is generally done when the defenses are very weak at the point nearest the lost battalion.: After a game the sides generally change positions.

While on a hike the Scoutmaster announces that he will give points for the identification of trees, ferns, flowers, birds and animals. Only the first time counts for a given variety, however. Thus red maple might count one when first identified, but could not be used again during that game. Most identifications count one point, but some of a rarer nature might count three or four.

pg. 113

This depends upon the judgment of the leader.
At the end of a certain time, say '5 minutes, the boy with the most points wins. This game has several good points. It shows up the boys to whom God's out-of-doors is a closed book, it encourages those who know nature to tell about it, it really teaches the group the names of things, it develops observation and it makes the hike interesting.
Variation. On the hike each boy collects all the specimens he can, and does not tell the others what he has. These are brought together and spread out at the resting place. Each boy gets one point for specimens which no other fellow can match, and each boy failing to match gets

pg. 114

one point off. Start with score of 100. In scoring start with the commonest things and discard one by one.

While gathered in the open the leader says, " Let's have a nature race ! Who will be the first man to bring me a sassafras leaf? Go !" A mad scramble follows. It is surprising how much fun a group of boys will get from this stunt. Some of the things will be in plain sight and no one will see them. Among the objects raced for in one camp were:

A perfectly good mosquito.
A wasp, alive and kicking.
A live frog.
A sprig of juniper.
Elm bark.

A white violet.
Lady fern.
Red cedar.
Red sandstone.
Flag root.
Partridge berry.
A white oak acorn.
Sassafras leaf.

pg. 115

As a training for alertness and obedience this game is very good. The boys are in line for a drill and the leader warns them that he is going to give them some quick and unusual commands and that if any one makes a mistake he must fall out.
He then gives a number of miscellaneous commands such as,

Fall out.
Fall in.
Sit down.
Stand up.
Hands on hips.
Arms forward.
Left arm down.
Right arm 'way up.
Left foot forward.
Right hand on head.
At ease.
Arms horizontal.

These are merely suggested commands which will make clear the sort to give. They are limited only by the ingenuity of the leader.

pg. 116

Ail the players, but the man who is It, form a circle with ample room for a man to pass between players. Each man carries a staff and makes a small hole where he stands. A hole about five inches in diameter is made in the center also. A volley ball or similar ball is placed in the center hole, and the man who is It takes his station near it. All the other players keep one end of their staves in their holes, but as often as they dare they try to poke the " rabbit " or ball out of the center hole and outside of the circle. The man who is It tries to keep it in its hole with his staff, at the same time trying to: get his staff in the hole of one of the other players, If he succeeds, the one whose hole he takes must now be It.

A mysterious message is concealed at a point several miles away and its exact location marked on several duplicate U. S. Topographical Maps. Several patrols compete in finding the message and getting it back to the leader. The message is in duplicate, one for each patrol.
It is permissible to signal the message back if the patrol is clever enough. The first correct message back wins for the patrol that brings it.

pg. 117

The message is so located that it is advisable to go after it cross-country. It may be well here to state, however, for the benefits of city boys, that tall grass in the country is hay, and it is wise to go around it rather than through.

One of the best Scouting games given in the Canadian Scout Handbook, and described here by special permission, is The Rival Dispatch Bearers. Two groups or patrols are selected and each group appoints a despatch bearer. The Scoutmaster takes up a central position while one despatch bearer starts two miles north of him, say, and the other two miles south of him. Each starts at the same time to deliver the message, but the remaining men of his group try to intercept the rival runner and hold him. The two opposing cordons of men cannot come nearer than 200 yards either to the Scoutmaster or to the starting points of the runners.

pg. 118

The group wins whose runner first delivers the message to the Scoutmaster. If the runner tries to make too great a detour he may lose on time, and if he goes in too direct a route he may be ambushed, so that the game opens up several nice little questions of real Scouting.

This is a good Indian game and should be played where there is plenty of cover, and yet not too thick undergrowth for moving rapidly. Two good Scouts have to deliver an imaginary message to the Scoutmaster, and all the rest of the troop act as Indians and do all they can to prevent them getting through..
The Scouts take up a position several hundred yards away and start when the Scoutmaster blows a whistle. The Indians spread out in a long line about half-way between the Scouts and the Scoutmaster, and may not come any nearer to the Scoutmaster, but start toward the Scouts if they wish when the whistle is blown. To win, the Indians must catch and hold both Scouts. Those who do most to catch the Scouts map act in that capacity next time With two Scoutmasters on the ground real messages may be transmitted in true Scout style.

pg. 119

Two lines are drawn about ten yards apart, the space back of one being the Stockade, and the
space back of the other being the Indian Village. The neutral space between is dangerous to both, but each is safe in his own territory.
Each party makes raids into the neutral territory and captures members of the other team, bringing them bodily into headquarters. At the end of five minutes the team that has captured the most men wins. Prisoners are out of the game, acting merely as " rooters."

The players divide into two equal parties and
set out by different routes to the same destination; generally by road. The game may be played around a small lake, around which the players make a circuit. The object of the game is to see the other group at the point of meeting before they see you.
When the probable point of meeting is nearly reached, each party sends out scouts and generally hides along the road until they report.
The game is made more interesting by having each party send a spy to follow the other party. This spy keeps out of sight, and by a previously arranged call he warns his friends when the other

pg. 120

party approaches. He follows close by the enemy, and may be captured by being overpowered, and if necessary, gagged.
In one game the spy found out where the enemy were lying in ambush and coolly floated by them in a rowboat. By means of the bob-white call he warned his friends, who were able to see the enemy by climbing a tall tree.

A snow game. The escaped prisoner has five minutes' start and leaves a trail in the snow. When the others come up with him he fights with snowballs. If the prisoner hits a hunter, the hunter is out of the game, but the prisoner must be hit one half as many times as there are hunters before he is " killed."

A certain fence or other definite boundary is the border. The smugglers assemble on one side of this., The town is a goal about a mile from the border, and the smugglers are trying to get forbidden material into the town. This the guards try to prevent by throwing a cordon between town and border, this line to be at least 100 yards from the town.
All the smugglers cross the border, but only one

pg. 121

carries the material. He wears tracking irons. The other smugglers try to draw the guards away from his trail which the guards are planning to follow. In order to win, the guards must catch and hold the guilty smuggler before he enters the town.

This game is played in a clearing, at the center of which a goal is placed. One party acts as the smugglers, and the other as revenue men. The smugglers hide, taking with them the "gold" which is any small object previously agreed upon. The revenue men are not allowed to know which smuggler has the gold.
When the leader blows his whistle the smugglers start to work toward the goal which is guarded by the revenues. The smugglers win if they can get the gold inside the goal. To capture a smuggler he must be held while "One, two, three" is counted, and then the captor says, " Give up the gold." If he has it, the smuggler must surrender it at once. The revenues concentrate on the men whom they think have the gold, while naturally the smugglers try to draw their attention from the one who really has it, thus opening a gap in the cordon.

pg. 122

One-third of the players man the fort and the other two-thirds attack. Each side has a general who has charge of the strategy for his side. If a man is hit once he is wounded, and may make snowballs but cannot fight. If hit twice he is dead, and out of the game. A general, however, must be hit three times to be killed, in which case another is appointed.
The besiegers have half an hour in which to capture the defender's flag or to occupy the fort.

The Director goes into some woods where there is excellent cover, and blows his whistle. The boys stalk him, all trying to get as near to him as possible without being seen. He blows his whistle every few minutes to indicate his position. If he sees any one he directs that person to stand up. After a suitable time he calls, " All up," and the boy. nearest to him is the winner.
Variation. The man who is being stalked is blindfolded. He stands in the brush where plenty of dry branches render it difficult to approach him. An umpire stands beside him. If he hears any one he points in that direction and says, " There ! " The umpire directs the proper man to drop out of the game. The boy who first

pg. 123

touches the listener is the winner, and acts in his place for the next game.

Each Scout tucks his neckerchief into the back of his belt with one end hanging dawn. The players are divided into two teams, and approach one another from opposite sides of a field. The object is to capture as many of the enemy's tails as possible, and still keep your own intact. When a man's tail is captured he is out of the game. The team which has the most captured tails in fifteen minutes wins the game. It is well to distinguish the two teams by a handkerchief tied about the upper arm. These tails may be used instead of yarn in most stalking games.

This game is played in a clearing surrounded by good cover. A goal is established in the center of the clearing, and colored yarn is used to distinguish members of the two teams. This is tied on the left arm above the elbow, with a three inch tail hanging down.
One party scatters and hides around the edge of the clearing. The other stays inside the goal, which is about five yards square. When the Director blows his whistle the two teams change

pg. 124

places, the men in the goal taking cover, and those who are hidden rushing for the goal. Between the cover and the goal, fighting takes place; the object being to pull off the enemy's yarn and thus to put them out of the game. When the several groups have settled the fighting some take cover, some go into the goal, and some, who have been put out, retire to the side lines.
As soon as all are either under cover or in the goal, the Director blows his whistle again and the men again change places, fighting as they meet. When this fighting is over the game is finished, the team with the most men being the winner.
In changing places the players may in some cases elect to avoid fighting and simply make for goal or cover. Any player who is seen after he has taken cover, and before the whistle is blown, is out of the game.

Two boys go ahead with a ten-minute start, leaving a trail with arrows or paper, and occasionally dropping a few grains of oats, tapioca, corn or split peas. The rest of the party follow the trail, each kernel of grain counting one point for the sharp-eyed lad who finds it. The one with the most points at the end of the run is the

pg. 125

winner. Interest is increased by using two kinds of grain, and having the rarer kind count two points.

For a treasure hunt a series of notes are placed over a route of two miles or more. Note I tells how to find note No. 2, and so on to the last note which tells how to find the treasure. Each note contains, also, a small cash prize or other award; the finder keeping the award but being bound on his honor to read and replace the note.
In the directions much real Scouting may be brought out. Some sample directions are as follows :
" The next note is to paces northeast of the red maple tree nearest the well."
" Find further directions under the roots of a sumach, within ten yards of the old gateway."
" Proceed to a clump of New York fern southeast of the nearest barn south of here." " The treasure is in the possession of Captain Kidd. You will know him by the red mark in the palm of his right hand. Call him by name and he will give you the secret of the treasure." In laying the trail it is necessary to leave the last note first, and finish with the first note to be found. This mikes it possible to leave clear and

pg. 126

intelligent directions as to the location of the next note, which would be impossible if the reverse process was followed. The treasure may be a watermelon, some candy or similar prize, dear to the heart (and stomach) of the growing boy.

This game, as developed by Scoutmaster E. C. Cole, was a favorite at a boys' camp in Connecticut. The boys are divided into two parties, Cowboys and Bandits, there being a sheriff and a bandit chief in charge of each, respectively. The cowboys receive fairly definite sealed directions as to the location of the treasure, and have ten minutes' start. They find the treasure and try to bring it back to headquarters, which is now picketed by Bandits at least 100 yards away. Some of the Bandits also advance toward the treasure train to attack.
The treasure is some object previously known which is too large to conceal. Both Bandits and Cowboys wear colored yarn on their left arms, each party having a distinguishing color. A battle may ensue, each trying to pull off the enemy's yarn. If a man loses his yarn he is out of the game. The Bandits win if they intercept the treasure. The cowboys win if they get through. If the treasure is not brought in within a reason-

pg. 127

able time, the Director may give the cowboys ten minutes to get it in or lose the game.
After the treasure is sighted it is permissible for the Bandits to close up to within 50 paces of the headquarters.

Each army has a goal, back of which they are safe; the country between being the fighting zone. One army has handkerchiefs tied about their arms to distinguish them. A prison is located within the lines of each and a ten-yard inclosure is marked out in the center of each line and ten yards inside the fighting zone, on each side. This is

pg. 128

for the King, a non-combatant who may be captured by the enemy.
The object of the game is to capture the King by touching him. The army which does this wins the game. Each general divides his men into guards and warriors, the latter sending out scouts to locate the enemy, and advancing to the attack.
Any man who is touched by three of the enemy, simultaneously, and held while three is counted, is killed and out of the game. If any man is similarly held by two men he is captured, and may be taken to prison. A man may not be killed on the way to prison.
He may escape while on the way to prison if he does not give his parole, but if he does escape he is considered wounded, and must finish the game with his right hand in his pocket, or if he has no pockets, he must grasp his belt at the right hip.
Prisoners may not escape from the prisons, but may be exchanged under a flag of truce. Under this flag men may retreat, but may not proceed toward the enemy.
If it is evident that the attack is going slowly, the Director may set a time limit, after which the army with the most men left is the winner.
It may be desired to use colored yarn on the arms of the boys and to use the same fighting

pg. 129

methods as are described for Flag Raiding, but the method described above is similar to the military war game system, where the inferior force is lost when attacked by a patrol of superior numbers.

pg. 130



The two pugilists are put inside bottomless barrels from which the nails have carefully been removed. At a given signal they " go to it," the point being that in order to move the barrel a man must hold it with his hands, and in the meantime is without his guard. If he starts to lose his balance the result is disaster. An amusing stunt well worth trying.

There are several ways of doing this. The common way is merely to blindfold the two men, have them shake hands, and mix it. The spectators are generally in more danger than the boxers.
Another method is to put the two men back to back without their knowledge and mislead them by using a couple of fellows as " bait " to touch them occasionally.
The rope method is more elaborate. The boxers are tied to their chairs by one leg, each

pg. 131

rope being long enough for the men to reach one another. Then the men are seated in their respective chairs while the bandages are being put on. While this is being done some one ties a generous loop in each rope. Of course the men are now several feet apart when the battle begins. A referee with gloves on touches each one occasionally to keep up the illusion. The wild swings at the air are worth the price of admission. After the first round the ropes are shortened still further. The surprised expression on the faces of the two victims, when the blindfolds are removed, will amuse the crowd.

A good rainy day or campfire stunt. The teams consist of an equal number of men, each man with a milk cracker. The first man on each team starts to eat his cracker at the word, " Go." He tries to eat his cracker and whistle. The whistle must be a real one without the use of the fingers. When the number one man whistles the number two may start to eat, and so on to the last man, who finishes when he has whistled. Breaking the cracker with the hands, wetting it, or dropping any pieces on the floor, disqualifies a contestant. A glass of water is suggested as a suitable prize.

pg. 132

For this campfire stunt a victim is selected who has never seen the trick, and some one bets that he cannot put a cent on his forehead and catch this in a funnel tucked into the front of his belt. Being young and innocent he immediately bites, and the cent and funnel are produced. While he is balancing the cent on his forehead, however, some one pours a glass of water into the funnel and he comprehends instantly that he is sold.

Another initiation stunt where a " goat," preferably a " fresh " one, is sold. A small pool of water is poured on the floor and the victim is induced to sit on the floor with the water in front of him. He is armed with a knife or fork in each hand.
The man who knows the trick bets he can wipe up the water before the victim can touch him with the knives. He approaches the man with a towel in his hands, and the victim eyes him warily and clutches his knives. Suddenly the man with the towel catches the other by the ankles and drags him through the water.

pg. 133

For a rainy day at camp there are a number of good events which may be combined in an athletic meet. For such a meet the winner of an event gets 3 points, the second man 2 points and the third man I point. In relay events all participants score if the team gets a place. Some of the best events are:
CRACKER EATING RELAY. Described earlier in this chapter.
HAMMER AND NAILS RELAY. Form in single file, each man having a nail. The front man has also a hammer and must run to a given point, drive his nail completely into a board, return, and touch off the next man by giving him the hammer.
OVERHEAD THROW. Contestant takes his hat in his teeth and throws it over his head as far as he can.
ONE LEGGED TUG-OF-WAR. A Short rope with a loop at each end is used. The loop is put on one foot of each contestant, there being a center line under the center of the rope. The man who lies down or who is pulled over the line is the loser.
PEANUT RELAY. Form files as for any relay. At the start, on the floor in front of each file there is a pan of peanuts, one peanut for each runner. There is also an empty pan at the other end of

pg. 134

the room. The first man must pick up a peanut on the blade of a table knife and deposit in the other pan, return, and touch off the next man by passing him the knife, handle first. Using fingers to pick up or balance peanuts is not allowed.
ENDURANCE RACE. The man who can eat four milk crackers and then whistle first is the winner, and deserves all he wins.
SHOT PUT. Use a cap or beanbag for the shot.
BLINDFILD RACE, Post guards at the finish to prevent accidents. Blow a whistle when three men have crossed the line.
EGG AND SPOON RACE. This is well known. It may be done with potatoes and used as a relay.
RUNNING HIGH WHISTLE. The prize goes to the one who can hold his whistle the longest.
CANDLE RACE. Run with a lighted candle. If this goes out the runner is the same.
FLOUR RACE. Each man must run to a table, pick up a nickel buried in a pan of flour, using his mouth only, and return. Better not run with the nickel in your mouth, however.

One or two good relay races are suggested above, but most of the races in the chapter on that subject will go well on a rainy day at camp in

pg. 135

connection with indoor activities. Camp directors planning an indoor program should give consideration, therefore, to the chapter on races. A selection of games should include those of the Tournament type.

Around the campfire the boys will be glad to try this amusing game. A stick with a glowing end is passed around the circle, each man saying as he passes it, "Jack's alive." If the glowing end goes out, the man who holds it at the time must have a mustache marked on his face with the charcoal end. Other weird and artistic effects in whiskers may be added as the game goes on.

The boys all leave camp while the peanuts are being hidden. The peanuts are scattered on the ground, through the tents, and all about the camp location. It is fair to leave about the same amount in each tent, and to rule that no boy shall search another's tent. At a blast of the bugle an avalanche of boys will sweep over the camp, wildly searching for peanuts. At a given time the man with the high score found is the winner. Morever, he eats the peanuts.
The hunt may be made more interesting by col-

pg. 136

oring a few peanuts black, and a lesser number red. Each black one found counts five, and the red ones ten. The others count one each.

A horizontal bar is rigged up, using saplings lashed together, and the contestants get astride the bar, facing each other and armed with pillows. The object is to beat the other fellow off the bar without touching him. The ground below should be well padded, and the best two out of three wins. 1 A man completely upset is out, even if he still holds on with his legs.

The director sends the boys out into the woods by twos, each boy having uncooked food, one match and an ax. The stunt is to build a lean-to, cook supper and build a fire that will throw heat into the lean-to. Make a bed of boughs, adding blankets to the equipment if desired, and sleep in the lean-to over night.
Another test is to send all those who are " game " into the woods equipped with a knife and ax. All those who can make the rubbing stick fire with this equipment are good woodsmen. Shoestrings may be used, but nothing else artificial.

pg. 137

Sling a horizontal sapling as for the pillow fight. The two boxers sit astride the pole with boxing gloves on, and go to it. Any man touching the pole with more than one hand at a time, or who loses his balance is out.
Of course such a pole will be a little too high for the men to touch the ground, and will have soft earth under it.

In spite of the fact that only a few can play this old game at once, no camp should be without quoits. A tournament for the camp championship may be held, each tent putting forth a team. Although the regulation iron quoits are the thing, old horseshoes make a fairly good substitute. Use metal stakes.

The boxers are stripped to the waist and a raid is made on the camp make-up box. Here a can of burnt cork for minstrel shows will be found, and this is daubed on the gloves. Every hit registers, a score for points being possible if desired. Any one who has seen this will remember what a picturesque " blinker " may easily be obtained.

pg. 138

The classic snipe hunt is sometimes used to initiate newcomers into camp. During the day the pending snipe hunt is freely and enthusiastically discussed, and the newcomers finally "'induce " the seasoned campers to take them along. Gunnysacks are produced in which the snipes are to be captured, and the party starts out just after dark.
It appears that the snipes are attracted by lights after dark, so the victims are "parked" in so

pg. 139

called snipe runs where they prop their bags open, put the lantern nearby, and crouch expectantly over the bag ready to pounce on the snipe. They are instructed to occasionally tap two small stones together, as this attracts the snipes; also to remain in that place while the others circle around and drive the snipes toward them.
The others disappear and may be gone half an hour or all night. Generally, however, they prefer to stalk the snipers and watch them. They may creep up behind them and thump the earth with their hands like the pawing of some large animal. The thing to be done well, however, should not be overdone. If properly handled a good snipe hunt will never be forgotten.

The camp emblem or a small flag is posted in the center of the campus. One boy is secretly notified that he is a spy in camp, and must steal and hide the emblem before retreat that night. A captain in charge of the defense is appointed and the game is on.
Strategy may be used. A certain captain posted a guard while the boys were in swimming. He had a " hunch " that that would be a good time for the spy to make the attempt. The spy went to the water with the rest, but returned to

pg. 140

the campus marking his foot with red paint as he went. Walking with a noticeable limp he approached the guard and exhibited his " wound." The guard offered to get some iodine as a " good turn." When he returned his patient was gone. So was the emblem.


MAKING UP. Once a week it is a good plan to have a show of some sort. For this a box of make-up material will be needed. This should include cold cream, burnt cork, carmine, black and brown. A small quantity of crepe hair, cotton and spirit gum will also be needed. Face powder is helpful for impersonations of the fair and powdered sex.
Use the cold cream plentifully before putting on grease paint, and while removing it. Wipe the paint off with a soft cloth -- never try to wash it off with water.
COSTUMES. The boys will evolve many clever costumes from the miscellaneous materials available about the camp. A prize may be given for the best, and another for the funniest costume.
Types OF SHOW. The vaudeville, with each tent putting on an act, is popular; and a small

pg. 141

award may be offered to the best tent. A camp minstrel, with all the talent in camp combined to make a " big show " will also be popular. Occasionally this may be varied by holding a camp circus with all the "fixings," including pink lemonade and a sideshow.


THE TERRIBLE Turk. The Turk wears a striped jersey with towels stuffed in the chest and arms. He has a fierce black mustache. His manager, a gent of the sideshow barker type, wears sporty clothes and a plug hat. He offers $100 to any one who can throw the Turk.
The other actors comprise a somewhat motley audience, including an Irishman, a Jew, a African American a tramp, a sissy boy, a cowboy and as many other characters as desired. The Irishman attempts to do the deed with a brick, the Jew is greatly concerned lest his watch shall be broken, and yet fears to take it off and intrust it to the manager. The cowboy draws a huge gun; but all are successively vanquished by the Turk. The sissy boy, at last puts the Turk down by tickling his ribs, and when he asks for the money the manager shouts, "Charge it." Then the Turk and his manager run for the exit, pursued by the others.

pg. 142

Comedy Kitchen. A take-off on the camp kitchen and cook detail, or K. P. A live cat or chicken in a kettle, a firecracker in a loaf of bread, and a stove that flares gasoline when lighted are stunts to use. The cook detail is unusually " dumb." When sent for milk, one helper brings a hod of coal. A comedian who blacks the stove and incidentally himself, will enliven things, particularly when he sits down on the pie.
AUTOMOBILE BREAKDOWN. An imitation automobile is rigged up and covered with cheesecloth. The riders furnish the power by walking inside. It enters and stops with a loud explosion (a blank pistol). The riders endeavor to repair it, assisted by advice from numerous pedestrians. Of course the man who climbs underneath gets all blackened up.
CLOWN ACT. The clown enters with a watering pot and sprinkles some water on the ground. He exits and returns in a boat. This is merely a framework in which he walks. Green cloth representing water conceals his feet. He lowers the sail and looks about with a pair of bottles for binoculars. He lowers the anchor and starts to fish. Another fellow is located in a barrel, and hitches an endless succession of absurd things onto his line such as shoes, bathing tights and a cat (catfish). A gun is heard outside and he runs

pg. 143

up a white Bag. Another is heard and he proceeds to sink violently. Under cover of the boat he gets a mouthful of water and swims ashore spouting the water.
SURGICAL OPERATION. The patient is brought in on a stretcher and the doctors hold a consultation, meanwhile getting their tools ready. These include an icepack, ice tongs, saws and other farm and forge implements.
The operation includes the production of an incredible amount of hardware and miscellanies from the patient's insides, which are previously concealed back of him.
At the finish the two stretcher bearers pick up the stretcher, but the patient goes right through it onto the ground and the bearers walk over him. The doctor presents his bill and the patient takes a look at it and dies. They put a sign on him, " Opened by mistake."
SCHOOL ROOM. The scholars include a girl, a " tough guy," a Jew, a colored boy and teacher's pet. Local jokes are worked into the recitations, together with frequent assaults on the sissy boy by the tough. These finally break up the session.
CLOWN BASEBALL GAME. The ball is entirely imaginary, but the act is so thoroughly rehearsed that each move is natural, so that the catcher

pg. 144

slaps his glove high in the air just after the batter swings at a high one. An amusing stunt is to have the catcher reach ahead of the bat and pick one off before the man can swing. A comedy consultation between the members of the battery may be made amusing, also a high foul tip which is so long in coming down that the catcher has time to read the paper. Finally the batter knocks a home run amid great excitement, and slides home. A five-dollar-bill slipped to the umpire also figures in the plot.
COMEDY BOXING. The combatants and their seconds are made up in tough costume, the fighters wearing bathing suits, sneaks and stockings. Each round is carefully rehearsed so that practically every move is prearranged. They clinch, and when the referee interferes they combine and knock him out. They swing wildly, strike while shaking hands, and in one round one man chases the other all around the ring. As a wind-up one man says, " Oh, see the little birdie ! " and while the victim looks the other administers his quietus. The seconds do their bit by pouring a pail of water over their men, and by pulling their chairs away as they are about to sit down. After one round the seconds sit on the chairs and the boxers fan them with towels. The referee counts the man but with, " Two, four, six, eight, ten! "

pg. 145

BURLESQUE MAGIC. One man acts as the wizard, and the other as his stupid assistant, who exposes all the tricks.
TAKE-OFF ON THE MOVIES. Taking any movie melodrama, a group of boys can reenact the story and burlesque it, bringing in the hairbreadth escapes, the bold, bad villain, the beautiful heroine and the truly heroic hero.
A DAY AT CAMP. Starting with getting the bugler up in the morning and ending with campfire stories, songs and jokes, a day at camp is enacted, bringing out the humorous events of both day and night which have occurred that season. This may be in tabloid form, or may be extended into quite a show.
SECOND SIGHT. The spirit medium is visited by a skeptic, and many embarrassing facts are revealed. The medium is assisted by a confederate, hidden behind a screen, who provides the mysterious slate-writing and materializes the spirits (in a bottle). The medium is in charge of a manager who takes the fees and directs the seance.
One amusing stunt is blindfold reading. The medium is blindfolded, and the manager holds a succession of objects over her head for her to name. He says, " What color is this orange? " She says, "Orange!" "Marvelous!" he exclaims. In a like manner he learns the color of a

pg. 146

lemon and a potato, etc. He strikes her three times on the head with a news paper and says, "How many fingers am I holding up!" " Three!" she replies. " Wonderful! " exclaims the Professor.
DEADEYE DICK, THE MARKSMAN The marksman is a dead shot with a blank Pistol, which he demonstrates by breaking milk crackers held by his assistant. Of course the assistant breaks the crackers with his fingers.
A target is set up and he rings a bell at the bull's-eye with every shot. A duplicate bell off stage " rings in " on this act. This he varies by shooting between his legs and with a cardboard obstructing the gun sights. 119 a final marvel he shoots sighting in a mirror.
INITIATION INTO THE LODGE. Here the goat is an important character, having a part full of action. The new member is initiated by all the absurd rites which the camp leaders can devise. One of the boys camouflaged as a goat winds the thing up by bucking the victim into a tub of water.
BARBER SHOP. A large quantity of lather plays an important part. The barber, graduated from a correspondence school, plies razor, shears and other instruments of torture like a professional, in the meantime keeping up a running fire

pg. 147

of conversation about politics and the administration, but checking any tendency of the victim to reply by prompt application of the shaving brush. Some of the properties are a huge wooden razor, an insect sprayer atomizer, black paint with which the barber paints on a mustache, and a paperhanger's brush with which to apply the lather.

What camp which has had a camp circus would ever enjoy a season without another! A real camp circus is one of the events of the summer.
The acrobats with their pyramid building and act on the horizontal bar must of course be included. The gymnastic high dive over several boys or over chairs will make a hit during that part of the Big Show.
A riding act with a real horse can be worked up, having one of the boys fixed up like an equestrienne. Of course a ringmaster with high hat, boots, goatee and a whip is indispensable.
The clowns must not be forgotten. The clown rube policeman, the tramp and the Charlie Chaplin will be on the job all the time.
The high wire act with parasols, chairs, and many wonderful feats of balancing, can be presented.

pg. 148

Of course the wire lies on the ground, but nobody cares.
Trained animals may be made up of a framework with cheesecloth for a covering, and two men inside, one for the front legs and the other for the rear. Elephants, giraffes and horses may thus be made to do some truly marvelous stunts, especially when the elephant, Gladys, sits down on the trainer.
Like any regular circus, half the show is the Sideshow. Here we have, gentlemen, the Wild Man, the Bearded Lady, The Chinese Giant, the Musical Dwarf, the Fat Man, The Strong Man and the Snake Charmer. And in a safe and secure pen are the Animal Freaks of weird shapes and variegated coloring.
The Wild Man (procured with heavy mortal-

pg. 149

ity) wears a spiked collar, and has Fielders' gloves for feet. A " hand " of banana stems makes a mouthful of terrible teeth, and his roar is produced by a concealed but useful member of the troop, armed with a tin can through which a rosined string is rapidly passed. At the psychological moment the Wild Man escapes from his cage and pursues the rube constable all about the grounds.
The Bearded Lady is one part boy, one part skirts, and one part artificial whiskers.
The Chinese Giant is built up by one lad riding on the shoulders of another, the whole figure being incased in a blanket.
The Musical Dwarf is also built up from two men. One stands just inside a tent, and sticks his head and hands out between the flaps. On the hands are shoes, and the arms are dressed to look like legs. These fake feet are rested on a table or barrel of convenient height just outside the tent.
The dwarf's arms are furnished by another fellow who sticks his arms out from behind in just the proper location. From the front the illusion of the dwarf is perfect.
The Fat Man can easily be manufactured with a few pillows.
The Strong Man lifts heavy (wooden) weights

pg. 150

and bends iron pipe (rubber hose). He also breaks chains. These are previously broken and re-joined with thread.
The Snake Charmer is an oriental lady of reptilian tastes. The difficulty is to get a few snakes for the lady to manipulate.

pg. 151

The Animal Freaks are white chickens dyed several brilliant hues, or possibly a small pig borrowed from a nearby farmer and painted with kalsomine and grease paint.
And last but not least there must be the barkers and the pink lemonade. No circus is complete without both being thoroughly in evidence.

The camp minstrel should be divided roughly into three parts: The opening overture and cross fire of jokes, the specialties or individual acts, and some sort of a sketch for a finish.
The songs should be familiar and well known by all. Parodies may be written to old tunes, and medleys of plantation airs are popular and harmonious.
For specialties it is customary to have solos, both vocal and instrumental, and other vaudeville stunts.
The final sketch may well be a take-off of some camp happening, or may have some local significance.
The interlocutor has written notes, and " feeds " the jokes to the others.

pg. 152

This excellent camp game is played on a court 35 by 60 feet, divided by a net into two equal courts. The net should be 8 feet from its top to the court, and at least 3 feet in vertical width.
The ball is slightly smaller than a basket ball, but otherwise similar.
The ball is served from any point back of the line by striking with the: hand, and kept in play as long as possible by both sides, the object being to serve the ball back into the opponents' court without its touching the ground. Several men may assist in getting the ball over the net, but not the same man twice in succession. Points are made on the opponents' errors only. The game is for 15 points.
The serving side retains the service as long as they do not make an error. When they do make one, the service changes. With each change of service another man serves, and the players all change their positions, rotating one place. Thus all may play all positions.
For the detailed rules see " Official Volley-ball Rules," published by the American Sports Publishing Company, 45 Rose Street, New York City.

pg. 153

This is a " sell" for the benefit of some one who should be initiated. The men gather around a large blanket, and a paddle is produced. The stunt is for two men to go under the blanket together, to have some one in the circle slap one of them, and to then expect the victim to guess who hit him. Of course all hold their hands behind them after each wallop.
Unless the victim is " wise " he might guess all night and never locate the paddle, because the other fellow under the blanket gets it, reaches outside and gives him a vigorous swipe, and ducks back again. Occasionally the man with the paddle hits himself, yells, " Ouch, that was a hot one ! )' and pretends to try to guess who hit him.

The players are formed in opposing lines, the opposing men acting as partners. All the men on one side have the name of a song on a card, and enclosed in an envelope. Their partners have a blank card and a pencil. At the word " go " the men with the envelopes run to their partners, open the envelope and whistle the song. The partner, as soon as he recognizes it, writes its name on his card and runs back to the starting line. The first man in with the correct song wins.

pg. 154


In this race the swimmers push a cork or light rubber ball along the course. Care should be taken to prevent throwing or punching the ball. The race is won by the swimmer who first crosses the line with the ball.

Each swimmer has a lighted candle, the object being to hold a swimming race carrying the candle in one hand, and without putting it out. If candle goes out the man is disqualified.

The straight one-man and two-man canoe races are too well known to need explanation, and are here included for the sake of completeness.

This may be either a one or two-man event, but the former is rather difficult. The race starts just like any ordinary canoe race, but about half-way down the course the Director blows a whistle. Immediately the contestants jump overboard, but may retain one hand on the side of

pg. 155

the canoe. They then climb in and resume the race. With some practice it is surprising how quickly this stunt can be done. This may also be done from a rowboat.

Similar to the Overboard Race except that the canoe must be entirely overturned, righted, and the race resumed.

When, in the middle of the race, the Director blows his whistle, the two paddlers of each canoe change places. Some do this by having one man straddle and the other go between his legs. Others prefer to simply pass one another at the center thwart, using great care in timing every move to avoid an upset. This may also be done In a rowboat.

Canoe tag is played by throwing a soft ball from one canoe to another. If the ball falls in a canoe, that canoe is It and the occupants try to get the ball into another canoe. The players may not do anything to prevent the ball falling into the canoe except to speed away, or dodge.

pg. 156

No water tournament would be complete without a Dive for Form. The most popular dives are straight forward, backward, swan, sailor, butterfly, jackknife, handstand, seal, standing-sitting, back flip and front somersault.

Each swimmer has a large spoon, the object of the race being to carry a potato in the spoon the length of the race. Any swimmer dropping his potato is disqualified.

The contestants lie down in the bow of the canoe or rowboat and paddle with their hands. The difficulty consists not so much in propelling the craft as in steering.

The contestants must swim around a Boat, change strokes at several given points, dive under a canoe, climb into a boat, secure therein a fair sized stone, dive out and swim to the finish line, carrying the stone with them.

pg. 157

The ordinary rowing race, both single and double, needs no description. The backward race, however, is amusing and not so common. The rower sits on the bottom of the boat in the stern, and rows the boat stern first. It is almost impossible to steer the boat when rowing in this manner.
The gondolier style, with the man standing in the bow and using only one oar, is also very good, and is practical with two men paddling also.

The stunt is to run to the shore, dive in, swim to your canoe and paddle to the finish line.

Over his bathing suit each man has shirt, trousers and sneakers. Each man must dive in, swim to a boat, take off shirt, trousers and sneakers and put them in the boat without touching the boat, and then return to the finish line.

Form in file as for a running relay, each file being a team. The swimmers go around a float and return, touching off the next man of their team. It is a good idea to alternate on styles of

pg. 158

stroke, the first men swimming the breast stroke, the second using the crawl, etc.


A cork float is moored in the water as a target, and each man has three throws. The winner is the man who comes nearest, according to a judge in a boat near the float. Vary this if desired by throwing a coil of heavy rope.

The tilting poles are ten or a dozen feet long, and of bamboo. The ends are well but lightly padded, covered with rubber-sheeting and sealed with electric tape. This is important, as if they get wet inside they will be too heavy to use. The contestants may use either canoes or rowboats. If the latter are used they must stand on the deck at the bow.
The object is to push the other man into the water. It is unfair to grasp the pole of the opponent or to hit below the belt. Much depends upon having a skillful paddler who can keep your craft in the right position for the most effective action.

Baseball played in water about chest deep, and with floats as bases is a good game. The ball

pg. 159

is of cork or hollow rubber, and the batter uses his hand instead of a bat. In general the rules of baseball apply, except that the distances are somewhat smaller between bases.

Played by swimmers instead of runners. A good Variation is to play Water Cross Tag. Another stunt is Both Feet Out, in which the man pursued may secure immunity by swimming on his back with his two feet out of the water. Stroke Tag is another Variation, where the Director calls out from time to time, the names of different strokes, and all the swimmers must use that stroke and no other, except the man who is It. He may use any stroke he pleases.
Acknowledgment. For several stunts mentioned in this chapter the writer is indebted to that excellent: book, " Camp and Outing Activities " by F. H. Cheley and G. Cornelius Baker, published by the Association Press.

pg. 160



In introducing these exercises we must remember that a great deal depends upon the imagination and ability of the leader. He must tell a story, introducing these various exercises and working them in at appropriate places.
The leader who can plan a good story which brings in the exercises, and who can put over the commands with "pep " and enthusiasm, will be pleased With the results.

Three suggested story subjects are given below, but several of the exercises fit equally well into any of these:

The leader starts the boys with reveille, and takes them right through a day at camp with appropriate exercises such as:

pg. 161

Stretching, Turning the Ice Cream, Windmill Exercise, Freezer, Hoisting Flag, Swimming(breast stroke), Crosscut Sawing, Bucksawing Logs, Swimming (dog paddle), Chopping Wood, Passing Wood Over-Head, Rowing, Baseball, Passing Wood to Side, Breathing Exercise, Picking up Wood

Here the boys are asked to imagine themselves in an athletic field or gymnasium, and seeing the various athletes in action.
Stretching, Boxers' Guard, Standing Broad Jump, Shot Put, Crouching Start, Fencers' Lunge, Running in Place, Breathing Exercise, Discus Throw

They take a hike, and see many interesting things along farming and other lines, which they imitate.
Stretching, Blacksmith, The Crane, Jumping Jack,

pg. 162

Taking Eggs from nest, Picking Apples from tree, Scythe Mowing, Pitching Hay, Raking, Scarecrow, Bowling, Circus Bar Lifter, Breathing Exercise

This type of exercise is a pleasure rather than a task. The boys get just as good a work-out as they would With ordinary calisthenics, and at the same time thoroughly enjoy themselves.

Every motion of these exercises must be given by word of command.
There is danger that they will degenerate into a " rough-house," unless every move is carefully explained and held down strictly to the proper count. This is important.


Bend elbows, fists closed. Bring fists up to chest. Count I.
Raise on toes, push arms straight upward, opening hands and stretching. Count 2.

pg. 163

Lower arms laterally to sides, stretching all the way, dropping onto heels.
Count 3. Continue for 12 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Swing arms forward and up over head, crossing at waist swinging like a windmill.
Continue for 16 counts. (Count when arms are up.)
Reverse for 16 counts. (Count when arms are down.) Attention.

Position -- stride stand.
R. arm extended up grasping rope. Count I.
Pulling down with R. arm and raising L. to grasp rope, swaying body. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Face adjoining files together, working in pairs.
Position -- L. foot forward, R. hand grasping handle of saw, I,. hand on thigh.
Men With even numbers pulling saw backward, swaying body, weight on R. foot; men with odd numbers extending body and R. arm forward. Count I.

pg. 164

Reverse stroke. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position with L. foot forward.
Bend forward grasping handle of the saw with R. hand above L. Count I.
Transferring the weight of the R. leg, and pulling the saw backward close to the body. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position with L. foot forward.
Swinging the ax back to the R. shoulder. Count I.
Swinging the ax overhead, forward and downward, swaying the body forward. Count 2.
On second count quickly flex both knees, making the greatest effort in chopping. Grunt. Continue: for 16 counts.
Reverse. Alternate.

Position stride stand.
Bending forward to grasp two pieces of wood. Count 1.

pg. 165

Standing erect with arms raising forward and upward, and throwing wood back over head. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Deep knee bending, and picking up two sticks of wood. Count I.
Knee stretching and passing wood to right hand neighbor. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Deep knee bending and picking up wood with R. hand. Count I.
Placing wood on L. arm and rising slightly. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

TURNING THE ICE CREAM FREEZER Position -- stride stand.
Grasping the handle of the freezer with both hands in front; swing in a large circle starting down to the R; bending forward and swinging in a complete circle for 16 counts.

pg. 166

Count when hands are lowest.

SWIMMING (Breast Stroke)
Position -- trunk bent and arms forward.
Arms stretching sideways and back. Count I. Assuming position, and repeating stroke. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts, ending with arms sideways -- horizontal.

SWIMMING (Dog Paddle)
Stroking forward and downward with P. hand. Count I.
Same stroke with L. hand. Count 2.
Sway trunk with every stroke.
Continue for 20 counts.

Position -- sitting on floor with legs stretched. Bend trunk forward, and extend arms forward grasping oars.
Raise trunk, pull oar to chest, and bend back from hips. Count I.
Bend forward, extend arms. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

pg. 167

Charging forward with L. foot; hands together and arms swinging forward horizontally in front of chest. Count I.
Throwing weight back on R. foot, swinging R. arm downward and backward, L. arm dropping diagonally downward-sideways, L. toe just touching floor. Count 2.
Throwing ball overhand, weight on both feet.
Count 3.
Continue for 21 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Squat sit, preparing to catch. Count I.
Slap hands, catching ball. Count 2.
Standing, charging back with R. foot, swinging R. arm downward and backward; L. arm dropping diagonally downward-sideways; L. toe just touching floor. Count 3. Throwing ball overhand, weight on both feet. Count 4.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position stride stand.
Slap hands, catching ball. Count I.
Charging back with R, foot, swing R. arm

pg. 168

downward and backward; L. arm dropping diagonally downward-sideways; L. toe just touching floor. Count 2.
Throwing ball overhand, weight on both feet. Count 3·
Ball may be caught above head, at shoulder, waist, or from ground as directed.
Ball may be thrown to any base, as may be directed.
Continue for 21 counts.

Raise arms laterally straight above head, rising on toes and inhaling. Count I.
Bend forward; swinging arms forward and downward until arms are stretched backward, exhaling. Count 2.
From this position swinging the arms again laterally above the head, inhaling and rising on toes as before. Count 3.
Continue for 10 counts.


(Previously described.)

Swinging arms forward and upward. Count I.

pg. 169

Clench fists, bend knees and swing arms forward-downward-backward. Balance weight as far forward as possible. Count 2.
Spring forward one yard, with arms swinging forward to horizontal. Count 3.
Attention. Count 4. Repeat as desired, about facing if necessary.

1." On your mark ":- Placing both hands 4 inches in front of L. foot; toes of the L. foot on floor directly beside R. knee, which is resting on floor near instep of L. foot.
2." Get Set ":-- Raising R. knee not more
than 4 inches from floor; advancing the body-weight over hand and L. foot as much as possible without losing balance, eyes looking forward 15 or to feet.
3."Go ":-- Marking time four steps; coming to attention; (or proceeding with Running in Place.)

Running in place beginning with the L. foot.
Ready -- Begin; I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,-- 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, I. Repeat three times and increase speed if desired.

Discus THROW
Charging back with R. foot and facing the

pg. 170

right of a circle, take bending position to right, holding discus, both arms straight. Count I.
Swing in circle charging forward with R. foot and throw discus with R. arm; L. arm pointing to rear. Count 2.
Same as I. Count 3.
Continue for 16 counts.

Face adjoining files together, working in pairs.
Charging backward with R. foot; L. forearm horizontally in front of and guarding the

pg. 171

face, hands closed, the R. arm diagonally downward and backwards. Count I.
Charging forward with the R. foot, thrusting the R. arm forward with a punch and grunt, the L. guard slightly down and backward.
Count 2.
Same as I. Count 3.
Continue for 16 counts.

Charging back with R. foot, R. knee slightly bent, weight on R. foot, left toe just touching floor. R. hand in front of R. shoulder, L. arm extending Diagonally forward-upward. Count I.
Throwing weight temporarily on L. foot and charging forward with R. foot, turning body to left, with R. hand throwing the shot. Left arm downward and backward; with all weight on R. foot, and L. toe just touching floor. Eyes following flight of shot. Count 2.
Attention. Count 3.
Continue for 12 counts.

Face adjoining files together, working in pairs. With R. foot charging well forward, R. knee bent, and all weight on R. foot; L. foot at

pg. 172

right angles to R.; R. arm extending forward with hand holding imaginary foil, L. arm extending backward and downward with fingers stiff. Count I.
Attention. Count 2.

(Previously described.)


(Previously described.)


Raising arms sideways to horizontal. Count 1
Neck gently backward bending with chin in and flat upper back. Count 2.
Attention. Count 3. Continue for 12 counts.

Bring arms upward and backward over R. shoulder in long sweeping circle, charging I,. foot forward. Count I.
Swing hard on downward movement to anvil, bending knees with snap. Count 2.
Same as I. Count 3.
Continue for 16 counts.

pg. 173

JUMPING JACK (Seen in Store Window)
Deep bending knees, arms horizontal-sideways. Count I.
Jumping erect with feet sideward, arms remaining horizontal at height of eyes. Count 2.
Jumping, heels together, hands to sides. Count 3.
Continue for 12 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Reaching up high in front, both hands for eggs in nest, with heels-rising. Count I.

pg. 174

Bending to squat position and placing eggs in basket. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Extend R. and L. arms obliquely downward to R. grasping imaginary scythe. Count I.
Twist body to the left, swinging with straight arms in a circle. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Thrusting hands as in using pitch-fork to the R., with R. hand down. Count I.
Swinging arms up over L. shoulder, rising on toes, R. hand high. Look up. Count 2.
Same as I. Count 3.
Continue for 16 counts.

Grasping rake with both hands, L. below R., with L. foot charging forward; lean forward, bending at waist and straightening arms. Count I

pg. 175

Pull back, and bend both arms with weight on rear leg. Count 2.
Continue for 16; counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Reaching high over R. shoulder for apples with both hands, and grasping one in each hand. Count I.
Placing apples in basket on ground to left of L. foot, and bending knees. Count 2.
Continue for 16 counts.

Position -- stride stand.
Raising arms sideward. Count I.
Flapping loose wrists. Count 2-10.
Raise R. arm 45 degrees and lower L. 45 degrees and continue 10-20.
Reverse 20--30.

Position with ball balanced on R. chest in both hands.
Charge L. foot forward; dropping R. hand

pg. 176

backward and upward, and L. hand diagonally sideways-downward. Count I.
Bend knees and bowl ball, dropping L. hand to knee. Count 2.
Position. Count 3.
Continue for 12 counts.


Position -- stride stand.
Bend forward and lean down to grip bar on floor. Count 1.
Lift bar to knees. Count 2.
Lift bar to shoulders. Count 3.
Lift bar above head. Count 4.
Drop bar to floor, by letting it slide along the front of body. Count 5.
Same as 2. Count 6.
Continue for 16 counts.

(Same as Wood Chopping.)

Breathing EXERCISE
(Previously described.)

Note: These exercises are adapted and improved from the booklet "Mimetic Exercises for Boys," by permission of Dr. Philip Sumner Spence, and the Hartford Council, Boy Scouts of America, Inc., joint authors.

pg. 177



Although the material in this chapter is given primarily for Scouts, there are many events which may easily be used by any group of boys. A few of the events are described briefly in the Chapter on Races, but not in a way that indicates the proper rules for using them in a contest.
The origin of these events is rather interesting. Realizing the need of a standard group of events for inter-troop contests, the writer drafted these and submitted them to the Scout officials of Connecticut who had gathered informally to consider them.
The) were revised and put into use. After experience had shown some weak spots they were re-drafted by the writer and again corrected with slight additions by a group of Scout officials of the state. Since that time they have once more been improved by the Connecticut officials, and several events added by a committee of Hartford Scout leaders. Scout Executives Carl Northrup,

pg. 178

John Roberts, Alvin Woodstock and Gilbert Jerome, and Scoutmasters Elbert C. Cole, Edgar M. Brown, Edwin H. Munger and Commissioner James P. Bruce were among those most helpful in building these events.

Value OF CONTEST Events
The inter-troop contest may be made of great value to Scouting in any community where there is more than one troop. The spirit of competition increases troop loyalty, and if the events are so selected as to run parallel to the Scout tests, the boys will unconsciously learn a great deal as they practice. A first and a second team for each event will give every Scout a personal interest in the game, thus partially solving the problem of how to make the troop meetings interesting.
Inter-patrol contests are frequently practical; these provide good practice for the inter-troop work. Troop, rather than individual awards, and a proper checking of too ardent competition will prevent any possibility of Scout Law No. 4, " A Scout is Friendly," being forgotten.
The contest work develops the spirit of fair play and good sportsmanship. Furthermore, the athletic events in Class B appeal strongly to the athletic boy and the older boys, thus tending to hold them longer under the good influences of the

pg. 179

Scout Movement. These events are mass athletics, and mean physical development for the group.

Contest events to be of real benefit to the boy should be educational and practical. By practical is meant those events which can be fairly judged without a long process of elimination. Any events in which a number of troops cannot participate at the same time are not suitable for a contest, except one between two troops. Practically the whole program of Scouting may be covered by contest events, and by including exhibition events the entire program of Scouting may be taught. The purpose of the following events is to show how this may in some measure be accomplished:


I. Events open to all active registered Scouts in the State of -- who have not reached their nineteenth birthday. (Commissioned Officers barred.)
2. Only one entry will be accepted in each event from any one troop.

pg. 180

3· Not more than three teams from any Council shall compete in any event.
4· All contestants must be on hand when their

event is called.
5· Spiked shoes or cleats not allowed.
6. All equipment to be furnished by the contestants unless otherwise arranged.
7· Coaching during events is prohibited. Scoutmasters who are not judging to keep off the field except in case of official protest. Protests to come only through ranking official of the protesting town, in which case the decision of the judges is final.
8. In case of violation of General Requirement 71 judges may disqualify entry from that troop in that event.
9. In patrol events any 8 Scouts constitute a patrol.
10. All staves used shall be 6 feet, 61/2 inches long, and at least 11/8 inches in diameter, and need not necessarily be bamboo.
11. Upon finishing event contestant will immediately report back to his troop after being judged.
12. No Scout may enter more than two events, except patrol events. Patients, readers and writers are not considered contestants in any of these events.

pg. 181

13. Judges have power to decide any point not otherwise covered.

The following schedule of points to be awarded:
First Second Third
A EVENTS 8 5 3
B EVENTS 5 3 1

One troop. For each member of the troop that attends, the following schedule of points will be given:
Each Tenderfoot, 2 points.
Each Second Class Scout, 4 points.
Each First Class Scout, 10 points.
Each Merit Badge - add one point.
Each Life Scout - add 5 points.
Each Star Scout - add 10 points to score of Life Scout.
Each Eagle Scout - add 20 points to score of Star Scout.
All badges must be worn to store, except Life and Star if Scout is of higher rank.
Deduct one point for each Scout not in regula-

pg. 182

tion uniform (hat, coat or shirt, breeches and stockings or puttees).
For each troop of over 32 registered Scouts, the registered number will be divided into 32 and multiplied by the score to obtain proper score for the troop.

Two men and patient. Run fifty yards, treat patient for injuries and bring him back. Teams to furnish all bandages, etc. No manufactured splint or tourniquets to be used.
Surplus bandages need not be brought back with the patient. Thorough and correct treatment only consideration, except that all teams not at the finish in ten minutes are disqualified. Tourniquet should not be applied too tightly. Clothing need not be removed.

One man. Fire must be made with own apparatus by the Bow Method. Tinder to be of natural material. Tinder and wood to be native to the United States. The following materials to be barred: powder from previous attempts, chemicals, shavings from pencil sharpener, paper, cloth, cotton, string or rope. Judges may bar any piece of apparatus that in their judgment is

pg. 183

unfair. "Warming Up" is not allowed, but using a hole that has been used before is permissible. Speed event.

Reader, Sender, Receiver, Writer. Flags at least two feet square. Pales at least five feet long. One hand to be held at bottom of pole throughout event.
Two different messages. Message to be sent by sender to receiver in usual manner. When message is received and written, receiver will send

pg. 184

another message back to original sender, who will receive same, thus reversing process. The final writer when finished, will raise handholding message, 5 seconds added for each error. Time taken as of perfect messages. Speed event.

Same as Norse, except that flags shall be at least 12 inches square and must fly free.
Hand should not touch flag intentionally. Hand must be on staff outside of space used by flag. Length of flag stick optional. Speed Event.

Two men. Rope to be furnished by the team and to be at: least 12 feet long and at least 1/8 inch in diameter to lie straight on the ground and the two Scouts to stand at attention, one of them holding a staff at " ground staff." At the word " go " one Scout grasps the staff in both hands and raises it to a horizontal position, with hands well apart. The tyer ties the following knots in the order named:
Timber hitch to staff just inside holder's left hand, overhand knot, bowline, halter, figure eight, sheepshank, sheet bend (to loop of bowline) and clove hitch to staff outside holder's right hand. Tyer denotes finish by raising both hands. Speed

pg. 185

event, but one wrong knot disqualifies. Knots to be tied in sequence on the rope in the order listed.

Two men and patient. Run thirty yards, make coat stretcher, bring patient back. Scouts must use their own coats. Coats entirely buttoned except pockets and not hooked, before and after event. Sleeves must be entirely inside of coat at finish. Patient must lie on his back and must not assist in any way. Speed event, but stretcher must be properly made.

One man. Run ten yards, remove Scout belt (worn over coat), run ten yards, remove coat; ditto, remove hat; ditto, remove puttees, cross a line and return, properly dressing en route. Coats to be buttoned except pockets, and not hooked, at start and finish and all straps through all loops, and tucked in neatly. Staff to be carried entire distance. Scouts' own uniforms to be worn. Stand at attention for inspection at the finish. Speed event.

One man. The following Scouts' own Scout garments are laid on the ground by the Scout over

pg. 186

a distance of forty yards in the order named: shirt, breeches, high sneakers with hooks, puttees, coat, belt and hat. Except for the order, clothing may be arranged in any condition or position the Scout may desire. Scout clad in shorts (of any description), socks and jersey dresses in the order named and crosses a line, fully dressed, all buttons buttoned, except pockets (coat not hooked), breeches laced all the way down and tied, breeches held up by a belt, Scout belt outside coat, sneakers all laced and hooked, and straps through all loops, and tucked in neatly. Stand at attention for inspection at the finish. Speed event.

Home Council to provide each contestant with a quart kettle or pail and one pint of soap and water, two matches and an equal quantity of wood. Each Scout supplies a scout hatchet and a knife and a wooden device for hanging the kettle or pail. This device may be nailed together before the contest begins; kettle or pail may be suspended by rope, but not by chain, wire or other metal device. Nothing else to be furnished or used. The judges to disqualify Scout spilling water or failing to light his fire with two matches. Water must boil over. Scout boiling

pg. 187

water: first wins, provided above regulations have been followed. Pail must not be tipped.

One man. Contestants run 30 yards, where the fire-lighting materials lie. The board is not notched, the thong is not attached in any way to the bow, and the drill is not pointed at either end. The contestants must notch the board, point
the drill, string the bow and make fire in accordance with the rules for Friction Fire Making. A knife is the only implement to be used in preparing the outfit. Speed event.

Two men. A stands on starting line; B, faces him on a line 30 yards distant, ready to send a short signal message. At the starting word, B sends the message to A, who receives and writes it. When he has the message he drops it and
runs to B who has lain down on his back with his head away from A. A ties B's hands with a neckerchief, using a square knot and drags him 10 yards using the fireman's drag. At this line (the 40 yard line) there is rope and sealed directions covering knots and first aid injuries. A unties B's hands, treats him for the injuries, ties the knots as instructed, and carries B across the 50

pg. 188

yard line, using the fireman's lift for the finish.
This scores as follows: The first team to finish gets a trial score of 100 points. The second team in gets one less point, etc., to the last team. Deduct one point from the score of each team for every error noted by the judges. This gives the final score.
For example: The first team to finish might have four errors, giving them a total score of 96. The second team to finish, making no errors, would win with a score of 99.
This event is taken from the Canadian Scout Handbook, and is adapted by permission.


One man. start with heels on line. Twenty yards in twenty paces. Start with left foot and end with right foot. Scouts moving feet at finish or ending with wrong foot will be disqualified. Accuracy event.

One man and patient. Patient lies on back, head towards rescuer.
Rescuer runs thirty yards, pulls patient onto his back and returns with him,
using Fireman's Lift. Carry with arm between legs.

pg. 189

Patient to be as tall as the shoulder of the rescuer and to be properly adjusted within five yards of patient's line. Either hand raised by patient. Speed event.

One man. Staff to fall front end downward and to be measured to this point. When it falls flat or rear end downward the rear end to be marked. When staff revolves end for end man is disqualified. Scout's own staff to be used. If staff is taped, must be taped equally at both ends. A run may be taken, but only one throw. Stepping over the line will be penalized the distance of the step-over. Distance event.

Wall to be ten feet high, at least one foot wide at top, at least five feet wide at bottom and bearded up on both sides. Patrol to run ten yards, scale wall, run ten yards on the far side of the wall, and return over the wall. Use no staves. Speed event.

At the start, stand at attention in line. Three Scouts take three others standing on their shoulders. They come together and lock arms. No.

pg. 190

7 then takes No. 8 on his shoulders, from where he climbs to the top of the tower. No. 7 then passes up two semaphore flags to No. 8, who stands erect and sends the letter " R." Method of building tower not compulsory, but same type of tower and number of Scouts must be used. Speed event, but tower must stand at least 30 seconds.

One "Revere" and four "horses." One horse is posted at the start, two thirty yards down the field, and one at the far end (60 yards). Revere mounts horse No. 1 at word " go," rides to center of field, changes to horse No. 2, rides to end of field, changes to horse No. 3, returns to center of field, changes to horse No. 4, and rides back to the start. Revere may take not more than two steps to each change. Counted as Patrol Event. Speed event.

Form single file. In jumping, toe the line, each Scout toeing the mark made by the heel of each preceding scout. If Scout steps or falls back, point where his hand or foot strikes will be marked. Distance event.

pg. 192

Two Scouts at start, four in center of field, and two at far end of the field. No. I carries staff to No. 2 at center, who carries it to No. 3 at the end, who carries it to No. 4 at the center, who carries it to No. 5 at start, and this process is repeated again, ending at the start. Stiff to be passed, not thrown. Speed event.

Form single file, each Scout clasping hands in front of the Scout ahead of him. Patrol races in lock-step the required distance. If a Scout unclasps his hands before the last Scout of the patrol crosses the line, the patrol shall be disqualified. Speed event.

This race shall be run by eight boys, each holding on to the boy in front, by his belt, or by some article of clothing worn. This race shall extend 30 yards, around a designated point, and shall finish at the line of starting. The finish shall be judged by the last boy passing over the starting line. If any boy lets go, causing, a break in the line before passing the finishing line, that team shall be disqualified.

pg. 193

Three boys shall be placed ten yards apart, the first 10 yards from the starting line. The contestants in this race shall run around the boy nearest the starting line without touching him, pass between the legs of the second, leap over the back of the third, and shall then run back to the starting line, where the finish shall be judged.

Patrol Event--Four points shall be established six feet apart, the first one 6 feet from starting line. A receptacle riot more than two feet in diameter shall be placed at the starting line beside the front of each team. This shall contain four potatoes at the start. The first man takes the potatoes, one at a time, places them upon the designated points and returns, touching off the next man. The next man must pick up the potatoes one at a time and place (not throw) them in the container. The last man must cross a line 15 feet to the rear of the original starting line for the finish.

A patrol relay. Ten yards in front of starting line two Scouts hold a staff horizontally above heads. Each runner passes under this, throwing

pg. 194

a basket or volley ball over the staff and catching ball before it touches the ground. Boys run 40 yards around a given point and return under staff, carrying ball which is passed, not thrown, to next man.
If ball is missed it must be picked up, but if it goes under the staff it must be thrown over before proceeding.

In addition to the events indicated here there are many relay races which make excellent contest events for patrol work. These will be found in the chapter on Races, and should be considered thoroughly.

Because of the difficulty of judging, these events are not practical for a large meet, but can be run off between two troops to good advantage.
TENT PITCHING. An outdoor event. Two men. Each stands at attention at the start with a shelter half rolled up and slung over the shoulder, and tied together at the ends of the roll. The pegs and pole to he inside the roll. At the word " go " each man unrolls his half and the two proceed to pitch the tent, driving in all pegs to the satisfaction of the judges. Of course the two

pg. 195

troops must use exactly the same style of tent, thus making it difficult for several troops to compete in this event. A speed event. A Scout ax may be used to drive in pegs.
PATROL TUG OF WAR. See chapter on Miscellaneous Games for the rules governing this event.
LASSOOING. One man. Scout to furnish his own lasso. At a distance of 6 yards each Scout to have one try at a standing target, and one at a running target. The distance to be increased one yard at a time, and similar trials to be made until one misses and the other succeeds. The moving target to be considered the most difficult in case of a tie. Roping the foot not to count, as this may be luck. Accuracy event.
KNIGHTS. This game may be competitive, each troop having its champion. See Chapter on Miscellaneous Games.
TILTING., TWO nail kegs or small tubs are placed on the ground, the exact length of a staff apart. A Scout stands on each keg and tries to poke his opponent off the other keg by means of a staff padded at one end. Scouts may not take hold of the opponent's staff. two out of three tries will be found a fair trial, changing kegs each time.

pg. 196

TOMAHAWK THROW. One man. A log or heavy board with the grain running vertically, is set into the ground. Scout to furnish his tomahawk or Scout ax. The ax to be thrown overhand with the blade to the front; the ax to revolve forward one or two revolutions, depending on the distance of the throw. The trials to be made from two lines, one the right: distance for one revolution, and the other distance right for two revolutions. Three trials may be made for practice at each line before the event starts. Each Scout to throw from each line until he misses. Every time the ax sticks into the target between certain marks it counts 1 point at the near line and 5 points at the far line. The marks on

pg. 197

the target are generally at shoulder and knee height. ,4 miss is a throw that does not stick into the target between these marks. Accuracy event.

FIRE BUILDLNG. This event is for the out-of doors, for camp, or while on a hike. It is a one man event; each contestant being equipped with two matches, a Scout ax and a knife; and being shown a place where he must build his fire. At the word " Go ! " all scatter to find firewood, and the man who first gets a fire is the winner.
WET FIRE BUILDING. Similar to the Fire Building event where all race to start the first fire, except that all the brush and firewood is first assembled and thoroughly wetted before the start of the contest. The stunt is to get a fire with the

pg. 198

wet wood. this event suggested by C M Abbott of Springfield, Massachusetts.

For Field Days and Rallies the non-competitive exhibition event is valuable, showing the public what Scout activities really are, and making the program more interesting. Of course these events are endless, and the ones hereinafter described merely serve to indicate the nature, scope and appeal of this sort of work.

MAKING A Lean-to
The materials are all cut to length, and each man knows his job. At the word of command each man leaps to his post, and the whole affair is lashed together with surprising quickness, A bed of boughs and a reflector fire will add to the attractiveness of the effect.

A set of twelve signs is used in this stunt, each giving one of the Scout Laws. These are displayed one at a time, followed by an acting out of the law by. two or three boys.

A tent is pitched and a campfire built, each feature of a model camp being indicated by small

pg. 199

signs. If a sufficiently expert cook is numbered among those present he may cook and " flop " a few real flapjacks over the campfire.

By means of notched logs an exhibit may be made showing the different types of campfires. Thus the Indian fire, the cob house fire, the trapper's fire and others may be shown.

Where there is some one with engineering ability in a troop a bridge may be built; all parts being previously fitted and each man being well drilled in his part of the work.

pg. 200

A stretcher may be made, slung between three bicycles, or the " bikes " may be decorated, with the troop riding them through a fancy drill.

Using one large piece of canvas, rectangular in shape, a number of different types of tent may be shown In rapid succession I" the Campcraft chapter of the " Scout Handbook" the types of tents are illustrated. Among them are the Baker tent, the toque, the miner's, the conical, and the canoe tent. Mark with tape the folding points on the edge of the canvas; each Scout being assigned to one of these loops, and others being in charge of the poles and braces.

Fancy drills and setting-up exercises make good exhibition events, the latter possibly taking the form of a staff drill similar to the gymnasium wand drill. Absolute uniformity is essential, and whistle signals are very effective instead of the spoken word of command. This applies to all exhibition events.

pg. 201

By word of command the breaking of drowning grips, the fireman's lift, the application of bandages, the use of knots, the chair carry, the coat stretcher and artificial respiration, may all be shown. Simply count the boys off, and have one group work on the other by word of command, or by whistle signal.

The stunt is to completely cover the body of a patient with bandages in the shortest possible time. Both roller and triangular bandages may be used, and two or three boys will operate on a patient simultaneously.

If a troop is athletically inclined, the building of a few snappy pyramids will make a hit at any rally. " Pyramid Building," issued by the American Sports Publishing Company, 21 Warren Street, New York City, will be helpful to any one interested in this work.

When a troop quickly throws up a tall signal tower, and sends a man up on it to signal, the event is bound to attract attention. Lashing

pg. 202

Scout staves together is one method in use; another being to use tall saplings in tripod form, bracing these with lashed staves, and sending the brave signalman up to the top on a rope ladder.

pg. 203

By having two of the three saplings all lashed and braced beforehand, the whole tower may be set up in a remarkably short time.

A field wireless set up and put in working condition in good time and in a businesslike manner is a splendid exhibition event. Posts or saplings may be erected, with wires radiating from their tops for the aerials.

One line of boys equipped with paperbags, walks down the field, scattering torn papers all over the ground. A second line sweeps down the field policing, and picking up every paper. This illustrates the proper way to leave a camp.

Many games and contest events make good exhibition events also. Among these are Turtle Tag, Snatch the Hat, Poison, Crows and Cranes, Are You There, Mike? and Blindfold Boxing. These games selected from several different types, have action and interest enough to appeal to the spectators.
The best contest events for this purpose are Signal Tower, Friction Fire, Equipment Race and Rescue Race.

pg. 204

This is illustrative of various uses of the staff, and is done by patrols. The following commands are given:
CAMPFIRE FORMATION The patrol being in line, the three Scouts on each end put their staves into a small wire ring, thereby forming two tripods of three staves each. The two center Scouts lay their staves across these tripods and pretend to light a campfire beneath.
BARRIER FORMATION The patrol being once more in line, each Scout brings his staff across his body, holding it with both hands, thus making an impenetrable barrier. Position of right shoulder staff is then resumed.
FIRE LINE FORMATION All Scouts right face and at the proper command the leading boy starts to march and continues until the command "Halt" is given. The Scout behind follows him at an interval of three paces, and so on with the others until they are all three paces apart. at the command "Halt," they all face to the front and reach their staves toward the Scout to their left. The Scout on the left of line reaches his toward the right, so here the staves are double. The result is a fence or fire line.
WEDGE FORMATION Without altering the position of their staves the Scouts take a wedge

pg. 205

formation with the fourth Scout from the right at the apex. The Scout on the left of line marches inside the wedge, waving a flag which he has attached to his staff. In this formation they march off the field. Further formations will suggest themselves to the Scoutmaster, such as lashing the staves together to make tent framework, towers, bridges, etc.
MODEL AEROPLANES. The model aeroplane propelled with the rubber band motor is adaptable to exhibition work at Scout rallies. If a troop has gone in for this line of handicraft and experiment, all the models may be assembled at the rally, and trial flights made.

Through the kindness of National Camping Director L. L. McDonald, we are able to give an outline of the Scout Circus, held in Chicago in 19I6. This will serve to show how the program was arranged. The Scout Circus idea was worked out with great care, and shows an excellent blending of contest and -exhibition events.
It will be understood that three rings were used, but in order to describe in detail what was done in each act, these stunts will have to be taken up one at a time, although actually several things were going on at the same time.

pg. 206

BAND CONCERT. For the half-hour before the beginning of the circus a selection of concert music was played by an excellent band.
GRAND REVIEW. In this grand parade and review the Scouts marched by districts under their Scoutmasters, and passed in review before the reviewing-stand where National and Chicago Scout officials reviewed them. A cup was awarded the troop making best appearance; 32 being considered perfect in membership. marching and uniformity of equipment also counted.
A DAY 1N CAMP. Scouts hiked unto field, set up a model camp, including a flag pole, and showed the days' activities at a Scout camp.
Included in the activities were Rag raising and salute, setting-up exercises, fire lighting, cooking, bugle calls, drumming, tent making exhibition, camp and campfire games, striking colors, striking tents and the return hike.
TREK CART EXHIBITION Scouts showed the various uses to which a trek cart may be put.
A spectacular fire-fighting scene was also shown, illustrating the use of ladders, fireman's lift and fire nets, and the method of entering burning buildings. A demonstration of how to use fire extinguishers was also shown.
ENGINEERING FEATURES ACT. This included building a bridge without nails or bolts, all joints

pg. 207

lashed; spanning an imaginary river 40 feet wide, and crossing with an automobile.
BICYCLE STUNTS. Showed the value of a bicycle as a carrying medium.
FANCY DRILL CONTEST. Scouts drilled to determine which of several troops were the most efficient in this branch of Scout work.
SIGNAL ACT. This act included wireless, smoke-signals, heliograph, Morse, semaphore, sea signal lights, etc.
In the semaphore drill 200 Scouts signaled in unison.
FIRSTAID ACT Scouts treated patients " planted " in the audience who suddenly " fainted," or were supposed to be otherwise injured.
PYRAMID BUILDING. The customary pyramids were built.
WALL SCALING. The boys demonstrated how easy it is to get over a wall.
STAFF DRILL. Needs no comment.
INDIAN VILLAGE AND SCOUT SHELTER LEANTOS. These tepees and shelters were erected to show the appearance of a Cherokee village, and how Scouts provide shelter on overnight hikes.
THE CONQUEST OF THE INDIAN. The scene started with an Indian village, and when the white

pg. 208

men came the Indians were finally driven back onto reservations.
WILD WEST ACT. Put On by a group of real cowboys from the stock yards.
CLOWNS. A big troop of clowns furnished comedy throughout the affair, thus giving it a real circus atmosphere.

In Hartford, Connecticut, a similar Circus was held, but the programs are sufficiently different to warrant a comparison. The Hartford program shows a predominance of competitive work, while the Chicago one has more exhibition work. The Hartford program follows:
Assembly AND FLAG SALUTE. When the bugle blew " assembly" all troops came to attention. While the Boy Scout band played "The Star Spangled Banner," the Scouts saluted a large American flag.
SCOUTCRAFT· A point system for scout rank, counted as one of the contest events.
EXHIBITION WORK. A woodcraft sketch entitled " Lost in the Woods." A troop camped for the night, making friction fire, etc.
FIRST AID RACE. (Described under contest events.)

pg. 209

FRICTION FIRE LIGHTING. (See contest events.)
MORSE SIGNALING. (See contest events.)
SEMAPHORE SIGNALING. (See contest events.)
EXHIBITION WORK. Ring I, Tilting; Ring 2, Games; Ring 3, Setting-up exercises.
KNOT TYING. (See contest events.)
STRETCHER MAKING. (See contest events.)
EQUIPMENT RACE. (See contest events.)
EXHIBITION WORK. An attempt to break the world's record in making the friction fire. (The record was broken by Deputy R. M. Yergason, but has since been lowered.)
PACING. (See contest events.)
DRESSING RACE. (See contest events.)
EXHIBITION WORK. Ring I, Signal drill; Ring 2, Pyramids; Ring 3, Staff Drill.
RESCUE RACE. (See contest events.)
STAFF THROW.( See contest events.)
PATROL SIGNAL TOWER RACE. "See contest events.)
PAUL REVERE RACE. (See contest events
EXHIBITION Work Ring I, The White Hope"; Ring 2, Clowns. Trained Animals; King 3, clowns
STANDING BROAD JUMP RELAY (See contest . events.)
PATROL STAFF RELAY. (See contest events'.)

pg. 210

PATROL CENTIPEDE RACE. (See contest events.)
EXHIBITION WORK Ring I, Tent Making; Ring 2, Red Cross Scouting; Ring 3, Fireman's Lift.
SPIRAL, PRESENTATION OF AWARDS AND DISMISSAL. The troops getting first, second and third in the contest work received cups and pennants.


This may be either temporary, in connection with a big Scout rally, or a permanent Scout museum.
Subdivide all the merit badges into a few general headings, such as Health, Sports and Athletics, Patriotism and Citizenship, Art and Science, Trades and Craftwork, Nature Study and Woodcraft, etc.
Then let the Scouts make things pertaining to the different badges, submit inventions, or Collections that they have made. All these can then be put under the prayer heading and exhibited to the public to show what Scours can do.

Some of the things that might be shown are listed as follows:
AGRCULTURE. Seed testers, collections weeds mounted, weather maps

pg. 211

ANGLING. Mounted fish, poles and flies made by Scouts.
ARCHERY . Outfits made by Scouts.
ARCHITECTURE . Architectural drawings made by Scouts.
ART . Drawings by Scouts of Scout subjects.
ASTRONOMY . Model made by Scout showing rotation of earth and moon. Star charts.
ATHLETICS . Sketches of system of exercises. Hockey sticks, baseball gloves, bats, etc., made by Scouts. Model to work out football plays.
AUTOMOBILING . Patched inner tubes, auto models, mechanical drawings of auto parts, invention of parts and accessories, operators' licenses.
AVIATION . Kites, model fliers.
BEE KEEPING. Hives made by Scouts. Honey made by Scouts' bees.
BIRD STUDY. Bird lists, bird photos, bird houses, trays, feeding and drinking devices. Birds' nests.
BLACKSMITHING . Work of Scouts. BOTANY. Flower and fern collections.
BUGLING . List of calls enlarged together with music for same.
BUSINESS . Shorthand, typing, penmanship and bookkeeping of Scouts.
Camping . Friction fire sets, models of types

pg. 212

of campfires, flint and steel outfit, models of types of tents, model of raft, camp photos, model of model camp showing tents, etc. Tents made by Scouts.
CARPENTRY · Work of Scouts.
CHEMISTRY · Experimental apparati made by Scouts.
CIVICS . The local Civic Scout test and medal. Graphic chart showing government of his state or city.
CONSERVATION . Pictures birds and Animals together with dates of game laws for these. Graphic chart showing natural resources of the nation and how these may be conserved, or are being wasted.
COOKING . Mess kits designed by Scouts Models of camp kitchens. Flapjacks; biscuit and twist made by Scouts. Scout may cook over an oil heater, making flapjacks.
CRAFTSMANSHIP . Work done by Scouts.
CYCLING Tires repaired by Scouts. Carrying devices Bicycle ambulance.
DAIRYING . Photos and sketches showing sanitary and unclean dairies, contrasting the two.
ELECTRICITY · Electrical inventions- Electrical devices of all sorts. Spliced, soldered and taped wire.
FIREMANSHIP Figures compiled on National

pg. 213

Fire Loss. (Write National Fire Protection association.) h model fire, with dolls showing Scouts holding back crowd. A bucket brigade, improvised ropes and nets, and the fireman's lift and drag. Fire escapes and the saving of animals might also be shown. Also school fire drill.
FIRST AID. Charts made by Scouts showing artificial respiration, application of tourniquet and bandages. Triangular bandage, bearing sketches (original) showing all applications. Dolls bandaged to show how this should be done. First aid kits made by Scouts. Charts showing injury, diagnosis and treatment for injuries and poisoning. Models showing carrying injured.
FIRST AID TO ANIMALS. See FIRST AID. Charts showing cruelty of check reins, to horses. (Confer with S. P. C: A.)
FORESTRY . Collections of tree leaves and shrubs mounted. Samples of wood with bark on. Display sign warning against forest fires.
GARDENING . Photos of gardens at different stages.
HANDICRAFT . Work of Scouts.
HIKING . Pack sack and camp kits made by Scouts.
HORSEMANSHIP . Sketches of horses saddled and in harness, showing names of external parts, and names of parts of equipment.

pg. 214

INTERPRETING . Letters written in foreign languages.
LEATHER WORKING· Work done by Scouts.
LIFE SAVING. Drawings or models showing carries and death grips.
MACHINERY · Models and mechanical devices made by Scouts. Display of machinists tools.
MARKSMANSHIP The Boy Scout marksmanship code enlarged Targets showing marksmanship of Scouts.
MASONRY · Models of walls, ovens, fireplaces, etc.
MINING . Collections of minerals.
MUSIC . Music written by Scouts. List of Scouts and the instruments they play.
PAINTING . Work of Scouts.
PATHFINDING . Maps showing required information Charts on alcohol and
PERSONAL HEALTH· tobacco. Rules for health on charts.
PHOTOGRAPHY · Photos taken, developed and printed by Scouts and of Scout subjects
PIONEERING · Lashings Models of bridges, derricks and lean-tos. Model of types of log cabins. Indian arrow heads.
PLUMBING · Work of Scouts such as wiped joints, etc.

pg. 215

POULTRY KEEPING . A model chicken farm with doll chickens, such as are on sale at Easter timer
PRINTING . Samples of work set up and printed by Scouts. Sample of complex proofreading.
PUBLIC HEALTH. Report blanks of clean-up or fly-fighting campaigns. Literature distributed for such campaigns. Models of house fly, mosquito and rats carrying disease. Material on the house fly. Quarantine signs from Health Dept. Chart showing carelessness regarding health ordinances.
SAFETY FIRST. Subdivide into Health, Accident and Fire. Show by models the dangers of each class. Show use of automatic sprinkler and automatic alarms. A list of things Scouts can do to make the community safer.
SCHOLARSHIP . Report cards of Scouts. Figures comparing the school work of Scouts with non-Scouts.
SCULPTURE . Work of Scouts. Suggest copy of Boy Scout Statuette.
SEAMANSHIP . A display of knots and splices. Model boats. Palm and needle. Charts. Demonstration of use of dividers and parallel rules. Sketches showing how to sail a boat. Shells and sea creatures.

pg. 216

SIGNALING . Signal flags and other signaling devices made by Scouts, including wireless heliographs, colored lights, International flag code, butters, automatic semaphore device, electrical devices for night work, etc.
STALKING . Wild Creature photos. Charts of the tracks of different creatures. Models of all the known tracking signals and signs.
SURVEYING . Surveying equipment made by Scouts. Maps made by Scouts. Sketch Showing method of computing height of tree or width of stream.
SWIMMING . Models (dolls) showing strokes; or sketches.
TAXIDERMY . Mounted birds and animals. Preserved toads, frogs and other reptiles.
WIRELESS . Complete outfits assembled by the boys.

1. A pack sack for one person, including tent and mess kit, but not food. Suitable for a six-day hike.
2. First aid kit for considered, so submit same.
3. Bird houses. Most artistic, most attractive to the bird and most original house wins the prize; a troop. Cost to be itemized list showing

pg. 217

but house must be suitable to the bird for which it is made.
4. Best model or device submitted under any Merit Badge.

missing pages 219-256

pg. 218